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ANALISA GENERIC STRATEGY DARI MICHAEL R

PORTER BESERTA STRATEGY LAIN BESERTA


PRO DAN KONTRA
(Manajemen Strategik Rumah Sakit)





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RINA AMELIA
067013030


PROGRAM MAGISTER ADMINISTRASI RUMAH SAKIT
PROGRAM MAGISTER ILMU KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT
SEKOLAH PASCASARJANA USU
MEDAN
2008

Rina Amelia : Analisa Generic Strategy Dari Michael R Porter Beserta Strategy Lain Beserta Pro Dan Kontra (Manajemen
Strategik Rumah Sakit), 2008
USU Repository 2008

PRO DAN KONTRA STRATEGI GENERIK MICHAEL PORTER
Oleh : Rina Amelia (067013030)

Ketika melakukan kajian terhadap strategi perusahaan, harus dipahami bahwa strategi
tersebut berbeda antar-industri, antar-perusahaan, dan antar-situasi. Porter
mengelompokkan strategi ini ke dalam strategi generik, yaitu strategi perusahaan dalam
rangka mengungguli pesaing dalam industri sejenis.
Strategi Generik Michael R. Porter
Menurut Porter, jika perusahaan ingin meningkatkan usahanya dalam persaingan yang
semakin ketat, perusahaan harus memilih prinsip berbisnis, yaitu produk dengan harga
tinggi atu produk yang berbiaya rendah, bukan kedua-duanya. Berdasarkan prinsipnya
itu Porter menyatakan ada 3 prinsip Genericd strategic, yaitu Strategi Diferensiasi
(Differentiation), Kepemimpinan Biaya Menyeluruh (Overall Cost Leadership) dan
Fokus (Focus)
a. Strategi Diferensiasi (differentiation). Cirinya adalah perusahaan memutuskan untuk
membangun persepsi pasar potensial terhadap produk/jasa yang unggul agar tampak
berbeda dibandingkan produk pesaing. Pelanggan diharapkan mau membeli dengan harga
mahal karena adanya perbedaan itu.
b. Strategi Kepemimpinan Biaya Menyeluruh (overall cost leadership). Cirinya adalah
perusahaan mengkonsentrasikan perhatian pada harga jual produk yang murah untuk
menekan biaya produksi, promosi, maupun riset. J ika perlu, produk yang dihasilkan
hanya sekedar meniru produk pesaing.
c. Strategi Fokus (focus). Cirinya adalah perusahaan mengkonsentrasikan pada pangsa
pasar tertentu untuk menghindar dari pesaing.

Rina Amelia : Analisa Generic Strategy Dari Michael R Porter Beserta Strategy Lain Beserta Pro Dan Kontra (Manajemen
Strategik Rumah Sakit), 2008
USU Repository 2008
Advantage
Target Scope
Low Cost Product Uniqueness

Broad
(Industry Wide)
Cost Leadership
Strategy
Differentiation
Strategy

Narrow
(Market Segment)
Focus
Strategy
(low cost)
Focus
Strategy
(differentiation)
Starting Point dari proses strategi dari Porter adalah Pasar (market), kompetisi
(competition) dan pelanggan (customer). Konsep Michele Porter tentang startegi
generik sering dikategorikan orang ke dalam Market-Based strategy, beberapa ahli
strategi yang menyusun Generik strategi dalm konsep yang berbeda-beda.
Beberapa ahli/pendapat/teori yang mendukung kepada strategi generik dari
Michael R. Porter
1. Strategi Generik Wheelen dan Hunger ; General Electric
Wheelen dan Hunger menggunakan konsep General Electric. General Electric
menyatakan bahwa pada prinsipnya strategi generik dibagi 3 macam, yaitu strategi
Stabilitas (stability), Ekspansi (expansion), dan Penciutan (Retrencment)
Strategi Wheelen dan Hunger menggunakan konsep General Electric diangganp sejalan
dengan Porter karena strategi ini terkait dengan masalah pasar yang sejalan dengan
konsep Porter.
Rina Amelia : Analisa Generic Strategy Dari Michael R Porter Beserta Strategy Lain Beserta Pro Dan Kontra (Manajemen
Strategik Rumah Sakit), 2008
USU Repository 2008
a. Strategi Stabilitas (stability). Strategi ini menekankan pada efisiensi pada segala
bidang (produk, pasar, dan fungsi perusahaan) untuk meningkatkan kinerja dan
keuntungan. Strategi ini berisiko rendah dan cocok untuk posisi mature.
b. Strategi Ekspansi (expansion). Strategi ini menekankan pada perluasan produk,
pasar, dan fungsi perusahaan sehingga meningkatkan aktivitas perusahaan. Keuntungan
yang diperoleh sebanding dengan resiko kegagalannya.
c. Strategi Penciutan (retrechment). Strategi ini dilakukan dengan cara mengurangi
produk, pasar, maupun fungsi perusahaan, khususnya yang bercash-flow negatif. Strategi
ini biasanya diterapkan pada bisnis yang berada pada tahap menurun (decline). Penciutan
ini terjadi karena sumber daya yang perlu diciutkan itu lebih baik dikerahkan untuk usaha
yang sedang berkembang.
2. Strategi Generik Fred R. David
Menurut Fred R David, pada prinsipnya strategi generik dapat dikelompokkan :
a. Strategi Integrasi Vertikal (vertical integration strategy). Perusahaan melakukan
pengawasan yang lebih ketat terhadap distributor, pemasok, dan/atau pesaing melalui
merger, akuisisi, atau membentuk anak perusahaan.
b. Strategi Intensif (intensive strategy). Perusahaan berupaya secara intensif untuk
meningkatkan posisi persaingan melalui produk yang ada.
c. Strategi Diversifikasi (diversification strategy). Strategi ini dimaksudkan untuk
menambah produk baru. Strategi ini kurang populer karena tingkat kesulitan dalam
mengendalikan aktivitas perusahaan yang berbeda.
d. Strategi Bertahan (defensive strategy). Strategi ini dimaksudkan sebagai melakukan
tindakan penyelamatan agar perusahaan terlepas dari kerugian lebih besar yang dapat
berakhir pada kebangkrutan.
Rina Amelia : Analisa Generic Strategy Dari Michael R Porter Beserta Strategy Lain Beserta Pro Dan Kontra (Manajemen
Strategik Rumah Sakit), 2008
USU Repository 2008
Strategi ini dianggab sejalan dengan Porter karene pokok bahasan tentang kompetisi atau
persaingan produk yang dihasilkan.
3. Bowman's strategy clock and David Faulkner
The 'Strategy Clock' is based upon the work of Cliff Bowman (see C.
Bowman and D. Faulkner 'Competitve and Corporate Strategy - Irwin - 1996). It's
another suitable way to analyze a company's competitive position in comparison
to the offerings of competitors. As with Porter's Generic Strategies, Bowman
considers competitive advantage in relation to cost advantage or differentiation
advantage. There a six core strategic options:



1. Option one - low price/low added value.
likely to be segment specific.
2. Option two - low price.
risk of price war and low margins/need to be a 'cost
leader'.
3. Option three - Hybrid.
low cost base and reinvestment in low price and
differentiation.
4. Option four - Differentiation.
(a)without a price premium:perceived added value
by user, yielding market share benefits.
Rina Amelia : Analisa Generic Strategy Dari Michael R Porter Beserta Strategy Lain Beserta Pro Dan Kontra (Manajemen
Strategik Rumah Sakit), 2008
USU Repository 2008
(b)with a price premium:perceived added value
sufficient to to bear price premium.
5. Option five - focussed differentiation.
perceived added value to a 'particular segment' warranting a
premium price.
6. Option six - increased price/standard.
higher margins if competitors do not value follow/risk of losing
market share.
7. Option seven - increased price/low values.
only feasible in a monopoly situation.
8. Option eight - low value/standard price.
loss of market share.

4. Competitor Strategy : Maidique and Patch (1982)
The strategy examines the concept of competitor analysis outlining its
advantages and dangers, and discussing the tools of competitor cost
assessment, competitive position monitoring, competitor appraisal,
product life cycle
Maidique and Patch (1982) outlined four business-level strategic
types which are particularly useful when examining technology-related
alliances (the test sample in this study). They discuss first mover,
second mover or imitator, low-cost producer (LCP), and niche. First
movers (first-to-market) try to gain an early, albeit temporary,
monopoly in the market by introducing a new product before the
competition. Consequently, innovation and R&D are critical to their
success.
Low-cost producers (cost-minimization) attempt to compete on the
basis of relative cost advantages over competitors through economies
of scale, overhead minimization, process improvements, etc. Second
Rina Amelia : Analisa Generic Strategy Dari Michael R Porter Beserta Strategy Lain Beserta Pro Dan Kontra (Manajemen
Strategik Rumah Sakit), 2008
USU Repository 2008
movers (fast-followers) are quick to copy innovations by others and try
to gain customers by avoiding and improving upon competitors'
mistakes. A key component of second-mover success is excellent
environmental scanning of its markets and competitors. The niche
strategy centers on serving small groups of customers with special
applications of basic technologies and is not used in this analysis due
to this groups' small market size and specialized nature

5. Value Chain Framework of Michael Porter.
The Value Chain framework of Michael Porter is a model that helps to
analyze specific activities through which firms can create value and
competitive advantage
The activities of the Value Chain
Primary activities (line functions)
o Inbound Logistics. Includes receiving, storing, inventory
control, transportation planning.
o Operations. Includes machining, packaging, assembly,
equipment maintenance, testing and all other value-creating
activities that transform the inputs into the final product.
o Outbound Logistics. The activities required to get the finished
product at the customers: warehousing, order fulfillment,
transportation, distribution management.
o Marketing and Sales. The activities associated with getting
buyers to purchase the product, including: channel selection,
advertising, promotion, selling, pricing, retail management, etc.
o Service. The activities that maintain and enhance the product's
value, including: customer support, repair services, installation,
training, spare parts management, upgrading, etc.
Support activities (Staff functions, overhead)
Rina Amelia : Analisa Generic Strategy Dari Michael R Porter Beserta Strategy Lain Beserta Pro Dan Kontra (Manajemen
Strategik Rumah Sakit), 2008
USU Repository 2008
o Procurement. Procurement of raw materials, servicing, spare
parts, buildings, machines, etc.
o Technology Development. Includes technology development
to support the value chain activities. Such as: Research and
Development, Process automation, design, redesign.
o Human Resource Management. The activities associated
with recruiting, development (education), retention and
compensation of employees and managers.
o Firm Infrastructure. Includes general management, planning
management, legal, finance, accounting, public affairs, quality
management, etc.

6. Adam Brandenburger & Barry Nalebuff with The Value Net (PARTS, Co-
opetition)
It means looking for win-win as well as win-lose opportunities.
Keeping both possibilities in mind is important. Win-lose strategies
often have negative effects. The game of business is to create and to
capture value. The Value Net is a schematic map designed to represent
all the players in the game and the interdependencies among them.
Interactions take place along two dimensions. Along the vertical
dimension are the company's customers and suppliers. Along the
horizontal dimension are the players with whom the company interacts
but does not transact. They are its substitutors and complementors.
The Value Net model from Adam Brandenburger and Barry Nalebuff
recognizes there are four main groups that influence the course of any
firm:
1. Customers
2. Suppliers
3. Competitors
4. Complements
Rina Amelia : Analisa Generic Strategy Dari Michael R Porter Beserta Strategy Lain Beserta Pro Dan Kontra (Manajemen
Strategik Rumah Sakit), 2008
USU Repository 2008


8. Blue Ocean Strategy of W. Chan Kim and Rene Mauborgne
Competitive Advantage critique
Of course competition is important. But by focusing on competition
and "competitive advantage", according to Kim and Mauborgne,
scholars, companies, and consultants have ignored two very important
- and far more lucrative - aspects of strategy:
To find and develop blue oceans, and
To exploit and protect blue oceans. These challenges are very
different from those to which strategists have devoted most of
their attention.
In blue oceans demand is created, rather than fought over. There is
ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid.

Beberapa ahli/pendapat/teori yang tidak mendukung kepada strategi generik dari
Michael R. Porter
1. The Core Competence (kompetensi Inti) : By Hamel & Prahalad
KOMPETENSI INTI
Konsep kompetensi inti dipopulerkan oleh Hamel dan Prahalad. Meskipun
kompetensi inti berasal dari sumber daya dan kemampuan perusahaan,
namun tidak semua sumber daya dan kemampuan merupakan kompetensi
inti.
The Core Competence model does the opposite (porter) by stating that in
the long run, competitiveness derives from an ability to build a Core
Competence, at lower cost and more speedily than competitors. The Core
Competence may result in unanticipated products. The real sources of
advantage are to be found in management's ability to consolidate
corporate-wide technologies and production skills into competencies,
Rina Amelia : Analisa Generic Strategy Dari Michael R Porter Beserta Strategy Lain Beserta Pro Dan Kontra (Manajemen
Strategik Rumah Sakit), 2008
USU Repository 2008
through which individual businesses can adapt quickly to changing
circumstances. A Core Competence can be any combination of specific,
inherent, integrated and applied knowledge, skills and attitudes.

THREE TESTS FOR IDENTIFYING A CORE COMPETENCE
1. Provides potential access to a wide variety of markets.
2. Makes a significant contribution to the benefits of the product as
perceived by the customer.
3. A CC should be difficult for competitors to imitate.

2. Klein (2001). Presents critique towards Porters widely acknowledged theory
about how to gain competitive advantage. He claims that the term competitive
advantage is simply a quality that brings about success, and not something that
can be easily identified. He further claims that the theories of Porter regarding the
generic strategies are not theories treating the depth and complexity of
organizations. This study simply aims to use the theories regarding competitive
advantage and generic strategy in order to help link the strategic choice with type
of alliance or collaboration, and not go deeper into the field of how to gain
competitive advantage.

3. Four Strategic Types (Raymond Miles and Charles Snow)
The different company strategies arise from the way companies decide to
address three fundamental problems
The four strategic types :
1. Defender. A mature type of company in a mature industry that seeks to
protect its market position through efficient production, strong control
mechanisms, continuity, and reliability.
Entrepreneurial problem: how to maintain a stable share of the
market? Hence they function best in stable environments, they strive
for cost leadership, they specialize in particular areas and they use
established and standardized technical processes to maintain low costs.
Rina Amelia : Analisa Generic Strategy Dari Michael R Porter Beserta Strategy Lain Beserta Pro Dan Kontra (Manajemen
Strategik Rumah Sakit), 2008
USU Repository 2008
Administrative problem: how to ensure efficiency? Centralization,
Vertical Integration, formal procedures, and discrete functions.
Environment: because their environments change slowly, Defenders
can rely on long-term planning.
2. Prospector. A type of company that seeks to exploit new opportunities, to
develop new products and/or services, and to create new markets. Typically its
core skills lie in marketing and R&D and it will tend to have a broad range of
technologies and product types.
Entrepreneurial problem: how to locate and exploit new product and
market opportunities? Prospectors have broad product or service lines
and often promote creativity over efficiency. They prioritize new
product and service development and innovation to meet new and
changing customer needs and demands and to create new demands.
Administrative problem: how to coordinate diverse business activities
and promote innovation? Decentralization, employing generalists (not
specialists), have few levels of management, encourage collaboration
among different departments and units.
Environment: Prospectors thrive in changing business environments
that have an element of unpredictability, and succeed by constantly
examining the market in a search for new opportunities.
3. Analyser. A type of company that avoids excessive risks but excels in the
delivery of new products and/or services. Typically it concentrates on a limited
range of products and technologies and seeks to outperform other companies on
the basis of quality enhancement.
Entrepreneurial problem: how to maintain their shares in existing
markets and how to find and exploit new markets and product
opportunities? Must maintain the efficiency of established products or
services, while remaining flexible enough to pursue new business
activities. Seek technical efficiency to maintain low costs, but also
emphasize new product and service development to remain
competitive when the market changes.
Rina Amelia : Analisa Generic Strategy Dari Michael R Porter Beserta Strategy Lain Beserta Pro Dan Kontra (Manajemen
Strategik Rumah Sakit), 2008
USU Repository 2008
Administrative problem: how to manage both of these aspects?
Cultivate collaboration among different departments and units.
Analyzer organizations are characterized by balancea balance
between defender and prospector organizations.
4. Reactor. A type of company which have little control over their external
environment, lacking the ability to adapt to external competition and lacking in
effective internal control mechanisms. They do not have a systematic strategy,
design, or structure.
No single strategic orientation is the best. Miles and Snow argue that
what determines the success of a company ultimately is not a
particular strategic orientation, but simply establishing and
maintaining a systematic strategy that takes into account a company's
environment, technology, and structure.



Rina Amelia : Analisa Generic Strategy Dari Michael R Porter Beserta Strategy Lain Beserta Pro Dan Kontra (Manajemen
Strategik Rumah Sakit), 2008
USU Repository 2008
Rina Amelia : Analisa Generic Strategy Dari Michael R Porter Beserta Strategy Lain Beserta Pro Dan Kontra (Manajemen
Strategik Rumah Sakit), 2008
USU Repository 2008
DAFTAR PUSTAKA

1. Umar H, 2005, Strategic Management In Action, cetakan keempat, J akarta : PT
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keenanbelas, J akarta : PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama
3. www.12manage comunities.strategy, method, models and theory
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5. www.paper4u.com