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Section 27 - Tugs B 27 - 1

Section 27
A. General
1. Scope, application
1.1 The following requirements apply to vessels
primarily designed for towing and/or pushing operations
or assisting other vessels or floating objects in manoeuvring.
Combination with other purposes is possible and will be
noted accordingly in the Class Certificate, see 2.2.
1.2 Unless specially mentioned in this Section, the
requirements of Sections 1 22 apply.
1.3 Special designs not covered by the following rules
will be considered from case to case.
1.4 For instructions regarding towing operations in
general, see Guidelines for Ocean Towage.
2. Classification, notations
2.1 Ships built in accordance with the requirements
of this Section will have the notation TUG BOATaffixed
to their character of classification
2.2 Where towing services are to be combined with
other duties such as offshore supply or ice breaking,
corresponding additional class notations may be assigned
if the relevant requirements are met.
3. Approval documents, documentation
3.1 In addition to the documents listed in the rules
mentioned under 1.2 above, the following design
documentation shall be submitted, in triplicate
, for
approval and/or information:
general arrangement of the towing gear including
winch(es), if provided,
design drawings and material specifications of
towing hook and accessory towing gear, towrope
guide and/or of the towing winch including winch
drives, brakes and fastening elements, for
examination of towing gear with towing winch,
the direction of the towrope has to be indicated on
the drawings.
slip device(s) including hydraulic/pneumatic
systems and electric circuits, and/or "weak link"
for towrope on winch drum,
required bollard pull (design value),
towrope specification,
in special cases, intended tow configuration(s),
3.2 The reliable function of the towing gear has to be
proven during the initial tests on board.
3.3 If a bollard pull test has to be carried out and will
be certified by BKI, it shall correspond to the procedure
given in Guidelines for Ocean Towage. The test results
shall be documented and kept on board together with the
certificate of bollard pull testing and the classification
3.4 BKI material certificates will generally be required
towing hook and attached load transmitting
elements, including slip device,
towing winch: frame, drum shaft(s), couplings,
brakes, and gear(s),
towrope(s), including certification of breaking force.
Material certificates according to recognized standard may
be accepted for standard items, if the manufacturer is
recognized by BKI.
B. Hull Structures
1. Scantlings, general
For the determination of hull structure scantlings the draught
T is not to be taken less than 0,85 H.
2. Deck structure
2.1 On tugs for ocean towage, the deck, particularly
in the forward region, shall be suitably protected or
strengthened against sea impact.
2.2 Depending on the towrope arrangement, the deck
in the aft region may have to be strengthened (beams, plate
thickness), if considerable chafing and/or impact is to be
expected. See also C.1.5.
3. Fore body, bow structure
3.1 On tugs for ocean towage, strengthening in way
of the fore body (stringers, tripping brackets etc.) shall
generally conform to the indications given in Section 9.
For Indonesian flag ships in quadruplicate (one for
Indonesian Government).
Section 27 - Tugs C 27 - 2
The stringers shall be effectively connected to the collision
bulkhead. Depending on the type of service expected,
additional strengthening may be required
3.2 For (harbour) tugs frequently engaged in berthing
operations, the bow shall be suitably protected by fendering
and be structurally strengthened.
3.3 The bulwark shall be arranged with an inward
inclination in order to reduce the probability and frequency
of damages. Square edges are to be chamfered.
3.4 The bow structure of pusher tugs for sea service
will be specially considered. For pusher tugs for inland
navigation see Rules for Inland Waterway Vessels,
Chapter.1 Hull Construction.
4. Stern frame, Bar keel
4.1 The cross sectional area of a solid stern frame is
to be 20% greater than required according to Section 13,
C.2.1. For fabricated stern frames, the thickness of the
propeller post plating is to be increased by 20 % compared
to the requirements of Section 13, C.2.2. The section
modulus W
of the sole piece is to be increased by 20 %
compared to the modulus determined according to
Section 13, C.4.
4.2 Where a bar keel is provided, its scantling are to
be determined by the following formulae:
height h = 1,1 L + 110 [mm]
thickness t = 1,1 L + 12 [mm]
Minor deviations from these values are admissible provided
the required sectional area is maintained.
5. Side structure
5.1 The side structure of areas frequently subjected to
impact loads shall be reinforced by increasing the section
modulus of side frames by 20 %. Besides, fendering may
be necessary to reduce indenting damages of the shell
5.2 A continuous and suitable strong fender shall be
arranged along the upper deck.
5.3 For ice strengthening see 8.
6. Engine room casing, superstructures and
6.1 The plate thickness of the casing walls and casing
tops is not to be less than 5 mm. The thickness of the
coamings is not to be less than 6 mm. The coamings shall
extend to the lower edges of the beams.
6.2 The stiffeners of the casing are to be connected to
the beams of the casing top and are to extend to the lower
edge of the coamings.
6.3 Regarding height of the casing and closing
arrangements as well as exits see also F.1.1.
6.4 The following requirements have to be observed
for superstructures and deckhouses of tugs assigned for
the restricted services ranges L and P or for unlimited range
of service:
The plate thickness of the external boundaries of
superstructures and deckhouses is to be increased
by 1 mm above the thickness as required in
Section.16, C.3.2.
The section modulus of stiffeners is to be increased
by 50 % above the values as required in Section.16,
7. Foundations of towing gear
7.1 The substructure of the towing hook attachment and
the foundations of the towing winch, and of any guiding
elements such as towing posts or fairleads, where provided,
shall be thoroughly connected to the ship's structure,
considering all possible directions of the towrope, see C.3.5.
7.2 The stresses in the foundations and fastening
elements shall not exceed the permissible stresses shown
in Table 27.2, assuming a load equal to the test load of the
towing hook in case of hook arrangements, and a load of
the winch holding capacity in case of towing winches, see
also C.3.5 and C.5.3.
8. Ice strengthening
8.1 Ice strengthening, where necessary according to
the intended service, shall be provided according to the
requirements of Section 15.
8.2 Tugs with the notation ICEBREAKER to be
specially considered.
C. Towing Gear/Towing Arrangement
1. General design requirements
1.1 The towing gear shall be arranged in such a way
as to minimize the danger of capsizing; the towing
hook/working point of the towing force is to be placed as
low as practicable, see also F.
1.2 With direct-pull (hook-towrope), the towing hook
and its radial gear are to be designed such as to permit
adjusting to any foreseeable towrope direction, see 3.5.
1.3 The attachment point of the towrope shall be arranged
closely behind the centre of buoyancy.
1.4 On tugs equipped with a towing winch, the
arrangement of the equipment shall be such that the towrope
Section 27 - Tugs C 27 - 3
is led to the winch drum in a controlled manner under all
foreseeable conditions (directions of the towrope). Means
shall be provided to spool the towrope effectively on the
drum, depending on the winch size and towing gear
1.5 Towrope protection sleeves or other adequate means
shall be provided to prevent the directly pulled towropes
from being damaged by chafing/abrasion.
2. Definition of loads
2.1 The design force T corresponds to the towrope pull
(or the bollard pull, if the towrope pull is not defined)
stipulated by the owner. The design force may be verified
by a bollard pull test, see A.3.3 and Guidelines for Ocean
2.2 The test force PL is used for dimensioning as well
as for testing the towing hook and connected elements.
The test force is related to the design force as shown in
Table 27.1.
Table 27.1 Design force T and test force PL
Design force T [kN] Test force PL [kN]
up to 500 2 T
from 500 to 1500 T + 500
above 1500 1,33 T
2.3 The minimum breaking force of the towrope is based
on the design force, see 4.3.
2.4 The winch holding capacity shall be based on the
minimum breaking force, see 5.3, the rated winch force
is the hauling capacity of the winch drive when winding
up the towrope, see
2.5 For forces at the towing hook foundation see 3.5.4.
3. Towing hook and slip device
3.1 The towing hook shall be fitted with an adequate
device guaranteeing slipping (i.e., quick release) of the
towrope in case of an emergency. Slipping shall be possible
from the bridge as well as from at least one other place
in the vicinity of the hook itself, from where in both cases
the hook can be easily seen.
3.2 The towing hook has to be equipped with a
mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic slip device. The slip
device shall be designed such as to guarantee that
unintentional slipping is avoided.
3.3 A mechanical slip device shall be designed such
that the required release force under test force PL does
not exceed neither 150 N at the towing hook nor 250 N
when activating the device on the bridge. In case of a
mechanical slip device, the releasing rope shall be guided
adequately over sheaves. If necessary, slipping should be
possible by downward pulling, using the whole body weight.
3.4 Where a pneumatic or hydraulic slip device is used,
a mechanical slip device has to be provided additionally.
3.5 Dimensioning of towing hook and towing gear
3.5.1 The dimensioning of the towing gear is based on
the test force PL, see 2.2.
3.5.2 The towing hook, the towing hook foundation, the
corresponding substructures and the slip device are to be
designed for the following directions of the towrope:
For a test force PL up to 500 kN:
in the horizontal plane, directions from abeam
over astern to abeam
in the vertical plane, from horizontal to 60
For a test force PL of more than 500 kN:
in the horizontal plane, as above
in the vertical plane, from horizontal to 45
3.5.3 Assuming the test force PL acting in any of the
directions described in 3.5.2, the permissible stresses in
the towing equipment elements defined above shall not
exceed the values shown in Table 27.2.
3.5.4 For the towing hook foundation it has to be
additionally proven that the permissible stresses given in
Table 27.2 are not exceeded assuming a load equal to the
minimum breaking force F
of the towrope.
4. Towropes
4.1 Towrope materials shall correspond to the Rules
for Materials, Volume V, Section 13. All wire ropes should
have as far as possible the same lay.
The suitability of fibre ropes as towropes is to be separately
demonstrated to BKI.
4.2 The length of the towrope shall be chosen according
to the tow formation (masses of tug and towed object), the
water depth and the nautical conditions. Regulations of
flag state authorities have to be observed. For length of
towrope for bollard pull test, see Guidelines for Ocean
4.3 The required minimum breaking force F
of the
towrope is to be calculated on the basis of the design force
T and a utility factor K, as follows:
= K T
Section 27 - Tugs C 27 - 4
K = 2,5 for T 200 kN and
= 2,0 for T 1000 kN
For T between 200 and 1000 kN, K may be interpolated
4.4 For ocean towages, at least one spare towrope with
attachments shall be available on board.
4.5 The required minimum breaking force F
of the
tricing rope is to be calculated on the basis of the holding
capacity of the tricing winch and a utility factor K = 2,5.
5. Towing winches
5.1 Arrangement and control
5.1.1 The towing winch, including towrope guiding
equipment, has to be arranged such as to guarantee safe
guiding of the towrope in all directions according to 3.5.2.
5.1.2 The winch must be capable of being safely operated
from all control stands. Apart from the control stand on
the bridge, at least one additional control stand has to be
provided on deck. From each control stand the winch drum
shall be freely visible; where this is not ensured, the winch
shall be provided with a self-rendering device.
5.1.3 Each control stand has to be equipped with suitable
operating and control elements. The arrangement and the
working direction of the operating elements have to be
analogous to the direction of motion of the towrope.
5.1.4 Operating levers shall, when released, return into
the stop position automatically. They shall be capable of
being secured in the stop position.
5.1.5 It is recommended that, on vessels for ocean towage,
the winch is fitted with equipment for measuring the pulling
force in the towrope.
5.1.6 If, during normal operating conditions, the power
for the towing winch is supplied by a main engine shaft
generator, another generator shall be available to provide
power for the towing winch in case of main engine or shaft
generator failure.
5.2 Winch drum
5.2.1 The towrope shall be fastened on the winch drum
by a breaking link.
5.2.2 The winch drum shall be capable of being declutched
from the drive.
5.2.3 The diameter of the winch drum is to be not less
than 14 times the towrope diameter.
5.2.4 The length of the winch drum is to be such that at
least 50 m of the towrope can be wound up in the first layer.
5.2.5 To ensure security of the rope end fastening, at least
3 dead turns must remain on the drum.
5.2.6 At the ends, drums must have disc sheaves whose
outer edges must surmount the top layer of the rope at least
by 2,5 rope diameters, if no other means is provided to
prevent the rope from slipping off the drum.
5.2.7 If a multi-drum winch is used, then each winch drum
shall be capable of independent operation.
5.2.8 Each towing winch drum shall have sufficient
capacity to stow the length of the provided towrope.
5.2.3 to 5.2.5 are not applicable to towropes of austenitic
steels and fibre ropes. In case these towrope materials are
utilized, dimensioning of the wind drum is subject to BKI
Table 27.2 Permissible stresses
Type of stress Permissible stress
Axial and bending tension and axial and bending compression with box
type girders and tubes
= 0,83 R
Axial and bending compression with girders of open cross sections or with
girders consisting of several members
= 0,72 R
= 0,48 R
Equivalent stress

= 0,85 R
= yield strength or 0,2 % proof stress
Section 27 - Tugs C 27 - 5
5.3 Holding capacity / dimensioning
5.3.1 The holding capacity of the towing winch (towrope
in the first layer) shall correspond to 80 % of the minimum
breaking load F
of the towrope.
5.3.2 When dimensioning the towing winch components,
which - with the brake engaged - are exposed to the pull
of the towrope (rope drum, drum shaft, brakes, foundation
frame and its fastening to the deck), a design tractive force
equal to the holding capacity is to be assumed. When
calculating the drum shaft the dynamic stopping forces
of the brakes have to be considered. The drum brake shall
not give way under this load.
5.4 Brakes
5.4.1 If the drum brakes are power-operated, manual
operation of the brake shall be provided additionally.
5.4.2 Drum brakes shall be capable of being quickly
released from the control stand on the bridge, as well as
from any other control stand. The quick release shall be
possible under all working conditions, including failure
of the power drive.
5.4.3 The operating levers for the brakes are to be secured
against unintentional operation.
5.4.4 Following operation of the quick release device,
normal operation of the brakes must be restored
5.4.5 Following operation of the quick release device,
the winch driving motor must not start again automatically.
5.4.6 Towing winch brakes shall be capable of preventing
the towrope from paying out when the vessel is towing
at the design force T and shall not be released automatically
in case of power failure.
5.5 Tricing winches
5.5.1 Control stands for the tricing winches have to be
located at safe distance off the sweep area of the towing
gear. Apart from the control stands on deck, at least one
other control stand shall be available on the bridge.
5.5.2 Tricing winches have to be suitably dimensioned
depending on F
of the tricing rope. For operation of the
tricing winch, perfect transmission of orders has to be
safeguarded. For tricing ropes, see 4.5.
6. Testing
6.1 Workshop testing
6.1.1 Towing hook and slip device Towing hooks with a mechanical slip device,
the movable towing arm and other load transmitting
elements have to be subjected to a test force PL with the
aid of an approved testing facility. In connection with this
test, the slip device shall be tested likewise; the release force
has to be measured and shall not exceed 150 N, see 3.3. When towing hooks are provided with a
pneumatic slip device, both the pneumatic and the
mechanical slip device required by 3.4 have to be tested
according to Also towing hooks with a hydraulic slip device
have to be tested according to, but the slip device
itself need not be subjected to the test load. If a cylinder
tested and approved by BKI is employed as a loaded gear
component, during the load test the cylinder may be replaced
by a load transmitting member not pertaining to the gear,
the operability of the gear being restored subsequently.
The operability of the slip device has to be proved with
the towrope loosely resting on the hook.
6.1.2 Certification and stamping of towing hook
Following each satisfactory testing at manufacturer's, a
Certificate (F 186) will be issued by the attending surveyor
and shall be handed on board, together with the towing
6.1.3 Towing winches The winch power unit has to be subjected to
a test bed trial at the manufacturer's. A works test certificate
has to be presented on the occasion of the final inspection
of the winch, see 6.2.4. Components exposed to pressure are to be
pressure-tested to a test pressure PD of
PD = 1,5 p
p = admissible working pressure [bar]
= opening pressure of the safety valves
However, with working pressures exceeding 200 [bar],
the test pressure need not be higher than p + 100 [bar].
Tightness tests are to be carried out at the relevant
components. Upon completion, towing winches have to be
subjected to a final inspection and an operational test to
the rated load. The hauling speed has to be determined
during an endurance test under the rated tractive force.
During these trials, in particular the braking and safety
equipment shall be tested and adjusted.
The brake has to be tested to a test load equal to the rated
holding capacity, but at least equal to the bollard pull.
If manufacturers do not have at their disposal the equipment
Section 27 - Tugs D 27 - 6
required, a test confirming the design winch capacity, and
including adjustment of the overload protection device,
may be carried out after installation on board, see 6.2.5.
In that case only the operational trials without applying
the prescribed loads will be carried out at the manufacturers.
6.1.4 Accessory towing gear components, Towropes Accessories subjected to towing loads, where
not already covered by, shall generally be tested
to test force PL at the manufacturer. For all accessories Test Certificates, Form LA.3,
and for the towrope, Form LA 4, have to be submitted. BKI reserve the right of stipulating an endurance
test to be performed at towing gear components, where
considered necessary for assessment of their operability.
6.2 Initial testing of towing gear on board and
bollard pull test
6.2.1 The installed towing gear has to be tested on the
tug using the bollard pull test to simulate the towrope pull.
6.2.2 Bollard pull test
In general a bollard pull test will be carried out before
entering into service of the vessel. The test can be witnessed
and certified by BKI, see Guidelines for Ocean Towage.
6.2.3 For all towing hooks (independent of the magnitude
of the test force PL), the slip device has to be tested with
a towrope direction of 60 degrees towards above against
the horizontal line, under the towrope pull T.
6.2.4 The surveyor certifies the initial board test by an
entry into the Test Certificate for Towing Hooks (Form
F 186).
6.2.5 Board test of towing winches
After installation on board, the safe operation of the
winch(es) from all control stands has to be checked; it has
to be proved that in both cases, with the drum braked and
during hauling and releasing, the respective quick-release
mechanism for the drum operates well. These checks may
be combined with the Bollard Pull Test, see 6.2.2.
The towing winch has to be subjected to a trial during the
bollard pull test to a test load corresponding to the holding
power of the winch.
6.3 Periodical tests of towing gear
The following tests will be applied to all tugs classed by
BKI unless otherwise required by the Administration.
The Surveyor certifies the satisfactory periodical test in
Part.C of Form F 186.
6.3.1 Towing hooks The functional safety of towing hook and slip
device shall be checked by the ship's master at least once
a month. Following initial testing on board, towing hooks
with mechanical and/or pneumatic slip devices have to be
removed every 2,5 years, thoroughly examined and exposed
to test force PL on a recognised testing facility. Upon
reinstallation of the hook on the tug, the slip device has
to be subjected to an operational trial by releasing the hook
without load. The release forces at the hook and at the
bridge have to be measured.
For avoiding dismounting of these towing hooks, the test
force PL can also be produced by fastening in front of the
first tug towed to the bollard, the hook of which is intended
to be tested, another tug with a design force T which is
sufficient to jointly reach the required test force PL
according to Table 27.1. Slipping has to be effected whilst
both tugs are pulling with full test force. Following initial testing on board, towing hooks
with hydraulic slip device are to be subjected to a functional
test on board every 2,5 years. They are ready for operation
with the towrope loosely resting on the hook. The release
forces required at the hook and at the bridge have to be
measured. Additionally all components are to be thoroughly
examined. Every 5 years the towing hook has to be pulled
against a bollard. Particular attention has to be paid to the proper
functioning of all gear components.
D. Steering Gear/Steering Arrangement
1. Steering stability
Steering stability, i.e. stable course maintaining capability
of the tug, shall be ensured under all normally occurring
towing conditions. Rudder size and rudder force shall be
suitable in relation to the envisaged towing conditions and
2. Rudder movement
Regarding the time to put the rudder from one extreme
position to the other, the requirements of Rules for
Machinery Installations, Volume III, Section 14, A. shall
be observed for tugs exceeding 500 gross tons. Special
rudder arrangements may be considered in the particular
case, see also 4.
3. Tugs operating as pusher unit
For tugs operating as pusher units, the steering gear is to
be designed so as to guarantee satisfying steering
characteristics in both cases, tug alone and tug with pushed
Section 27 - Tugs F 27 - 7
4. Special steering arrangements
Steering units and arrangements not explicitly covered by
the Rules mentioned above, and combinations of such units
with conventional rudders, will be considered from case
to case.
E. Anchoring/mooring equipment
1. Equipment numeral
The equipment with anchors and chains as well as the
recommended towropes of tugs for unrestricted service
is to be determined according to Section 18, B. However,
for the determination of the equipment numeral the term
2 h B may be substituted by the term
2 (a B + h
, b
respectively, the height and the breadth of the
superstructure tier "i", considering only tiers with a breadth
greater than B/4.
2. General requirements
2.1 The equipment of tugs for restricted range of service
is to be determined as for vessels in the L (Coastal Service)
range, see Section 18, A.3. For tugs in the service range
T (Service in Shallow Waters), see Section 30, E.
2.2 For tugs engaged only in berthing operations, one
anchor is sufficient, if a spare anchor is readily available
on land.
3. Tugs operating as pusher units
The anchoring equipment for tugs operating as pusher units
will be considered according to the particular service.
Normally, the equipment is intended to be used for
anchoring the tug alone, the pushed unit being provided
with its own anchoring equipment.
F. Weathertight integrity and stability
1. Weather deck openings
1.1 Openings (skylights) above the machinery space
shall be arranged with casings not less than 900 mm high,
measured from the upper deck. Where the height of the
casing is less than 1,8 m, the casing covers are to be of
specially strong construction, see also G.1.
1.2 The head openings of ventilators and air pipes are
to be arranged as high as possible above the deck.
1.3 For companionways to spaces below deck to be used
while at sea, sills with a height not less than 600 mm shall
be provided. Weathertight steel doors are to be provided
which can be opened/closed from either side.
1.4 Deck openings shall be avoided in the sweep area
of the towing gear, or else be suitably protected.
2. Stability
2.1 The intact stability must comply with the following
the intact stability requirement of IMO Res.
A.749(18), Chapter 3.1, as amended by MSC Res.
alternatively, if applicable, the intact stability
requirement of IMO Res. A.749(18), Chapter 4.5,
as amended by MSC Res. 75(69)
2.2 Additionally, the intact stability must comply with
one of the following requirements:
The residual area between a righting lever curve
and a heeling lever curve developed from 70% of
the maximum bollard pull force acting in 90 to the
ship-length direction should not be less than
0,09.mrad. The area has to be determined between
the first interception of the two curves and the
second interception or the angle of down flooding
whichever is less.
Alternatively, the area under a righting lever curve
should not be less than 1,4 times the area under a
heeling lever curve developed from 70% of the
maximum bollard pull force acting in 90 to ship-
length direction. The areas to be determined between
0 and the 2nd interception or the angle of down
flooding whichever is less.
2.3 The heeling lever curve should be derived by using
the following formula:
[m] b
0,071 T z
= heeling arm [m]
T = maximum bollard pull [kN]
= vertical distance [m] between the working point
of the towrope and the centre of buoyancy
D = loading condition displacement [t]
= heeling angle []
Section 27 - Tugs H 27 - 8
G. Escape Routes and Safety Measures
1. Engine room exit
In the engine room an emergency exit is to be provided
on or near the centerline of the vessel, which can be used
at any inclination of the ship. The cover shall be weather
tight and is to be capable of being opened easily from
outside and inside. The axis of the cover is to run in athwart
ship direction.
2. Companionways
Companionways to spaces below deck see F.1.3.
3. Rudder compartment
Where, for larger ocean going tugs, an emergency exit is
provided from the rudder compartment to the upper deck,
the arrangement, sill height and further details shall be
designed according to the requirements of F.1, particularly
4. Access to bridge
Safe access to the bridge is to be ensured for all anticipated
operating and heeling conditions, also in heavy weather
during ocean towage.
5. Safe handling of towing gear
See requirements under C.1, C.3 and C.5.
6. Fire safety
6.1 Structural fire protection measures shall be as
outlined in Section 22, as applicable according to the size
of the vessel. The fire fighting equipment shall conform
to Rules for Machinery Installations, Volume III, Section.12,
as applicable.
6.2 Additional or deviating regulations of the competent
Administration may have to be observed.
H. Additional Requirements for Active Escort Tugs
1. Scope, application
1.1 The following requirements apply to vessels specially
intended for active escort towing. This includes steering,
braking and otherwise controlling a vessel in restricted
waters during speeds of up to 10 knots by means of a
permanent towline connection with the stern of the escorted
vessel, see 4.3.
1.2 The requirements for the notation TUG given in
A. to G. are also valid, if applicable, for Active Escort Tugs.
2. Classification, notations
2.1 Ships built in accordance with the following
requirements will have the notation ACTIVE ESCORT
TUG affixed to their character of classification.
3. Characteristics of Active Escort Tugs
3.1 The following escort characteristics are to be
determined by approved full scale trials:
maximum steering force TEy [kN] at a test speed
of advance V
[kn], normally 8 to 10 knots
manoeuvring time t [s]
manoeuvring coefficient K = 31 / t [] or 1,
whichever is less
3.2 A test certificate indicating the escort characteristics
is issued on successful completion of such trials.
4. Definitions
4.1 Active Escort Tug is a tug performing the active
escort towing.
4.2 Assisted vessel is the vessel being escorted by an
Active Escort Tug.
4.3 Indirect towing is a typical manoeuvre of the Active
Escort Tug where the maximum transverse steering force
is exerted on the stern of the assisted vessel while the Active
Escort Tug is at an oblique angular position. The steering
force TEy [kN] is provided by the hydrodynamic forces
acting on the Active Escort Tug's hull, see Fig. 27.1.
4.4 Test speed V
[kn] is the speed of advance (through
the water) of the assisted vessel during full scale trials.
4.5 The manoeuvring time t [s] is the time needed for
the Active Escort Tug to shift in indirect towing from an
oblique angular position at the stern of the assisted vessel
to the mirror position on the other side, see Fig.27.1. The
length of the towline during such a manoeuvre should not
be less than 50 m and the towline angle need not be less
than 30.
5. Documentation
The following documents shall be submitted in addition
to those of A.3.1:
BKI material certificates for all load transmitting
elements (e.g. motor, drive) of the towing winch
circuit diagrams of the hydraulic and electrical
systems of the towing winches in triplicate
For Indonesian flagship in quadruplicate (one for
Indonesian government).
Section 27 - Tugs H 27 - 9
Fig. 27.1 Typical working mode of an Active Escort Tug
one copy of a description of the towing winch
including the safety devices
preliminary calculation of the maximum steering
force TEy [kN] and maximum towrope pull TE [kN]
at the intended test speed V
[kn] with indication
of propulsion components necessary for balancing
the Active Escort Tug at an oblique angular position
at the stern of the assisted vessel
6. Arrangement and Design
6.1 Hull
6.1.1 The hull of the Active Escort Tug is to be designed
to provide adequate hydrodynamic lift and drag forces when
in indirect towing mode. Hydrodynamic forces, towline
pull and propulsion forces shall be in balance during active
escort towing thereby minimizing the required propulsion
force itself.
6.1.2 Freeboard is to be provided in such a way, that
excessive trim at higher heeling angles is avoided.
6.1.3 A bulwark is to be fitted all around the weather deck.
6.2 Towing winch
6.2.1 The equipment for measuring the pulling force in
the towrope, recommended in C.5.1.5, is to be provided
in any case for towing winches of Active Escort Tugs.
6.2.2 In addition to the requirements given in C.5. towing
winches of escort tugs are to be fitted with a load damping
system which prevents overload caused by dynamic impacts
in the towrope.
The towing winch shall pay out the towrope controlled
when the towrope pull exceeds 50 % of the minimum
breaking force F
of the towrope. Active escort towing
is always carried out via the towing winch, without using
the brake on the towing winch's rope drum.
6.2.3 The towing winch must automatically spool a slack
towrope. The requirement C.5.2.4 may be waived, if an
impeccable splooling of towrope under load is guaranteed
by design measures (e.g. spooling device).
6.3 Propulsion
In case of loss of propulsion during indirect towing the
remaining forces are to be so balanced that the resulting
turning moment will turn the Active Escort Tug to a safer
Section 27 - Tugs H 27 - 10
position with reduced heel.
7. Stability of Active Escort Tugs
Proof of stability has to be shown by using the heeling lever
curve calculated by the following formula:
[m] b
TE z
9,81 D
TE = maximum towrope pull [kN]
8. Full Scale Trials
8.1 Procedure
8.1.1 A documented plan, describing all parts of the trial
shall be submitted for approval before commencement of
the trials, including:
towage arrangement plan
data of assisted vessel including SWL of the strong
intended escort test speed
calculated maximum steering force TEy [kN]
8.1.2 Full scale trials shall be carried out in favourable
weather and sea conditions which will not significantly
influence the trial results.
8.1.3 The size of the assisted vessel shall be sufficiently
large to withstand the transverse steering forces of the tug
without using too large rudder angles.
8.2 Recordings
At least the following data are to be recorded continuously
during the trial for later analysis:
Assisted vessel:
speed over ground and through the water
rudder angle
angle of towline
wind (speed and direction), sea-state
Active Escort Tug:
position and speed over ground
length, angle and pull of towrope TE
heeling angle