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# In mathematics, trigonometric identities are equalities that involve

trigonometric functions and are true for every single value of the occurring
variables. Geometrically, these are identities involving certain functions of
one or more angles. They are distinct from triangle identities, which are
identities involving both angles and side lengths of a triangle. Only the former
These identities are useful whenever expressions involving trigonometric
functions need to be simplifed. n important application is the integration of
non!trigonometric functions" a common technique involves frst using the
substitution rule with a trigonometric function, and then simplifying the
resulting integral with a trigonometric identity.
ngles#edit\$
This article uses Gree% letters such as alpha &'(, beta &)(, gamma &*(, and
theta &+( to represent angles. ,everal different units of angle measure are
- full circle . /01 degrees . 23pi radians . 411 grads.
The following table shows the conversions for some common angles"
5egrees /16 016 -216 -716 2-16 2416 /116 //16
3frac:<3pi;039 3frac:43pi;/39 3frac:73pi;/39 3frac:--3pi;
039
5egrees 476 ?16 -/76 -@16 2276 2<16 /-76 /016
8adians 3frac3pi439 3frac3pi239 3frac:/3pi;439 3pi39 3frac:73pi;43
9 3frac:/3pi;239 3frac:<3pi;439 23pi39
Anless otherwise specifed, all angles in this article are assumed to be in
radians, but angles ending in a degree symbol &6( are in degrees. Ber CivenDs
theorem multiples of /16 are the only angles that are a rational multiple of
one degree and also have a rational sinEcos, which may account for their
popularity in examples.#-\$
Trigonometric functions#edit\$
The primary trigonometric functions are the sine and cosine of an angle.
These are sometimes abbreviated sin&+( and cos&+(, respectively, where + is
the angle, but the parentheses around the angle are often omitted, e.g., sin +
and cos +.
The sine of an angle is defned in the context of a right triangle, as the ratio
of the length of the side that is opposite to the angle divided by the length of
the longest side of the triangle &the hypotenuse (.
The cosine of an angle is also defned in the context of a right triangle, as the
ratio of the length of the side the angle is in divided by the length of the
longest side of the triangle &the hypotenuse (.
The tangent &tan( of an angle is the ratio of the sine to the cosine"
3tan3theta . 3frac:3sin3theta;:3cos3theta;.
Finally, the reciprocal functions secant &sec(, cosecant &csc(, and cotangent
&cot( are the reciprocals of the cosine, sine, and tangent"
:3sin3theta;.
These defnitions are sometimes referred to as ratio identities.
Inverse functions#edit\$
Gain article" Inverse trigonometric functions
The inverse trigonometric functions are partial inverse functions for the
trigonometric functions. For example, the inverse function for the sine, %nown
as the inverse sine &sinH-( or arcsine &arcsin or asin(, satisfes
and
Function sin cos tan sec csc cot
Inverse arcsin arccosarctanarcsecarccscarccot
Bythagorean identity#edit\$
Gain article" Bythagorean trigonometric identity
In trigonometry, the basic relationship between the sine and the cosine is
%nown as the Bythagorean identity"
3cosJ23theta K 3sinJ23theta . -39
where cos2 + means &cos&+((2 and sin2 + means &sin&+((2.
This can be viewed as a version of the Bythagorean theorem, and follows
from the equation x2 K y2 . - for the unit circle. This equation can be solved
for either the sine or the cosine"
3begin:align;
3sin3theta L. 3pm 3sqrt:- ! 3cosJ23theta;, 33
3cos3theta L. 3pm 3sqrt:- ! 3sinJ23theta;.
3end:align;
where the sign depends on the quadrant of +.
8elated identities#edit\$
5ividing the Bythagorean identity by either cos2 + or sin2 + yields two other
identities"
3cscJ23theta.39
Asing these identities together with the ratio identities, it is possible to
express any trigonometric function in terms of any other &up to a plus or
minus sign("
Mach trigonometric function in terms of the other fve.#2\$
in terms of 3sin 3theta39 3cos 3theta39 3tan 3theta39 3csc 3theta39 3sec 3theta39
3cot 3theta39
3sin 3theta .39 3sin 3theta3 3pm3sqrt:- ! 3cosJ2 3theta;39
3pm3frac:3tan 3theta;:3sqrt:- K 3tanJ2 3theta;;39 3frac:-;:3csc
3theta;39 3pm3frac:3sqrt:3secJ2 3theta ! -;;:3sec 3theta;39 3pm3frac:-;
:3sqrt:- K 3cotJ2 3theta;;39
3cos 3theta .39 3pm3sqrt:- ! 3sinJ23theta;39 3cos 3theta39
3pm3frac:-;:3sqrt:- K 3tanJ2 3theta;;39 3pm3frac:3sqrt:3cscJ2
3theta ! -;;:3csc 3theta;39 3frac:-;:3sec 3theta;39 3pm3frac:3cot
3theta;:3sqrt:- K 3cotJ2 3theta;;39
3tan 3theta .39 3pm3frac:3sin 3theta;:3sqrt:- ! 3sinJ2 3theta;;39
3pm3frac:3sqrt:- ! 3cosJ2 3theta;;:3cos 3theta;39 3tan 3theta39
3pm3frac:-;:3sqrt:3cscJ2 3theta ! -;;39 3pm3sqrt:3secJ2 3theta !
-;39 3frac:-;:3cot 3theta;39
3csc 3theta .39 3frac:-;:3sin 3theta;39 3pm3frac:-;:3sqrt:- ! 3cosJ2
3theta;;39 3pm3frac:3sqrt:- K 3tanJ2 3theta;;:3tan 3theta;39 3csc
3theta39 3pm3frac:3sec 3theta;:3sqrt:3secJ2 3theta ! -;;39 3pm3sqrt:-
K 3cotJ2 3theta;39
3sec 3theta .39 3pm3frac:-;:3sqrt:- ! 3sinJ2 3theta;;39 3frac:-;
:3cos 3theta;39 3pm3sqrt:- K 3tanJ2 3theta;39 3pm3frac:3csc 3theta;
:3sqrt:3cscJ2 3theta ! -;;39 3sec 3theta39 3pm3frac:3sqrt:- K
3cotJ2 3theta;;:3cot 3theta;39
3cot 3theta .39 3pm3frac:3sqrt:- ! 3sinJ2 3theta;;:3sin 3theta;39
3pm3frac:3cos 3theta;:3sqrt:- ! 3cosJ2 3theta;;39 3frac:-;:3tan
3theta;39 3pm3sqrt:3cscJ2 3theta ! -;39 3pm3frac:-;:3sqrt:3secJ2
3theta ! -;;39 3cot 3theta39
Nistorical shorthands#edit\$
ll of the trigonometric functions of an angle + can be constructed
geometrically in terms of a unit circle centered at O. Gany of these terms are
no longer in common use.
The versine, coversine, haversine, and exsecant were used in navigation. For
example the haversine formula was used to calculate the distance between
two points on a sphere. They are rarely used today.
Came&s( bbreviation&s( Oalue#/\$
versed sine, versine 3operatorname:versin;&3theta(
3operatorname:vers;&3theta(
3operatorname:ver;&3theta( - ! 3cos &3theta(
versed cosine, vercosine 3operatorname:vercosin;&3theta( - K 3cos
&3theta(
coversed sine, coversine 3operatorname:coversin;&3theta(
3operatorname:cvs;&3theta( - ! 3sin&3theta(
coversed cosine, covercosine 3operatorname:covercosin;&3theta( - K
3sin&3theta(
half versed sine, haversine 3operatorname:haversin;&3theta(
3frac:- ! 3cos &3theta(;:2;
half versed cosine, havercosine 3operatorname:havercosin;&3theta(
3frac:- K 3cos &3theta(;:2;
half coversed sine, hacoversine
cohaversine 3operatorname:hacoversin;&3theta( 3frac:- ! 3sin &3theta(;:2;
half coversed cosine, hacovercosine
cohavercosine 3operatorname:hacovercosin;&3theta( 3frac:- K 3sin
&3theta(;:2;
exterior secant, exsecant 3operatorname:exsec;&3theta( 3sec&3theta( ! -
exterior cosecant, excosecant 3operatorname:excsc;&3theta( 3csc&3theta( !
-
chord 3operatorname:crd;&3theta( 23sin3frac:3theta;:2;
,ymmetry, shifts, and periodicity#edit\$
Py examining the unit circle, the following properties of the trigonometric
functions can be established.
,ymmetry#edit\$
Qhen the trigonometric functions are reRected from certain angles, the result
is often one of the other trigonometric functions. This leads to the following
identities"
8eRected in 3theta.1 #4\$ 8eRected in 3theta. 3piE2
&co!function identities(#7\$ 8eRected in 3theta. 3pi
3begin:align;
3sin&!3theta( L. !3sin 3theta 33
3cos&!3theta( L. K3cos 3theta 33
3tan&!3theta( L. !3tan 3theta 33
3csc&!3theta( L. !3csc 3theta 33
3sec&!3theta( L. K3sec 3theta 33
3cot&!3theta( L. !3cot 3theta 33
3end:align;
3begin:align;
3sin&3tfrac:3pi;:2; ! 3theta( L. K3cos 3theta 33
3cos&3tfrac:3pi;:2; ! 3theta( L. K3sin 3theta 33
3tan&3tfrac:3pi;:2; ! 3theta( L. K3cot 3theta 33
3csc&3tfrac:3pi;:2; ! 3theta( L. K3sec 3theta 33
3sec&3tfrac:3pi;:2; ! 3theta( L. K3csc 3theta 33
3cot&3tfrac:3pi;:2; ! 3theta( L. K3tan 3theta 33
3end:align;
3begin:align;
3sin&3pi ! 3theta( L. K3sin 3theta 33
3cos&3pi ! 3theta( L. !3cos 3theta 33
3tan&3pi ! 3theta( L. !3tan 3theta 33
3csc&3pi ! 3theta( L. K3csc 3theta 33
3sec&3pi ! 3theta( L. !3sec 3theta 33
3cot&3pi ! 3theta( L. !3cot 3theta 33
3end:align;
Cote that the sign in front of the trig function does not necessarily indicate
the sign of the value. For example, K3cos3theta does not always mean that
3cos3theta is positive. In particular, if 3theta . 3pi, then K3cos3theta . !-.
,hifts and periodicity#edit\$
Py shifting the function round by certain angles, it is often possible to fnd
diSerent trigonometric functions that express particular results more simply.
,ome examples of this are shown by shifting functions round by TE2, T and 2T
radians. Pecause the periods of these functions are either T or 2T, there are
cases where the new function is exactly the same as the old function without
the shift.
,hift by TE2 ,hift by T
Beriod for tan and cot#0\$ ,hift by 2T
Beriod for sin, cos, csc and sec#<\$
3begin:align;
3sin&3theta K 3tfrac:3pi;:2;( L. K3cos 3theta 33
3cos&3theta K 3tfrac:3pi;:2;( L. !3sin 3theta 33
3tan&3theta K 3tfrac:3pi;:2;( L. !3cot 3theta 33
3csc&3theta K 3tfrac:3pi;:2;( L. K3sec 3theta 33
3sec&3theta K 3tfrac:3pi;:2;( L. !3csc 3theta 33
3cot&3theta K 3tfrac:3pi;:2;( L. !3tan 3theta
3end:align;
3begin:align;
3sin&3theta K 3pi( L. !3sin 3theta 33
3cos&3theta K 3pi( L. !3cos 3theta 33
3tan&3theta K 3pi( L. K3tan 3theta 33
3csc&3theta K 3pi( L. !3csc 3theta 33
3sec&3theta K 3pi( L. !3sec 3theta 33
3cot&3theta K 3pi( L. K3cot 3theta 33
3end:align;
3begin:align;
3sin&3theta K 23pi( L. K3sin 3theta 33
3cos&3theta K 23pi( L. K3cos 3theta 33
3tan&3theta K 23pi( L. K3tan 3theta 33
3csc&3theta K 23pi( L. K3csc 3theta 33
3sec&3theta K 23pi( L. K3sec 3theta 33
3cot&3theta K 23pi( L. K3cot 3theta
3end:align;
ngle sum and diSerence identities#edit\$
Illustration of angle addition formulae for the sine and cosine. MmphasiUed
segment is of unit length.
Illustration of the angle addition formula for the tangent. MmphasiUed
segments are of unit length.
,ee also" V Broduct!to!sum and sum!to!product identities
These are also %nown as the addition and subtraction theorems or formulae.
They were originally established by the -1th century Bersian mathematician
bW al!QafXD PWUYXnZ. One method of proving these identities is to apply
MulerDs formula. The use of the symbols 3pm and 3mp is described in the
article plus!minus sign.
For the angle addition diagram for the sine and cosine, the line in bold with
the - on it is of length -. It is the hypotenuse of a right angle triangle with
angle ) which gives the sin ) and cos ). The cos ) line is the hypotenuse of a
right angle triangle with angle ' so it has sides sin ' and cos ' both
multiplied by cos ). This is the same for the sin ) line. The original line is also
the hypotenuse of a right angle triangle with angle 'K), the opposite side is
the sin&'K)( line up from the origin and the adYacent side is the cos&'K)(
segment going horiUontally from the top left.
Overall the diagram can be used to show the sine and cosine of sum
identities
3sin&3alpha K 3beta( . 3sin 3alpha 3cos 3beta K 3cos 3alpha 3sin 3beta
3cos&3alpha K 3beta( . 3cos 3alpha 3cos 3beta ! 3sin 3alpha 3sin 3beta
because the opposite sides of the rectangle are equal.
,ine 3sin&3alpha 3pm 3beta( . 3sin 3alpha 3cos 3beta 3pm 3cos 3alpha 3sin 3beta
39#@\$#?\$
[osine 3cos&3alpha 3pm 3beta( . 3cos 3alpha 3cos 3beta 3mp 3sin 3alpha
3sin 3beta3,#?\$#-1\$
Tangent 3tan&3alpha 3pm 3beta( . 3frac:3tan 3alpha 3pm 3tan 3beta;:- 3mp
3tan 3alpha 3tan 3beta;#?\$#--\$
rcsine 3arcsin3alpha 3pm 3arcsin3beta .
3arcsin3left&3alpha3sqrt:-!3betaJ2; 3pm 3beta3sqrt:-!3alphaJ2;3right(#-2\$
rccosine 3arccos3alpha 3pm 3arccos3beta . 3arccos3left&3alpha3beta 3mp
3sqrt:&-!3alphaJ2(&-!3betaJ2(;3right(#-/\$
rctangent 3arctan3alpha 3pm 3arctan3beta . 3arctan3left&3frac:3alpha 3pm
3beta;:- 3mp 3alpha3beta;3right(#-4\$
Gatrix form#edit\$
,ee also" matrix multiplication
The sum and diSerence formulae for sine and cosine can be written in matrix
form as"
3begin:align;
3left&3begin:array;:rr;
3cos3alpha L !3sin3alpha 33
3sin3alpha L 3cos3alpha
3end:array;3right(
3left&3begin:array;:rr;
3cos3beta L !3sin3beta 33
3sin3beta L 3cos3beta
3end:array;3right( 33#-2pt\$
L . 3left&3begin:array;:rr;
3cos3alpha3cos3beta ! 3sin3alpha3sin3beta L !3cos3alpha3sin3beta !
3sin3alpha3cos3beta 33
3sin3alpha3cos3beta K 3cos3alpha3sin3beta L !3sin3alpha3sin3beta K
3cos3alpha3cos3beta
3end:array;3right( 33#-2pt\$
L . 3left&3begin:array;:rr;
3cos&3alphaK3beta( L !3sin&3alphaK3beta( 33
3sin&3alphaK3beta( L 3cos&3alphaK3beta(
3end:array;3right(.
3end:align;
This shows that these matrices form a representation of the rotation group in
the plane &technically, the special orthogonal group ,O&2((, since the
composition law is fulflled" subsequent multiplications of a vector with these
two matrices yields the same result as the rotation by the sum of the angles.
,ines and cosines of sums of infnitely many terms#edit\$
3sin3left&3sum\:i.-;J3infty 3theta\i3right(
.3sum\:3text:odd;3 % 3ge -; &!-(J:&%!-(E2;
3sum\:3begin:smallmatrix; 3subseteq 3:3,-,2,/,3dots3,3; 33 3leftI3rightI .
%3end:smallmatrix;;
3left&3prod\:i 3in ; 3sin3theta\i 3prod\:i 3not 3in ; 3cos3theta\i3right(
3cos3left&3sum\:i.-;J3infty 3theta\i3right(
.3sum\:3text:even;3 % 3ge 1; ] &!-(J:%E2; ]]
3sum\:3begin:smallmatrix; 3subseteq 3:3,-,2,/,3dots3,3; 33 3leftI3rightI .
%3end:smallmatrix;;
3left&3prod\:i 3in ; 3sin3theta\i 3prod\:i 3not 3in ; 3cos3theta\i3right(
In these two identities an asymmetry appears that is not seen in the case of
sums of fnitely many terms" in each product, there are only fnitely many
sine factors and cofnitely many cosine factors.
If only finitely many of the terms +i are nonUero, then only finitely many of
the terms on the right side will be nonUero because sine factors will vanish,
and in each term, all but fnitely many of the cosine factors will be unity.
Tangents of sums#edit\$
^et e% &for % . 1, -, 2, /, ...( be the %th!degree elementary symmetric
polynomial in the variables
x\i . 3tan 3theta\i3,
for i . 1, -, 2, /, ..., i.e.,
3begin:align;
e\1 L . - 33#0pt\$
e\- L . 3sum\i x\i L L . 3sum\i 3tan3theta\i 33#0pt\$
e\2 L . 3sum\:i _ Y; x\i x\Y L L . 3sum\:i _ Y; 3tan3theta\i 3tan3theta\Y 33
#0pt\$
e\/ L . 3sum\:i _ Y _ %; x\i x\Y x\% L L . 3sum\:i _ Y _ %; 3tan3theta\i
3tan3theta\Y 3tan3theta\% 33
L :;3 3 3vdots L L :;3 3 3vdots
3end:align;
Then
3tan3left&3sum\i 3theta\i3right( . 3frac:e\- ! e\/ K e\7 !3cdots;:e\1 ! e\2 K
e\4 ! 3cdots;.39
The number of terms on the right side depends on the number of terms on
the left side.
For example"
3begin:align;
3tan&3theta\- K 3theta\2( L
. 3frac: e\- ;: e\1 ! e\2 ;
. 3frac: x\- K x\2 ;: - 3 ! 3 x\- x\2 ;
. 3frac: 3tan3theta\- K 3tan3theta\2 ;: - 3 ! 3 3tan3theta\- 3tan3theta\2 ;
,
33#@pt\$
3tan&3theta\- K 3theta\2 K 3theta\/( L
. 3frac: e\- ! e\/ ;: e\1 ! e\2 ;
. 3frac: &x\- K x\2 K x\/( 3 ! 3 &x\- x\2 x\/( ;: - 3 ! 3 &x\-x\2 K x\- x\/ K
x\2 x\/( ;,
33#@pt\$
3tan&3theta\- K 3theta\2 K 3theta\/ K 3theta\4( L
. 3frac: e\- ! e\/ ;: e\1 ! e\2 K e\4 ; 33#@pt\$ L
. 3frac: &x\- K x\2 K x\/ K x\4( 3 ! 3 &x\- x\2 x\/ K x\- x\2 x\4 K x\- x\/
x\4 K x\2 x\/ x\4( ;: - 3 ! 3 &x\- x\2 K x\- x\/ K x\- x\4 K x\2 x\/ K x\2
x\4 K x\/ x\4( 3 K 3 &x\- x\2 x\/ x\4( ;,
3end:align;
and so on. The case of only fnitely many terms can be proved by
mathematical induction.#-7\$
,ecants and cosecants of sums#edit\$
3begin:align;
3sec3left&3sum\i 3theta\i3right( L . 3frac:3prod\i 3sec3theta\i;:e\1 ! e\2 K e\4
! 3cdots; 33#@pt\$
3csc3left&3sum\i 3theta\i 3right( L . 3frac:3prod\i 3sec3theta\i ;:e\- ! e\/ K
e\7 ! 3cdots;
3end:align;
where e% is the %th!degree elementary symmetric polynomial in the n
variables xi . tan +i, i . -, ..., n, and the number of terms in the denominator
and the number of factors in the product in the numerator depend on the
number of terms in the sum on the left. The case of only fnitely many terms
can be proved by mathematical induction on the number of such terms. The
convergence of the series in the denominators can be shown by writing the
secant identity in the form
e\1 ! e\2 K e\4 ! 3cdots . 3frac:3prod\i 3sec3theta\i;:3sec3left&3sum\i
3theta\i3right(;
and then observing that the left side converges if the right side converges,
and similarly for the cosecant identity.
For example,
3begin:align;
3sec&3alphaK3betaK3gamma( L . 3frac:3sec3alpha 3sec3beta 3sec3gamma;:-
! 3tan3alpha3tan3beta ! 3tan3alpha3tan3gamma ! 3tan3beta3tan3gamma ; 33#@pt\$
3csc&3alphaK3betaK3gamma( L . 3frac:3sec3alpha 3sec3beta 3sec3gamma;
:3tan3alpha K 3tan3beta K 3tan3gamma ! 3tan3alpha3tan3beta3tan3gamma;.
3end:align;
Gultiple!angle formulae#edit\$
Tn is the nth [hebyshev polynomial 3cos n3theta .T\n &3cos 3theta (3, #-0\$
,n is the nth spread polynomial 3sinJ2 n3theta . ,\n &3sinJ23theta(3,
de GoivreDs formula, i is the imaginary unit 3cos n3theta Ki3sin
n3theta.&3cos&3theta(Ki3sin&3theta((Jn 3, #-<\$
5ouble!angle, triple!angle, and half!angle formulae#edit\$
,ee also" Tangent half!angle formula
These can be shown by using either the sum and diSerence identities or the
multiple!angle formulae.
5ouble!angle formulae#-@\$#-?\$
3begin:align;
3sin 23theta L. 2 3sin 3theta 3cos 3theta 3 33 L. 3frac:2 3tan 3theta; :- K
3tanJ2 3theta;
3end:align; 3begin:align;
3cos 23theta L. 3cosJ2 3theta ! 3sinJ2 3theta 33 L. 2 3cosJ2 3theta ! - 33
L. - ! 2 3sinJ2 3theta 33 L. 3frac:- ! 3tanJ2 3theta; :- K 3tanJ2 3theta;
3end:align; 3tan 23theta . 3frac:2 3tan 3theta; :- ! 3tanJ2 3theta; 3cot
23theta . 3frac:3cotJ2 3theta ! -;:2 3cot 3theta;
Triple!angle formulae#-0\$#21\$
3begin:align;3sin /3theta L . ! 3sinJ/3theta K / 3cosJ23theta 3sin3theta33
L . ! 43sinJ/3theta K /3sin3theta 3end:align; 3begin:align;3cos /3theta
L . 3cosJ/3theta ! / 3sinJ2 3theta3cos 3theta 33
L . 4 3cosJ/3theta ! / 3cos3theta3end:align; 3tan /3theta . 3frac:/ 3tan3theta
! 3tanJ/3theta;:- ! / 3tanJ23theta; 3cot /3theta . 3frac:/ 3cot3theta !
3cotJ/3theta;:- ! / 3cotJ23theta;
Nalf!angle formulae#2-\$#22\$
3begin:align;L3sin 3frac:3theta;:2; . 3sgn 3left&2 3pi ! 3theta K 4 3pi
3left3lRoor 3frac:3theta;:43pi; 3right3rRoor 3right( 3sqrt:3frac:- 39 ! 39 3cos
3theta;:2;; 33 33
L3left&3mathrm:or;3,3,3sinJ23frac:3theta;:2;.3frac:-!3cos3theta;
:2;3right(3end:align; 3begin:align;L3cos 3frac:3theta;:2; . 3sgn 3left&3pi
K 3theta K 4 3pi 3left3lRoor 3frac:3pi ! 3theta;:43pi; 3right3rRoor 3right(
3sqrt:3frac:- K 3cos3theta;:2;; 33 33
L3left&3mathrm:or;3,3,3cosJ23frac:3theta;:2;.3frac:-K3cos3theta;
:2;3right(3end:align; 3begin:align; 3tan 3frac:3theta;:2; L. 3csc 3theta !
3cot 3theta 33 L. 3pm3, 3sqrt:- ! 3cos 3theta 3over - K 3cos 3theta; 33#@pt\$ L.
3frac:3sin 3theta;:- K 3cos 3theta; 33#@pt\$ L. 3frac:-!3cos 3theta;:3sin 3theta;
33#-1pt\$
3tan3frac:3etaK3theta;:2; L . 3frac:3sin3etaK3sin3theta;
:3cos3etaK3cos3theta; 33#@pt\$
3tan3left&3frac:3theta;:2; K 3frac:3pi;:4;3right( L . 3sec3theta K 3tan3theta 33
#@pt\$
3sqrt:3frac:- ! 3sin3theta;:- K 3sin3theta;; L . 3frac:- ! 3tan&3thetaE2(;:-
K 3tan&3thetaE2(; 33#@pt\$
3tan3tfrac:-;:2;3theta L . 3frac:3tan3theta;:- K 3sqrt:-K3tanJ23theta;; 33
3end:align; 3begin:align; 3cot 3frac:3theta;:2; L. 3csc 3theta K 3cot
3theta 33 L. 3pm3, 3sqrt:- K 3cos 3theta 3over - ! 3cos 3theta; 33#@pt\$ L.
3frac:3sin 3theta;:- ! 3cos 3theta; 33#@pt\$ L. 3frac:- K 3cos 3theta;:3sin
3theta; 3end:align;
The fact that the triple!angle formula for sine and cosine only involves powers
of a single function allows one to relate the geometric problem of a compass
and straightedge construction of angle trisection to the algebraic problem of
solving a cubic equation, which allows one to prove that this is in general
impossible using the given tools, by feld theory.
formula for computing the trigonometric identities for the third!angle exists,
but it requires fnding the Ueroes of the cubic equation xJ/ ! 3frac:/xKd;
:4;.1, where x is the value of the sine function at some angle and d is the
%nown value of the sine function at the triple angle. Nowever, the
discriminant of this equation is negative, so this equation has three real roots
&of which only one is the solution within the correct third!circle( but none of
these solutions is reducible to a real algebraic expression, as they use
intermediate complex numbers under the cube roots, &which may be
expressed in terms of real!only functions only if using hyperbolic functions(.
,ine, cosine, and tangent of multiple angles#edit\$
the general formula was given by -0th century French mathematician Oieta.
3sin n3theta . 3sum\:%.1;Jn 3binom:n;:%; 3cosJ% 3theta3,3sinJ:n!%;
3theta3,3sin3left&3frac:-;:2;&n!%(3pi3right(
3cos n3theta . 3sum\:%.1;Jn 3binom:n;:%; 3cosJ% 3theta3,3sinJ:n!%;
3theta3,3cos3left&3frac:-;:2;&n!%(3pi3right(
In each of these two equations, the frst parenthesiUed term is a binomial
coe`cient, and the fnal trigonometric function equals one or minus one or
Uero so that half the entries in each of the sums are removed. tan n+ can be
written in terms of tan + using the recurrence relation"
3tan3,&n:K;-(3theta . 3frac:3tan n3theta K 3tan 3theta;:- ! 3tan
n3theta3,3tan 3theta;.
cot n+ can be written in terms of cot + using the recurrence relation"
3cot3,&n:K;-(3theta . 3frac:3cot n3theta3,3cot 3theta ! -;:3cot n3theta K 3cot
3theta;.
[hebyshev method#edit\$
The [hebyshev method is a recursive algorithm for fnding the nth multiple
angle formula %nowing the &n H -(th and &n H 2(th formulae.#2/\$
The cosine for nx can be computed from the cosine of &n H -(x and &n H 2(x
as follows"
3cos nx . 2 3cdot 3cos x 3cdot 3cos &&n!-( x( ! 3cos &&n!2( x( 3,
,imilarly sin&nx( can be computed from the sines of &n H -(x and &n H 2(x
3sin nx . 2 3cdot 3cos x 3cdot 3sin &&n!-( x( ! 3sin &&n!2( x( 3,
For the tangent, we have"
3tan nx . 3frac:N K a 3tan x;:a! N 3tan x; 3,
where NEa . tan&n H -(x.
Tangent of an average#edit\$
3tan3left& 3frac:3alphaK3beta;:2; 3right(
. 3frac:3sin3alpha K 3sin3beta;:3cos3alpha K 3cos3beta;
. !3,3frac:3cos3alpha ! 3cos3beta;:3sin3alpha ! 3sin3beta;
,etting either ' or ) to 1 gives the usual tangent half!angle formulb.
OicteDs infnite product#edit\$
3cos3left&:3theta 3over 2;3right( 3cdot 3cos3left&:3theta 3over 4;3right(
3cdot 3cos3left&:3theta 3over @;3right(3cdots . 3prod\:n.-;J3infty
3cos3left&:3theta 3over 2Jn;3right(
. :3sin 3theta 3over 3theta; . 3operatorname:sinc;3,3theta.
Bower!reduction formula#edit\$
Obtained by solving the second and third versions of the cosine double!angle
formula.
,ine [osine Other
3sinJ23theta . 3frac:- ! 3cos 23theta;:2;39 3cosJ23theta . 3frac:- K 3cos
23theta;:2;39 3sinJ23theta 3cosJ23theta . 3frac:- ! 3cos 43theta;:@;39
3sinJ/3theta . 3frac:/ 3sin3theta ! 3sin /3theta;:4;39 3cosJ/3theta .
3frac:/ 3cos3theta K 3cos /3theta;:4;393sinJ/3theta 3cosJ/3theta .
3frac:/3sin 23theta ! 3sin 03theta;:/2;39
3sinJ43theta . 3frac:/ ! 4 3cos 23theta K 3cos 43theta;:@;39 3cosJ43theta
. 3frac:/ K 4 3cos 23theta K 3cos 43theta;:@;39 3sinJ43theta 3cosJ43theta
. 3frac:/!43cos 43theta K 3cos @3theta;:-2@;39
3sinJ73theta . 3frac:-1 3sin3theta ! 7 3sin /3theta K 3sin 73theta;:-0;39
3cosJ73theta . 3frac:-1 3cos3theta K 7 3cos /3theta K 3cos 73theta;
:-0;39 3sinJ73theta 3cosJ73theta . 3frac:-13sin 23theta ! 73sin 03theta
K 3sin -13theta;:7-2;39
and in general terms of powers of sin+ or cos+ the following is true, and can
be deduced using 5e GoivreDs formula, MulerDs formula and binomial theorem.
[osine ,ine
3text:if ;n3text: is odd; 3cosJn3theta . 3frac:2;:2Jn;
3sum\:%.1;J:3frac:n!-;:2;; 3binom:n;:%; 3cos:&&n!2%(3theta(;
3sinJn3theta . 3frac:2;:2Jn; 3sum\:%.1;J:3frac:n!-;:2;; &!
-(J:&3frac:n!-;:2;!%(; 3binom:n;:%; 3sin:&&n!2%(3theta(;
3text:if ;n3text: is even; 3cosJn3theta . 3frac:-;:2Jn; 3binom:n;:3frac:n;
:2;; K 3frac:2;:2Jn; 3sum\:%.1;J:3frac:n;:2;!-; 3binom:n;:%;
3cos:&&n!2%(3theta(; 3sinJn3theta . 3frac:-;:2Jn; 3binom:n;:3frac:n;
:2;; K 3frac:2;:2Jn; 3sum\:%.1;J:3frac:n;:2;!-; &!-(J:&3frac:n;:2;!
%(; 3binom:n;:%; 3cos:&&n!2%(3theta(;
Broduct!to!sum and sum!to!product identities#edit\$
The product!to!sum identities or prosthaphaeresis formulas can be proven by
expanding their right!hand sides using the angle addition theorems. ,ee
amplitude modulation for an application of the product!to!sum formulb, and
beat &acoustics( and phase detector for applications of the sum!to!product
formulb.
Broduct!to!sum#24\$
3cos 3theta 3cos 3varphi . ::3cos&3theta ! 3varphi( K 3cos&3theta K 3varphi(;
3over 2;
3sin 3theta 3sin 3varphi . ::3cos&3theta ! 3varphi( ! 3cos&3theta K 3varphi(;
3over 2;
3sin 3theta 3cos 3varphi . ::3sin&3theta K 3varphi( K 3sin&3theta ! 3varphi(;
3over 2;
3cos 3theta 3sin 3varphi . ::3sin&3theta K 3varphi( ! 3sin&3theta ! 3varphi(; 3over
2;
3tan 3theta 3tan 3varphi .3frac:3cos&3theta!3varphi(!3cos&3thetaK3varphi(;
:3cos&3theta!3varphi(K3cos&3thetaK3varphi(;
3begin:align; 3prod\:%.-;Jn 3cos 3theta\% L . 3frac:-;:2Jn;3sum\:e3in ,;
3cos&e\-3theta\-K3cdotsKe\n3theta\n( 33#0pt\$
L 3text:where ;,.3:-,!-3;Jn
3end:align;
,um!to!product#27\$
3sin 3theta 3pm 3sin 3varphi . 2 3sin3left& 3frac:3theta 3pm 3varphi;:2; 3right(
3cos3left& 3frac:3theta 3mp 3varphi;:2; 3right(
3cos 3theta K 3cos 3varphi . 2 3cos3left& 3frac:3theta K 3varphi; :2; 3right(
3cos3left& 3frac:3theta ! 3varphi;:2; 3right(
3cos 3theta ! 3cos 3varphi . !23sin3left& :3theta K 3varphi 3over 2;3right(
3sin3left&:3theta ! 3varphi 3over 2;3right(
Other related identities#edit\$
3text:If ;x K y K U . 3pi . 3text:half circle,;3,
3text:then ;3sin&2x( K 3sin&2y( K 3sin&2U( . 43sin&x(3sin&y(3sin&U(.3,
&Triple tangent identity( 3text:If ;x K y K U . 3pi . 3text:half circle,;3,
3text:then ;3tan&x( K 3tan&y( K 3tan&U( . 3tan&x(3tan&y(3tan&U(.3,
In particular, the formula holds when x, y, and U are the three angles of any
triangle.
&If any of x, y, U is a right angle, one should ta%e both sides to be e. This is
neither Ke nor Hef for present purposes it ma%es sense to add Yust one point
at infinity to the real line, that is approached by tan&+( as tan&+( either
increases through positive values or decreases through negative values. This
is a one!point compactifcation of the real line.(
&Triple cotangent identity( 3text:If ;x K y K U . 3tfrac:3pi;:2; . 3text:quarter
circle,;3,
3text:then ;3cot&x( K 3cot&y( K 3cot&U( . 3cot&x(3cot&y(3cot&U(.3,
NermiteDs cotangent identity#edit\$
Gain article" NermiteDs cotangent identity
[harles Nermite demonstrated the following identity.#20\$ ,uppose a-, ..., an
are complex numbers, no two of which differ by an integer multiple of T. ^et
\:n,%; . 3prod\:3begin:smallmatrix; - 3le Y 3le n 33 Y 3neq %
3end:smallmatrix;; 3cot&a\% ! a\Y(
&in particular, -,-, being an empty product, is -(. Then
3cot&U ! a\-(3cdots3cot&U ! a\n( . 3cos3frac:n3pi;:2; K 3sum\:%.-;Jn
\:n,%; 3cot&U ! a\%(.
The simplest non!trivial example is the case n . 2"
3cot&U ! a\-(3cot&U ! a\2( . !- K 3cot&a\- ! a\2(3cot&U ! a\-( K 3cot&a\2 !
a\-(3cot&U ! a\2(.
BtolemyDs theorem#edit\$
3text:If ;w K x K y K U . 3pi . 3text:half circle,; 3,
3begin:align; 3text:then ;
L 3sin&w K x(3sin&x K y( 33
L:; . 3sin&x K y(3sin&y K U( 33
L:; . 3sin&y K U(3sin&U K w( 33
L:; . 3sin&U K w(3sin&w K x( . 3sin&w(3sin&y( K 3sin&x(3sin&U(.
3end:align;
&The frst three equalities are trivialf the fourth is the substance of this
identity.( Mssentially this is BtolemyDs theorem adapted to the language of
modern trigonometry.
^inear combinations#edit\$
For some purposes it is important to %now that any linear combination of sine
waves of the same period or frequency but diSerent phase shifts is also a sine
wave with the same period or frequency, but a diSerent phase shift. This is
useful in sinusoid data ftting, because the measured or observed data are
linearly related to the a and b un%nowns of the in!phase and quadrature
components basis below, resulting in a simpler gacobian, compared to that of
c and h. In the case of a non!Uero linear combination of a sine and cosine
wave#2<\$ &which is Yust a sine wave with a phase shift of TE2(, we have
a3sin xKb3cos x.c3cdot3sin&xK3varphi(3,
where
c . 3sqrt:aJ2 K bJ2;,3,
and &using the atan2 function(
3varphi . 3operatorname:atan2; 3left& b, a 3right(.
Gore generally, for an arbitrary phase shift, we have
a3sin xKb3sin&xK3alpha(. c 3sin&xK3beta(3,
where
c . 3sqrt:aJ2 K bJ2 K 2ab3cos 3alpha;,3,
and
3beta . 3arctan 3left&3frac:b3sin 3alpha;:a K b3cos 3alpha;3right( K
3begin:cases;
1 L 3text:if ; a K b3cos 3alpha 3ge 1, 33
3pi L 3text:if ; a K b3cos 3alpha _ 1.
3end:cases;
3sum\i a\i 3sin&xK3delta\i(. a 3sin&xK3delta(,
where
aJ2.3sum\:i,Y;a\i a\Y 3cos&3delta\i!3delta\Y(
and
3tan 3delta.3frac:3sum\i a\i 3sin3delta\i;:3sum\i a\i 3cos3delta\i;.
^agrangeDs trigonometric identities#edit\$
These identities, named after goseph ^ouis ^agrange, are"#2@\$#2?\$
3begin:align;
3sum\:n.-;JC 3sin n3theta L . 3frac:-;:2;3cot3frac:3theta;
:2;!3frac:3cos&CK3frac:-;:2;(3theta;:23sin3frac:-;:2;3theta;33
3sum\:n.-;JC 3cos n3theta L . !3frac:-;:2;K3frac:3sin&CK3frac:-;
:2;(3theta;:23sin3frac:-;:2;3theta;
3end:align;
related function is the following function of x, called the 5irichlet %ernel.
-K23cos&x( K 23cos&2x( K 23cos&/x( K 3cdots K 23cos&nx(
. 3frac:3sin3left&3left&n K3frac:-;:2;3right(x3right(;:3sin&xE2(;.
Other sums of trigonometric functions#edit\$
,um of sines and cosines with arguments in arithmetic progression"#/1\$ if
3alpha3ne1, then
3begin:align;
L 3sin:3varphi; K 3sin:&3varphi K 3alpha(; K 3sin:&3varphi K 23alpha(; K
3cdots :; 33#@pt\$
3frac:3sin:3left&3frac:&nK-( 3alpha;:2;3right(; 3cdot 3sin:&3varphi K 3frac:n
L 3cos:3varphi; K 3cos:&3varphi K 3alpha(; K 3cos:&3varphi K 23alpha(; K
3cdots :; 33#@pt\$
3frac:3sin:3left&3frac:&nK-( 3alpha;:2;3right(; 3cdot 3cos:&3varphi K 3frac:n
3alpha;:2;(;;:3sin:3frac:3alpha;:2;;;.
3end:align;
For any a and b"
a 3cos&x( K b 3sin&x( . 3sqrt: aJ2 K bJ2 ; 3cos&x ! 3operatorname:atan2;3,
&b,a(( 3f
where atan2&y, x( is the generaliUation of arctan&yEx( that covers the entire
circular range.
3tan&x( K 3sec&x( . 3tan3left&:x 3over 2; K :3pi 3over 4;3right(.
The above identity is sometimes convenient to %now when thin%ing about the
Gudermannian function, which relates the circular and hyperbolic
trigonometric functions without resorting to complex numbers.
If x, y, and U are the three angles of any triangle, i.e. if x K y K U . T, then
3cot&x(3cot&y( K 3cot&y(3cot&U( K 3cot&U(3cot&x( . -.3,
[ertain linear fractional transformations#edit\$
If i&x( is given by the linear fractional transformation
f&x( . 3frac:&3cos3alpha(x ! 3sin3alpha;:&3sin3alpha(x K 3cos3alpha;,
and similarly
g&x( . 3frac:&3cos3beta(x ! 3sin3beta;:&3sin3beta(x K 3cos3beta;,
then
f&g&x(( . g&f&x((
. 3frac:&3cos&3alphaK3beta((x ! 3sin&3alphaK3beta(;:&3sin&3alphaK3beta((x K
3cos&3alphaK3beta(;.
Gore tersely stated, if for all ' we let i' be what we called i above, then
f\3alpha 3circ f\3beta . f\:3alphaK3beta;. 3,
If x is the slope of a line, then i&x( is the slope of its rotation through an angle
of H'.
Inverse trigonometric functions#edit\$
3arcsin&x(K3arccos&x(.3piE23f
3arctan&x(K3arccot&x(.3piE2.3f
3arctan&x(K3arctan&-Ex(.3left3:3begin:matrix; 3piE2, L 3mbox:if ;x j 1 33
!3piE2, L 3mbox:if ;x _ 1 3end:matrix;3right.
[ompositions of trig and inverse trig functions#edit\$
3sin#3arccos&x(\$.3sqrt:-!xJ2; 3, 3tan#3arcsin &x(\$.3frac:x;:3sqrt:- ! xJ2;;
3sin#3arctan&x(\$.3frac:x;:3sqrt:-KxJ2;; 3tan#3arccos &x(\$.3frac:3sqrt:- !
xJ2;;:x;
3cos#3arctan&x(\$.3frac:-;:3sqrt:-KxJ2;; 3cot#3arcsin &x(\$.3frac:3sqrt:- !
xJ2;;:x;
3cos#3arcsin&x(\$.3sqrt:-!xJ2; 3, 3cot#3arccos &x(\$.3frac:x;:3sqrt:- ! xJ2;;
8elation to the complex exponential function#edit\$
eJ:ix; . 3cos&x( K
i3sin&x(3,#/-\$ &MulerDs formula(,
eJ:!ix; . 3cos&!x( K i3sin&!x( . 3cos&x( ! i3sin&x(
eJ:i3pi; . !- &MulerDs identity(,
eJ:23pi i; . -
3cos&x( . 3frac:eJ:ix; K eJ:!ix;;:2; #/2\$
3sin&x( . 3frac:eJ:ix; ! eJ:!ix;;:2i; #//\$
and hence the corollary"
3tan&x( . 3frac:3sin&x(;:3cos&x(;. 3frac:eJ:ix; ! eJ:!ix;;:i&:eJ:ix; K eJ:!
ix;;(;

where iJ2 . !-.
Infnite product formulae#edit\$
For applications to special functions, the following infnite product formulae
for trigonometric functions are useful"#/4\$#/7\$
3sin x . x 3prod\:n . -;J3infty3left&- ! 3frac:xJ2;:3piJ2 nJ2;3right(
3sinh x . x 3prod\:n . -;J3infty3left&- K 3frac:xJ2;:3piJ2 nJ2;3right(
3frac:3sin x;:x; . 3prod\:n . -;J3infty3cos3left&3frac:x;:2Jn;3right(
3cos x . 3prod\:n . -;J3infty3left&- ! 3frac:xJ2;:3piJ2&n ! 3frac:-;
:2;(J2;3right(
3cosh x . 3prod\:n . -;J3infty3left&- K 3frac:xJ2;:3piJ2&n ! 3frac:-;
:2;(J2;3right(
I3sin xI . 3frac-:2;3prod\:n . 1;J3infty 3sqrt#2J:nK-;\$:3leftI3tan3left&2Jn
x3right(3rightI;
Identities without variables#edit\$
The curious identity
3cos 21J3circ3cdot3cos 41J3circ3cdot3cos @1J3circ.3frac:-;:@;
is a special case of an identity that contains one variable"
3prod\:Y.1;J:%!-;3cos&2JY x(.3frac:3sin&2J% x(;:2J%3sin&x(;.
,imilarly"
3sin 21J3circ3cdot3sin 41J3circ3cdot3sin @1J3circ.3frac:3sqrt:/;;:@;.
The same cosine identity in radians is
3cos3frac:3pi;:?;3cos3frac:23pi;:?;3cos3frac:43pi;:?; . 3frac:-;:@;,
,imilarly"
3tan 71J3circ3cdot3tan 01J3circ3cdot3tan <1J3circ.3tan @1J3circ.
3tan 41J3circ3cdot3tan /1J3circ3cdot3tan 21J3circ.3tan -1J3circ.
The following is perhaps not as readily generaliUed to an identity containing
variables &but see explanation below("
3cos 24J3circK3cos 4@J3circK3cos ?0J3circK3cos -0@J3circ.3frac:-;:2;.
5egree measure ceases to be more felicitous than radian measure when we
consider this identity with 2- in the denominators"
3begin:align;
L 3cos3left& 3frac:23pi;:2-;3right(
K 3cos3left&23cdot3frac:23pi;:2-;3right(
K 3cos3left&43cdot3frac:23pi;:2-;3right( 33#-1pt\$
L :; 3qquad :; K 3cos3left& 73cdot3frac:23pi;:2-;3right(
K 3cos3left& @3cdot3frac:23pi;:2-;3right(
K 3cos3left&-13cdot3frac:23pi;:2-;3right(.3frac:-;:2;.
3end:align;
The factors -, 2, 4, 7, @, -1 may start to ma%e the pattern clear" they are
those integers less than 2-E2 that are relatively prime to &or have no prime
factors in common with( 2-. The last several examples are corollaries of a
basic fact about the irreducible cyclotomic polynomials" the cosines are the
real parts of the Ueroes of those polynomialsf the sum of the Ueroes is the
Gkbius function evaluated at &in the very last case above( 2-f only half of the
Ueroes are present above. The two identities preceding this last one arise in
the same fashion with 2- replaced by -1 and -7, respectively.
Gany of those curious identities stem from more general facts li%e the
following"#/0\$
3prod\:%.-;J:n!-; 3sin3left&3frac:%3pi;:n;3right( . 3frac:n;:2J:n!-;;
and
3prod\:%.-;J:n!-; 3cos3left&3frac:%3pi;:n;3right( . 3frac:3sin&3pi nE2(;
:2J:n!-;;
[ombining these gives us
3prod\:%.-;J:n!-; 3tan3left&3frac:%3pi;:n;3right( . 3frac:n;:3sin&3pi nE2(;
If n is an odd number &n . 2m K -( we can ma%e use of the symmetries to
get
3prod\:%.-;J:m; 3tan3left&3frac:%3pi;:2mK-;3right( . 3sqrt:2mK-;
The transfer function of the Putterworth low pass flter can be expressed in
terms of polynomial and poles. Py setting the frequency as the cutoS
frequency, the following identity can be proved"
3prod\:%.-;J:n; 3sin3left&3frac:3left&2%!-3right(3pi;:4n;3right( .
3prod\:%.-;J:n; 3cos3left&3frac:3left&2%!-3right(3pi;:4n;3right( .
3frac:3sqrt:2;;:2J:n;;
[omputing T#edit\$
n efficient way to compute T is based on the following identity without
variables, due to Gachin"
3frac:3pi;:4; . 4 3arctan3frac:-;:7; ! 3arctan3frac:-;:2/?;
or, alternatively, by using an identity of ^eonhard Muler"
3frac:3pi;:4; . 7 3arctan3frac:-;:<; K 2 3arctan3frac:/;:<?;.
useful mnemonic for certain values of sines and cosines#edit\$
For certain simple angles, the sines and cosines ta%e the form
3scriptstyle3sqrt:n;E2 for 1 l n l 4, which ma%es them easy to remember.
3begin:matrix;
3sin 1 L . L 3sin 1J3circ L . L 3sqrt:1;E2 L . L 3cos ?1J3circ L . L 3cos
3left& 3frac :3pi; :2; 3right( 33 33
3sin 3left& 3frac :3pi; :0; 3right( L . L 3sin /1J3circ L . L 3sqrt:-;E2 L . L
3cos 01J3circ L . L 3cos 3left& 3frac :3pi; :/; 3right( 33 33
3sin 3left& 3frac :3pi; :4; 3right( L . L 3sin 47J3circ L . L 3sqrt:2;E2 L . L
3cos 47J3circ L . L 3cos 3left& 3frac :3pi; :4; 3right( 33 33
3sin 3left& 3frac :3pi; :/; 3right( L . L 3sin 01J3circ L . L 3sqrt:/;E2 L . L
3cos /1J3circ L . L 3cos 3left& 3frac :3pi; :0; 3right(33 33
3sin 3left& 3frac :3pi; :2; 3right( L . L 3sin ?1J3circ L . L 3sqrt:4;E2 L . L
3cos 1J3circ L . L 3cos 1
3end:matrix;
Giscellany#edit\$
Qith the golden ratio h"
3cos 3left& 3frac :3pi; :7; 3right( . 3cos /0J3circ.3tfrac-4 &3sqrt:7;K-( .
3tfrac-2 3varphi
3sin 3left& 3frac :3pi; :-1; 3right( . 3sin -@J3circ . 3tfrac-4 &3sqrt:7;!-( .
3tfrac-2 3varphiJ:!-;
lso see exact trigonometric constants.
n identity of Muclid#edit\$
Muclid showed in Poo% mIII, Broposition -1 of his Mlements that the area of the
square on the side of a regular pentagon inscribed in a circle is equal to the
sum of the areas of the squares on the sides of the regular hexagon and the
regular decagon inscribed in the same circle. In the language of modern
trigonometry, this says"
3sinJ2&-@J3circ(K3sinJ2&/1J3circ(.3sinJ2&/0J3circ(. 3,
Btolemy used this proposition to compute some angles in his table of chords.
[omposition of trigonometric functions#edit\$
This identity involves a trigonometric function of a trigonometric function"#/<\$
3cos&t 3sin&x(( . g\1&t( K 2 3sum\:%.-;J3infty g\:2%;&t( 3cos&2%x(
where g1 and g2% are Pessel functions.
[alculus#edit\$
In calculus the relations stated below require angles to be measured in
radiansf the relations would become more complicated if angles were
measured in another unit such as degrees. If the trigonometric functions are
defned in terms of geometry, along with the defnitions of arc length and
area, their derivatives can be found by verifying two limits. The frst is"
3lim\:x3rightarrow 1;3frac:3sin x;:x;.-,
verifed using the unit circle and squeeUe theorem. The second limit is"
3lim\:x3rightarrow 1;3frac:-!3cos x ;:x;.1,
verifed using the identity tan&xE2( . &- H cos x(Esin x. Naving established
these two limits, one can use the limit defnition of the derivative and the
addition theorems to show that &sin x(n . cos x and &cos x(n . Hsin x. If the
sine and cosine functions are defned by their Taylor series, then the
derivatives can be found by diSerentiating the power series term!by!term.
:3mathrm:d; 3over 3mathrm:d;x;3sin x . 3cos x
The rest of the trigonometric functions can be diSerentiated using the above
identities and the rules of diSerentiation"#/@\$#/?\$#41\$
3begin:align;
:3mathrm:d; 3over 3mathrm:d;x; 3sin x L . 3cos x, L :3mathrm:d;
3over 3mathrm:d;x; 3arcsin x L . :- 3over 3sqrt:- ! xJ2;; 33 33
:3mathrm:d; 3over 3mathrm:d;x; 3cos x L . !3sin x, L :3mathrm:d;
3over 3mathrm:d;x; 3arccos x L . :!- 3over 3sqrt:- ! xJ2;; 33 33
:3mathrm:d; 3over 3mathrm:d;x; 3tan x L . 3secJ2 x, L
:3mathrm:d; 3over 3mathrm:d;x; 3arctan x L . : - 3over - K xJ2; 33
33
:3mathrm:d; 3over 3mathrm:d;x; 3cot x L . !3cscJ2 x, L
:3mathrm:d; 3over 3mathrm:d;x; 3arccot x L . :!- 3over - K xJ2; 33
33
:3mathrm:d; 3over 3mathrm:d;x; 3sec x L . 3tan x 3sec x, L
:3mathrm:d; 3over 3mathrm:d;x; 3arcsec x L . : - 3over IxI3sqrt:xJ2 ! -;;
33 33
:3mathrm:d; 3over 3mathrm:d;x; 3csc x L . !3csc x 3cot x, L
:3mathrm:d; 3over 3mathrm:d;x; 3arccsc x L . :!- 3over IxI3sqrt:xJ2 ! -;;
3end:align;
The integral identities can be found in olist of integrals of trigonometric
functionso. ,ome generic forms are listed below.
3int 3frac:3mathrm:d;u;:3sqrt:aJ2!uJ2;; .3sinJ:!-;3left& 3frac:u;:a;
3right(K[
3int 3frac:3mathrm:d;u;:aJ2KuJ2; .3frac:-;:a;3tan J:!-;3left& 3frac:u;
:a; 3right(K[
3int 3frac:3mathrm:d;u;:u3sqrt:uJ2!aJ2;; .3frac:-;:a;3sec J:!-;3leftI
3frac:u;:a; 3rightIK[
Implications#edit\$
The fact that the diSerentiation of trigonometric functions &sine and cosine(
results in linear combinations of the same two functions is of fundamental
importance to many felds of mathematics, including diSerential equations
and Fourier transforms.
,ome diSerential equations satisfed by the sine function#edit\$
^et i . pH- be the imaginary unit and let 3circ denote composition of
diSerential operators. Then for every odd positive integer n,
3sum\:%.1;Jn 3binom:n;:%; 3left&3frac:3mathrm:d;;:3mathrm:d;x;!3sin
x3right( 3circ 3left&3frac:3mathrm:d;;:3mathrm:d;x; ! 3sin x K
i3right(3circ3cdots3circ3left&3frac:3mathrm:d;;:3mathrm:d;x;!3sin xK&%!
-(i3right( &3sin x(J:n!%; . 1.
&Qhen % . 1, then the number of diSerential operators being composed is 1,
so the corresponding term in the sum above is Yust &sin x(n.( This identity was
discovered as a by!product of research in medical imaging.#4-\$
Mxponential defnitions#edit\$
Function Inverse function#42\$
3sin 3theta . 3frac:eJ:i3theta; ! eJ:!i3theta;;:2i; 3, 3arcsin x . !i 3ln
3left&ix K 3sqrt:- ! xJ2;3right( 3,
3cos 3theta . 3frac:eJ:i3theta; K eJ:!i3theta;;:2; 3, 3arccos x .
i3,3ln3left&x!i3,3sqrt:-!xJ2;3right( 3,
3tan 3theta . 3frac:eJ:i3theta; ! eJ:!i3theta;;:i&eJ:i3theta; K eJ:!
i3theta;(; 3, 3arctan x . 3frac:i;:2; 3ln 3left&3frac:i K x;:i ! x;3right( 3,
3csc 3theta . 3frac:2i;:eJ:i3theta; ! eJ:!i3theta;; 3, 3arccsc x . !i 3ln
3left&3tfrac:i;:x; K 3sqrt:- ! 3tfrac:-;:xJ2;;3right( 3,
3sec 3theta . 3frac:2;:eJ:i3theta; K eJ:!i3theta;; 3, 3arcsec x . !i 3ln
3left&3tfrac:-;:x; K 3sqrt:- ! 3tfrac:i;:xJ2;;3right( 3,
3cot 3theta . 3frac:i&eJ:i3theta; K eJ:!i3theta;(;:eJ:i3theta; ! eJ:!
i3theta;; 3, 3arccot x . 3frac:i;:2; 3ln 3left&3frac:x ! i;:x K i;3right( 3,
3operatorname:cis; 3, 3theta . eJ:i3theta; 3, 3operatorname:arccis; 3, x .
3frac:3ln x;:i; . !i 3ln x . 3operatorname:arg; 3, x 3,
Giscellaneous#edit\$
5irichlet %ernel#edit\$
The 5irichlet %ernel 5n&x( is the function occurring on both sides of the next
identity"
-K23cos&x(K23cos&2x(K23cos&/x(K3cdotsK23cos&nx( . 3frac:
3sin3left#3left&nK3frac:-;:2;3right(x3right3rbrac% ;: 3sin3left&3frac:x;:2;3right(
;.
The convolution of any integrable function of period 2T with the 5irichlet
%ernel coincides with the functionDs nth!degree Fourier approximation. The
same holds for any measure or generaliUed function.
Tangent half!angle substitution#edit\$
Gain article" Tangent half!angle substitution
If we set
t . 3tan3left&3frac:x;:2;3right(,
then#4/\$
3sin&x( . 3frac:2t;:- K tJ2;3text: and ;3cos&x( . 3frac:- ! tJ2;:- K
tJ2;3text: and ;eJ:i x; . 3frac:- K i t;:- ! i t;
where eix . cos&x( K i sin&x(, sometimes abbreviated to cis&x(.
Qhen this substitution of t for tan&xE2( is used in calculus, it follows that sin&x(
is replaced by 2tE&- K t2(, cos&x( is replaced by &- H t2(E&- K t2( and the
diSerential dx is replaced by &2 dt(E&- K t2(. Thereby one converts rational
functions of sin&x( and cos&x( to rational fun