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Caterpillar 3600 Marine Engine

Application & Installation Guide


LEKM2005
Table of Contents
Introduction
Introduction
Foreward
General Information
Basic Engine Consists
Engine Description
Engine Testing and Certificates
Torsional Vibration Analysis
Shipbuilder's Responsibility
Customer Application Information
Engine Data
Dimensions and Weights
Center of Gravity
Technical Data
Noise
Vibration
Engine Performance
Engine Ratings
Distillate Fuel
Heavy Fuel
Performance Criteria
Marine Performance Curves
Marine Performance Parameters
Engine Systems
Piping
Fuel
Distillate Fuel
Heavy Fuel
Lubricating Oil
Cooling
Fresh Water Cooling
Sea Water Cooling
Air
Air Intake
Exhaust
Starting Air
Crankcase Fumes Disposal
Mounting and Alignment
Foundation Design
Construction Materials
Dual Engine Installation
Mounting Arrangements
Alignment Procedures
Controls
Pneumatic Control System
Electronic Controls
Engine Governors
Fixed Pitch Propeller Systems
Controllable Pitch Propeller Systems
Instrumentation
Installation Drawings
General Drawing Datums and Conventions
Engine Installation Drawings
Engine Room Installations
Ancillary Equipment
Marine Gears
Couplings
Propellers
Repowering Applications
General
Foundations
Repower Survey Check List
Other Applications
Ships Service Generators
Shaft Generators
Bow or Stern Thrusters
Hydraulic Pump Drive
Service and Maintenance
Service Envelopes/Component Weights
Spare Parts Kits
Expected Parts Life
Service Tools
Trials and Commissioning
Design Review
Installation Audit
Dock Trials
Sea Trials
Sea Trials Conditions
Reference Publications

3600 Marine Engine
Applic ation and
Installation
Guide

G

Introduction
GGeneral Information


LEKM8460 8-98
Introduction
Foreward


5
Introduction
The i nformati on presented i n thi s gui de
shoul d ai d i n the pl anni ng through
customer acceptance phases of a project.
The gui de i s arranged and desi gned to
enabl e the i nformati on to be kept
current, and for the user to easi l y l ocate
the speci fi c i nformati on requi red.
The techni cal data i ncl uded i s for ease of
reference and wi l l be updated
peri odi cal l y. Deal ers can al so obtai n
current engi ne i nformati on by accessi ng
the Caterpi l l ar Techni cal Marketi ng
I nformati on System (TMI ). Thi s system
shoul d al ways be checked for the most up
to date engi ne data avai l abl e. The TMI
System i s a corporatel y ori ented
computeri zed system for col l ecti ng,
prepari ng, mai ntai ni ng, and
communi cati ng techni cal data requi red
for marketi ng Caterpi l l ar Engi ne
Di vi si on products. TMI operates i n an
I MS envi ronment through the
Caterpi l l ar Network and functi ons under
a corporate securi ty system.
I t must al ways be emphasi zed to refer to
the TMI System for the l atest engi ne
performance i nformati on on al l Engi ne
Di vi si on products.
Foreword
Proper sel ecti on and i nstal l ati on of
engi nes for mari ne appl i cati on i s vi tal for
dependabl e performance and l ong,
troubl e-free l i fe. The purpose of thi s
gui de i s to hel p:
Make knowl edgeabl e choi ces of power
equi pment.
Desi gn and bui l d mari ne i nstal l ati ons
that perform rel i abl y at an opti mum
pri ce/val ue rel ati onshi p to the
customer.
To ensure engi nes are i nstal l ed properl y,
Caterpi l l ar has support capabi l i ty
unmatched i n the i ndustry. From
di sci pl i nes requi red for i nstal l ati on, to
servi ce and mai ntenance demanded
years after compl eti on, Caterpi l l ar
conti nues i ts commi tment to i ts
customer s successful operati on.
Over fi fty years of devel opi ng mari ne
power equi pment has cul mi nated i n a
broad l i ne of practi cal equi pment,
provi di ng cost-effecti ve sel ecti on and
i nstal l ati on ease. A si ngl e source for
propul si on engi nes and mari ne
auxi l i ari es assures testi ng and qual i ty
for matched packages.
Devel opment of i nstal l ati on knowl edge
paral l el s equi pment advances. Whi l e thi s
Appl i cati on and I nstal l ati on Gui de
summari zes many aspects of i nstal l ati on,
Caterpi l l ar Deal ers stand ready wi th
compl ete and detai l ed assi stance.
I t i s the i nstal l er s responsi bi l i ty to
consi der and avoi d possi bl e hazardous
condi ti ons whi ch coul d devel op from the
systems i nvol ved i n a speci fi c engi ne
i nstal l ati on. The suggesti ons provi ded i n
thi s gui de regardi ng avoi dance of
hazardous condi ti ons appl y to al l
appl i cati ons and are necessari l y of a
general nature si nce onl y the i nstal l er i s
fami l i ar wi th the detai l s of a parti cul ar
i nstal l ati on. The suggesti ons provi ded i n
thi s gui de shoul d be consi dered as
general exampl es onl y, and are i n no way
i ntended to cover every possi bl e hazard
i n al l i nstal l ati ons.
Use the tabl e of contents as a checkl i st of
subjects affecti ng engi ne i nstal l ati ons.
Usi ng the i ndexed materi al duri ng
prel i mi nary project pl anni ng can avoi d
the effort and expense of after-
i nstal l ati on changes.
General Information

Model Identification
Basic Engine Consists
Engine Description
Engine Testing and Certificates
Torsional Vibration Analysis
Engine Preservation and Packaging
Shipbuilders Responsibility
Customer Application Information

9
Model Identification
The basi c model number i s
representati ve of both the seri es of
parti cul ar engi ne and the number of
cyl i nders. Typi cal l y an addi ti onal suffi x
refers to the type of fuel i njecti on method
and charge ai r aspi rati on.

Example: 3612 DITA
Caterpi l l ar 3600 Fami l y - 36
12 Cyl i nder Vee Engi ne - 12
Di rect Fuel I njected - DI
Turbocharged Aftercool ed - TA
Al l Caterpi l l ar engi nes have three
numbers whi ch further defi ne the
engi ne. They are:
Arrangement Number
Used to establ i sh the speci fi c part
assembl i es representi ng the basi c
engi ne. Components such as cyl i nder
heads, pi stons, cyl i nder bl ocks and
crankshafts can be determi ned from the
arrangement number. I t i s found on both
the Seri al Number Pl ate and Engi ne
I nformati on Pl ate, Fi gures 1 & 2. Both
pl ates are l ocated on the engi ne.
Serial Number
Each engi ne i s assi gned a uni que seri al
number. The number typi cal l y consi sts of
al pha numeri c characters; the fi rst three
represent the engi ne model , i .e.:
Model Serial Number
3606 8RBXXXXX
3608 6MCXXXXX
3612 9RCXXXXX
3616 1PDXXXXX
The number i s found on both the Seri al
Number Pl ate and the I nformati on Pl ate.
Performance
Specification Number
A number descri bi ng the engi nes fuel
system, ai r i nducti on system, and
performance setti ngs. The number i s
uni que to the power rati ng of each
engi ne. I t i s found on the Engi ne
I nformati on Pl ate, Fi gure 2.
The three numbers are used to reference
a speci fi c engi ne model , appl i cati on and
rati ng and shoul d al ways be referred to
i n correspondence rel ati ve to a parti cul ar
engi ne or when spare parts are ordered.
Located on the left side of the engine block
above one of the crankshaft inspection covers.
ENGINE
MODEL
SERIAL
NUMBER
ARRANGEMENT
NUMBER
(ALWAYS GIVE ALL NUMBERS)
MADE IN U.S.A. 3N3790 11
Figure 1
SER.NO.
DATE
DELIVERED
MODIFICATION NO.
DLR
CODE
AR
NO.
PERF
SPEC
MAX
ALT
OEM
NO.
FULL LOAD
STATIC FUEL
FULL TORQ.
STATIC FUEL
POWER
BARE ENG.
HI IDLE
RPM
FULL
LOAD
RPM
FUEL
TIMING
A/F RATIO
DYNAMIC
Located on the right side of the engine block
above one of the crankshaft inspection covers.
9L8531 13
Figure 2
10
Basic Engine Consists
The Caterpi l l ar 3600 Fami l y i s
confi gured i n a posi ti ve-bui l d manner for
opti mum fl exi bi l i ty i n meeti ng customer
requi rements and ensures the abi l i ty to
assembl e and test a runnabl e engi ne at
the factory.
Engi ne opti ons, from Caterpi l l ar s
Sel ecti on Gui de LEBQ5043, are l i sted i n
general code categori es. The Sel ecti on
Gui de i s i ncl uded i n the 3600 Sal es
Manual , LEKQ6141, and i s avai l abl e
from Caterpi l l ar Deal ers or through the
Caterpi l l ar Corporate Li terature
di stri buti on system.
The l i sts speci fy functi onal requi rements
of an engi ne resul ti ng i n a seri es of code
numbers uni quel y descri bi ng the
compl ete engi ne package.
I t shoul d be emphasi zed that each
speci fi c engi ne i s opti mi zed i n
confi gurati on hardware for the i ntended
appl i cati on, i ncl udi ng core hardware
such as cyl i nder l i ners, fuel i njectors,
camshafts, turbochargers, etc. The
hardware di fferences to obtai n maxi mum
engi ne durabi l i ty and performance
effi ci ency, even for vari ous fuel types, are
al l defi ned by the engi ne orderi ng code
system.
Reference Material
LEKQ6141 3600 Sal es Manual
LEBQ5043 3600 Attachment
Sel ecti on Gui de
11
Engine Description
The 3600 Engi ne Fami l y i s a modern,
hi ghl y effi ci ent engi ne fami l y consi sti ng
of i nl i ne 6 and 8 cyl i nder engi nes and
vee engi nes of 12 and 16 cyl i nders. They
are 4 stroke non-reversi bl e engi nes rated
at speeds from 720 to 1000 rpm and
i ntended for use as mai n propul si on and
mari ne auxi l i ary engi nes for shi p servi ce
generators. They are turbocharged and
aftercool ed wi th a di rect i njecti on fuel
system usi ng uni t fuel i njectors. For
speci fi cati on sheet i nformati on see the

Engine Data secti on of thi s gui de.
Cylinder Block
The cyl i nder bl ock i s a one pi ece casti ng
of heavi l y ri bbed, wel dabl e, gray i ron
al l oy. I t i s cast and machi ned at
Caterpi l l ar s faci l i ti es. Ai r i ntake
pl enums run the ful l l ength of the
engi ne provi di ng even ai r di stri buti on to
the cyl i nders. I nspecti on covers provi de
easy i nspecti on and servi ce access to
i nternal engi ne components, such as the
camshaft, rod and mai n beari ngs, val ve
trai n, etc. The crankcase covers are
equi pped wi th expl osi on rel i ef val ves.
The cyl i nder bl ock i s desi gned for four,
si x, or ei ght poi nt mounti ng.
Cylinder Head
The uni t cyl i nder head i s poured i n
compacted graphi te i ron at Caterpi l l ar s
foundry. The materi al approaches the
strength of nodul ar i ron, yet retai ns the
heat transfer and sound dampi ng
properti es of gray i ron. I t i s a four val ve,
qui escent, uni fl ow port desi gn wi th a
central cast port for the uni t fuel i njector.
The top deck i s thi ck to carry gas l oadi ng
whi l e the buttressed bottom deck i s
thi nner for good heat transfer. The
repl aceabl e val ve gui des are threaded to
provi de cl ose tol erance wi th the val ves
and sti l l have good l ubri cati on control .
Al l val ves are fi tted wi th posi ti ve
rotators and seat on repl aceabl e i nserts.
Fuel connecti ons are made on the
outsi de of the head wi th dri l l i ngs to the
uni t fuel i njectors. The head i s retai ned
by four hydraul i cal l y tensi oned studs.
Valves
The val ves seat on repl aceabl e
i nducti on-hardened i nserts. Posi ti ve
rotators on al l val ves mai ntai n a
uni form temperature and wear pattern
across the val ve face and seat. Exhaust
val ves used i n heavy fuel engi nes are
gi ven requi red speci al attenti on. By
usi ng a Ni moni c 80A materi al i n the
val ves and reduci ng the exhaust gas
temperature, vanadi um i nduced
corrosi on i s si gni fi cantl y mi ni mi zed.
I ncreased val ve overl ap, water cool i ng
the i nsert seats, and appl yi ng a cerami c
coati ng to the val ves mai ntai ns l ow
val ve head temperature.
Unit Fuel Injectors

The fuel i njectors combi ne the pumpi ng,
meteri ng and i njecti ng el ements i nto a
si ngl e uni t mounted di rectl y i n each
cyl i nder head. Thi s system has proven
i deal not onl y when di sti l l ate and
mari ne di esel oi l s are used, but al so on
heavy fuel ; hi gh i njecti on pressure and
preci se i njecti on ti mi ng, even at l i ght
l oads, assure effi ci ent combusti on.
I njecti on pressures of 1620 bar
(23,500 psi ) compl etel y atomi zes even
the heavi est of fuel s for more compl ete
combusti on and accel erated engi ne
response. External mani fol ds suppl y fuel
at l ow pressure from the transfer pump
to dri l l ed passages i n the cyl i nder head.
Hi gh pressure l i nes and doubl e wal l
hi gh pressure fuel i njecti on l i nes are not
needed. A 100 mi cron (.004 i n.) edge
type fi l ter wi thi n each i njector prevents
contami nants from enteri ng the i njector
duri ng mai ntenance procedures. The hot
water surroundi ng the i njector l ocati on
i n the head ai ds i n starti ng and stoppi ng
on heavy fuel . I ndi vi dual control racks
for each cyl i nder permi ts preci se i njector
ti mi ng and mi ni mi zes fuel waste. Fi el d
cal i brati on i s el i mi nated and factory
rebui l t i njectors are avai l abl e for engi ne
overhaul .
An i njector ti p cool i ng system i s used for
heavy fuel operati on.
12
Crankshaft
The crankshaft i s a conti nuous grai n
fl ow forgi ng, i nducti on hardened, and
regri ndabl e. Counterwei ghts at each
cyl i nder are wel ded to the crankshaft
and ul trasoni cal l y i nspected to assure
wel d i ntegri ty. The crankshaft end
fl anges are i denti cal , al l owi ng ful l power
to be taken from ei ther end. A vi sconi c
crankshaft damper i s fi tted outsi de the
engi ne housi ng at the free end of the
engi ne.
Connecting Rods
Connecti ng rods are forged, heat treated,
and shotpeened before machi ni ng. The
speci al four bol t desi gn and el i mi nati on
of beari ng grooves al l ows for an extra
l arge beari ng wi th reduced l oads, and
maxi mum oi l fi l m thi ckness. These
factors extend beari ng l i fe and i mprove
crankshaft strength and sti ffness. The
four bol t desi gn al so reduces bol t torque
needed to achi eve proper cl ampi ng l oad,
and al l ows the rods to be wi thdrawn
through the l i ner for servi ce. Oi l hol e
dri l l i ng i n the cri ti cal rod shank area i s
el i mi nated by the use of pi ston cool i ng
jets.
Bearings
Al l mai n, rod, and camshaft beari ngs are
steel backed al umi num wi th a l ead-ti n
overl ay copper bonded to the al umi num.
Pi ston cool i ng jets el i mi nate oi l grooves
i n the hi ghl y l oaded porti on of the rod
beari ngs.
Pistons
Pi stons have a steel crown bol ted to a
l i ght wei ght forged al umi num ski rt for
excel l ent strength and durabi l i ty. Each
pi ston has four ri ngs, two i n hardened
grooves i n the crown and two i n the
ski rt. The top compressi on ri ng i s barrel
faced and pl asma coated for greater
hardness. The coati ng, i n conjuncti on
wi th the i nducti on hardened l i ner, gi ves
excel l ent oi l control and l i fe even wi th
heavy fuel . The two mi ddl e ri ngs are
taper faced and chrome coated. The oi l
ri ng i s chrome faced and uses a spri ng
expander. Cool i ng oi l for the crown and
ri ng bel t areas i s sprayed from a
cyl i nder bl ock mounted jet through
passageways i n the pi ston.
Cylinder Liners
Cyl i nder l i ners are hi gh al l oy i ron
casti ngs, i nducti on hardened on the
weari ng surface, pl ateau honed and
water jacketed over thei r ful l l ength.
Camshaft
The camshaft i s segmented (one per
cyl i nder) to permi t easy removal and
reduce servi ce ti me. Each segment i s
made from case hardened, uni que
cl eanl i ness control l ed steel and bol ted
between two i nducti on hardened
journal s. Onl y four uni que camshaft
segments are used for the enti re engi ne
fami l y: (1) i nl i ne and vee ri ght bank,
(2) vee l eft bank, (3) standard overl ap,
and (4) hi gh overl ap for heavy fuel .
Reverse rotati on i s accompl i shed by
rearrangi ng the segments.
Turbocharger
Hi gh effi ci ency turbochargers are used,
one on the i nl i ne engi nes and two on the
vee engi nes. The turbochargers have
radi al fl ow compressors and axi al fl ow
turbi nes. They are exhaust gas dri ven so
that gear dri ves are not requi red. The
turbocharger, combi ned wi th good
breathi ng and effi ci ent aftercool i ng,
produces a hi gh ai r/fuel rati o, provi di ng
more compl ete burni ng for maxi mum
effi ci ency and i mproved cool i ng of the
combusti on chamber and val ves. The
turbochargers are water cool ed and the
beari ngs are pressure l ubri cated wi th
engi ne oi l .The turbochargers are
mounted at the fl ywheel end of the
engi ne. I f a front mounted exhaust
system i s requi red, the engi ne can be
turned end for end wi th ful l power taken
from the front.
13
Exhaust System
The 3606 and 3612 Engi nes use a pul se
exhaust mani fol d system. The mani fol d
pi pi ng arrangement for the i nl i ne 3606
and each bank of the vee 3612 i s
i denti cal . The front and rear three
cyl i nders are connected to separate
turbi ne i nl et housi ng entri es. The i nl i ne
3608 and the vee 3616 Engi nes use
constant pressure exhaust systems. The
3608 has one mani fol d and the 3616 has
one mani fol d for each bank.
Dry shi el di ng assures surface
temperatures meet Cl assi fi cati on Soci ety
requi rements.
Air Intake System
Al l engi nes are turbocharged and
freshwater aftercool ed. A vari ety of
ai r cl eaners can be suppl i ed. The
aftercool ers are mounted i n ai r pl enums
cast di rectl y i n the cyl i nder bl ocks.
Dependi ng on the appl i cati on, ai r
shutoffs may be l ocated i n the ai r stream
between the turbocharger and
aftercool er.
Gear Trains
Gear trai ns are used at both the front
and rear of the engi nes.
A. The rear gear group has 5 base HCR
(Hi gh Contact Rati o) spur gears. The
i dl er gear shafts are mounted to the
rear of the bl ock. The enti re gear trai n
can be removed wi th the rear housi ng
i n pl ace. The vee gear trai n consi sts of
seven gears wi th 5 bei ng uni que. The
i nl i ne gear trai n consi sts of 4 uni que
gears.
B. The front gear group, i denti cal for al l
four engi nes, i s hel i cal . The ri ght i dl er
dri ves the jacket water pump and the
sea water pump. The l eft i dl er dri ves
the water pump for the oi l cool er and
aftercool er. The gear trai n can be
removed wi th the front housi ng i n
pl ace.
Lube Oil System
The l ube oi l system, standard wi th the
engi ne, features a prel ube pump and a
pri ori ty val ve regul ati ng oi l pressure at
the oi l mani fol d rather than at the pump.
Thi s al l ows the engi ne to have
conti nuous l ubri cati on i ndependent of
pressure drop across the oi l fi l ters.
Oil Cooler and Filters
The oi l cool er and fi l ters are factory
i nstal l ed, tested and warranted, thus
avoi di ng mi xed responsi bi l i ty for pi pi ng
and components and si gni fi cantl y
l oweri ng i nstal l ati on costs. Dupl ex fi l ters
have repl aceabl e el ements al l owi ng
servi ce wi thout engi ne shutdown. The
pri mary fi l ter i s 178 mi cron (.007 i n.),
whi l e the fi nal secondary fi l ters are a
medi a type of 5 mi cron (.0002 i n.) si ze.
Oil Sump
The oi l sump i s of a l i ght mi l d steel
wel dment bol ted to the cyl i nder bl ock. A
wet type sump i s normal l y used; a dry
type can be provi ded to fi t speci fi c
appl i cati ons.
Bypass Oil Centrifuges
Bypass oi l centri fuges, dri ven by mai n
engi ne oi l pump bypass fl ow, can be
mounted on the si de of the engi ne to
remove very smal l , sol i d, mi cron si ze
parti cl es, and i n some cases can be used
to extend oi l fi l ter change peri ods. They
can be cl eaned and servi ced wi th the
engi ne runni ng. They do not repl ace the
need for separate l ube oi l centri fuges on
heavy fuel burni ng engi nes.
Cooling System
Two basi c cool i ng system confi gurati ons
are avai l abl e, si ngl e ci rcui t and separate
ci rcui t. Both are desi gned for cool ant
suppl y temperatures of 90C (194F)
(i nl et control ) to the water jacket,
32C (90F) to the aftercool er and
83C (181F) regul ated temperature for
the oi l suppl y to the beari ngs. Both
ci rcui ts i ncl ude an engi ne mounted pl ate-
fi n aftercool er sui tabl e for corrosi ve (sal t
ai r) envi ronment. Both ci rcui ts i ncl ude
two water pumps that are engi ne dri ven
14
from the front gear trai n and
connecti ons for vent l i nes to the hi gh
poi nts i n the system. The ri ght-hand
pump suppl i es cool ant to the cyl i nder
bl ock, heads, and turbochargers. The
l eft-hand pump suppl i es cool ant to the
aftercool er and oi l cool er. An opti onal
front gear trai n dri ven raw water pump
for use wi th a remote heat exchanger i s
al so avai l abl e. Wel d fl anges are provi ded
at al l customer connecti on poi nts.
Single Circuit
Si ngl e Ci rcui t i s typi cal l y used wi th a
si ngl e heat exchanger and al so wi th
heavy fuel appl i cati ons. The cyl i nder
bl ock/head/turbocharger cool i ng ci rcui t
i s i n seri es wi th the aftercool er/oi l cool er
ci rcui t. I t requi res two mai n connecti ons
to the engi ne and i ncl udes 90C (194F)
jacket water and 83C (181F)
l ubri cati ng oi l temperature regul ators
and two external ci rcui t connecti ons.
The si ngl e ci rcui t uses an external
ci rcui t temperature regul ator and one
external heat exchanger.
Separate Circuit
Separate Ci rcui t i s typi cal l y used for
appl i cati ons requi ri ng smal l heat
exchangers and/or heat recovery
systems. The cyl i nder bl ock/head/
turbocharger cool i ng ci rcui t i s separate
from the aftercool er/oi l cool er ci rcui t,
and requi res four mai n connecti ons to
the engi ne. Thi s ci rcui t i ncl udes a
l ubri cati on oi l temperature regul ator
and external connecti ons for both
ci rcui ts. I t requi res a 90C (194F) and a
32C (90F) external ci rcui t temperature
regul ator and two external heat
exchangers.
Water Pumps
Water pumps are gear dri ven and
l ocated at the front of the engi ne. A
speci al housi ng and i mpel l er al l ow
reverse rotati on wi thout changi ng the
pumps. A gear dri ven raw water pump
i s al so avai l abl e to provi de sea water to
the heat exchanger.
Accessory Module
The accessory modul e shown i n Fi gure 2
i n the Drawings secti on provi des
standard l ocati ons for accessory
mounti ng. The accessori es are factory
premounted on the modul e, wi th the
compl ete modul e i nstal l ed i n one pi ece.
Thi s concept reduces i nstal l ati on ti me
and cost. On di esel generator set
appl i cati ons the modul e wi l l be fl oor
mounted. I t i s used to mount the
expansi on tank, heat exchangers,
i nstrument panel , engi ne control s,
annunci ator panel , al arm contactors,
shutdown contactors and fuel strai ners.
On di esel generator set appl i cati ons i t i s
compati bl e wi th the 450 mm (17.72 i n.)
engi ne mounti ng feet di mensi on;
connecti on l i nes to the accessori es can be
factory i nstal l ed. Custom accessori es can
al so be mounted on the accessory
modul e on a space avai l abl e basi s.
Normal l y, the accessory modul e i s
mounted on the fl oor foundati on
di rectl y i n front of the engi ne. Fl exi bl e
connecti ons must be provi ded for the
l i nes connecti ng the engi ne and the
auxi l i ari es l ocated on the separatel y
mounted modul e.
When the modul e i s mounted to other
structures, and parti cul arl y when the
engi ne i s resi l i entl y mounted,
connecti ons wi th i ncreased fl exi bi l i ty
may be necessary to accommodate
engi ne moti on. Fl exi bl e connecti ons are
provi ded by Caterpi l l ar for the l i nes
connecti ng the engi ne and the accessory
modul e. Temperature contactors are
avai l abl e wi th 8 meter capi l l ary tubes i f
the accessory modul e i s to be remotel y
mounted. Al l other connecti ons requi re
custom modi fi cati on to accommodate
remote l ocati ons of the modul e.
15
Auxiliary Pumps
The oi l and water pumps are gear dri ven
and l ocated at the front of the engi ne. A
speci al housi ng and i mpel l er al l ow
reverse rotati on wi thout changi ng the
water pumps. A gear dri ven sea (raw)
water pump i s avai l abl e to suppl y
cool i ng water to the fresh water heat
exchanger.
Fuel Transfer Pump
Engi nes bui l t for di sti l l ate fuel or
mari ne di esel oi l s are equi pped wi th an
engi ne dri ven gear type transfer pump.
For hi gh vi scosi ty fuel s, an off engi ne
mounted el ectri cal l y dri ven pump i s
used to ci rcul ate fuel pri or to engi ne
start up.
Coupling
Mari ne torsi onal coupl i ngs are normal l y
speci fi ed by the customer. They are
avai l abl e from Caterpi l l ar. The sel ecti on
for each mari ne appl i cati on i s dependent
upon the Torsi onal Vi brati on Anal ysi s.
Customer speci fi ed coupl i ngs requi re
Caterpi l l ar approval .
Crankshaft Damper
Vi sconi c crankshaft dampers are
mounted outsi de the engi ne housi ng for
opti mum cool i ng and accessi bi l i ty.
Bol ted covers and repl aceabl e nyl on
beari ngs permi t rebui l di ng i n the fi el d.
Flywheel
The fl ywheel i s mounted at the rear of
the engi ne and i ncl udes a ri ng gear for
starti ng or barri ng. The hi gh i nerti a
fl ywheel i s usual l y used for mari ne
propul si on appl i cati ons to permi t the use
of a si ngl e el ement fl exi bl e coupl i ng.
Manual Turning Provision
Barri ng devi ces are provi ded to permi t
manual engi ne crankshaft rotati on for
servi ce.
Engine Testing
Standard dynamometer producti on
testi ng of 3600 Engi nes i ncl udes a
comprehensi ve anal ysi s of al l engi ne
systems. The fol l owi ng are standard
poi nts moni tored duri ng the test:
Engi ne Speed
Observed Power
Observed Torque
Observed Fuel Rate
Corrected Torque
Corrected Power
Corrected Fuel Rate
Corrected Speci fi c Fuel Consumpti on
Ful l Load Correcti on Factor
Ful l Load Stati c Fuel Setti ng
Hi gh I dl e Engi ne Speed
Hi gh I dl e Stabi l i ty
Low I dl e Engi ne Speed
Low I dl e Stabi l i ty
Torque Check Speed
I nl et Ai r Pressure
Dry Barometri c Pressure
Dew Poi nt
Ambi ent Ai r Temperature
I nl et Ai r Temperature
Compressor Ai r Outl et Temperature
I nl et Ai r Mani fol d Temperature
Adjusted Boost Pressure
Oi l Pressure
Oi l Pressure at Low I dl e
Beari ng Oi l Temperature
Fuel Pressure
Suppl y Fuel Pressure
Fuel Temperature
Return Fuel Temperature
Fuel Densi ty
Jacket Water I nl et Temperature
Jacket Water Outl et Temperature
Del ta T Jacket Water
AC/OC I nl et Water Temperature
AC/OC Outl et Water Temperature
Del ta T AC/OC Water
Exhaust Mani fol d Temperature
Exhaust Stack Temperature
16
Dependi ng on customer requi rements,
a vari ety of other engi ne tests are
avai l abl e i ncl udi ng the fol l owi ng:

Mari ne Li mi t Li ne Test provi des fuel
rate, turbocharger boost pressure,
speci fi c fuel consumpti on, exhaust
mani fol d gas temperature, turbocharger
speed and fuel rack posi ti on at the
engi nes adverti sed rati ng l i mi t l i ne.
Data i s provi ded at 50 or
100 rpm i ncrements from rated speed to
400 rpm. The test i s i ntended for
control l abl e pi tch propel l er appl i cati ons.
Propeller Demand Curve Test
provi des fuel rate, turbocharger boost
pressure, speci fi c fuel consumpti on,
exhaust mani fol d gas temperature,
turbocharger speed and fuel rack
posi ti on at the engi nes adverti sed fi xed
pi tch propel l er demand curve. Data i s
provi ded at 50 or 100 rpm i ncrements
from rated speed to 400 rpm.
Overl oad Test provi des fuel rate,
turbocharger boost pressure, speci fi c fuel
consumpti on and fuel rack posi ti on at a
customer speci fi ed temporari l y i ncreased
power setti ng (overl oad). The engi ne fuel
rack stop i s reset to the proper power
l evel upon test compl eti on.
A ful l descri pti on of standard avai l abl e
tests i s found i n the Sel ecti on Gui de,
LEBQ5043-01.
Marine Classification
Society Certification
Caterpi l l ar has approval s for 3600
engi nes from the major mari ne
Cl assi fi cati on Soci eti es l i sted bel ow:
Approvals Type Works
Ameri can Bureau of
Shi ppi ng (Uni ted States) x x
Ll oyds Regi ster of Shi ppi ng
(Great Bri tai n) x x
Bureau Veri tas (France) x x
Det Norske Veri tas
(Norway) x x
Germani scher Ll oyd
(Germany) x x
Ni ppon Kai ji Kyokai
(Japan) x x
Regi stro I tal i ano Naval e
(I tal y) x x
USSR Regi ster of Shi ppi ng
(Sovi et Uni on) x x
Canadi an Coast Guard
(formerl y CBSI ) x
Zhong Chuan
(Chi na) 3606 & 3608 onl y x
Certi fi cati ons from other Soci eti es are
avai l abl e on request.
17
Torsional Vibration
Analysis
To ensure the compati bi l i ty of an engi ne
and dri ven equi pment, a theoreti cal
torsi onal vi brati on anal ysi s i s requi red.
Di sregardi ng the compati bi l i ty of the
engi ne and dri ven equi pment can
resul t i n extensi ve and costl y damage to
dri ve trai n components.
Conducted duri ng the desi gn stage of a
project, the torsi onal anal ysi s can avoi d
torsi onal vi brati on probl ems through
modi fi cati on of dri ven equi pment shafts,
masses or coupl i ngs. The torsi onal report
wi l l show natural frequenci es, si gni fi cant
resonant speeds, rel ati ve ampl i tudes and
a determi nati on of stress l evel s, and the
approxi mate nodal l ocati ons i n the mass
el asti c system for each si gni fi cant
natural frequency.
The fol l owi ng techni cal data i s requi red
to perform a torsi onal anal ysi s:
1. I s the appl i cati on a vari abl e or a
constant speed operati on? I f
vari abl e, what i s the operati ng speed
range?
2. Load curve on i nstal l ati ons for
appl i cati ons usi ng l oad dependent
vari abl e sti ffness coupl i ngs.
3. Horsepower requi rements of each set
of equi pment i s requi red when
dri vi ng equi pment from both ends of
the engi ne. Are front and rear
l oadi ng occurri ng si mul taneousl y?
4. A general sketch of the compl ete
system showi ng the rel ati ve l ocati on
of each pi ece of equi pment and type
of connecti on.
5. I denti fi cati on of al l coupl i ngs by
make and model al ong wi th rotati ng
i nerti a (WR
2
) and torsi onal ri gi di ty
val ues.
6. Rotati ng i nerti a (WR
2
) or pri nci pal
di mensi ons of each rotati ng mass and
the l ocati on of the mass on the
attached shaft.
7. Wei ght or pri nci pal di mensi ons of
dri ven reci procati ng mass.
8. Torsi onal ri gi di ty and mi ni mum shaft
di ameter or detai l ed di mensi ons of al l
shafti ng i n the dri ven system,
whether separatel y mounted or
i nstal l ed i n a housi ng.
9. The number of propel l er bl ades i n
addi ti on to the rotati ng i nerti a
(WR
2
) i n water.
10. The rati o of the speed reducer or
i ncreaser. The rotati ng i nerti a
(WR
2
) and ri gi di ty submi tted for a
speed reducer or i ncreaser shoul d
state whether or not they have been
adjusted by the speed rati o squared.
Si nce compati bi l i ty of the i nstal l ati on i s
the customer s responsi bi l i ty, i t i s al so
hi s responsi bi l i ty to obtai n the
theoreti cal Torsi onal Vi brati on Anal ysi s.
Data on mass el asti c systems of i tems
furni shed by Caterpi l l ar i s shown i n the
fol l owi ng tabl es. Damper sel ecti on for
mari ne propul si on engi nes i s shown i n
Fi gure 3. Al ways consul t TMI for current
data. The customer can cal cul ate
theoreti cal torsi onal vi brati on anal ysi s or
hi re Caterpi l l ar I nc. to compl ete the
anal ysi s. A 3600 Torsional Vibration
Analysis Request form i s provi ded as a
gui de to the type of i nformati on requi red
to compl ete the anal ysi s (see Fi gure 4).
18
Marine Propulsion Damper Criteria
rpm 3606 3608 3612 3616
750
800
900
1000
A1
A1
A1
A1
A2
A2
C1
C1
C2
C2
C2
B3
B3
B3
B3
Marine Auxiliary Damper Criteria
rpm 3606 3608 3612 3616
720
750
900
1000
A1
A1
A1
A1
A2
A2
C1
C1
B1
B1
C2
C2
B3
B3
A3
A3
Two bearing generators only
Damper Data
Lumped mass J*
Separated Damper Data
Damper Housing J*
Damper Flywheel J
Damper Constant C
Damper Rigidity K
A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2
6.1 6.1 6.1 23.1 23.1 23.1 26.2 26.2
3.2 3.2 3.2 8.6 8.6 8.6 11.6 11.6
5.8 5.8 5.8 28.9 28.9 28.9 29.2 29.2
1243 1000 1550 5100 6600 8100 14123 7000
0.73 0.41 0.60 1.80 1.60 1.35 4.52 2.85
* Add to Front of Crank
J (N-m -sec
2
)
K (N-m x 10
6
/radian)
C (N-m-sec sec/radian)
Torsional Calculation
Values
Reci procati ng Mass per Cyl i nder =
68.36 kg
Rotati ng Mass per Cyl i nder = 39.61 kg
Connecti ng Rod Length
(between pi n centers) = 600 mm
Cyclic Irregularity
The cal cul ated cycl i c i rregul ari ti es for
3600 are:
Damper Data
Lumped mass J*
Separated Damper Data
Damper Housing J*
Damper Flywheel J*
Damper Constant C
Damper Rigidity K
A B C D E F G H I
6.56 6.56 29.29 46.15 22.82 26.29 22.82 22.82 6.56
3.64 3.64 11.69 17.25 8.37 11.69 8.37 8.37 3.64
5.84 5.84 29.20 57.80 28.90 29.20 28.90 28.90 5.84
1243 1000 14123 22500 5100 7000 6600 7500 1500
0.73 0.41 4.52 6.50 1.80 2.85 1.60 1.48 0.60
Engine 900 1000
Speed-rpm
3606
3608
3612
3616
1:152
1:145
1:254
1:450
1:188
1:179
1:314
1:556
Engine
3606
3608
3612
3616
N-m-sec
per radian
384
441
531
531
Figure 3
Empirical Damping
For torsi onal cal cul ati ons i nvol vi ng
empi ri cal dampi ng the empi ri cal
dampi ng val ues are:
Note: The damping values for the inline
engines are for each cylinder; the 3612
and 3616 damping values are for a pair
of cylinders since the vee engines have
two cylinders on each crankshaft throw.
Flywheel Inertia Data
Most mari ne propul si on appl i cati ons use
the hi gh i nerti a fl ywheel to al l ow the use
of a si ngl e el ement torsi onal coupl i ng. A
l i ghter wei ght standard fl ywheel i s al so
avai l abl e. I nerti a val ves i ncl ude the ri ng
gear and shoul d be added to the rear
crank i nerti a.
Standard fl ywheel i nerti a:
74.90 N-m-sec
2
Hi gh i nerti a fl ywheel : 140.29 N-m- sec
2
Damper Data
Lumped mass J*
Separated Damper Data
Damper Housing J*
Damper Flywheel J*
Damper Constant C
Damper Rigidity K
A B C D E F G H I
6.56 6.56 29.29 46.15 22.82 26.29 22.82 22.82 6.56
3.64 3.64 11.69 17.25 8.37 11.69 8.37 8.37 3.64
5.84 5.84 29.20 57.80 28.90 29.20 28.90 28.90 5.84
1243 1000 14123 22500 5100 7000 6600 7500 1500
0.73 0.41 4.52 6.50 1.80 2.85 1.60 1.48 0.60
Engine 900 1000
Speed-rpm
3606
3608
3612
3616
1:152
1:145
1:254
1:450
1:188
1:179
1:314
1:556
Engine
3606
3608
3612
3616
N-m-sec
per radian
384
441
531
531
19
Torsional Vibration Data - Model 3606
Front Driven Equipment Vi sconi c Damper
_
See page 18
For Harmoni c Component of Tangenti al Pressure See TD3310
Total I nerti a Wi thout Fl ywheel and Damper: J = 69.15 N-m-sec
2
Units
J = N-m-sec
2
N-m x 10
6
K =
Radian
N-m-sec
C =
Radian
Diameter in
Millimeters
J
7.50
9.743
8.685
8.685
8.685
8.685
9.743
7.42
K
72.53
42.85
42.85
42.85
42.85
42.85
72.53
Degrees to Firing
After #1 Fires
0
480
240
600
120
360
Engine
Front Crank
Cyl #1
Cyl #2
Cyl #3
Cyl #4
Cyl #5
Cyl #6
Rear Crank
3606 Mass Elastic System
Torsional Vibration Data - Model 3608
Front Driven Equipment Vi sconi c Damper
_
See page 18
For Harmoni c Component of Tangenti al Pressure See TD3310
Total I nerti a Wi thout Fl ywheel and Damper: J = 84.40 N-m-sec
2
Units
J = N-m-sec
2
N-m x 10
6
K =
Radian
N-m-sec
C =
Radian
Diameter in
Millimeters
J
7.50
12.95
4.79
4.79
12.21
12.21
4.79
4.79
12.95
7.42
K
69.28
41.50
41.50
41.50
41.50
41.50
41.50
41.50
69.28
Min. Dia.
216
216
216
216
216
216
216
216
216
3608 Mass Elastic System
Degrees to Firing
After #1 Fires
0
180
450
630
270
90
540
360
Engine
Front Crank
Cyl #1
Cyl #2
Cyl #3
Cyl #4
Cyl #5
Cyl #6
Cyl #7
Cyl #8
Rear Crank
20
Torsional Vibration Data - Model 3612
Front Driven Equipment Vi sconi c Damper
_
See page 18
For Harmoni c Component of Tangenti al Pressure See TD3310
Total I nerti a Wi thout Fl ywheel and Damper: J = 114.16 N-m-sec
2
Units
J = N-m-sec
2
N-m x 10
6
K =
Radian
N-m-sec
C =
Radian
Diameter in
Millimeters
J
7.50
17.00
16.31
16.31
16.31
16.31
17.00
7.42
K
67.79
40.11
40.11
40.11
40.11
40.11
67.79
Min. Dia.
216
216
216
216
216
216
216
Degrees to Firing
After #1 Fires
1R-0 1L-410
2R-480 2L-170
3R-240 3L-650
4R-600 4L-290
5R-120 5L-530
6R-360 6L-50
Engine
Front Crank
Throw #1
Throw #2
Throw #3
Throw #4
Throw #5
Throw #6
Rear Crank
3612 Mass Elastic System
Torsional Vibration Data - Model 3616
Front Driven Equipment Vi sconi c Damper
_
See page 18
For Harmoni c Component of Tangenti al Pressure See TD3310
Total I nerti a Wi thout Fl ywheel and Damper: J = 148.26 N-m-sec
2
Units
J = N-m-sec
2
N-m x 10
6
K =
Radian
N-m-sec
C =
Radian
Diameter in
Millimeters
J
7.50
17.17
16.5
16.5
16.5
16.5
16.5
16.5
17.17
7.42
K
67.79
40.11
40.11
40.11
40.11
40.11
40.11
40.11
67.79
Min. Dia.
216
216
216
216
216
216
216
216
216
3616 Mass Elastic System
Degrees to Firing
After #1 Fires
1R-0 1L-50
2R-180 2L-230
3R-90 3L-140
4R-630 4L-680
5R-270 5L-320
6R-450 6L-500
7R-540 7L-590
8R-360 8L-410
Engine
Front Crank
Throw #1
Throw #2
Throw #3
Throw #4
Throw #5
Throw #6
Throw #7
Throw #8
Rear Crank
21
3600 Torsional Vibration Analysis Request
Project Number ___________________________________________________
Project/Customer Name ___________________________________________________
Dealer Name ___________________________________________________
The information on this form is to be used for a specific request for a torsional vibration
analysis on the above 3600 Diesel Engine application. Please provide a timely verbal
response followed by a written report to the responsible project engineer. The following
information describes the major components and performance data for this application:
Engine Model and Rating:
E29 ________ (36 ________); ________ kW (________ bhp)
Low Idle rpm ________ Rated Speed rpm ________
Engine Regulation: Isochronous (Y/N) ________, or Percent Droop ________ %
Application Specifics:_____________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
(quantity engines -- custom base -- front driven equipment, etc.)
Engine Room Maximum Ambient Temperature ________________________________
Generator ( ____ ); and/or Marine Gear ( ____ ); plus Other Driven Equipment ( ____ )
Supplier Name and Model Number __________________________________________
Rotating Inertia/Drawing(s) __________________________________________
Rotating Stiffness/Shaft Drawing(s) ___________________________________________
Gearbox Drawing _____________________ Propeller Inertia_______________________
Description (e.g. two bearing or single bearing)_________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
(attached are supplier data sheets)
Part Numbers of Components:
Engine Ship Date (RTS) ________________________________________
Torsional Completion Date Required ________________________________________
Caterpillar Project Engineer _________________________________________________
(Revised 4-25-97)
Flywheel Group __________
Drive Group __________
Ring Gear Group __________
3161 Governor Group __________
EGB29P
Actuator Assembly __________
Coupling Group __________
Damper Group __________
Other Groups __________
Heinzmann Governor __________
Electronic Control Group __________
Figure 4
22
Engine Preservation and
Packaging
The Caterpi l l ar factory has four
standard l evel s of engi ne preservati on
and shi pment protecti on.
Plastic Shrink Wrap Protection
provi des approxi matel y one year of
external protecti on from moi sture,
sun and wi nd under storage
condi ti ons. I f the engi ne i s to be
stored for l onger peri ods of ti me,
consi der speci fyi ng Storage
Preservati on as descri bed bel ow.
Tarpaulin and Plastic Shrink Wrap
Same as previ ous poi nt above except
thi s package i ncl udes a factory
suppl i ed tarpaul i n on the engi ne,
whi ch remai ns on the engi ne after
arri val .
Storage Preservation Protects the
engi ne and accessori es from
functi onal deteri orati on for a
mi ni mum of one year under outsi de
storage condi ti ons. I t i ncl udes
standard protecti ve measures pl us
vapor corrosi on i nhi bi tor (VCI ) i n al l
i nternal compartments and gl ycol
sol uti on i n the cool i ng system. The
shi pper must provi de tarpaul i n
coverage duri ng transportati on to
prevent the pl asti c from bei ng
destroyed.
Export Boxing Protects engi ne and
accessori es from functi onal
deteri orati on for a mi ni mum of one
year under outsi de storage
condi ti ons. I ncl udes standard
protecti ve measures pl us vapor
corrosi on i nhi bi tor i n al l i nternal
compartments, and a gl ycol sol uti on
i n the cool i ng system. The exteri or
box provi des protecti on agai nst
mechani cal damage duri ng shi pment
and storage. Al l mari ne engi nes are
pl aced upon wooden ski ds pri or to
shi pment. Al l shi p l oose parts
are prepai nted, oi l ed and pl aced i n
VCI paper l i ned boxes, wi th desi ccant
packages pl aced i n the box. On
arri val , open al l boxes and revi ew thei r
contents agai nst the packi ng l i st. The
parts shoul d then be repackaged and
preserved for protecti on.
23
Shipbuilder's
Responsibility
Unl ess otherwi se speci fi ed, the engi ne
buyer shal l be responsi bl e for the
fol l owi ng:
Provi de el ectri cal wi ri ng and the
necessary pi pi ng to the engi ne, i .e.,
exhaust pi pi ng, fuel oi l pi pi ng to and
from the engi ne, ai r pi pi ng to the
starti ng motor(s), ai r fi l ter
ducti ng/pi pi ng, crankcase fumes
di sposal ducti ng, etc.
Al l of the above noted
i nterconnecti ons need to be desi gned
i n such a way so as to compl y wi th
acceptabl e vi bratory l evel s of
exci tati on throughout the enti re
range of engi ne operati on. No
pri mary resonances i n the i nterface
hardware are acceptabl e. See I SO
4868 and 4867.
Furni sh and i nstal l standby pumps as
requi red by Cl assi fi cati on Soci eti es.
Furni sh accurate data for a torsi onal
vi brati on anal ysi s.
I nstal l adequate engi ne foundati on and
provi de proper chocki ng and al i gnment
between the engi ne and mari ne gear.
See I SO 10816-6 and I SO 6954.
Typi cal l y, vi bratory vel oci ti es under
10 mm/s wi th no structural resonances
are requi red.
Ensure al l l ube oi l pi pi ng, fuel oi l
pi pi ng, exhaust pi pi ng and i ntake ai r
ducti ng are free of rust, scal e, wel d
spatter and forei gn materi al pri or to
startup of the engi nes.
Provi de al l l abor, equi pment and
hardware to i nstal l the equi pment.
Provi de al l cool ants, water treatment
chemi cal s (i f used), l ubri cati ng oi l ,
and fuel oi l s necessary to operate the
engi ne.
Warehouse and protect engi nes,
accessori es and mi scel l aneous shi p-
l oose equi pment unti l thei r
i nstal l ati on. Caterpi l l ar engi nes are
protected agai nst corrosi on for i nsi de
dry storage for a peri od up to si x
months. Provi si ons for addi ti onal
storage peri ods are avai l abl e from the
factory.
24
Customer Application Information
Customer:____________________________Address: __________________________________
Contact: ________________________________Tel ephone: _____________________________
Shi pyard: _______________________________Contact: _______________________________
Address: ________________________________Tel ephone: _____________________________
1. Mai n Engi ne: _________________________________________________________________
Engi ne output: ______________________kW (hp) Speed: ______________________rpm
Di recti on of rotati on (fl ywheel vi ewed from rear): ________________________________
Fuel Type: ____________________________________________________________________
Bui l der: ______________________________________________________________________
Speci al testi ng Yes/No: _________________________________________________________
2. Propul si on control s:
Type (pneumati c/el ectroni c): ___________________________________________________
Manufacturer: ________________________________________________________________
3. Combi ned cl utch/fl exi bl e coupl i ng (type): ________________________________________
Fl exi bl e coupl i ng: _____________________________________________________________
4. Reducti on gear box, manufacturer and type: _____________________________________
Reducti on rati o: _____________________________
I ntegral di sc cl utch? Yes____No____ Cl utch type: pneumati c/hydraul i c
PTO? Yes____No____ Manufacturer ______________________________
Shaft Brake? Yes____No____
5. Propel l er manufacturer: _______________________________________________________
Type: Fi xed pi tch ____________________
Control l abl e pi tch ___________________
Number of bl ades ___________________Propel l er Di ameter:________mm_________i n.
P/D Rati o: __________________________Bl ade Area Rati o: ________________________
Propel l er speed at MCR rati ng __________________________rpm
Di recti on of propel l er rotati on __________________________________________________
Desi gned for constant rpm? Yes______________________No______________________
25
6. Data For Torsi onal Vi brati on Cal cul ati ons
J
1
Propel l er J
2
Gear box fl ange J
3
Gear wheel
J
4
Gear wheel J
5
Cl utch J
6
Cl utch
Propel l er I nerti a J (N-m-sec
2
) wi thout entrai ned water____________________N-m-sec
2
7. Vessel hul l type________________________________________________________________
Length:______mm ______i n. Beam: ______mm ______i n. Draft:_____mm______i n
Di spl acement______________________m.t. Cl ass of servi ce: ______________________
Hul l speed_________________________kts. Cl assed by:___________________________
J
1
k
1
d
1
k
2
J
3
J
4
J
2
J
5
J
6
k
4
Figure 5

3600 Marine Engine
Applic ation and
Installation
Guide

G

Engine Data
GEngine Performance


LEKM8461 8-98

Engine Data

Dimensions and Weights
Center of Gravity
Technical Data
Noise
Vibration

5
Dimensions and Weights
The di mensi ons and wei ghts of 3600
Mari ne Propul si on Engi nes are shown
bel ow. Engi ne outl i ne drawi ngs are
i ncl uded i n the

Drawings secti on of thi s
gui de. Mari ne auxi l i ary di mensi ons,
wei ghts and outl i ne drawi ngs are
i ncl uded i n the Technical Data secti on of
the EPG A&I gui de (LEKX6559).
Dimensions
mm
in
3261
128.39
265
10.43
2050
80.71
841
33.11
1120
44.09
405
15.95
450
17.72
2035
80.12
1785
70.28
727
28.62
360
14.17
3988
157.01
1748
68.82
kg
lb
15,680
34,500
A B C D E F1 F2 G H I J K L
mm
in
4081
160.67
265
10.43
2870
112.99
841
33.11
1120
44.09
405
15.95
450
17.72
2035
80.12
1785
70.28
727
28.62
360
14.17
4808
189.29
1748
68.82
kg
lb
19,000
41,800
mm
in
3657
143.98
300
11.81
2300
90.55
976
38.43
1120
44.09
405
15.95
450
17.72
1850
72.84
2255
88.78
905
35.63
360
14.17
4562
179.61
1714
67.48
kg
lb
25,740
56,630
mm
in
4577
180.2
300
11.81
3220
126.77
976
38.43
1120
44.09
405
15.95
450
17.72
1850
72.84
2255
88.78
905
35.63
360
14.17
5482
215.83
1714
67.48
kg
lb
30,750
67,650
C centerline distance between mounting feet
F1 and F2 optional mounting dimensions
G removal distance for piston
J distance from flywheel mounting face to cylinder block rear face
W approximate dry weight of engine with attachments such as filters, oil cooler, flywheel, pumps, etc.
J B
I
C
A
K
I
J B C
A
K
H
D
G
F
E
L
H
F
E
L
D
G
In-Line Vee
3600 Marine Propulsion
w
3606 In-Line
3608 In-Line
3612 VEE
3616 VEE
6
Technical Data

Distillate Fuel
Pages 7 through 23 are Mari ne
Propul si on techni cal data sheets for
di sti l l ate fuel engi nes. The data i s gi ven
at 750, 800, 900, and 1000 rpm.
Techni cal data for di sti l l ate fuel Mari ne
Auxi l i ary generator sets i s i n the 3600
EPG A&I gui de (LEKX6559). See the
Engine Performance secti on of thi s gui de
for a compl ete descri pti on of rati ngs and
l i mi tati ons.
Heavy Fuel
Pages 24 through 43 are Mari ne
Propul si on techni cal data sheets for
heavy fuel engi nes. See the Engine
Performancesecti on of thi s gui de for a
compl ete descri pti on of rati ngs and
l i mi tati ons.
Center of Gravity
Center of gravi ty l ocati ons appl y to dry runabl e engi nes:
Model
Distance From
Cylinder Block
Rear Face
Vertical Distance
Above Crankshaft
Centerline
Transverse
Distance from
Crankshaft
Centerline
3606
3608
3612
3616
1290 mm
50.8 in.
1700 mm
66.9 in.
1411 mm
55.6 in.
1858 mm
73.1 in.
350 mm
13.8 in.
350 mm
13.8 in.
380 mm
14.9 in.
380 mm
14.9 in.
On Crank Center
On Crank Center
On Crank Center
On Crank Center
7
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3606 In-Line
Rating: CSR
Fuel: MDO
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
bkW (bhp) 1490 (2000) 1560 (2090) 1730 (2320) 1850 (2480)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
13:1 13:1 13:1 13:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 2152 (312) 2111 (306) 2081 (302) 2003 (291)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.0 (26.2) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-5-3-6-2-4 1-5-3-6-2-4
1-4-2-6-3-5 1-4-2-6-3-5
cmm (cfm) 145.2 (5128) 160.9 (5682) 164.3 (5802) 181.4 (6406)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 52.9 (127) 51 (124) 52.9 (127) 53.5 (128)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167)
kPa (psi) 201 (29.2) 242 (35.1) 220 (31.9) 232 (33.6)
cmm (cfm) 309 (10912) 334.3 (11806) 372.1 (13141) 412.6 (14571)
C (F) 530 (986) 514 (957) 563 (1045) 564 (1047)
C (F) 362 (684) 347 (657) 403 (757) 406 (763)
C (F) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 160 (9099) 168 (9554) 185 (10521) 205 (11658)
kW (Btu/min.) 307 (17459) 323 (18369) 373 (21212) 381 (21667)
kW (Btu/min.) 396 (22535) 430 (24470) 402 (22877) 496 (28226)
kW (Btu/min.) 863 (49093) 921 (52393) 960 (54610) 1082 (61551)
kW (Btu/min.) 974 (55428) 1007 (57305) 1256 (71475) 1360 (77394)
kW (Btu/min.) 67 (3813) 68 (3870) 73 (4154) 74 (4211)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 31.5 (8.3) 33.6 (8.85) 38 (10) 41.5 (11)
Lpm (gpm) 24.5 (6.5) 26.2 (6.9) 30 (7.9) 32.4 (8.6)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 191.7 (.315) 191.8 (.315) 195.5 (.321) 198.6 (.326)
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 697 (184) 697 (184) 697 (184) 697 (184)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008)
8
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3606 In-Line
Rating: CSR
Fuel: MDO
C (F) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194)
C (F) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203)
C (F) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 1095 (289) 1168 (308.5) 1315 (347) 1460 (386)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 900 (238) 960 (254) 1080 (285) 1200 (317)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
3
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
4
Air Pressure, minimum
4
Air Pressure, maximum
4
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Separate circuit
4
Measured at starter inlet
9
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3606 In-Line
Rating: MCR
Fuel: MDO
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
bkW (bhp) 1640 (2200) 1720 (2310) 1900 (2550) 2030 (2720)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
13:1 13:1 13:1 13:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 2368 (343) 2328 (338) 2286 (332) 2198 (319)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.0 (26.2) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-5-3-6-2-4 1-5-3-6-2-4
1-4-2-6-3-5 1-4-2-6-3-5
cmm (cfm) 159.7 (5640) 172 (6074) 179.9 (6353) 196.4 (6936)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 53.1 (128) 52.7 (127) 54.6 (130) 55 (127)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167)
kPa (psi) 232 (33.6) 268 (38.9) 254 (36.8) 261 (37.9)
cmm (cfm) 339.6 (11993) 363.7 (12844) 407.5 (14391) 450.1 (15895)
C (F) 540 (1004) 540 (1004) 574 (1065) 580 (1076)
C (F) 362 (684) 358 (676) 403 (757) 411 (772)
C (F) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 169 (9611) 175 (9952) 196 (11146) 215 (12227)
kW (Btu/min.) 327 (18596) 340 (19336) 397 (22577) 411 (23374)
kW (Btu/min.) 473 (26917) 507 (28852) 511 (29080) 624 (35510)
kW (Btu/min.) 969 (55124) 1022 (58140) 1104 (62803) 1250 (71111)
kW (Btu/min.) 1039 (59126) 1136 (64646) 1332 (75800) 1464 (83312)
kW (Btu/min.) 70 (3983) 71 (4040) 74 (4211) 76 (4325)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 31.5 (8.3) 33.6 (8.85) 38 (10) 41.5 (11)
Lpm (gpm) 22.1 (5.8) 23.6 (6.2) 27 (7.1) 29.2 (7.7)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 190.8 (.314) 193.2 (.318) 195.3 (.321) 199.8 (.328)
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 697 (184) 697 (184) 697 (184) 697 (184)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008)
10
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3606 In-Line*
Rating: MCR
Fuel: MDO
bkW (bhp) 2030 (2720)
mm (in) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127)
13:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 2198 (319)
m/s (f/s) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350
rpm rpm 300
1-5-3-6-2-4
1-4-2-6-3-5
cmm (cfm) 200.7 (7088)
C (F) 45 (113)
C (F) 48.0 (118)
C (F) 75 (167)
kPa (psi) 261 (37.9)
cmm (cfm) 459.2 (16216)
C (F) 573 (1063)
C (F) 410 (770)
C (F) 630 (1166)
C (F) 550 (1022)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 215 (12227)
kW (Btu/min.) 411 (23374)
kW (Btu/min.) 662 (37673)
kW (Btu/min.) 1288 (73274)
kW (Btu/min.) 1450 (82515)
kW (Btu/min.) 76 (4325)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 41.5 (11)
Lpm (gpm) 29.2 (7.7)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 200.8 (.330)
kPa (psi) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6)
L (gal) 697 (184)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.486 (0.0008)
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
* Data for 3606 engine with 3608 aftercooler installed
11
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3606 In-Line
Rating: MCR
Fuel: MDO
C (F) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194)
C (F) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203)
C (F) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 1095 (289) 1168 (308.5) 1315 (347) 1460 (386)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 900 (238) 960 (254) 1080 (285) 1200 (317)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
3
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
4
Air Pressure, minimum
4
Air Pressure, maximum
4
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Separate circuit
4
Measured at starter inlet
12
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3608 In-Line
Rating: CSR
Fuel: MDO
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
bkW (bhp) 1980 (2660) 2080 (2790) 2300 (3080) 2460 (3300)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
13:1 13:1 13:1 13:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 2144 (311) 2111 (306) 2075 (301) 1998 (290)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.0 (26.2) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-6-2-5-8-3-7-4 1-6-2-5-8-3-7-4
1-4-7-3-8-5-2-6 1-4-7-3-8-5-2-6
cmm (cfm) 193.3 (6826) 205.4 (7254) 213.8 (7550) 225.3 (7956)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 53.4 (128) 54.9 (131) 55.4 (132) 53.8 (129)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167)
kPa (psi) 238 (34.5) 247 (35.8) 219 (31.8) 209 (30.3)
cmm (cfm) 410.7 (14504) 437.6 (15454) 482.8 (17050) 520.1 (18367)
C (F) 519 (966) 524 (975) 559 (1038) 564 (1047)
C (F) 361 (682) 363 (685) 401 (754) 416 (781)
C (F) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 222 (12625) 218 (12398) 247 (14047) 273 (15525)
kW (Btu/min.) 414 (23544) 420 (23885) 494 (28094) 504 (28662)
kW (Btu/min.) 681 (38754) 638 (36307) 595 (33860) 745 (42396)
kW (Btu/min.) 1317 (74923) 1276 (72590) 1336 (76001) 1522 (86583)
kW (Btu/min.) 1036 (58956) 1231 (70053) 1643 (93498) 1709 (97254)
kW (Btu/min.) 74 (4211) 77 (4382) 81 (4609) 85 (4837)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 31.5 (8.3) 33.8 (8.9) 38 (10) 41.5 (11)
Lpm (gpm) 22.6 (6) 24.5 (6.5) 27.6 (7.3) 30 (7.9)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 187.3 (.308) 188.7 (.310) 196.1 (.322) 197.6 (.325)
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 760 (200) 760 (200) 760 (200) 760 (200)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008)
13
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3608 In-Line
Rating: CSR
Fuel: MDO
C (F) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194)
C (F) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203)
C (F) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 1095 (289) 1168 (308.5) 1315 (347) 1460 (386)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 900 (238) 960 (254) 1080 (285) 1200 (317)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
3
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
4
Air Pressure, minimum
4
Air Pressure, maximum
4
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV. The fuel
HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is not recoverable in
diesel engine applications.
3
Separate circuit
4
Measured at starter inlet
14
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3608 In-Line
Rating: MCR
Fuel: MDO
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
bkW (bhp) 2180 (2920) 2290 (3070) 2530 (3390) 2710 (3630)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
13:1 13:1 13:1 13:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 2360 (342) 2324 (337) 2283 (331) 2201 (319(
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.0 (26.2) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-6-2-5-8-3-7-4 1-6-2-5-8-3-7-4
1-4-7-3-8-5-2-6 1-4-7-3-8-5-2-6
cmm (cfm) 209.3 (7391) 220.1 (7773) 230.8 (8151) 240.8 (8504)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 55.6 (132) 56.9 (134) 59.2 (139) 57.7 (136)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167)
kPa (psi) 270 (39.2) 275 (39.9) 244 (35.4) 233 (33.8)
cmm (cfm) 449.4 (15870) 477.0 (16845) 529.0 (18681) 567.1 (20027)
C (F) 537 (999) 547 (1017) 582 (1080) 590 (1094)
C (F) 368 (694) 374 (705) 411 (772) 430 (806)
C (F) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 236 (13421) 253 (14388) 262 (14900) 288 (16379)
kW (Btu/min.) 446 (25364) 460 (26160) 528 (30027) 547 (31108)
kW (Btu/min.) 788 (44843) 636 (36193) 720 (40973) 884 (50306)
kW (Btu/min.) 1470 (83628) 1349 (76741) 1510 (85900) 1719 (97793)
kW (Btu/min.) 1145 (65159) 1451 (82572) 1813 (103173) 1869 (106359)
kW (Btu/min.) 80 (4553) 80 (4553) 85 (4837) 88 (5008)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 31.5 (8.3) 33.8 (8.9) 38 (10) 41.5 (11)
Lpm (gpm) 20.3 (5.4) 22.1 (5.8) 24.5 (6.5) 27 (7.1)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 188.2 (.309) 190 (.312) 197.5 (.325) 198.3 (.326)
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 760 (200) 760 (200) 760 (200) 760 (200)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008)
15
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3608 In-Line
Rating: MCR
Fuel: MDO
C (F) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194)
C (F) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203)
C (F) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 1095 (289) 1168 (308.5) 1315 (347) 1460 (386)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 900 (238) 960 (254) 1080 (285) 1200 (317)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
3
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
4
Air Pressure, minimum
4
Air Pressure, maximum
4
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is not
recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Separate circuit
4
Measured at starter inlet
16
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3612 Vee
Rating: CSR
Fuel: MDO
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
bkW (bhp) 2980 (4000) 3120 (4180) 3460 (4640) 3700 (4960)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
13:1 13:1 13:1 13:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 2152 (312) 2111 (306) 2081 (302) 2003 (291)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.0 (26.2) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-12-9-4-5-8-11-2-3-10-7-6 1-12-9-4-5-8-11-2-3-10-7-6
1-6-7-10-3-2-11-8-5-4-9-12 1-6-7-10-3-2-11-8-5-4-9-12
cmm (cfm) 290.4 (10255) 321.7 (11361) 328.6 (11604) 362.8 (12812)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 52.9 (127) 51 (124) 52.9 (127) 53.5 (128)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167)
kPa (psi) 190 (27.6) 233 (33.8) 226 (32.8) 219 (31.8)
cmm (cfm) 617.9 (21821) 668.3 (23601) 744.2 (26281) 825.3 (29145)
C (F) 530 (986) 514 (957) 563 (1045) 564 (1047)
C (F) 362 (684) 347 (657) 403 (757) 406 (763)
C (F) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 320 (18198) 335 (19051) 371 (21099) 398 (22634)
kW (Btu/min.) 612 (34804) 644 (36624) 746 (42425) 721 (41003)
kW (Btu/min.) 702 (39949) 760 (43249) 713 (40575) 733 (41713)
kW (Btu/min.) 1634 (92951) 1739 (98924) 1830 (104099) 1852 (105350)
kW (Btu/min.) 2015 (114668) 2143 (121952) 2605 (148243) 2984 (169811)
kW (Btu/min.) 92 (5235) 94 (5349) 102 (5805) 104 (5918)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 61.2 (16.2) 68.8 (18.1) 72 (19) 78.5 (20.7)
Lpm (gpm) 47.3 (12.5) 53.2 (14) 55.4 (14.6) 60.1 (15.9)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 189.8 (.312) 191.4 (.315) 194.5 (.320) 196.5 (.323)
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 910 (240) 910 (240) 910 (240) 910 (240)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008)
17
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3612 Vee
Rating: CSR
Fuel: MDO
C (F) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194)
C (F) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203)
C (F) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (41.4)
Lpm (gpm) 2190 (579) 2338 (618) 2630 (695) 2920 (771)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 194 (27.7) 245 (35) 305 (43.6)
Lpm (gpm) 1300 (343) 1387 (366) 1560 (412) 1730 (457)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
3
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
4
Air Pressure, minimum
4
Air Pressure, maximum
4
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Separate circuit
4
Measured at starter inlet
18
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3612 Vee
Rating: MCR
Fuel: MDO
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
bkW (bhp) 3280 (4400) 3440 (4610) 3800 (5100) 4060 (5440)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
13:1 13:1 13:1 13:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 2368 (343) 2328 (338) 2286 (332) 2198 (319)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.0 (26.2) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-12-9-4-5-8-11-2-3-10-7-6 1-12-9-4-5-8-11-2-3-10-7-6
1-6-7-10-3-2-11-8-5-4-9-12 1-6-7-10-3-2-11-8-5-4-9-12
cmm (cfm) 319.4 (11280) 343.9 (12145) 360.0 (12713) 392.9 (13875)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 53.1 (128) 52.7 (127) 54.6 (130) 55 (131)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167)
kPa (psi) 218 (31.6) 258 (37.4) 261 (37.9) 246 (35.7)
cmm (cfm) 679.5 (23996) 727.1 (25677) 815.3 (28792) 900.4 (31797)
C (F) 540 (1004) 540 (1004) 574 (1065) 580 (1076)
C (F) 362 (684) 358 (676) 403 (757) 411 (772)
C (F) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 338 (19222) 350 (19904) 392 (22293) 416 (23658)
kW (Btu/min.) 652 (37079) 678 (38558) 793 (45098) 774 (44017)
kW (Btu/min.) 838 (47688) 899 (51159) 906 (51558) 927 (52753)
kW (Btu/min.) 1828 (103989) 1927 (109621) 2091 (118949) 2117 (120428)
kW (Btu/min.) 2157 (122749) 2413 (137317) 2778 (158088) 3208 (182558)
kW (Btu/min.) 98 (5577) 101 (5748) 105 (5975) 110 (6260)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 61.2 (16.2) 68.8 (18.1) 72 (19) 78.5 (20.7)
Lpm (gpm) 42.6 (11.3) 47.9 (12.7) 49.9 (13.2) 54.1 (14.3)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 188.9 (.311) 192.8 (.317) 194.3 (.319) 196.8 (.324)
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 910 (240) 910 (240) 910 (240) 910 (240)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008)
19
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3612 Vee
Rating: MCR
Fuel: MDO
C (F) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194)
C (F) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203)
C (F) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (41.4)
Lpm (gpm) 2190 (579) 2338 (618) 2630 (695) 2920 (771)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 194 (27.7) 245 (35) 305 (43.6)
Lpm (gpm) 1300 (343) 1387 (366) 1560 (412) 1730 (457)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
3
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
4
Air Pressure, minimum
4
Air Pressure, maximum
4
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Separate circuit
4
Measured at starter inlet
20
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3616 Vee
Rating: CSR
Fuel: MDO
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
bkW (bhp) 3960 (5310) 4160 (5580) 4600 (6170) 4920 (6600)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
13:1 13:1 13:1 13:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 2144 (311) 2111 (306) 2075 (301) 1998 (290)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.0 (26.2) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-2-5-6-3-4-9-10-15-16-11-12-13-14-7-8 1-2-5-6-3-4-9-10-15-16-11-12-13-14-7-8
1-8-7-14-13-12-11-16-15-10-9-4-3-6-5-2 1-8-7-14-13-12-11-16-15-10-9-4-3-6-5-2
cmm (cfm) 398.9 (14087) 423.7 (14963) 441.1 (15577) 464.7 (16411)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 43.4 (110) 44.9 (113) 45.4 (114) 43.8 (111)
C (F) 61 (142) 61 (142) 61 (142) 61 (142)
kPa (psi) 230 (33.4) 227 (32.9) 210 (30.5) 195 (28.3)
cmm (cfm) 839.3 (29640) 894.3 (31582) 987.1 (34859) 1063.4 (37554)
C (F) 509 (948) 514 (957) 549 (1020) 554 (1029)
C (F) 355 (671) 357 (675) 395 (743) 410 (770)
C (F) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 410 (23317) 429 (24397) 463 (26331) 532 (30255)
kW (Btu/min.) 757 (43050) 840 (47771) 918 (52207) 968 (55050)
kW (Btu/min.) 977 (55598) 1212 (68971) 1075 (61175) 1265 (71987)
kW (Btu/min.) 2144 (121965) 2481 (141139) 2456 (139713) 2765 (157292)
kW (Btu/min.) 2813 (160080) 3005 (171006) 3746 (213174) 3778 (214995)
kW (Btu/min.) 109 (6203) 112 (6374) 120 (6829) 125 (7113)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 61.2 (16.2) 68.8 (18.1) 72 (19) 78.5 (20.7)
Lpm (gpm) 43.2 (11.4) 48.6 (12.8) 51.1 (13.5) 55.2 (14.6)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 191.8 (.315) 197.4 (.325) 199.8 (.328) 198.2 (.326)
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 1060 (280) 1060 (280) 1060 (280) 1060 (280)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008)
21
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3616 Vee
Rating: CSR
Fuel: MDO
C (F) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194)
C (F) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203)
C (F) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (41.4)
Lpm (gpm) 2190 (579) 2338 (618) 2630 (695) 2920 (771)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 194 (27.7) 245 (35) 305 (43.6)
Lpm (gpm) 1300 (343) 1387 (366) 1560 (412) 1730 (457)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
3
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
4
Air Pressure, minimum
4
Air Pressure, maximum
4
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Separate circuit
4
Measured at starter inlet
5
All 3616 engines come equipped with a High Performance Aftercooler (HPAC) to reduce
the air inlet manifold temperature.
22
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3616 Vee
Rating: MCR
Fuel: MDO
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
bkW (bhp) 4360 (5850) 4580 (6140) 5060 (6790) 5420 (7270)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
13:1 13:1 13:1 13:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 2360 (342) 2324 (337) 2283 (331) 2201 (319)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.0 (26.2) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-2-5-6-3-4-9-10-15-16-11-12-13-14-7-8 1-2-5-6-3-4-9-10-15-16-11-12-13-14-7-8
1-8-7-14-13-12-11-16-15-10-9-4-3-6-5-2 1-8-7-14-13-12-11-16-15-10-9-4-3-6-5-2
cmm (cfm) 431.7 (15245) 453.9 (16029) 475.9 (16806) 496.5 (17534)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 45.6 (114) 46.9 (116) 49.2 (121) 47.7 (118)
C (F) 61 (142) 61 (142) 61 (142) 61 (142)
kPa (psi) 259 (37.6) 253 (36.7) 235 (34.1) 218 (31.6)
cmm (cfm) 918.4 (32433) 974.8 (34425) 1081.1 (38179) 1159.5 (40947)
C (F) 527 (981) 537 (999) 572 (1062) 580 (1076)
C (F) 362 (684) 368 (694) 405 (761) 424 (795)
C (F) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166) 630 (1166)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 435 (24738) 455 (25876) 488 (27753) 558 (31733)
kW (Btu/min.) 812 (46178) 896 (50955) 979 (55676) 1046 (59486)
kW (Btu/min.) 1188 (67607) 1423 (80979) 1285 (73126) 1494 (85019)
kW (Btu/min.) 2435 (138523) 2774 (157810) 2752 (156555) 3098 (176238)
kW (Btu/min.) 3068 (174591) 3347 (190468) 4111 (233945) 4157 (236563)
kw (Btu/min.) 116 (6601) 119 (6772) 127 (7227) 136 (7739)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 61.2 (16.2) 68.8 (18.1) 72 (19) 78.5 (20.7)
Lpm (gpm) 38.9 (10.3) 43.7 (11.5) 46 (12.2) 49.7 (13.1)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 192.6 (.317) 198.8 (.327) 200.4 (.329) 198.9 (.327)
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 1060 (280) 1060 (280) 1060 (280) 1060 (280)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008) 0.486 (0.0008)
23
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 800 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3616 Vee
Rating: MCR
Fuel: MDO
C (F) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194) 90 (194)
C (F) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203) 95 (203)
C (F) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181) 83 (181)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (41.4)
Lpm (gpm) 2190 (579) 2338 (618) 2630 (695) 2920 (771)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 194 (27.7) 245 (35) 305 (43.6)
Lpm (gpm) 1300 (343) 1387 (366) 1560 (412) 1730 (457)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
3
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
4
Air Pressure, minimum
4
Air Pressure, maximum
4
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Separate circuit
4
Measured at starter inlet
5
All 3616 engines come equipped with a High Performance Aftercooler (HPAC) to reduce
the air inlet manifold temperature.
24
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3606 In-Line
Rating: CSR
Fuel: HEAVY
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Unit Injector Tip Cooling System
3
Coolant Temp. Before Engine, nominal
Coolant Temp. After Engine, nominal
Heat rejection/Unit injector
Coolant Flow (SAE 10W oil)
Coolant Pressure Low, alarm
bkW (bhp) 1350 (1810) 1355 (1820) 1570 (2110) 1680 (2260)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 1949 (283) 1778 (258) 1889 (274) 1819 (264)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.25 (27.1) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-5-3-6-2-4 1-5-3-6-2-4
1-4-2-6-3-5 1-4-2-6-3-5
cmm (cfm) 150 (5298) 164 (5792) 202 (7135) 214 (7558)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167) 175 (167)
kPa (psi) 263 (38) 265 (38) 250 (36) 241 (35)
cmm (cfm) 288 (10172) 303 (10702) 373 (13174) 403 (14234)
C (F) 320 (608) 297 (567) 299 (570) 308 (586)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
C (F) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 158 (8993) 163 (9277) 177 (10074) 194 (11042)
kW (Btu/min.) 318 (18099) 337 (19180) 330 (18782) 387 (22026)
kW (Btu/min.) 430 (24474) 478 (27205) 530 (30165) 571 (32500)
kW (Btu/min.) 906 (51566) 978 (55662) 1037 (59021) 1152 (65568)
kW (Btu/min.) 922 (52468) 889 (50590) 1112 (63281) 1250 (71134)
kW (Btu/min.) 63 (3585) 63 (3585) 68 (3870) 71 (4040)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 15.2 (4.0) 15.5 (4.1) 18 (4.8) 19.4 (5.1)
Lpm (gpm) 10.2 (2.7) 10.4 (2.8) 12.1 (3.2) 12.9 (3.4)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 202 (.332) 204 (.336) 203 (.334) 208 (.342)
C (F) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149)
C (F) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160)
kW (Btu/min.) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57)
Lpm (gpm) 36 (9.5) 36 (9.5) 36 (9.5) 36 (9.5)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
25
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3606 In-Line
Rating: CSR
Fuel: HEAVY
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 697 (184) 697 (184) 697 (184) 697 (184)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.45 (0.0007) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.5 (0.0009)
C (F) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199)
C (F) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 1095 (289) 1168 (308.5) 1315 (347) 1460 (386)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 900 (238) 960 (254) 1080 (285) 1200 (317)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
4
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nomina
5
Air Pressure, minimum
5
Air Pressure, maximum
5
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Injector tip cooling is required with heavy fuel.
A separate external injector tip cooling module is required
when heavy fuels above 40 cSt @ 50C (122F) are used.
The coolant flow is based upon a separate circuit system.
4
Separate circuit
5
Measured at starter inlet
26
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3606 In-Line
Rating: MCR
Fuel: HEAVY
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Unit Injector Tip Cooling System
3
Coolant Temp. Before Engine, nominal
Coolant Temp. After Engine, nominal
Heat rejection/Unit injector
Coolant Flow (SAE 10W oil)
Coolant Pressure Low, alarm
bkW (bhp) 1485 (1995) 1490 (2000) 1730 (2320) 1850 (2485)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 2144 (311) 1955 (282) 2081 (302) 2003 (290)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.25 (27.1) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-5-3-6-2-4 1-5-3-6-2-4
1-4-2-6-3-5 1-4-2-6-3-5
cmm (cfm) 159 (5616) 172 (6075) 213 (7523) 229 (8088)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167) 175 (167)
kPa (psi) 290 (42) 284 (41) 273 (40) 266 (39)
cmm (cfm) 307 (10843) 320 (11302) 399 (14093) 433 (15294)
C (F) 320 (608) 302 (576) 306 (583) 313 (595)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
C (F) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 171 (9732) 176 (10017) 194 (11042) 212 (12066)
kW (Btu/min.) 335 (19067) 347 (19750) 355 (20205) 385 (21912)
kW (Btu/min.) 477 (27149) 526 (29937) 592 (33694) 653 (37166)
kW (Btu/min.) 983 (55948) 1049 (59704) 1141 (64941) 1250 (71144)
kW (Btu/min.) 977 (55598) 935 (53208) 1188 (67606) 1377 (78361)
kW (Btu/min.) 67 (3813) 67 (3813) 73 (4154) 74 (4211)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 16.5 (4.4) 17 (4.5) 20 (5.3) 22 (5.8)
Lpm (gpm) 11.0 (2.9) 11.4 (3) 13.5 (3.6) 15 (4.0)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 199 (.327) 200 (.329) 201 (.330) 207 (.340)
C (F) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149)
C (F) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160)
kW (Btu/min.) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57)
Lpm (gpm) 36 (9.5) 36 (9.5) 36 (9.5) 36 (9.5)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
27
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3606 In-Line
Rating: MCR
Fuel: HEAVY
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 697 (184) 697 (184) 697 (184) 697 (184)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.45 (0.0007) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.5 (0.0009)
C (F) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199)
C (F) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 1095 (289) 1168 (308.5) 1315 (347) 1460 (386)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 900 (238) 960 (254) 1080 (285) 1200 (317)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
4
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
5
Air Pressure, minimum
5
Air Pressure, maximum
5
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Injector tip cooling is required with heavy fuel.
A separate external injector tip cooling module is required
when heavy fuels above 40 cSt @ 50C (122F) are used.
The coolant flow is based upon a separate circuit system.
4
Separate circuit
5
Measured at starter inlet
28
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3608 In-Line
Rating: CSR
Fuel: HEAVY
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Unit Injector Tip Cooling System
3
Coolant Temp. Before Engine, nominal
Coolant Temp. After Engine, nominal
Heat rejection/Unit injector
Coolant Flow (SAE 10W oil)
Coolant Pressure Low, alarm
bkW (bhp) 1800 (2415) 1800 (2415) 2090 (2805) 2110 (2830)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 1949 (283) 1772 (257) 1886 (273) 1713 (264)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.25 (27.1) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-6-2-5-8-3-7-4 1-6-2-5-8-3-7-4
1-4-7-3-8-5-2-6 1-4-7-3-8-5-2-6
cmm (cfm) 197 (6958) 205 (7241) 244 (8619) 255 (9007)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167) 175 (167)
kPa (psi) 261 (37.8) 243 (35) 240 (34.8) 246 (35.7)
cmm (cfm) 380 (13422) 387 (13669) 467 (16495) 489 (17272)
C (F) 322 (612) 310 (590) 318 (604) 319 (606)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
C (F) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 207 (11781) 213 (12123) 236 (13432) 245 (13944)
kW (Btu/min.) 447 (25441) 485 (27604) 527 (29994) 563 (32043)
kW (Btu/min.) 525 (29880) 567 (32271) 641 (36483) 701 (39898)
kW (Btu/min.) 1179 (67102) 1265 (71998) 1404 (79909) 1509 (85885)
kW (Btu/min.) 1206 (68630) 1184 (67378) 1496 (85133) 1569 (89287)
kW (Btu/min.) 72 (4097) 72 (4097) 77 (4382) 78 (4439)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 20 (5.3) 21 (5.5) 24 (6.3) 25 (6.6)
Lpm (gpm) 13.4 (3.5) 14.3 (3.8) 16 (4.2) 16.8 (4.4)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 199 (.327) 202 (.332) 204 (.336) 210 (.345)
C (F) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149)
C (F) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160)
kW (Btu/min.) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57)
Lpm (gpm) 48 (12.7) 48 (12.7) 48 (12.7) 48 (12.7)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
29
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3608 In-Line
Rating: CSR
Fuel: HEAVY
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 760 (200) 760 (200) 760 (200) 760 (200)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.45 (0.0007) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.5 (0.0009)
C (F) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199)
C (F) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 1095 (289) 1168 (308.5) 1315 (347) 1460 (386)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 900 (238) 960 (254) 1080 (285) 1200 (317)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
4
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
5
Air Pressure, minimum
5
Air Pressure, maximum
5
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Injector tip cooling is required with heavy fuel.
A separate external injector tip cooling module is required
when heavy fuels above 40 cSt @ 50C (122F) are used.
The coolant flow is based upon a separate circuit system.
4
Separate circuit
5
Measured at starter inlet
30
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3608 In-Line
Rating: MCR
Fuel: HEAVY
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Unit Injector Tip Cooling System
3
Coolant Temp. Before Engine, nominal
Coolant Temp. After Engine, nominal
Heat rejection/Unit injector
Coolant Flow (SAE 10W oil)
Coolant Pressure Low, alarm
bkW (bhp) 1980 (2660) 1980 (2660) 2300 (3090) 2320 (3115)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 2144 (311) 1949 (283) 2075 (301) 1884 (273)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.25 (27.1) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-6-2-5-8-3-7-4 1-6-2-5-8-3-7-4
1-4-7-3-8-5-2-6 1-4-7-3-8-5-2-6
cmm (cfm) 209 (7382) 217 (7664) 257 (9077) 266 (9395)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167) 175 (167)
kPa (psi) 286 (41.5) 268 (38.9) 261 (37.8) 264 (38.3)
cmm (cfm) 408 (14410) 417 (14728) 500 (17660) 519 (18331)
C (F) 328 (622) 319 (606) 327 (621) 330 (626)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
C (F) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 228 (12977) 234 (13318) 258 (14684) 267 (15196)
kW (Btu/min.) 470 (26750) 497 (27262) 541 (30791) 618 (35174)
kW (Btu/min.) 606 (34491) 649 (36938) 721 (41036) 740 (42117)
kW (Btu/min.) 1304 (74218) 1380 (77518) 1520 (86511) 1625 (92487)
kW (Btu/min.) 1301 (74036) 1295 (73695) 1647 (93726) 1708 (97197)
kW (Btu/min.) 74 (4211) 74 (4211) 81 (4609) 81 (4609)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 22 (5.8) 22 (5.8) 26 (6.9) 27 (7.1)
Lpm (gpm) 14.7 (3.9) 14.6 (3.8) 17.4 (4.6) 18 (4.7)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 198 (.326) 201 (.331) 203 (.334) 208 (.342)
C (F) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149)
C (F) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160)
kW (Btu/min.) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57)
Lpm (gpm) 48 (12.7) 48 (12.7) 48 (12.7) 48 (12.7)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
31
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3608 In-Line
Rating: MCR
Fuel: HEAVY
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 760 (200) 760 (200) 760 (200) 760 (200)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.45 (0.0007) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.5 (0.0009)
C (F) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199)
C (F) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 1095 (289) 1168 (308.5) 1315 (347) 1460 (386)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 900 (238) 960 (254) 1080 (285) 1200 (317)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
4
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
5
Air Pressure, minimum
5
Air Pressure, maximum
5
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Injector tip cooling is required with heavy fuel.
A separate external injector tip cooling module is required
when heavy fuels above 40 cSt @ 50C (122F) are used.
The coolant flow is based upon a separate circuit system.
4
Separate circuit
5
Measured at starter inlet
32
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 1000 (CSR) 1000 (MCR)
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3608 In-Line
Rating: CSR & MCR**
Fuel: HEAVY
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Unit Injector Tip Cooling System
3
Coolant Temp. Before Engine, nominal
Coolant Temp. After Engine, nominal
Heat rejection/Unit injector
Coolant Flow (SAE 10W oil)
Coolant Pressure Low, alarm
bkW (bhp) 2240 (3005) 2460 (3300)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 20 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
12.4:1 12.4:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 1819 (264) 1998 (290)
m/s (f/s) 10.0 (32.8) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300
1-6-2-5-8-3-7-4
1-4-7-3-8-5-2-6
cmm (cfm) 246 (8689) 259 (9148)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167)
kPa (psi) 248 (36) 271 (39.3)
cmm (cfm) 494 (17448) 533 (18826)
C (F) 347 (657) 361 (682)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
C (F) 450 (842) 450 (842)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 258 (14684) 280 (15936)
kW (Btu/min.) 647 (36824) 632 (35970)
kW (Btu/min.) 658 (37450) 738 (42003)
kW (Btu/min.) 1563 (88958) 1650 (93909)
kW (Btu/min.) 1654 (94124) 1798 (102319)
kW (Btu/min.) 80 (4553) 85 (4837)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 26 (6.9) 28 (7.4)
Lpm (gpm) 17.4 (4.6) 18.7 (4.9)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 208 (.342) 205 (.337)
C (F) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149)
C (F) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160)
kW (Btu/min.) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57)
Lpm (gpm) 48 (12.7) 48 (12.7)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38)
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 1000 (CSR) 1000 (MCR)
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3608 In-Line
Rating: CSR & MCR**
Fuel: HEAVY
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 760 (200) 760 (200)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.55 (0.0009) 0.55 (0.0009)
C (F) 93 (199) 93 (199)
C (F) 96 (205) 96 (205)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 295 (42.1) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 1460 (386) 1460 (386)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 295 (42.1) 295 (42.1)
Lpm (gpm) 1200 (317) 1200 (317)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
4
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
5
Air Pressure, minimum
5
Air Pressure, maximum
5
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
have been corrected to an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV. The fuel
HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is not recoverable in
diesel engine applications.
3
Injector tip cooling is required with heavy fuel.
A separate external injector tip cooling module is required
when heavy fuels above 40 cSt @ 50C (122F) are used.
The coolant flow is based upon a separate circuit system.
4
Separate circuit
5
Measured at starter inlet
**Always requires CP propeller. See guide section on Engine Performance.
33
34
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3612 Vee
Rating: CSR
Fuel: HEAVY
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Unit Injector Tip Cooling System
3
Coolant Temp. Before Engine, nominal
Coolant Temp. After Engine, nominal
Heat rejection/Unit injector
Coolant Flow (SAE 10W oil)
Coolant Pressure Low, alarm
bkW (bhp) 2700 (3625) 2710 (3640) 3140 (4215) 3360 (4510)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 1949 (283) 17778 (258) 1889 (274) 1819 (264)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.25 (27.1) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-12-9-4-5-8-2-3-4-10-7-6 1-12-9-4-5-8-11-2-3-10-7-6
1-6-7-10-3-2-11-8-5-4-9-12 1-6-7-10-3-2-11-8-5-4-9-12
cmm (cfm) 299 (10560) 329 (11620) 403 (14234) 429 (15152)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167) 175 (167)
kPa (psi) 263 (38) 265 (38.4) 250 (36) 250 (36)
cmm (cfm) 575 (20309) 606 (21404) 745 (26313) 794 (28045)
C (F) 320 (608) 297 (567) 299 (570) 299 (570)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
C (F) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 315 (17428) 326 (18554) 355 (20205) 388 (22083)
kW (Btu/min.) 636 (36198) 674 (38361) 659 (37507) 773 (43995)
kW (Btu/min.) 709 (S40353) 788 (44849) 874 (49744) 943 (53671)
kW (Btu/min.) 1660 (94479) 1788 (101764) 1888 (107456) 2104 (119749)
kW (Btu/min.) 2001 (113871) 1951 (111026) 2415 (137431) 2742 (156039)
kW (Btu/min.) 88 (5008) 88 (5008) 94 (5349) 99 (5634)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 30.5 (8.1) 31 (7.8) 35.5 (9.4) 39 (10.3)
Lpm (gpm) 20.4 (5.4) 21 (5.3) 23.7 (6.3) 26 (6.9)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 201 (.330) 203 (.334) 202 (.332) 208 (.342)
C (F) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149)
C (F) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160)
kW (Btu/min.) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57)
Lpm (gpm) 72 (19) 72 (19) 72 (19) 72 (19)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
35
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3612 Vee
Rating: CSR
Fuel: HEAVY
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 910 (240) 910 (240) 910 (240) 910 (240)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.45 (0.0007) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.5 (0.0009)
C (F) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199)
C (F) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 290 (41.4)
Lpm (gpm) 2190 (579) 2338 (6`8) 2630 (695) 2920 (711)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 104 (27.7) 245 (35) 305 (43.6)
Lpm (gpm) 1300 (343) 1387 (366) 1560 (412) 1730 (457)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
4
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
5
Air Pressure, minimum
5
Air Pressure, maximum
5
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Injector tip cooling is required with heavy fuel.
A separate external injector tip cooling module is required
when heavy fuels above 40 cSt @ 50C (122F) are used.
The coolant flow is based upon a separate circuit system.
4
Separate circuit
5
Measured at starter inlet
36
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3612 Vee
Rating: MCR
Fuel: HEAVY
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Unit Injector Tip Cooling System
3
Coolant Temp. Before Engine, nominal
Coolant Temp. After Engine, nominal
Heat rejection/Unit injector
Coolant Flow (SAE 10W oil)
Coolant Pressure Low, alarm
bkW (bhp) 2970 (3985) 2980 (4000) 3460 (4645) 3700 (4965)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 2144 (311) 1955 (284) 2081 (302) 2003 (290)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.25 (27.1) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-12-9-4-5-8-11-2-3-4-10-7-6 1-12-9-4-5-8-11-2-3-10-7-6
1-6-7-10-3-2-11-8-5-4-9-12 1-6-7-10-3-2-11-8-5-4-9-12
cmm (cfm) 320 (11302) 343 (12115) 426 (15046) 457 (16141)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167) 75 (167) 175 (167)
kPa (psi) 289 (42) 284 (41) 273 (40) 273 (40)
cmm (cfm) 614 (21686) 640 (22605) 798 (28185) 857 (30270)
C (F) 320 (608) 302 (576) 306 (582) 306 (583)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
C (F) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 341 (19408) 352 (20034) 387 (22076) 424 (24132)
kW (Btu/min.) 670 (38133) 695 (39556) 711 (40467) 770 (43825)
kW (Btu/min.) 849 (48321) 936 (53273) 1054 (59987) 1162 (66135)
kW (Btu/min.) 1860 (105862) 1983 (112863) 2152 (122480) 2356 (134092)
kW (Btu/min.) 2066 (117570) 1992 (113359) 2509 (142780) 2941 (167364)
kW (Btu/min.) 92 (5235) 92 (5235) 102 (5805) 104 (5918)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 33 (8.7) 33 (8.7) 39 (10.3) 43 (11.4)
Lpm (gpm) 22 (5.8) 22 (5.8) 26 (6.9) 28.8 (7.6)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 198 (.326) 199 (.327) 200 (.329) 207 (.340)
C (F) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149)
C (F) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160)
kW (Btu/min.) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57)
Lpm (gpm) 72 (19) 72 (19) 72 (19) 72 (19)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
37
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3612 Vee
Rating: MCR
Fuel: HEAVY
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 910 (240) 910 (240) 910 (240) 910 (240)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.45 (0.0007) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.55 (0.0009)
C (F) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199)
C (F) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 290 (41.4)
Lpm (gpm) 2190 (579) 2338 (6`8) 2630 (695) 2920 (711)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 194 (27.7) 245 (35) 305 (43.6)
Lpm (gpm) 1300 (343) 1387 (366) 1560 (412) 1730 (457)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
4
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
5
Air Pressure, minimum
5
Air Pressure, maximum
5
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Injector tip cooling is required with heavy fuel.
A separate external injector tip cooling module is required
when heavy fuels above 40 cSt @ 50C (122F) are used.
The coolant flow is based upon a separate circuit system.
4
Separate circuit
5
Measured at starter inlet
38
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3616 Vee
Rating: CSR
Fuel: HEAVY
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Unit Injector Tip Cooling System
3
Coolant Temp. Before Engine, nominal
Coolant Temp. After Engine, nominal
Heat rejection/Unit injector
Coolant Flow (SAE 10W oil)
Coolant Pressure Low, alarm
bkW (bhp) 3600 (4830) 3600 (4830) 4180 (5610) 4220 (5665)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 1949 (283) 1772 (257) 1886 (273) 1713 (248)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.25 (27.1) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-2-5-6-3-4-9-10-15-16-11-12-13-14-7-8 1-2-5-6-3-4-9-10-15-16-11-12-13-14-7-8
1-8-7-14-13-12-11-16-15-10-9-4-3-6-5-2 1-8-7-14-13-12-11-16-15-10-9-4-3-6-5-2
cmm (cfm) 411.5 (14532) 429.3 (15161) 511.0 (18046) 534.1 (18862)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 61 (142) 61 (142) 61 (142) 61 (142)
kPa (psi) 248 (36.0) 231 (33.5) 223 (32.3) 234 (33.9)
cmm (cfm) 812.0 (28676) 829.9 (29308) 1001.5 (35368) 1048.6 (37031)
C (F) 316 (601) 304 (579) 312 (594) 313 (595)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
C (F) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 415 (23620) 426 (24246) 472 (26864) 491 (27945)
kW (Btu/min.) 895 (50939) 970 (55208) 1054 (59989) 1125 (64030)
kW (Btu/min.) 1069 (60834) 1194 (67947) 1358 (77280) 1480 (84221)
kW (Btu/min.) 2379 (135393) 2590 (147401) 2884 (164133) 3096 (176196)
kW (Btu/min.) 2262 (128724) 2308 (131342) 2584 (147048) 2890 (164462)
kW (Btu/min.) 101 (5748) 101 (5748) 113 (6431) 114 (6487)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 40 (10.6) 41 (10.8) 47.5 (12.5) 49 (12.9)
Lpm (gpm) 26.8 (7.1) 27.6 (7.3) 31.8 (8.4) 32.7 (8.6)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 195.0 (.321) 201.0 (.330) 196.5 (.323) 205.8 (.338)
C (F) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149)
C (F) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160)
kW (Btu/min.) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57)
Lpm (gpm) 96 (25.4) 96 (25.4) 96 (25.4) 96 (25.4)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
39
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3616 Vee
Rating: CSR
Fuel: HEAVY
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 1060 (280) 1060 (280) 1060 (280) 1060 (280)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.45 (0.0007) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.55 (0.0009)
C (F) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199)
C (F) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 290 (41.4)
Lpm (gpm) 2190 (579) 2338 (6`8) 2630 (695) 2920 (711)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 194 (27.7) 245 (35) 305 (43.6)
Lpm (gpm) 1300 (343) 1387 (366) 1560 (412) 1730 (457)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
4
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
5
Air Pressure, minimum
5
Air Pressure, maximum
5
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Injector tip cooling is required with heavy fuel.
A separate external injector tip cooling module is required
when heavy fuels above 40 cSt @ 50C (122F) are used.
The coolant flow is based upon a separate circuit system.
4
Separate circuit
5
Measured at starter inlet
6
All 3616 engines come equipped with a High Performance Aftercooler (HPAC) to reduce
the air inlet manifold temperature.
40
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3616 Vee
Rating: MCR
Fuel: HEAVY
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Unit Injector Tip Cooling System
3
Coolant Temp. Before Engine, nominal
Coolant Temp. After Engine, nominal
Heat rejection/Unit injector
Coolant Flow (SAE 10W oil)
Coolant Pressure Low, alarm
bkW (bhp) 3960 (5315) 3960 (5315) 4600 (6175) 4640 (6230)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8) 300 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1 12.4:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 2144 (311) 1949 (283) 2076 (301) 1884 (273)
m/s (f/s) 7.5 (24.6) 8.25 (27.1) 9.0 (29.5) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300 300 300
1-2-5-6-3-4-9-10-15-16-11-12-13-14-7-8 1-2-5-6-3-4-9-10-15-16-11-12-13-14-7-8
1-8-7-14-13-12-11-16-15-10-9-4-3-6-5-2 1-8-7-14-13-12-11-16-15-10-9-4-3-6-5-2
cmm (cfm) 437.7 (15457) 454.5 (16051) 538.2 (19006) 556.0 (19635)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 61 (142) 61 (142) 61 (142) 61 (142)
kPa (psi) 272 (39.5) 255 (37.0) 243 (35.2) 251 (36.4)
cmm (cfm) 872.5 (30812) 892.3 (31511) 1071.1 (37826) 1112.1 (39273)
C (F) 322 (612) 313 (595) 321 (610) 324 (615)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
C (F) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842) 450 (842)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 457 (26010) 467 (26580) 515 (29311) 534 (30393)
kW (Btu/min.) 941 (53557) 993 (56517) 1083 (63639) 1235 (70290)
kW (Btu/min.) 1260 (71703) 1370 (77963) 1430 (81377) 1540 (87637)
kW (Btu/min.) 2658 (151270) 2830 (161060) 3028 (174327) 3309 (188320)
kW (Btu/min.) 2454 (139650) 2513 (143008) 2993 (170323) 3173 (180566)
kW (Btu/min.) 109 (6203) 109 (6203) 120 (6829) 121 (6886)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 44 (11.6) 44 (11.6) 52 (13.7) 54 (14.2)
Lpm (gpm) 29.5 (7.8) 29.3 (7.7) 34.8 (9.2) 36.2 (9.6)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 195.1 (.321) 200.0 (.329) 196.5 (.323) 203.9 (.335)
C (F) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149)
C (F) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160)
kW (Btu/min.) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57)
Lpm (gpm) 96 (25.4) 96 (25.4) 96 (25.4) 96 (25.4)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
41
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 750 825 900 1000
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3616 Vee
Rating: MCR
Fuel: HEAVY
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (1985) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 1060 (280) 1060 (280) 1060 (280) 1060 (280)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.45 (0.0007) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.50 (0.0008) 0.55 (0.0009)
C (F) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199) 93 (199)
C (F) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205) 96 (205)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185) 85 (185)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 190 (27.1) 240 (34.3) 290 (41.4)
Lpm (gpm) 2190 (579) 2338 (6`8) 2630 (695) 2920 (711)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 170 (24.3) 194 (27.7) 245 (35) 305 (43.6)
Lpm (gpm) 1300 (343) 1387 (366) 1560 (412) 1730 (457)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
4
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
5
Air Pressure, minimum
5
Air Pressure, maximum
5
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
are based on an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV.
The fuel HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is
not recoverable in diesel engine applications.
3
Injector tip cooling is required with heavy fuel.
A separate external injector tip cooling module is required
when heavy fuels above 40 cSt @ 50C (122F) are used.
The coolant flow is based upon a separate circuit system.
4
Separate circuit
5
Measured at starter inlet
6
All 3616 engines come equipped with a High Performance Aftercooler (HPAC) to reduce
the air inlet manifold temperature.
42
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 1000 (CSR) 1000 (MCR)
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3616 Vee
Rating: CSR & MCR**
Fuel: HEAVY
General Data
Engine Output
1
Cylinder Bore
Stroke
Displacement/Cylinder
Compression Ratio
Firing Pressure, maximum
BMEP
Mean Piston Speed
Idle Speed
Crash Reversal Speed, minimum
Firing Order - CCW
Firing Order - CW
Combustion Air System
Flow of air @ 100% load
Air Temperature @ Air Cleaner, maximum
Air Temperature after Aftercooler, alarm
Intake Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Exhaust Gas System
Exhaust Gas Flow @ 100% load
Exhaust Stack Temperature @ 100% load
Exhaust Manifold Temperature, alarm
Exhaust Stack Temperature, alarm
Exhaust System Backpressure, maximum
Heat Balance @ 100% Load
Lube Oil Cooler
Jacket Water Circuit
Aftercooler
Total Heat rejected to Raw Water
Exhaust Gas
2
Radiation
Fuel System
Pump Suction Restriction, maximum
Return Line Backpressure, maximum
Manifold Pressure @ 100% load
Flow Rate, supply
Flow Rate, return
BSFC (with pumps)
1
Unit Injector Tip Cooling System
3
Coolant Temp. Before Engine, nominal
Coolant Temp. After Engine, nominal
Heat rejection/Unit injector
Coolant Flow (SAE 10W oil)
Coolant Pressure Low, alarm
bkW (bhp) 4480 (6015) 4920 (6600)
mm (in) 280 (11.0) 280 (11.0)
mm (in) 300 (11.8) 20 (11.8)
L (in
3
) 18.5 (1127) 18.5 (1127)
12.4:1 12.4:1
kPa (psi) 16200 (2350) 16200 (2350)
kPa (psi) 1819 (264) 1998 (290)
m/s (f/s) 10.0 (32.8) 10.0 (32.8)
rpm rpm 350 350
rpm rpm 300 300
1-2-5-6-3-4-9-10-15-16-11-12-13-14-7-8
1-8-7-14-13-12-11-16-15-10-9-4-3-6-5-2
cmm (cfm) 514.2 (18159) 541.4 (19119)
C (F) 45 (113) 45 (113)
C (F) 75 (167) 75 (167)
kPa (psi) 236 (34.2) 257 (37.3)
cmm (cfm) 1057.8 (37356) 1139.1 (40227)
C (F) 341 (646) 355 (671)
C (F) 550 (1022) 550 (1022)
C (F) 450 (842) 450 (842)
kPa (in H2O) 2.5 (10) 2.5 (10)
kW (Btu/min.) 517 (29425) 559 (31816)
kW (Btu/min.) 1293 (73591) 1264 (71941)
kW (Btu/min.) 1387 (78930) 1460 (83084)
kW (Btu/min.) 3197 (181946) 3283 (186841)
kW (Btu/min.) 2785 (158486) 3336 (189842)
kW (Btu/min.) 116 (6601) 125 (7113)
kPa (psi) -39 (-5.7) -39 (-5.7)
kPa (psi) 350 (51) 350 (51)
kPa (psi) 430-676 (62.4-98) 430-676 (62.4-98)
Lpm (gpm) 52 (13.7) 56 (14.8)
Lpm (gpm) 34.8 (9.2) 37.4 (9.9)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 198.7 (.327) 199.5 (.328)
C (F) 50-65 (122-149) 50-65 (122-149)
C (F) 56-71 (133-160) 56-71 (133-160)
kW (Btu/min.) 1.0 (57) 1.0 (57)
Lpm (gpm) 96 (25.4) 96 (25.4)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38)
43
Engine Speed Ratings
Units 1000 (CSR) 1000 (MCR)
TECHNICAL DATA Engine: 3616 Vee
Rating: CSR & MCR**
Fuel: HEAVY
kPa (psi) 380 (55) 380 (55)
kPa (psi) 320 (46) 320 (46)
kPa (psi) 120 (17) 120 (17)
kPa (psi) 260 (38) 260 (38)
kPa (psi) 105 (15) 105 (15)
C (F) 92 (198) 92 (198)
C (F) 98 (208) 98 (208)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185)
Lpm (gpm) 76 (20) 76 (20)
Lpm (gpm) 23 (6) 23 (6)
L (gal) 1060 (280) 1060 (280)
g/kW-hr (lb/hp-hr) 0.55 (0.0009) 0.55 (0.0009)
C (F) 93 (199) 93 (199)
C (F) 96 (205) 96 (205)
C (F) 85 (185) 85 (185)
C (F) 99 (210) 99 (210)
kPa (psi) 290 (41.4) 290 (41.4)
Lpm (gpm) 2920 (771) 2920 (771)
kPa (psi) 30 (4.3) 30 (4.3)
C (F) 100 (212) 100 (212)
C (F) 104 (219) 104 (219)
C (F) 32 (90) 32 (90)
C (F) 38 (100) 38 (100)
kPa (psi) 305 (43.6) 305 (43.6)
Lpm (gpm) 1730 (457) 1730 (457)
kPa (in-Hg) -5 (-1.48) -5 (-1.48)
kPa (psi) 1225 (175) 1225 (175)
kPa (psi) 620 (90) 620 (90)
kPa (psi) 1575 (225) 1575 (225)
kPa (psi) 850 (125) 850 (125)
Lubricating Oil System
Manifold Pressure, minimum
Manifold Pressure, alarm (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, alarm (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (650-1000 rpm)
Manifold Pressure, stop (0-650 rpm)
Manifold Temperature, alarm
Manifold Temperature, stop
Manifold Temperature, nominal
Prelube Pump Capacity - intermittent
Prelube Pump Capacity - continuous
Sump Capacity (marine)
BSOC @ 100% load (nominal)
Cooling Water System - Block Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Inlet Temperature, minimum
Outlet Temp., before Regulator, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 90C (194)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
4
Outlet Temperature, alarm
Outlet Temperature, stop
Cooling Water System - AC/OC Cooling
Inlet Temperature, nominal
Inlet Temperature, maximum
Pump Rise (Delta P) @ 32C (90F)
Pump capacity
Pump Inlet Pressure, minimum
Starting Air System
Air Pressure, nominal
5
Air Pressure, minimum
5
Air Pressure, maximum
5
Low Air Pressure, alarm
1
Performance based on SAE J1995 and ISO 3046/1 standard conditions
of 100 kPa (29.61 in-Hg) and 25C (77F). BSFC values are shown
with a Caterpillar tolerance of 6 g/kW-hr (.010 lbs/hp-hr). For an ISO
fuel consumption, subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 lbs/hp-hr) from the values shown.
This takes into account the 5% tolerance allowed by ISO. BSFC values
have been corrected to an LHV of 42780 kJ/kg (18390 Btu/lb.)
2
Exhaust heat rejection is based on fuel LHV although TMI values are based on fuel HHV. The fuel
HHV includes the latent heat of vaporization of water in the exhaust gas which is not recoverable in
diesel engine applications.
3
Injector tip cooling is not required with MDO fuel.
A separate external injector tip cooling module is required
when heavy fuels above 40 cSt @ 50C (122F) are used.
The coolant flow is based upon a separate circuit system.
4
Separate circuit
5
Measured at starter inlet
6
All 3616 engines come equipped with a High Performance (HPAC) to reduce the air inlet manifold
temperature.
**Always requires CP propeller. See guide section on Engine Performance.
44
Noise
Sound Waves Behavior
and Measurement
As sound waves radi ate thei r strength
di mi ni shes. As di stance travel ed doubl es,
the wave ampl i tude i s reduced by
one-hal f. Thi s rul e appl i es i f the fi rst
measuri ng poi nt i s at l east two or three
ti mes the l argest di mensi on of the
noi se source, usual l y about three feet.
Sound waves i mpi ngi ng on a mi crophone
produce vol tages proporti onal to sound
pressures. The si gnal s measure
ampl i tude or strength of the sound
pressurewaves. Ampl i tude and frequency
are the onl y sound properti es measurabl e
usi ng ordi nary techni ques.
The extensi ve audi bl e range of sound
compl i cates noi se rati ngs. The human ear
hears pressure l evel s 100,000 ti mes
stronger than the l owest detectabl e l evel
wi thout damage. Noi se measuri ng
i nstruments have extraordi nary range
and are scal ed i n deci bel s (dB).
Sound Terms
Sound strength, or sound pressure l evel
(SPL), i s rated i n the l ogari thmi c deci bel
scal e. The scal e al l ows rati ng over the
enti re sound pressure range of i nterest
wi th two to three di gi t numbers
(e.g., 90 dB or 100 dB). For i l l ustrati on,
80 dB i s a sound pressure of onl y 0.00003
psi as shown i n Fi gure 38.
Figure 1
The system provi des a meani ngful
human reference as the average ear fi rst
detects noi se at 0 dB.
Humans can comfortabl y tol erate sound
l evel s of 80 dB (10,000 ti mes the sound
pressure at 0 dB). Between 80 dB and
90 dB they show some i ntol erance to the
noi se, and above 90 dB the l evel becomes
i ntense.
Sound pressure l evel s of common
exposures to noi se are shown i n
Fi gure 1.
Because of the l ogari thmi c nature,
di fferences i n two deci bel rati ngs i ndi cate
the wave strength rati o between the two
measured l evel s. The fol l owi ng rel ati ons
are noted from the scal e.
Distance
Sound
Strength
X
2X
4X
100%
50%
25%
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0 3x10
3x10
3x10
3x10
3x10
3x10
3x10
3x10
3x10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Sound pressure
in
decibels (dB)
Sound pressure
in pounds
per square
inch (psi)
Common Sounds
Medium jet engine
Large propeller aircraft
Air raid siren
Riveting and chipping
Discotheque
Punch press
Canning plant
Heavy city traffic;
subway
Busy office
Normal speech
Private office
Quiet residential
neighborhood
Whisper
Threshold of hearing
100,000:1
Pressure
Range
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
45
*See example in Figure 2.
Figure 2
Loudness
The human ear does not use sound
pressure deci bel s to judge l oudness.
Rati ng noi se l oudness i s a compl ex
operati on because human heari ng i s al so
frequency sensi ti ve.
Sounds wi th frequenci es i n the 5,000-
10,000 Hz range are the easi est to hear;
sounds wi th very l ow frequenci es are the
hardest. Heari ng l oss from exposure to
noi se i s si mi l arl y frequency sensi ti ve.
An exampl e of the frequency sel ecti vi ty
of the human ear i s shown i n Fi gure 3.
I t consi ders three si ngl e-frequency
sounds at 50 Hz, 500 Hz, and 5000 Hz.
When thei r strength i s adjusted unti l
they sound equal l y l oud, the 50 Hz sound
must be 19 dB stronger than the
5000 Hz sound and 8 dB stronger than
the 500 Hz sound.
Figure 3
A-Weighted, dB(A)
Measurements
Loudness can be measured by fi l teri ng
the mi crophone si gnal to reduce the
strength of the l ow frequency si gnal s and
gi ve more wei ght to frequenci es i n the
5,000-10,000 Hz range. (These are the
frequenci es to whi ch the ear i s most
sensi ti ve). Thi s i s done wi th a
standardi zed (i nternati onal ) A fi l ter
network to make adjustments
throughout the frequency range
accordi ng to Fi gure 4. The resul t i s a
total deci bel rati ng wi th a correcti on
approxi mati ng the ear s sensi ti vi ty. The
measurements are A-scal e, A-wei ghted
or dB(A) l evel s.
Difference In
Two Signal Levels
In Decibels
Pressure
Level
Ratio
1
3
6
10
12*
20
40
1.12 to 1
1.41 to 1
2.00 to 1
3.1 to 1
4.00 to 1
10.00 to 1
100.00 to 1
100
80
60
40
20
0
50 500 5000
95
87
76
X Y Z
SOUNDS OF EQUAL LOUDNESS
Frequency-Hz
8db
19db
LINEAR RATIO
4A
A
LOGARITHMIC RATIO
82-70=12dB
=4
70 dB A
60
70
80
90
4A
82dB
D
E
C
I
B
E
L
S
Sounds Of Equal Loudness
46
Figure 4
The previ ousl y di scussed equal l oudness
sounds have the fol l owi ng dB and dB(A)
rati ngs:
Note the A-wei ghted rati ngs are
overcorrected for sound X, whi l e sl i ght or
no correcti ons were made i n Y and Z.
Si nce di fferences i n sound pressure
l evel s are smal l for noi ses of practi cal
i nterest, the dB(A) scal e i s wi del y used
throughout the worl d.
Octave Band Levels
More detai l i s requi red of the frequency
di stri buti on of a noi se than provi ded by a
A-wei ghted measurement.
Measurements are made wi th fi l ters
subdi vi di ng sounds over the enti re
audi bl e range i nto standardi zed
frequency bands,
permi tti ng the pressure l evel s of onl y the
sound wi thi n each subdi vi si on to be
measured. Each fi l ter spans an octave;
that i s, the upper frequency l i mi t i s twi ce
the l ower l i mi t as shown i n Fi gure 5.
Sound l evel s i n each octave are
measured i n deci bel s and are referred to
as octave band l evel s.
Figure 5
Loudness Calculations
Loudness can be cal cul ated from octave
band data by a number of methods. The
most popul ar i n the Uni ted States was
devel oped by S.S. Stevens at Harvard
Uni versi ty and i s documented i n ANSI
Standard S3.4 and i n I SO R532,
Method A.
The method uses the uni t SONE
cal cul ated by adjusti ng each octave band
l evel accordi ng to human ear sensi ti vi ty
i n that band and then addi ng the effect
of al l of the bands. Once a sones val ue i s
obtai ned, l oudness compari sons wi th
other noi ses can be made l i nearl y.
A noi se judged to be twi ce as l oud as
another wi l l probabl y have a sones rati ng
twi ce that of the other noi se.
SIGNALS ENTERING
FILTER
LOW
FREQUENCIES
HIGH
FREQUENCIES
SIGNALS LEAVING
FILTER
dB TOTAL
dB(A) TOTAL
RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS
OF STANDARD A FILTER
FREQUENCY-HERTZ (CYCLES PER SEC.)
RELATIVE
RESPONSE
-DECIBELS
"A" WEIGHTED
FILTERING
- 5
0
+ 5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45
-50
20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10,000
A
A
Frequency dB dB(A)
(X)
(Y)
(Z)
50 Hz
500 Hz
5000 Hz
95
87
76
65
84
76
BAND
DESIGNATION
(CENTER
FREQUENCY)
BAND
LIMITS
STANDARD OCTAVE BANDS
ANSI STD.S1.11 IEC 225
8000 Hz
4000
2000
1000
500
250
125
63 Hz
44 Hz
88
176
353
707
1415
2830
5650
11300 Hz
47
Sones and dB(A) are both l oudness
rati ngs, and care must be used to convert
from one to the other. When one i s
pl otted agai nst the other for actual
noi ses, thei r rel ati onshi p i s evi dent.
However, the scatter on the pl ot i n
Fi gure 6 i s so great that i t i s not
practi cal to cal cul ate one from the other.
I f thi s conversi on must be used, errors of
10% sones or 1.5 dB(A) must be
accepted.
Figure 6
Sound Power
When combi ni ng the effect of several
noi se sources at a gi ven di stance from
machi nery, sound power bei ng radi ated
i s of more concern than sound pressure
at that di stance. Confusi on ari ses as a
deci bel scal e i s al so used to rate sound
power.
Wi th sound power, 80 dB expresses an
acousti c radi ati on of 0.0003 watts. I n thi s
scal e, a di fference of 3 dB i s a rati o of 2:1;
10 dB a rati o of 10:1.
The chart i n Fi gure 7 i l l ustrates
di fferences i n deci bel s and rati os i n
sound pressure and power. Sound power
i n deci bel s i s a measure of the total
sound radi ati on from a uni t, whi l e sound
pressure, al so i n deci bel s, i s the strength
of a sound wave after i t travel s a
speci fi ed di stance from the uni t.
The two deci bel scal es are rel ated despi te
the di scussed di fferences. The change i n
one wi l l produce the same numeri cal
change i n the other.
For exampl e: I f the sound power of a
engi ne was i ncreased by 10 dB, the
sound pressure of that noi se at any gi ven
poi nt woul d al so i ncrease 10 dB.
Figure 7
Noise Addition
When standi ng by an engi ne, the noi se
heard from other engi nes operati ng i n
the same area wi l l depend on the spaci ng
of the engi nes and where the person i s i n
rel ati on to the spaci ng.
Sones-Loudness Comparison
Sones
Loudness
Category
Below 30
30-40
40-45
45-50
50-60
Above 60
Very Quiet
Quiet
Medium Quiet
Medium Loud
Loud
Very Loud
SCATTER
BAND IS
3db(A) WIDE
SCATTER BAND IS
ABOUT 20% WIDE
LOUDNESS-dB(A)
LOUDNESS
-SONES
COMPARISON OF SONES
vs. db(A)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
60 70 80 90 100
dB INCREASE
SOUND PRESSURE
dB INCREASE
SOUND POWER
20
15
10
5
20
15
10
5
X10
X4
X2
X1.4
X16
X4
X2
X100
Comparison Of Sones
vs. db(A)
48
Exampl e: At a poi nt equi di stant among
four i denti cal engi nes wi th one operati ng
at a measured 80 dB(A) at the reference
poi nt, what wi l l the measurement be
when a second engi ne i s runni ng?
As doubl i ng sound pressure i ncreases the
deci bel l evel by 6 dB, a meter wi l l read
83 dB(A) after the second engi ne i s
started. The second machi ne doubl es
sound power, not sound pressure. Noi se
addi ti on i s made on the basi s of sound
power.
Starti ng the second pai r of engi nes
woul d doubl e the sound power agai n
and the l evel woul d ri se another 3 dB
to 86 dB(A). The sound pressure i s now
twi ce that of a si ngl e engi ne.
A chart showi ng the combi ned effect of
up to ten equal sound sources i s shown i n
Fi gure 8. Note that l oudness i s changed
l ess than sound pressure as addi ti onal
uni ts are consi dered. Two sources are
20% and four sources are 40% l ouder
than a si ngl e source when consi dered i n
sones.
Figure 8
The exampl e sel ected i s easy to vi sual i ze.
However, i t i s no more di ffi cul t when
consi deri ng engi nes wi th di fferent sound
power l evel s or i f the measurement poi nt
i s not an equal di stance from al l
machi nes. I n such cases, the chart of
Fi gure 9 can be used.
0
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2
4
6
8
10
2
ADDITION OF EQUAL SOUNDS
INCREASE IN SOUND PRESSURE
dB or dB(A)
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

d
B

o
r

d
B
(
A
)
Number of sources
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
x1
x1.5
x2
1
RELATIVE LOUDNESS IN SONES
M
u
l
t
i
p
l
i
e
r
Number of sources
based on experimental data given in figure 43
2
Addition Of Equal Sounds
49
Figure 9
Fi gure 9 shows the versati l i ty of the
deci bel system. Al though cal cul ati ons are
made on the basi s of sound power, the
system uses measured or cal cul ated
sound pressures. Use the di fference i n
the pressure l evel s of two sounds to fi nd
how thei r combi ned l evel exceeds the
hi gher of the two. Fi rst adjust the l evel s
for the di stances from the source to the
spot where the noi ses are bei ng added, as
expl ai ned on page 46. To add a thi rd
l evel , use the same process to combi ne i t
wi th the total of the fi rst two. Fi gure 9
can be used to check the data i n
Fi gure 8.
Noise Exposure
Exposure to excessi ve noi se causes
permanent heari ng damage and
adversel y affects worki ng effi ci ency and
comfort. Recogni zi ng thi s, the U.S.
Government created the Occupati onal
Safety and Heal th Act (OSHA) whi ch
establ i shed l i mi ts for i ndustri al
envi ronments.
When an i ndi vi dual s dai l y noi se
exposure, desi gnated D(8), i s composed of
two or more peri ods of noi se at di fferent
l evel s, the combi ned effect i s cal cul ated
by: D(8) = (C1/T1) + (C2/T2) + ... +
(Cn/Tn). Cn i s the durati on of exposure
at a speci fi ed sound l evel and Tn i s the
total ti me of exposure permi tted at a
speci fi ed sound l evel as shown i n Fi gure
10. The noi se exposure i s acceptabl e
when equal to or l ess than 1.
Figure 10
Noise Control
Noi se can be ei ther ai rborne or
structureborne transmi tted.
Structureborne noi se i s vi brati on
transmi tted through a structure,
typi cal l y that supporti ng the engi ne.
Noi se control methods are di fferent for
the two sources.
Mechanical Noise Control
Structureborne noi se can be control l ed by
i sol ati ng the engi ne from the supporti ng
structure usi ng Caterpi l l ar s resi l i ent
mounts for propul si on engi nes and spri ng
i sol ators for shi p set generator engi nes.
See the Mounti ng secti on of thi s gui de for
detai l s. Ai rborne noi se can be control l ed
through baffl es, sound encl osures,
absorpti on materi al s, or any combi nati on
of the above methods. An approxi mate
gui de compari ng vari ous i sol ati on
methods i s i l l ustrated i n
Fi gure 11.
Free-fi el d mechani cal ai rborne noi se
pl ots for vari ous 3600 Engi nes and
rati ngs are pl otted on pages 51
through 54.
0
.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
ADDITION OF UNEQUAL SOUNDS
Decibels
added
to
higher
of
two
noises
to
obtain
total
in
dB
Difference between two noises in dB
Duration
of Daily Exposure
Hours
Allowable
level
dB(A)
8
6
4
3
2
11/2
1
1/2
1/4 or less
90
92
95
97
100
102
105
110
115
Addition of Unequal Sounds
50
The top curve i ndi cates sound power
l evel i n dB. The three l ower curves are
the sound pressure l evel s i n dB at
di stances of 1, 7, and 15 meters
(arranged top to bottom). The dB l evel s
are pl otted at octave band center
frequenci es of 63, 125, 250, 500, 1000,
2000, 4000, and 8000 Hz. Bel ow the
charts the number i n parentheses i s the
overal l dB(A) l evel at the i ndi cated
di stance. The abbrevi ati on SP stands for
Sound Power.
The mechani cal noi se pl ots are val i d for
al l power setti ngs at a gi ven engi ne
speed.
Exhaust Noise Control
Exhaust noi se i s typi cal l y ai rborne.
Exhaust noi se attenuati on i s commonl y
achi eved wi th a si l encer typi cal l y capabl e
of reduci ng exhaust noi se 15 dB(A) when
measured 3.3 m (10 ft) perpendi cul ar to
the exhaust outl et. See gui de secti on on
Exhaust for exhaust si l encer
i nformati on.
Free-fi el d exhaust noi se pl ots for 3600
Engi nes wi th MCR and CSR rati ngs are
shown on pages 55 and 56. The exhaust
noi se pl ots are val i d onl y at the i ndi cated
power and speed. Onl y pl ots for the 3606
are shown wi th dB(A) modi fi cati ons for
the other engi nes l i sted on each 3606
chart. The format i s i denti cal to the
mechani cal noi se curves except that
sound pressure l evel s are shown at
di stances of 1.5, 7, and 15 meters.
Original
Machine
Vibration
Isolators
Baffle
Absorption
Material Only
Rigid Sealed
Enclosure
Enclosure, and
Isolators
Enclosure,
Absorption
and Isolators
Double Walled
Enclosure,
Absorption and
Isolators
Approximate
Sound Level
Reduction dB(A)
0
2
5
5
15-20
25-30
35-40
60-80
Figure 11
51
100
70
63 125
Frequency (Hz)
120
250 500
140
1000 2000 4000 8000
60
80
90
110
130
150
d
B
15M (91 dB(A)) 7M (97 dB(A)) 1M (108 dB(A)) SP (122 dB(A))
100
70
63 125
Frequency (Hz)
Free-Field Mechanical Noise
All Ratings for 3606 Engines @ 1000 rpm
Free-Field Mechanical Noise
All Ratings for 3606 Engines @ 900 rpm
120
250 500
140
1000 2000 4000 8000
60
80
90
110
130
150
d
B
15M (89 dB(A)) 7M (95 dB(A)) 1M (106 dB(A)) SP (120 dB(A))
52
100
70
63 125
Frequency (Hz)
120
250 500
140
1000 2000 4000 8000
60
80
90
110
130
150
d
B
100
70
63 125
Frequency (Hz)
Free-Field Mechanical Noise
All Ratings for 3608 Engines @ 1000 rpm
Free-Field Mechanical Noise
All Ratings for 3608 Engines @ 900 rpm
120
250 500
140
1000 2000 4000 8000
60
80
90
110
130
150
d
B
15M (94 dB(A)) 7M (100 dB(A)) 1M (111 dB(A)) SP (125 dB(A))
15M (92 dB(A)) 7M (97 dB(A)) 1M (108 dB(A)) SP (122 dB(A))
53
100
70
63 125
Frequency (Hz)
120
250 500
140
1000 2000 4000 8000
60
80
90
110
130
150
d
B
63 125
Frequency (Hz)
Free-Field Mechanical Noise
All Ratings for 3612 Engines @ 1000 rpm
Free-Field Mechanical Noise
All Ratings for 3612 Engines @ 900 rpm
250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
100
70
120
140
60
80
90
110
130
150
d
B
15M (92 dB(A)) 7M (98 dB(A)) 1M (109 dB(A)) SP (123 dB(A))
15M (90 dB(A)) 7M (95 dB(A)) 1M (107 dB(A)) SP (119 dB(A))
54
63 125
Frequency (Hz)
250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
100
70
120
140
60
80
90
110
130
150
d
B
63 125
Frequency (Hz)
Free-Field Mechanical Noise
All Ratings for 3616 Engines @ 1000 rpm
Free-Field Mechanical Noise
All Ratings for 3616 Engines @ 900 rpm
250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
100
70
120
140
60
80
90
110
130
150
d
B
15M (95 dB(A)) 7M (101 dB(A)) 1M (112 dB(A)) SP (126 dB(A))
15M (93 dB(A)) 7M (98 dB(A)) 1M (109 dB(A)) SP (123 dB(A))
55
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
Frequency (Hz)
SP (127 dB(A)) 1.5M (115 db(A)) 7M (102 dB(A)) 15M (95 dB(A))
d
B
For continuous 3608 1000 rpm 2460 bkW, add 1 dB(dB(A)) at each level
For continuous 3612 1000 rpm 3700 bkW, add 2 dB(dB(A)) at each level
For continuous 3616 1000 rpm 4920 bkW, add 3 dB(dB(A)) at each level
For continuous 3608 900 rpm 2300 bkW, add 1 dB(dB(A)) at each level
For continuous 3612 900 rpm 3460 bkW, add 2 dB(dB(A)) at each level
For continuous 3616 900 rpm 4600 bkW, add 3 dB(dB(A)) at each level
FREE-FIELD EXHAUST NOISE
Continuous 3606 Engine @ 1000 rpm 1850 bkW (CSR)
FREE-FIELD EXHAUST NOISE
Continuous 3606 Engine @ 900 rpm 1730 bkW (CSR)
d
B
Frequency (Hz)
SP (127 dB(A)) 1.5M (115 db(A)) 7M (102 dB(A)) 15M (95 dB(A))
56
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
d
B
Freqency (Hz)
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
FREE-FIELD EXHAUST NOISE
3606 Engine @ 900 rpm 1900 bkW (MCR)
FREE-FIELD EXHAUST NOISE
3606 Engine @ 1000 rpm 2030 bkW (MCR)
For 3608 900 rpm 2530 bkW, add 1 dB(dB(A)) at each level
For 3612 900 rpm 3800 bkW, add 2 dB(dB(A)) at each level
For 3616 900 rpm 5060 bkW, add 3 dB(dB(A)) at each level
For 3608 1000 rpm 2710 bkW, add 1 dB(dB(A)) at each level
For 3612 1000 rpm 4060 bkW, add 2 dB(dB(A)) at each level
For 3616 1000 rpm 5420 bkW, add 3 dB(dB(A)) at each level
Freqency (Hz)
SP (127 dB(A)) 1.5M (116 db(A)) 7M (102 dB(A)) 15M (96 dB(A))
SP (127 dB(A)) 1.5M (116 db(A)) 7M (103 dB(A)) 15M (96 dB(A))
d
B
57
Intake Noise Control
I ntake noi se i s typi cal l y ai rborne. I ntake
noi se attenuati on i s achi eved through
ei ther ai r cl eaner el ements or i ntake
si l encers. Noi se attenuati on due to
vari ous ai r cl eaners and si l encers can be
suppl i ed by the component manufacturer.
Sound Level Conversion
3600 sound l evel i nformati on i s
presented both i n terms of sound power
l evel dB(A) and sound pressure l evel
dB(A) at a gi ven di stance from the noi se
source.
Sound power l evel i s the total sound
power bei ng radi ated from a source and
i ts magni tude i s i ndependent of the
di stance from the source. Rel ati ve
l oudness compari sons between engi nes i s
si mpl y a compari son of thei r sound
power l evel s at equi val ent operati ng
condi ti ons. When the sound power l evel
i s known, the sound pressure l evel at any
di stance from a poi nt source (such as
exhaust noi se) can be easi l y cal cul ated. A
di sadvantage of thi s system i s that sound
pressure l evel conversi on i s val i d for a
poi nt source onl y. I t cannot be used for
mechani cal noi se si nce the source
(overal l engi ne) i s qui te l arge.
The equati on for determi ni ng the sound
pressure l evel of exhaust noi se i s:
Sound Pressure Level , dB(A) = Sound POWER Level , dB(A) - 10
X Log
10
(CD
2
)
Where C = 2 For exhaust source adjacent to a fl at surface. such
as a hori zontal exhaust pi pe adjacent to a fl at roof.
or C = 4 For exhaust source some di stance from surroundi ng
surfaces.
D = Di stance from exhaust noi se source, (m).
I f the sound pressure l evel of a poi nt
source at some di stance i s known, the
sound pressure l evel at a second di stance
can be cal cul ated usi ng thi s formul a:
SPL
2
= SPL
1
- 20 X Log
10
(D2 D
1
)
Where SPL
1
= known sound pressure l evel , dB(A)
SPL
2
= desi red sound pressure l evel , dB(A)
D
1
= known di stance, m (ft)
D
2
= desi red di stance, m (ft)
58
Vibration
Al l engi nes produce vi brati on due to
combusti on forces, torque reacti ons, and
foundati on desi gns. Vi brati ons can create
condi ti ons rangi ng from unwanted noi se
to excessi ve stress l evel s.
Vi brati ng stresses can reach destructi ve
l evel s at engi ne speeds whi ch cause
resonance. Resonance occurs when
natural system frequenci es coi nci de wi th
engi ne exci tati on frequenci es. Each 3600
application must be analyzed for
critical linear and torsional vibration.
Figure 12
The ti me requi red for the wei ght to
compl ete one movement i s a period (see
Fi gure 13).
Amplitudei s the maxi mum di spl acement
from the mean posi ti on. A cyclei s the
i nterval for the moti on to repeat.
Linear Vibration
Li near vi brati on i s di ffi cul t to defi ne
wi thout i nstrumentati on. Human senses
cannot detect rel ati onshi ps between the
magni tude of vi brati on and peri od of
occurrence. A fi rst order (1 x rpm)
vi brati on of 0.254 mm (0.010 i n.)
di spl acement may feel the same as thi rd
order (3 x rpm) measurement of
0.051 mm (0.002 i n.).
Vi brati on occurs when a mass i s
defl ected and returned al ong the same
path, as i l l ustrated i n Fi gure 12. The
mass travel s through i ts ori gi nal posi ti on
unti l stopped by fri cti onal forces. When
external forces, such as the engi ne,
conti nue to affect the vi brati ng system,
forced vibrationoccurs.
I f the wei ght compl etes a cycl e i n one
second, the frequencyi s one cycl e per
second or one Hertz.
A system compl eti ng ful l moti on 20 ti mes
a mi nute has a frequency of 20 cycl es per
mi nute (20 cpm) or .33 cycl es
per second (.33 Hertz).
W
SPRING AT REST
(MEAN POSITION)
W
SPRING EXTENDED
X
MASS-SPRING SYSTEM
1 CYCLE
POSITION OF WEIGHT (X) AMPLITUDE
TIME
Mass-Spring System
Figure 13
Total di stance travel ed i s peak-to-peak
displacement, usual l y expressed i n mm
or mi l s. (One mi l equal s 0.00l i n.
(.025 mm)). I t i s a gui de to vi brati on
severi ty.
Average and root-mean-square(rms)
ampl i tudes are used to measure
vi brati on (rms = 0.707 ti mes peak
ampl i tudes.)
Mass vel oci ty measurement i s another
method of anal yzi ng vi brati on. Note the
exampl e i s changi ng di recti on as i t
moves. The mass speed i s al so constantl y
changi ng. At the di spl acement l i mi t the
speed i s 0. The vel oci ty i s greatest
whi l e passi ng through the neutral
posi ti on.
Vel oci ty i s i mportant but because of i ts
changi ng nature, peak vel oci ty i s the
poi nt sel ected for measurement. I t i s
normal l y expressed i n mm per second or
i nches per second. The rel ati onshi p
between peak vel oci ty and peak-to-peak
di spl acement i s:
Metri c Uni ts: V Peak = 3.138 D F
Where:
V Peak = Vi brati on vel oci ty i n mm per sec, (peak).
D = Peak-to-peak di spl acement, i n mm.
F = Frequency i n hertz, (cps).
Engl i sh Uni ts:
V Peak = 52.3 D F x 10
-6
Where:
V Peak = Vibration velocity in in. per sec,(peak).
D = Peak-to-peak di spl acement, i n mi l s.
F = Frequency i n cycl es per mi nute (cpm).
Accel erati on i s another characteri sti c of
vi brati on. I n the exampl e, peak
accel erati on i s at the extreme l i mi t of
travel where vel oci ty i s 0. As vel oci ty
i ncreases, accel erati on decreases unti l i t
reaches 0 at the neutral poi nt.
Accel erati on i s di mensi oned i n uni ts of
g (peak), where g equal s gravi tati onal
accel erati on 9.8 m/s
2
= 32.2 ft/s
2
.
Accel erati on measurements, or gs, are
used to express l arge forces. At very hi gh
frequenci es, e.g., 1000 Hz (60,000 cpm),
i t i s perhaps the best i ndi cator of
vi brati on.
Vi brati on accel erati on can be cal cul ated
from peak di spl acement as fol l ows:
Metri c Uni ts:
Number of gs (Peak) = 2.01 DF x 10
-3
Where:
D = Peak to peak di spl acement i n mm
F = Frequency i n Hertz (cycl es/sec)
UPPER LIMIT
PEAK
ACCELERATION
PEAK
VELOCITY
PEAK-TO-PEAK
DISPLACEMENT
D
I
S
T
A
N
C
E
NEUTRAL POS.
LOWER LIMIT
PERIOD
TIME
59
60
Engl i sh Uni ts:
Number of gs (Peak) = 1.42 D F
2
x 10
-8
Where:
D = Peak-to-peak di spl acement, i n mi l s
F = Frequency i n cycl es per mi nute (cpm).
Machi nery vi brati on i s compl ex and
consi sts of many frequenci es.
Di spl acement, vel oci ty, and accel erati on
are al l used to di agnose parti cul ar
probl ems. Di spl acement measurements
are commonl y used as i ndi cators of
dynami c stresses.
Isolation
I sol ati on i s requi red i f (1) engi ne
vi brati on must be separated from vessel
structures, or (2) vi brati ons from nearby
equi pment are transmi tted to
i noperati ve engi nes.
Runni ng uni ts are rarel y affected by
exteri or vi brati ons. Methods of i sol ati on
are the same for external or sel f-
generated vi brati ons.
Pi pi ng connected to engi nes requi res
i sol ati on, parti cul arl y when resi l i ent
mounti ng i s used. Fuel and water l i nes,
exhaust pi pes, and condui t can transmi t
vi brati ons l ong di stances. I sol ator pi pe
hangers shoul d have spri ngs to
attenuate l ow frequenci es, and rubber or
cork to mi ni mi ze hi gh frequency
transmi ssi ons. To prevent bui l dup of
resonant pi pe vi brati ons, l ong pi pi ng
runs must be supported at unequal
di stances (see Fi gure 14).
Isolation-Propulsion Engines
Caterpi l l ar offers two types of i sol ati on
mounti ng systems for mari ne propul si on
engi nes.
1. Si l i con shear pads l ocated between
the engi ne mounti ng feet and the
shi p foundati on.
2. Chri sti e and Grey spri ng and rubber
mounts al so l ocated between the
engi ne mounti ng feet and the shi p
foundati on.
These systems are covered i n detai l i n
the Mounting and Alignment secti on of
thi s gui de.
Linear Vibration
Measurement
Equi pment measurements shoul d be
made usi ng the Caterpi l l ar vi brati on
anal yzer (Part No 4C3030). I f Caterpi l l ar
measuri ng equi pment i s not avai l abl e,
an equi val ent devi ce capabl e of
measuri ng peak-to-peak di spl acement at
sel ected frequenci es, overal l vel oci ty, and
overal l di spl acement shoul d be used.
A A A A
A B C D
A B C D . . .etc.
= = = / / /
GOOD
POOR
Figure 14
61
Measurement Location
Vi brati on shoul d be measured at ei ght
poi nts on propul si on engi ne and shi p set
generator packages. The poi nts are
i l l ustrated i n Fi gure 15 for propul si on
engi nes and Fi gure 16 for shi p set
generator packages.
Point 1
Verti cal di recti on at the front of the
engi ne; l ocate probe on the top deck of
the bl ock i n the pl ane of the crank
centerl i ne for i nl i ne engi nes, and at the
base of the aftercool er housi ng at the
crank centerl i ne on vee engi nes.
Point 2
Hori zontal di recti on at the front of the
engi ne; l ocate probe on the si de of the
bl ock at the crank centerl i ne.
Point 3
Verti cal di recti on at the rear of the
engi ne; l ocate probe on the top deck of
the bl ock i n the pl ane of the crank
centerl i ne for i nl i ne engi nes, and at the
top of the rear housi ng at the crank
centerl i ne on vee engi nes.
Point 4
Hori zontal di recti on at the rear of the
engi ne; l ocate probe on the si de of the
bl ock at the crank centerl i ne.
Point 5
Verti cal di recti on at the rear of the
mari ne gear (or at the rear of the
generator); l ocate probe on the top of the
output shaft beari ng (or generator frame)
at the shaft centerl i ne.
Point 6
Hori zontal di recti on at the rear of the
mari ne gear (generator); l ocate probe on
the si de of the mari ne gear (generator
frame) at the shaft centerl i ne.
Point 7
Verti cal di recti on at the ri ght rear engi ne
foot.
Point 8
Axi al di recti on at the rear of the mari ne
gear (generator); l ocate the probe on the
rear of the mari ne gear housi ng
(generator frame) on a ri gi d member
not sheet metal at the shaft
centerl i ne.
1
2
7 6
3
5
4
8

1, 3, 5
2, 4, 6
7
Figure 15
8
6 7
7
4,6
1,3,5
2
1
3
4
5
62
Operating Conditions
and Data Format
Vi brati on measurements must be made
at the adverti sed engi ne rati ng (100%
l oad). I f addi ti onal data i s desi red, i t i s
recommended that measurements be
made at 0% l oad, 50% l oad, and 75%
l oad.
Data must be reported i n terms of peak-
to-peak di spl acement (mi l s) at 1/2 order
frequency, 1st order frequency, overal l
vel oci ty l evel (i nches per second) and
overal l di spl acement (mi l s) for each of
the ei ght measuri ng l ocati ons.
Linear Vibration Limits
The vi brati on l evel s for any l oad
condi ti on at any of the ei ght measuri ng
l ocati ons cannot exceed the fol l owi ng
l i mi ts for ri gi dl y mounted engi nes:
Peak-to-peak di spl acement l i mi t at
1/2 order frequency = .13 mm (5.0 mi l s)
Peak-to-peak di spl acement l i mi t at 1st
order frequency = .13 mm (5.0 mi l s)
Overal l di spl acement = .22 mm
(8.5 mi l s)
Overal l vel oci ty = 34.3 mm/sec
(1.35 i n./sec)
I f the measured vibration levels exceed
the limits, contact your Caterpillar dealer
representative or Caterpillar factory
representative for assistance.
Engi nes whi ch are mounted on resi l i ent
mounts (rubber or spri ng and rubber
i sol ators) may exhi bi t fi rst order
vi brati on l evel s between 6 and 15 mi l s
peak-to-peak dependi ng on the natural
frequency of the resi l i ent mounts. A
contri buti ng factor to thi s fi rst order
vi brati on i s that the engi ne i s
i ntenti onal l y mi sal i gned to the mari ne
gear at l ow l oad condi ti ons to ensure that
the torque reacti on of the engi ne under
l oad wi l l resul t i n acceptabl e al i gnment.
The resi l i ent mount system suppl i er
must perform extensi ve cal cul ati ons.
Thi s ensures that the natural frequency
of the i sol ators wi l l not be exci ted at
normal operati ng engi ne speed and l oad
condi ti ons. Vi brati ons occuri ng near l ow
i dl e are normal l y not objecti onabl e.
Alignment and Trim Balance
Engi ne al i gnment out of speci fi cati on can
resul t i n excessi ve fi rst order vi brati on
di spl acement. I f excessi ve fi rst order
di spl acement i s found whi l e other l i mi ts
are met, the al i gnment must be
measured and corrected.
I f al i gnment i s found to be acceptabl e
and fi rst order vi brati on di spl acement i s
unacceptabl e, engi ne tri m bal anci ng can
reduce engi ne fi rst order vi brati on l evel s
by usi ng wei ghts avai l abl e from
Caterpi l l ar I nc. A vi brati on bal ancer
(Part No. 4C3020) and the Caterpi l l ar
3600 Engi ne Tri m Bal ance chart are al so
avai l abl e through Caterpi l l ar I nc.
1 3
1,3,5
2 4
5
6
8
7
2,4,6
7
VIBRATION MEASUREMENT LOCATIONS
Figure 16
Vibration Measurement Locations
7
4
7
6
1,3,5
2,4,6
1
2
8
3
5
63
Torsional Vibrations
Torsi onal vi brati ons occur as engi ne
components, such as an engi ne
crankshaft, twi st and recover. Standard
engi ne components, wi thstand normal
stresses caused by combusti on forces and
torque reacti ons. Engi ne mounti ng
systems and dri ve arrangements must be
desi gned to prevent the natural
frequency of the dri ve trai n from
approachi ng the uni ts operati ng speed.
Fai l ure of crankshaft, coupl i ngs, gears or
beari ngs may resul t wi thout up front
careful attenti on.
Torsional Analysis
Al l 3600 engi ne appl i cati ons requi re a
torsi onal vi brati on anal ysi s. Thi s
i ncl udes factory packaged shi p set
generator packages on Caterpi l l ar
desi gned bases. The anal ysi s must be
performed by ei ther the customer or by
Caterpi l l ar, dependi ng on the customer s
preference. Customer performed
anal yses are subject to Caterpi l l ar
revi ew and approval and Caterpi l l ar does
not assume responsi bi l i ty for an anal ysi s
performed by others wi thout the
approval . For a Caterpi l l ar performed
anal ysi s, one compl ete set of techni cal
data must be submi tted to Caterpi l l ar
before cal cul ati ons are undertaken (see
the General I nformation secti on of thi s
gui de on Torsi onal and Vi brati on
Anal ysi s). The report wi l l i ncl ude a
mathemati cal determi nati on of the
natural frequency, cri ti cal speeds,
rel ati ve ampl i tudes of angul ar
di spl acement, and approxi mate nodal
l ocati ons of the compl ete el asti c system
(both engi ne and dri ven equi pment).

Note: Consult factory on compound
installations. There may be additional
charges for analysis of applications where
more than one engine drives a single
load. A separate torsional analysis is also
required for each engine with different
driven equipment in multiple engine
installations.
Engine Torsional Pickup
Each 3600 Engi ne i s equi pped wi th a
magneti c pi ckup (7C1897) i nstal l ed
i nsi de the front housi ng. I t generates a
si gnal from the front crankshaft gear
(96 teeth) and can be connected to a
torsi ograph. The el ectri cal characteri sti cs
of the pi ckup are:
I nternal i mpedance .................100 Ohms
Open ci rcui t
vol tage at
1000 rpm......................Approx. 80V A.C.
Max. current
output
capabi l i ty........................10 mi l l i amperes
The pi ckup output vol tage i s
approxi matel y 50 vol ts when usi ng a
test i nstrument of approxi matel y
10,000 Ohms i mpedance.
The pi ckup shoul d be used when
measuri ng torsi onal s on al l 3600 engi ne
i nstal l ati ons, parti cul arl y when a hi gh
i nerti a front dri ve i s used. I t can al so be
used to check eventual damper or fl exi bl e
coupl i ng deteri orati on.
Reference Material
LEHX1086 EDS 31.1, Li near
Vi brati on I sol ators
LEHX9166 EDS 73.1, Li near
Vi brati on
LEKQ2352 EDS 206.1, Torsi onal
Vi brati on Dampers
SEHS9162 Speci al I nstructi ons -
Spri ng I sol ators


Engine Performance

Engine Ratings
Distillate Fuel
Marine Propulsion
Marine Auxiliary Generator Sets
Heavy Fuel
Marine Propulsion
Marine Auxiliary Generator Sets
Performance Criteria
Marine Performance Curves
Application Guidelines
Marine Performance Parameters
Limit Definitions
Conditions
Fuel Consumption
3600 Idle Fuel Rates
Tolerances

67

Engine Ratings

Distillate Fuel
Marine Propulsion
Avai l abl e standard rati ngs for 3600
Engi nes are shown i n Fi gure 1.
Fi gures 2 through 17 show di sti l l ate fuel
mari ne propul si on performance curves.
The curves are shown i n both Engl i sh
and metri c uni ts at the same rati ngs
shown on the techni cal data sheets i n
the

Engine Data secti on of thi s gui de.
Read this complete guide section for
clarification of rating conditions and
limits.
Marine Auxiliary Generator Sets
Avai l abl e standard rati ngs and
performance data for di sti l l ate fuel
mari ne auxi l i ary generator sets are i n
the 3600 EPG A&I Gui de (LEKX6559).
Heavy Fuel
Marine Propulsion
Avai l abl e standard rati ngs for 3600
Engi nes are shown i n Fi gure 18. Fi gures
19 through 27 show heavy fuel mari ne
propul si on performance curves. Note
that some heavy fuel engi ne rati ngs
have appl i cati on restri cti ons as
descri bed i n the respecti ve curves. There
are two rati ngs gi ven for the 1000 rpm
3608 and 3616 engi nes. The hi gher
rati ng i s al l owed onl y wi th control l abl e
pi tch propel l ers operati ng near rated
speed. I t i s not appl i cabl e for a fi xed
pi tch propel l er or water jet.
Heavy fuel engi nes must be careful l y
appl i ed for mari ne propul si on
appl i cati ons. Thorough knowl edge of the
vessel s operati on i s necessary. Part
speed operati on i s i mportant as val ve
temperatures are usual l y hi ghest at part
speed. Li mi t zones of operati on are
shown on the heavy fuel rati ng sheet
and the performance curves that fol l ow.
The operati ng zones are:
Zone I Conti nuous operati on wi thout
restri cti on.
Zone I I For MCR rati ngs, read the
compl ete secti on for
expl anati on of MCR and CSR.
Operati on above the CSR
rati ng i s l i mi ted to 1 hr/12 hr
(8% of ti me) due to exhaust
val ve temperature, cyl i nder
pressure and turbocharger
speed. Conti nuous operati on
(more than 1 hr at a gi ven
ti me) i s acceptabl e i f
cumul ati ve ti me at hi gh l oad
i s l i mi ted. Operati on i n zone I I
for cumul ati ve peri ods more
than 8% of the total ti me wi l l
requi re more frequent
overhaul .
Zone I I I Operati on i s l i mi ted due to
val ve temperature.
Recommended operati on
peri ods l i mi ted to transi ent
condi ti ons (such as
accel erati on). Operati on i n thi s
zone for 1 hr/12 hr (8% of ti me)
can reduce val ve l i fe by
approxi matel y 20%.
Zone I V Operati on i s l i mi ted to
1 hr/12 hr due to combusti on
deposi ts. Peri odi c operati on at
hi gh l oad i s needed to cl ear
deposi ts. Val ve temperatures
are not a consi derati on.
Control l abl e pi tch propel l ers al l owi ng
the sel ecti on of speed and l oad
combi nati ons are very useful i n
provi di ng l ong val ve l i fe.
Heavy fuel marine propulsion ratings
operating in zones I I and I I I must be
approved individually by Caterpillar.
The custom nature of the appl i cati ons
requi re i ndi vi dual attenti on. Submi t a
speci al rati ng request form (LEXQ1183)
shown i n Fi gure 28. I nformati on on the
vessel , i ntended duty, ambi ent
condi ti ons, fuel sodi um and vanadi um,
and propel l er must be provi ded.
Applications operating only in Zones I
and I V do not need prior approval.
68
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
1490 (2000)
2151 (312)
1560 (2090)
2112 (306)
1730 (2320)
2082 (302)
1850 (2480)
2003 (290)
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
2180 (2920)
2361 (342)
2290 (3070)
2325 (337)
2530 (3390)
2283 (331)
2710 (3630)
2201 (319)
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
1980 (2660)
2144 (311)
2080 (2790)
2112 (306)
2300 (3080)
2076 (301)
2460 (3300)
1998 (290)
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
3280 (4400)
2368 (343)
3440 (4610)
2328 (338)
3800 (5100)
2286 (331)
4060 (5440)
2198 (319)
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
2980 (4000)
2151 (312)
3120 (4180)
2112 (306)
3460 (4640)
2082 (302)
3700 (4960)
2003 (290)
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
4360 (5850)
2361 (342)
4580 (6140)
2325 (337)
5060 (6790)
2283 (331)
5420 (7270)
2201 (319)
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
3960 (5310)
2144 (311)
4160 (5580)
2112 (306)
4600 (6170)
2076 (301)
4920 (6600)
1998 (290)
3600 Distillate Fuel Marine Propulsion Ratings
Nominal 32C (90F) Coolant Temperature To Aftercooler
3606
MCR
POWER
BMEP
CSR
POWER
BMEP
3608
MCR
POWER
BMEP
CSR
POWER
BMEP
3612
MCR
POWER
BMEP
CSR
POWER
BMEP
3616
MCR
POWER
BMEP
CSR
POWER
BMEP
750 800 900 1000
Engine Speed Ratings*
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
1640 (2200)
2368 (343)
1720 (2310)
2328 (338)
1900 (2550)
2286 (331)
2030 (2720)
2198 (319)
* Read this complete section for application restrictions
Figure 1
69
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
1350 (1810)
1949 (283)
1355 (1820)
1778 (258)
1570 (2110)
1889 (274)
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
1980 (2660)**
2144 (311)
1980 (2660)*
1949 (283)
2300 (3090)*
2075 (301)
2320 (3115)*
1884 (273)
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
1800 (2415)**
1949 (283)
1800 (2415)*
1772 (257)
2090 (2805)*
1886 (273)
2110 (2850)*
1713 (264)
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
2970 (3985)
2144 (311)
2980 (4000)
1955 (284)
3460 (4645)
2081 (302)
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
2700 (3625)
1949 (283)
2710 (3640)
1778 (258)
3140 (4215)
1889 (274)
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
3960 (5315)**
2144 (311)
3960 (5315)*
1949 (283)
4600 (6175)*
2076 (301)
4640 (6230)*
1884 (273)
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
3600 (4830)**
1949 (283)
3600 (4830)*
1772 (257)
4180 (5610)*
1885 (273)
4220 (5665)*
1713 (248)
2460 (3300)***
1998 (290)
2240 (3005)***
1819 (264)
4920 (6600)***
1998 (290)
4480 (6015)***
1819 (264)
3700 (4965)
2003 (290)
3360 (4510)
1819 (264)
1680 (2260)
1819 (264)
Figure 18
3600 Heavy Fuel Marine Propulsion Ratings
Nominal 32C (90F) Coolant Temperature to Aftercooler
3606
MCR
POWER
BMEP
CSR
POWER
BMEP
3608
MCR
POWER
BMEP
CSR
POWER
BMEP
3612
MCR
POWER
BMEP
CSR
POWER
BMEP
3616
MCR
POWER
BMEP
CSR
POWER
BMEP
750 825 900
Engine Speed Ratings
bkW (bhp)
kPa (psi)
1485 (1995)
2144 (311)
1490 (2000)
1955 (283)
1730 (2320)
2081 (302)
1850 (2485)
2003 (290)
1000
Application
Restrictions
*
*
See
Footnotes
See
Footnotes
*
*
See
Footnotes
See
Footnotes
Application Restrictions:
Limited Time At Part Speed - See Individual Rating Curves For Limit Lines.
Very Limited Time At Part Speed, Generally Requires CP Propeller.
Always Requires CP Propeller.
*
**
***
70
3600 Engine Rating Request/Rating Information Form
PROJECT/CUSTOMER NAME________________________________________PROJ. NO.__________________
DEALER______________________________________
Requester:_______________________________Phone_______________________Date_______________________
Techni cal Serv. Rep._______________________________No. of Engi nes i s thi s Order______________________
I f appl i cabl e l i st Speci al Request No. assi gned to project: (SR)____________
MODEL_________________________Appl i cati on Descri pti on/Duty___________________________________
Aftercool er Ci rcui t: Si ngl e_________or Separate_________Temperature to AC_________C (Typi cal l y 50C)
ROT. (ccw/cw) Low I dl e Speed__________Hi gh I dl e Spd or %Droop__________Governor Type__________
I s thi s Engi ne Certi fi ed (Y/N):__________ Soci ety____________________________________________________
GENERATOR SETS:NOMINAL RATING_________ BKW or EKW @_________RPM(adverti sed)
(opti onal ) Fuel Stop power requested:_______________________BKW or EKW [wi th Standard Tol erances]
10% BKW overl oad capabi l i ty (3%bkw & 5%ekw) i s avai l abl e wi th Conti nuous
and Pri me Power rati ngs.
Generator Effi ci ency @ 100% PWR___________________________% (Assumed 96% i f not provi ded)
I s Lafayette packagi ng the Generator Set? (Y/N)
Are there any Generator Response Requi rements? (Y/N) I f yes, speci fy
Regul ator Type? (Vol ts-Hertz or Constant Vol tage)
NON GEN SETS:NOMINAL RATING_____________BKW (3%) @____________RPM (adverti sed)
Load Demand at the Fl ywheel by the Propel l er, Pump, etc.________________BKW (at rated speed)
Mari ne - Propel l er Type (fi xed Pi tch/Ctrl Pi tch)
(Non-Standard) Fuel Stop (overl oad) Power requested:____________%[Wi th Standard Tol erances]
Lug Requi rement? (Y/N)____________ % @____________ RPM
Load Profile (at rated speed)
Time at Idle ______
Total hrs/yr ______
Load factor (%)______
Time (specify scale)
SITE CONDITIONS: Max. Al ti tude____________Meters
Geographi cal Area:______________________________________________________
Ambi ent Ai r (to turbo) Range: Max____________C to Mi n______________C
Engi ne Room Temperature: Max___________________C to Mi n______________C
BSFC GUARANTEED:(Y/N)__________ I f yes, speci fy test procedure sal es code/3L number (s):__________
LHV(kJ/kg) ______ Guaranteed Val ue: ______ g/bkw*hr @ ______ BKW@ ______ RPM wi th ______ tol erance
Special Testing Description/Points:(l i st al l engi ne onl y tests; i nc. sal es codes/3L part no.)
(eg. Any speci al tests to be compl eted at si te/Deal er?)
EMISSION REGULATED(Y/N)________ I f yes, speci fy:
FUEL TYPE:Di sti l l ate (No. 2) ________; Resi dual Bl end ________
For Resi dual Bl end Speci fy: Fuel Temperature to the Engi ne (C) ________
Max Sul fur (%) _________ Max Vanadi um (ppm) _________ LHV(kJ/kg) _________ Sodi um (ppm) _________
Densi ty (kg/m^3) _________ Vi scosi ty (cst @ 50C)_________ Carbon Resi due (%)_________ Ash (%)________
Water & Sedi ment (%)________ Al umi num (ppm)________ Si l i con (ppm)________ Asphal tenes (%)________
Below for Technical Services Rep. Only
Non-Runnable Eng. Ar. ________________ ESO (s)________________ Turbo Selected: ________________
Head Group Selected:STD or P/N ________________
Below For Performance Engr. Only
Approved Rati ng: (Adverti sed) ____________ BKW or EKW @____________ RPM Appl Code _____________
(Fuel Stop) ____________ BKW or EKW @____________ RPM
Boost Rel i ef Val ve Requi red:____________
2T____________ Approved Turbo Prt No. ____________ Perf Engrg I ni t. ____________ Date ____________
LEXQ1183 (4-91) _________ Need New Spec STD or SPL _________ Append Database
(label peaks &
valleys in the
profile)
% Load
Figure 28
71
Marine Auxiliary Generator Sets
Avai l abl e standard rati ngs and
performance data for heavy fuel mari ne
auxi l i ary generator sets are i n the 3600
EPG A&I Gui de (LEKX6559).
Performance Criteria
Marine Performance Curves
Caterpi l l ar uses a two l evel rati ng
system for 3600 Engi ne mari ne
propul si on appl i cati ons
_
Continuous
Service Ratingand Maximum
Continuous Rating.
The Conti nuous Servi ce Rati ng (CSR)
corresponds to I SO Conti nuous and Fuel
Stop Power defi ni ti ons and i s si mi l ar to
the Mari ne Cl ass A Conti nuous Rati ngs
used on Caterpi l l ar s other engi nes. The
rati ng i s sui tabl e for conti nuous duty
appl i cati ons, i ncl udi ng dredges, for
operati on wi thout i nterrupti on or l oad
cycl i ng. I t i s i denti cal to Zone 1
operati on as defi ned by ETDS.
The Maxi mum Conti nuous Rati ng
(MCR) corresponds to I SO Overl oad and
Fuel Stop Power defi ni ti ons and i s 10%
hi gher than the CSR rati ng. I t i s si mi l ar
to the Mari ne Cl ass C I ntermi ttent
Rati ngs used on Caterpi l l ar s other
engi nes. The engi ne power actual l y
produced under normal operati ng
condi ti ons i s l i mi ted by appl i cati on
gui del i nes, l eavi ng a power reserve for
vessel foul i ng, non-conti nuous normal
operati on, and/or emergency reserve for
unusual operati ng condi ti ons. Thi s
rati ng i s general l y used for vessel
appl i cati ons i nvol vi ng varyi ng l oads. The
establ i shment of MCR rati ngs for 3600
Engi nes i s consi stent wi th practi ces of
most worl dwi de l arge engi ne
manufacturers.
Some speci fi cati ons requi re
demonstrati on of 10% overl oad
capabi l i ty above the CSR or MCR rati ng
l evel s. The overl oad capabi l i ty can be
demonstrated at the factory by
speci fyi ng a speci al factory performance
test. After compl eti on of the
demonstrati on test, the engi ne power i s
reset to the CSR or MCR power setti ng
as appl i cabl e.
The performance curves for CSR and
MCR rati ngs are si mi l ar i n format.
Fi gure 29 i s a typi cal curve on di sti l l ate
fuel . See Fi gures 19 through 27 for
heavy fuel curves. Both are pl otted i n
terms of engi ne power versus engi ne
speed, wi th operati ng l i mi t l i ne curves
i denti fi ed by the numbers 1 and 3 i n
the case of di sti l l ate fuel , and Zones i n
the case of heavy fuel . Curves 2 and 4
are the correspondi ng fi xed pi tch
propel l er demand curves based on 85%
of MCR output or 90% of CSR output..
Curve 1 defi nes the MCR l i mi ted ti me
operati ng capabi l i ty of the engi ne.
Operati on i n the zone between Curves 1
and 3 i s l i mi ted to an average of 1 hour
i n 12 (approxi matel y 8%) over the total
engi ne operati ng l i fe.
Curve 3 defi nes the CSR conti nuous
operati ng l i mi t of the engi ne. The zone
bel ow Curve 3 i s for conti nuous
operati on wi thout i nterrupti on or l oad
cycl i ng whi l e operati ng at any
combi nati on of power and speed on or
under Curve 3.
72
Curves 2 and 4 defi ne the power
demanded by a conventi onal fi xed pi tch
propel l er appl i ed at the recommended
propel l er desi gn match poi nt. Shaft
power may be assumed to be 97% of the
engi ne brake power. Curve 2 i s matched
to Curve 1 (MCR), and Curve 4 i s
matched to Curve 3 (CSR).
Note: Additional application
considerations are required for heavy
fuel. The primary concern is valve
temperature limits for vanadium
degradation. Because of vanadium level
uncertainties found in various bunkering
areas, Caterpillar is placing additional
restrictions on engine applications. See
Figures 19 through 27 for individual
rating restrictions. The actual allowed
rating will depend on many factors.
Contact Caterpillar if the desired rating
falls outside the presented guidelines.
Application Guidelines
The power requi red to devel op a gi ven
vessel speed wi l l tend to i ncrease over
the l i fe of a vessel , parti cul arl y due to
hul l foul i ng. Adverse maneuveri ng and
weather condi ti ons can resul t i n
i ncreased engi ne power requi rements to
mai ntai n vessel control . I t i s essenti al to
provi de some engi ne power reserve
when sel ecti ng the propel l er desi gn
match poi nt.
For 3600 mari ne propul si on appl i cati ons,
the gui del i nes for propel l er desi gn match
poi nt at rated engi ne speed are:
75
50
25
75
50
25
Zone of
Limited
Operation
Zone of
Continuous
Operation
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Propeller Design
Match Points
100
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

R
a
t
e
d

E
n
g
i
n
e

P
o
w
e
r
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

R
a
t
e
d

E
n
g
i
n
e

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Engine Speed
Curve #1 (MCR)
Curve #2
Curve #3 (CSR)
Curve #4
(PROP.@ 85% Of MCR)
(PROP.@ 90% Of CSR)
Typical Performance Ratings
1
3
2
4
Typical Performance Ratings Figure 29
Continuous
Service
Rating
Maximum
Continuous
Rating
90% of CSR
85% of MCR
100% CSR
100% MCR*
Fixed Pitch
Propeller
Controllable
Pitch
Propeller
* Operation above Curve 3 (CSR) is
limited to one hour out of 12
73
Propel l er desi gn match poi nts at rati ng
percentages other than speci fi ed by the
gui del i nes are sati sfactory provided
engine operating limits are not exceeded.
For control l abl e pi tch propel l er
appl i cati ons on di sti l l ate fuel , any
combi nati on of propel l er pi tch and
engi ne speed i s acceptabl e for
conti nuous operati on at or bel ow Curve
3 or for 1 hour i n 12 i n the zone between
Curves 1 and 3.
Propel l er match must al ways be veri fi ed
by sea tri al . The best measure of
propel l er match i s veri fi cati on of fuel
rate at rated engi ne speed.
Ri ver push boats and dredge pump dri ve
appl i cati ons are l i mi ted to CSR power
l evel s.
3600 appl i cati on gui del i nes are
comparabl e to those publ i shed by most
competi tors.
Marine Performance
Parameters
Limit Definitions
CSR Conti nuous operati on, i ncl udi ng
dredge engi nes, wi thout
i nterrupti on or l oad cycl i ng on or
under Curve 3.
MCR Operati on l i mi ted to an average
of 1 hour i n 12 hours of total
engi ne operati ng ti me.
Power Curves 2 and 4 represent
the power demand of a typi cal
fi xed pi tch propel l er, appl i ed at
the recommended propel l er
desi gn poi nt. Curve 2 i s matched
wi th Curve 1 (MCR), and Curve
4 i s matched to Curve 3 (CSR).
See the performance curves in Figures 19
through 27 for additional restrictions for
heavy fuel applications.
Conditions
Performance i s based upon SAE J1995
and I SO 3046/1 standard condi ti ons of
100 kPa (29.61 i n. Hg) barometri c
pressure, 25C (77F) ambi ent
temperature, and 30% rel ati ve humi di ty.
For mari ne engi ne appl i cati ons, the
nomi nal aftercool er water temperature
i s 32C (90F) (maxi mum 38C (100F))
i nstead of the 25C (77F) temperature
al l owed by I SO. Performance and fuel
consumpti on are based on 35 API , 16C
(60F) fuel havi ng a LHV of 42780 kJ/kg
(18,390 Btu/l b) used at 29C (85F) wi th
a densi ty of 838.9 g/L (7.001 l b/US gal ).
The performance curves show the gross
output capabi l i ty of an engi ne equi pped
wi th fuel , l ube oi l , and fresh water
cool i ng pumps. The fuel consumpti on
gi ven i ncl udes the same engi ne dri ven
equi pment. Power to dri ve auxi l i ari es
must be deducted from gross output to
arri ve at the net power avai l abl e.
Auxi l i ari es may i ncl ude a mari ne
transmi ssi on, an auxi l i ary generator,
and/or an auxi l i ary water pump.
Lug operati on bel ow 85% of rated speed
can resul t i n turbocharger surge,
dependi ng upon aftercool er water
temperature, i nl et restri cti on and
ambi ent condi ti ons.
For standard rati ngs, engi ne derati on i s
not requi red for ambi ent temperatures
up to 45C (113F).
Fuel Consumption
3600 brake speci fi c fuel consumpti on
(BSFC) i s based on SAE J1995 and I SO
3046 standard ambi ent condi ti ons of
100 kPa (29.61 i n. Hg) barometri c
pressure, 25C (77F) ambi ent
temperature and 30% rel ati ve humi di ty.
The BSFC fi gures are al so based on
typi cal producti on engi ne confi gurati ons,
i ncl udi ng engi ne dri ven fuel , oi l and
fresh water cool i ng pumps. BSFC
fi gures are based on 35 API test fuel
wi th LHV of 42,780 kJ/kg (18,390 Btu/l b)
and a Caterpi l l ar tol erance of
6 g/kW-hr (.010 l b/hp-hr) appl i es.
74
A number of 3600 competi tors decl are
fuel consumpti on accordi ng to I SO
3046/1 Standard or the Bri ti sh (BS
5514) and German (DI N 6271) versi ons
of thi s standard. The l atest revi si on of
I SO 3046/1 al l ows a maximum5%
tol erance for publ i shed BSFC data.
Some competi tors do not i ncl ude engi ne
dri ven oi l and water pumps i n thei r
adverti sed performance data.
The fuel consumption data included
in this guide, as well as TMI data,
has standard Caterpillar tolerances.
When compari ng 3600 BSFC to I SO
based competi tors, i t i s essenti al to use
i denti cal reference condi ti ons. To do thi s
i t i s necessary to convert 3600
performance curve BSFC from
SAE J1995 to I SO 3046/1 reference
condi ti ons usi ng the fol l owi ng
modi fi cati ons:
Subtract 4 g/kW-hr (.007 l b/hp-hr)
from the Caterpi l l ar performance
curve SAE J1995 BSFC fi gures to
compensate for the permi ssi bl e +5%
tol erance.
Subtract approxi matel y 5 g/kW-hr
(.008 l b/hp-hr) i n cases where the
competi ti ve si tuati on di ctates a fuel
consumpti on decl arati on wi thout
engi ne dri ven pumps.
The resul ts of the fuel consumpti on
cal cul ati ons deri ved above provi des an
I SO 3046/1 BSFC val ue based on +5%
tol erance, 42780 kJ/kg LHV fuel and
32C (90F) aftercool er water
temperature.
Other consi derati ons where appl i cabl e
are:
Compensate for al ternate reference
fuel heat val ues by mul ti pl yi ng the
3600 Engi ne BSFC by the Caterpi l l ar
test fuel LHV (42,780), di vi ded by the
reference fuel LHV.
Exampl e:
Caterpi l l ar BSFC of 193 g/bkW-hr
wi th 42,780 LHV. Competi ti on
decl ares BSFC wi th 43,000 LHV fuel .
Equi val ent Caterpi l l ar BSFC =
193 x
42780
= 192 g/bkW-hr
wi th 43,000 kJ/kg fuel .
Add 3% to the Caterpi l l ar
Performance Curve SAE J1995 BSFC
fi gures to obtai n a maxi mum
guaranteed rated fuel consumpti on.
Add 5% to the Caterpi l l ar
Performance Curve SAE J1995 BSFC
fi gures to obtai n maxi mum
guaranteed part l oad fuel
consumpti on.
Contact the factory for guaranteed
fuel consumpti on fi gures wi th heavy
fuel s. A compl ete fuel speci fi cati on i s
requi red.
The power requi red to dri ve the
Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed sea water pump
i s shown i n Fi gure 30. I t i s
someti mes necessary to esti mate the
added fuel consumpti on needed to
dri ve the pump at the rated speed of
the engi ne. Thi s can be found by
mul ti pl yi ng the BSFC for the rated
power by the sum of the rated power
and the pump power and then
di vi di ng by the rated power.
BSFC
SW
= BSFC
R
(Power
R
+ Power
SW
)
Power
R
43000
75
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
350 rpm
500 rpm
750 rpm
900 rpm
1000 rpm
Flow (L/min)
3600 Seawater Pump
Pump Power vs. Flow and Engine Speed
P
u
m
p

P
o
w
e
r

(
K
W
)
Note: Some competitors publish fuel
consumption figures based on a fuel
optimized engine configuration. This is
a fully run-in-test engine, generally
without water and oil pumps and with a
turbocharger match and fuel injection
rates/ timing not applicable to
production engines. Only guaranteed fuel
consumption figures can be compared for
specific applications.
3600 Idle Fuel Rates
Fi gure 31 shows the i dl e fuel rates of
3600 Engi nes operati ng on di sti l l ate fuel
wi th a densi ty of 838.9 g/L (7.001 l b/gal ).
Tolerances
The performance data presented i n thi s
secti on represent typi cal val ues under
normal operati ng condi ti ons. Ambi ent
ai r condi ti ons and fuel wi l l affect these
val ues. Each may vary i n accordance
wi th the tol erances shown i n
Fi gure 32.
Performance Tolerances
Item Tolerance
Power
Fuel rate
Specific fuel consumption
Inlet air flow
Exhaust flow
Heat rejection
Exhaust stack temperature
Intake manifold pressure
3%
5%
3%
5%
6%
5%
8%
10%
Flow (L/min)
3600 Seawater Pump
Pump Power vs. Flow and Engine Speed
P
u
m
p

P
o
w
e
r

(
K
W
)
Figure 32
Figure 30
76
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
6
0
0
7
0
0
8
0
0
9
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
26
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
3600 Engine Idle Fuel Rates
3
6
1
2
3
6
1
6
3
6
0
8
3
6
0
6
F
u
e
l

R
a
t
e

(
L
i
t
e
r
/
H
o
u
r
)
F
u
e
l

R
a
t
e

(
U
.
S
.

G
a
l
l
o
n
/
H
o
u
r
)
RPM
F
u
e
l

R
a
t
e

(
L
/
h
r
)
F
u
e
l

R
a
t
e

(
U
.
S
.

g
a
l
/
h
r
)
rpm
3600 Engine Idle Fuel Rates
Figure 31
77
Figure 2
78
Figure 3
79
Figure 4
80
Figure 5
81
Figure 6
82
Figure 7
83
Figure 8
84
Figure 9
Note: These ratings are for CPP applications only.
85
Figure 10
86
Figure 11
87
Figure 12
88
Figure 13
89
Figure 14
90
Figure 15
91
Figure 16
92
Figure 17
Note: These ratings are for CPP applications only.
93
CSR MCR
3606 - 1680 1850 bkW
3612 - 3360 3700 bkW
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20 40 60 80 100 120
Typical Propeller
Demand Curve
3606 and 3612 - 1000 RPM
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
Zone I - Continuous Duty
Zone II,III and IV - Limited Operation
I
III
IV
II
3606 and 3612 - 1000 rpm
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Zone l - Continuous Duty
Zone II, lll and lV - Limited Operation
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3606 Power 3612 Power 3606 Power 3612 Power
CONTINUOUS DUTY
CONTINUOUS DUTY
100.0%
90.0%
85.0%
80.0%
78.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
35.0%
1000
900
850
800
780
700
600
500
350
100.0%
90.0%
32.7%
28.6%
26.6%
23.1%
16.5%
12.4%
8.6%
1680
1512
550
480
447
388
277
208
145
3360
3024
1100
960
894
776
554
416
290
2253
2028
738
644
599
520
371
279
194
4506
4055
1475
1287
1199
1041
743
558
389
100.0%
90.0%
85.0%
80.0%
78.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
35.0%
1000
900
850
800
780
700
600
500
350
110.0%
99.1%
73.7%
60.1%
57.0%
41.2%
26.0%
15.0%
8.6%
1850
1665
1238
1010
957
692
436
252
145
3700
3330
2476
2020
1914
1384
872
504
290
2481
2233
1660
1354
1283
928
585
338
194
4962
4466
3320
2709
2567
1856
1169
676
389
3606/3612
1000 rpm
Figure 19
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3606 Power 3612 Power 3606 Power 3612 Power
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
INTERMITTENT DUTY
Figure 19
94
CSR MCR
3606 - 1570 1730 bkW
3612 - 3140 3460 bkW
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20 40 60 80 100 120
Typical Propeller
Demand Curve
3606 and 3612 - 900 RPM
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
Zone I - Continuous Duty
Zone II,III and IV - Limited Operation
I
III
IV
II
3606 and 3612 - 900 rpm
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Zone l - Continuous Duty
Zone II, lll and lV - Limited Operation
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3606 Power 3612 Power 3606 Power 3612 Power
CONTINUOUS DUTY
CONTINUOUS DUTY
100.0%
88.9%
83.3%
80.0%
77.8%
66.7%
55.6%
44.4%
38.9%
900
800
750
720
700
600
500
400
350
100.0%
88.9%
30.9%
27.5%
25.5%
21.2%
14.7%
10.6%
9.2%
1570
1396
485
432
401
333
231
166
145
3140
2792
970
864
802
666
462
332
290
2105
1872
650
579
538
447
310
223
194
4211
3744
1301
1159
1075
893
620
445
389
100.0%
88.9%
83.3%
80.0%
77.8%
66.7%
55.6%
44.4%
38.9%
900
800
750
720
700
600
500
400
350
110.0%
98.0%
69.4%
61.4%
56.4%
35.5%
20.6%
10.6%
9.2%
1730
1538
1090
964
886
558
323
166
145
3460
3076
2180
1928
1772
1116
646
332
290
2320
2062
1462
1293
1188
748
433
223
194
4640
4125
2923
2585
2376
1497
866
445
389
3606/3612
900 rpm
Figure 20
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3606 Power 3612 Power 3606 Power 3612 Power
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
INTERMITTENT DUTY
Figure 20
95
CSR MCR
3606 - 1355 1490 bkW
3612 - 2710 2980 bkW
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20 40 60 80 100 120
Typical Propeller
Demand Curve
3606 and 3612 - 825 RPM
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
Zone I - Continuous Duty
Zone II,III and IV - Limited Operation
I
III
IV
II
3606 and 3612 - 825 rpm
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Zone l - Continuous Duty
Zone II, lll and lV - Limited Operation
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3606 Power 3612 Power 3606 Power 3612 Power
CONTINUOUS DUTY
CONTINUOUS DUTY
100.0%
90.9%
87.3%
78.8%
72.7%
60.6%
48.5%
42.4%
825
750
720
650
600
500
400
350
100.0%
90.9%
87.2%
44.3%
32.7%
23.8%
16.4%
12.0%
1355
1232
1182
600
443
323
222
162
2710
2464
2364
1200
886
646
444
324
1817
1652
1585
805
594
433
298
217
3634
3304
3170
1609
1188
866
595
434
100.0%
90.9%
87.3%
78.8%
72.7%
60.6%
48.5%
42.4%
825
750
720
650
600
500
400
350
110.0%
99.9%
95.9%
58.6%
46.2%
26.7%
16.4%
12.0%
1490
1354
1300
794
626
362
222
162
2980
2708
2600
1588
1252
724
444
324
1998
1816
1743
1065
839
485
298
217
3996
3631
3487
2130
1679
971
595
434
3606/3612
825 rpm
Figure 21
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3606 Power 3612 Power 3606 Power 3612 Power
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
INTERMITTENT DUTY
Figure 21
96
MCR
CSR
CSR MCR
3606 - 1350 1485 bkW
3612 - 2700 2970 bkW
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20 40 60 80 100 120
Typical Propeller
Demand Curve
3606 and 3612 - 750 RPM
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
Zone I - Continuous Duty
Zone II,III and IV - Limited Operation
I
III
IV
II
3606 and 3612 - 750 rpm
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Zone l - Continuous Duty
Zone II, lll and lV - Limited Operation
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3606 Power 3612 Power 3606 Power 3612 Power
CONTINUOUS DUTY
CONTINUOUS DUTY
100.0%
96.0%
86.7%
80.0%
66.7%
53.3%
46.7%
750
720
650
600
500
400
350
100.0%
96.0%
44.4%
32.8%
23.9%
16.4%
12.0%
1350
1296
600
443
323
222
162
2700
2592
1200
886
646
444
324
1810
1738
805
594
433
298
217
3621
3476
1609
1188
866
595
434
100.0%
96.0%
86.7%
80.0%
66.7%
53.3%
46.7%
750
720
650
600
500
400
350
110%
106.0%
78.1%
61.4%
35.6%
16.4%
12.0%
1485
1431
1055
829
480
222
162
2970
2862
2110
1658
960
444
324
1991
1919
1415
1112
644
298
217
3983
3838
2830
2223
1287
595
434
3606/3612
750 rpm
Figure 22
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3606 Power 3612 Power 3606 Power 3612 Power
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
INTERMITTENT DUTY
Figure 22
97
CSR MCR
3608 - 2110 2320 bkW
3616 - 4220 4640 bkW
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20 40 60 80 100 120
Typical Propeller
Demand Curve
3608 and 3616 - 1000 RPM
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
Zone I - Continuous Duty
Zone II,III and IV - Limited Operation
I
III
IV
II
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Zone l - Continuous Duty
Zone II, lll and lV - Limited Operation
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
3608 and 3616 - 1000 rpm
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3608 Power 3616 Power 3608 Power 3616 Power
CONTINUOUS DUTY
CONTINUOUS DUTY
100.0%
90.0%
85.0%
80.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
1000
900
850
800
700
600
500
400
100.0%
90.0%
85.0%
30.3%
24.5%
19.2%
14.6%
9.6%
2110
1899
1793
640
517
406
308
202
4220
3798
3586
1280
1034
812
616
404
2830
2547
2404
858
693
544
413
271
5659
5093
4809
1716
1387
1089
826
542
100.0%
90.0%
85.0%
80.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
1000
900
850
800
700
600
500
400
110.0%
99.0%
93.5%
61.4%
41.1%
25.9%
15.0%
9.6%
2320
2088
1972
1296
868
547
317
202
4640
4176
3944
2592
1736
1094
634
404
3111
2800
2644
1738
1164
734
425
271
6222
5600
5289
3476
2328
1467
850
542
3608/3616
1000 rpm
Figure 23
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3608 Power 3616 Power 3608 Power 3616 Power
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
INTERMITTENT DUTY
Figure 23
98
CSR MCR
3608 - 2240 2460 bkW
3616 - 4480 4920 bkW
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20 40 60 80 100 120
3608 and 3616 - 1000 RPM
High Power
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Controllable Pitch Prop Only
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
Zone I - Continuous Duty
Zone II, and IV - Limited Operation
I
IV
II
3608 and 3616 - 1000 rpm
High Power
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Zone l - Continuous Duty
Zone II, lll and lV - Limited Operation
Controllable Pitch Prop Only
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3608 Power 3616 Power 3608 Power 3616 Power
CONTINUOUS DUTY
CONTINUOUS DUTY
100.0%
95.0%
80.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
1000
950
800
700
600
500
400
100.0%
94.9%
23.9%
19.2%
16.7%
12.1%
8.8%
2240
2126
535
430
374
271
197
4480
4252
1070
860
748
542
394
3004
2851
717
577
502
363
264
6008
5702
1435
1153
1003
727
528
100.0%
95.0%
1000
950
110.0%
105.0%
2460
2352
4920
4704
3299
3154
6598
6308
3608/3616
1000 rpm High Power
Figure 24
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3608 Power 3616 Power 3608 Power 3616 Power
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
INTERMITTENT DUTY
Figure 24
99
CSR MCR
3608 - 2090 2300 bkW
3616 - 4180 4600 bkW
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20 40 60 80 100 120
Typical Propeller
Demand Curve
3608 and 3616 - 900 RPM
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
Zone I - Continuous Duty
Zone II,III and IV - Limited Operation
I
III
IV
II
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Zone l - Continuous Duty
Zone II, lll and lV - Limited Operation
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
3608 and 3616 - 900 rpm
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3608 Power 3616 Power 3608 Power 3616 Power
CONTINUOUS DUTY
CONTINUOUS DUTY
100.0%
90.0%
83.3%
80.0%
77.8%
66.7%
55.6%
44.4%
38.9%
900
810
750
720
700
600
500
400
350
100.0%
90.0%
26.9%
25.4%
24.7%
19.4%
14.7%
9.7%
8.2%
2090
1881
562
531
517
406
308
202
172
4180
3762
1124
1062
1034
812
616
404
344
2803
2522
754
712
693
544
413
271
231
5605
5045
1507
1424
1387
1089
826
542
461
100.0%
90.0%
83.3%
80.0%
77.8%
66.7%
55.6%
44.4%
38.9%
900
810
750
720
700
600
500
400
350
110.0%
99.0%
69.0%
61.3%
51.8%
32.6%
18.9%
9.7%
8.2%
2300
2070
1442
1281
1082
681
394
202
172
4600
4140
2884
2562
2164
1362
788
404
344
3084
2776
1934
1718
1451
913
528
271
231
6169
5552
3867
3436
2902
1826
1057
542
461
3608/3616
900 rpm
Figure 25
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3608 Power 3616 Power 3608 Power 3616 Power
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
INTERMITTENT DUTY
Figure 25
100
CSR MCR
3608 - 1800 1980 bkW
3616 - 3600 3960 bkW
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20 40 60 80 100 120
Typical Propeller
Demand Curve
3608 and 3616 - 825 RPM
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
Zone I - Continuous Duty
Zone II,III and IV - Limited Operation
I
III
IV
II
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Zone l - Continuous Duty
Zone II, lll and lV - Limited Operation
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
3608 and 3616 - 825 rpm
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3608 Power 3616 Power 3608 Power 3616 Power
CONTINUOUS DUTY
CONTINUOUS DUTY
100.0%
90.9%
87.3%
78.8%
72.7%
60.6%
48.5%
42.4%
825
750
720
650
600
500
400
350
100.0%
90.9%
87.3%
27.8%
24.6%
17.3%
13.7%
10.8%
1800
1637
1571
501
443
312
246
194
3600
3274
3142
1002
886
624
492
388
2414
2195
2107
672
594
418
330
260
4828
4390
4213
1344
1188
837
660
520
100.0%
90.9%
87.3%
78.8%
72.7%
60.6%
48.5%
42.4%
825
750
720
650
600
500
400
350
110.0%
100.0%
96.0%
58.2%
46.2%
26.7%
13.7%
10.8%
1980
1800
1728
1048
831
481
246
194
3960
3600
3456
2096
1662
962
492
388
2655
2414
2317
1405
1114
645
330
260
5310
4828
4634
2811
2229
1290
660
520
3608/3616
825 rpm
Figure 26
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3608 Power 3616 Power 3608 Power 3616 Power
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
INTERMITTENT DUTY
Figure 26
101
CSR MCR
3608 - 1800 1980 bkW
3616 - 3600 3960 bkW
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20 40 60 80 100 120
3608 and 3616 - 750 RPM
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Generally Requires Controllable Pitch Prop
Consult Caterpillar For Fixed Pitch Applications
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
Zone I - Continuous Duty
Zone II, and IV - Limited Operation
I
IV
II
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

C
S
R

P
o
w
e
r
Percent of Rated Speed
Zone l - Continuous Duty
Zone II, lll and lV - Limited Operation
Generally Requires Controllable Pitch Prop
Consult Caterpillar For Fixed Pitch Applications
Marine Propulsion Applications
Heavy Fuel
3608 and 3616 - 750 rpm
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3608 Power 3616 Power 3608 Power 3616 Power
CONTINUOUS DUTY
CONTINUOUS DUTY
100.0%
95.1%
90.0%
85.1%
80.0%
66.7%
53.3%
46.7%
750
713
675
638
600
500
400
350
100.0%
90.0%
27.9%
26.6%
24.6%
17.3%
14.1%
10.3%
1800
1620
503
479
443
312
253
185
3600
3240
1006
958
886
624
506
370
2414
2172
675
642
594
418
339
248
4828
4345
1349
1285
1188
837
679
496
100.0%
95.1%
750
713
110.0%
105.9%
1980
1906
3960
3812
2655
2556
5310
5112
3608/3616
750 rpm
Figure 27
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
% Rated Speed speed % CSR Power 3608 Power 3616 Power 3608 Power 3616 Power
rpm bkw bkw bhp bhp
INTERMITTENT DUTY
Figure 27

3600 Marine Engine
Applic ation and
Installation
Guide

G

Piping


LEKM8462 8-98

Diesel Engine Systems - Piping



General Requirements
Piping Sizes
Fluid Design Velocities
Piping Schedule
Piping Symbol Legend

5
General Requirements
The requi rements i ncl uded for di esel
mai n propul si on and generator set
i nstal l ati ons are not i ntended to repl ace
appl i cabl e regul atory agency
requi rements. Thei r requi rements
shoul d be revi ewed pri or to i ni ti ati ng
system desi gn or eval uati on.
Pi pi ng shoul d be di rect wi th mi ni mum
bends and suffi ci ent joi nts for ready
accessi bi l i ty and removal . I t must not
i nterfere wi th wal kways, doors or
hatches, and permi t unrestri cted access
i n wal k areas and desi gnated work
spaces. Pi pi ng shoul d cl ear areas
requi red for operati on and machi nery
control , and shoul d be routed around
machi nery or tank access openi ngs,
and access openi ngs used for shi ppi ng
or recei vi ng machi nery and equi pment.
Expansi on joi nts must be used at
bul kheads and decks to prevent pi pi ng
damage from structure movement due to
shi p fl exi ng. Use removabl e pi pi ng when
i t obstructs equi pment requi ri ng
di smantl i ng for peri odi c overhaul .
Provi de i sol ati ng val ves to mi ni mi ze
system di srupti on.
Keep pi pi ng cl ose to bul kheads, behi nd
frami ng, and al ong the undersi de of
decks. Leave suffi ci ent space between
pi pes and spool al l pi pes from decks or
bul kheads to permi t easy mai ntenance
and pai nti ng. Gal vani zi ng of ferrous
pi pi ng shoul d be done onl y after
fabri cati on.
Mi ni mi ze pi pi ng i n control rooms or over
el ectri cal equi pment. When thi s i s not
possi bl e, fi x the pi pe i n one l ength wi th
al l fl anges or screwed connecti ons kept
away from el ectri cal swi tch gear or
cabi nets.
Support pi pi ng to prevent vi brati on
damage. I f subject to mechani cal
damage i t shoul d be adequatel y
protected by removabl e metal guards.
The guards must al l ow for i nspecti on
and pai nti ng. When subject to
movement from expansi on or other
causes, speci al l y desi gned hangers or
supports must be provi ded. Spri ng type
hangers shoul d be provi ded when
requi red for mai n engi ne exhaust gas
pi pes. Heavy i tems such as val ves and
fi tti ngs must be supported to prevent
overl oadi ng the attached pi pi ng. Revi se
the number of supports provi ded, the
type sel ected, and the l ocati on to
el i mi nate excessi ve vi brati on of pi pi ng
under al l normal operati ng condi ti ons.
Use fl exi bl e connecti ons for al l pi pi ng
connected to the engi ne or other
reci procati ng machi nery. The l ength and
wei ght of pi pi ng mounted on the engi ne
must be kept to a mi ni mum, and the
fl exi bl e connecti on shoul d be pl aced
ri ght at the engi ne connecti on fl ange
whenever possi bl e. Provi de pi pe support
on the hul l si de of the system pi pi ng to
mi ni mi ze pi pe movement and fl ex
connecti on l oadi ng. Fl exi bl e connecti ons
i nstal l ed i n pi pi ng systems for fuel oi l ,
fl ammabl e l i qui ds, and hi gh pressure
contai nment may requi re approval by
the cl assi fi cati on soci ety and/or other
appl i cabl e regul atory bodi es.
Avoi d pi pi ng arrangements wi th
excessi ve turbul ence, such as tee
connecti ons. Hi gh and l ow poi nts shoul d
not occur. Use pl ugs or val ves for
drai ni ng i n unavoi dabl e l ow poi nts. Fi t
hi gh poi nts wi th vent val ves.
The i ntegri ty of water and oi l ti ght areas
i n the shi ps structure must not be
di srupted by pi pi ng desi gn. Use fl ange
type wel ded connecti ons on ei ther si de of
bul kheads to permi t pi pe di smantl i ng
for servi ce. Vent connecti ons to the
weather deck shoul d have a fl anged joi nt
just above the deck to faci l i tate servi ce of
the vent termi nal . Do not use heat
sensi ti ve materi al , such as PVC pi pi ng
i n pi pi ng systems penetrati ng water or
oi l ti ght di vi si on bul kheads, or for
systems transporti ng fl ammabl e
materi al s such as fuel oi l , di esel oi l and
l ube oi l . PVC or other such pi pi ng
materi al must al so meet al l appl i cabl e
cl assi fi cati on soci ety approval .
6
Val ves shoul d normal l y be gate or gl obe
type, except for throttl i ng purposes
where gl obe type val ves shoul d be used.
Pay speci al attenti on to the sel ecti on of
seat, stem and tri m materi al s. I mproper
materi al appl i cati on may resul t i n the
accel erated corrosi on and fai l ure of sal t
water servi ce val ves, and deteri orati on
of seat materi al s i n bal l and butterfl y
val ves used i n fuel oi l and l ube oi l
transfer systems. The substi tuti on of
butterfl y or bal l val ves can be made
where permi tted by cl assi fi cati on
soci eti es. Do not use butterfl y or bal l
val ves where cl ose, control l abl e
throttl i ng i s mandatory. Hand wheel s or
operati ng l evers of val ves shoul d be
easi l y operated from a wal kway or deck.
Unl ess obvi ous, provi de val ves wi th
namepl ates cl earl y stati ng thei r
purpose. Val ves attached to the shi ps
hul l or oi l tanks shoul d be sel ected and
arranged based on cl assi fi cati on soci ety
requi rements.
Safety or rel i ef val ve i nl et pi pi ng shoul d
be as short as possi bl e. Where
di schargi ng to atmosphere, di rect the
open end of pi pes away from machi nery,
el ectri cal equi pment, or
operati ng personnel . Di scharge oi l
system rel i ef val ves to the l ow pressure
si de of the system.
System moni tori ng gauges,
thermometers, etc. shoul d be vi si bl e
from operati ng areas. Thermometers
shoul d have separate wel l s. Pressure
gauges shoul d have test tees. Locate
i sol ati ng val ves cl ose to the mai n pi pi ng
run. Pressure gauges, pressure swi tches,
or si mi l ar i nstrumentati on used i n
heated fuel oi l pi pi ng systems, shoul d be
the fi l l ed or el ectri c transmi tter type.
Vent tanks contai ni ng fl ammabl e fl ui ds
and the engi ne crankcase to atmosphere
wi th a gooseneck venti l ator and fl ame
screens and cl osures. Ai r vent
di scharges must not enter venti l ati on ai r
i nl ets, openi ngs to accommodati ons or
work spaces, di scharge on machi nery,
el ectri cal equi pment, or personnel .
Thoroughl y cl ean al l pi pi ng and
equi pment after fabri cati on and pri or to
shi p i nstal l ati on. After i nstal l ati on, each
system must be cl eaned and fl ushed
wi th the appl i cabl e systems medi um, or
an approved substi tute. The process
shoul d be revi ewed by the owner,
regul atory bodys i nspector and the
engi ne bui l der. Conduct each fl ushi ng at
the systems maxi mum operati ng
pressure and temperature, and above
normal l i ne vel oci ty. Remove, bypass, or
bl ank-off heat exchangers, control
val ves, and other i n-l i ne components
whi ch coul d trap debri s duri ng the
fl ushi ng process. Refer to Caterpi l l ar
procedure 3L0492 for further detai l s on
pi pe fl ushi ng and pi ckl i ng.
Vi sual l y i nspect combusti on ai r and
exhaust gas pi pi ng systems to ensure
wel d sl ag and debri s i s removed pri or to
i nstal l ati on.
Piping Sizes
The fol l owi ng tabl e i s a pi pe sel ecti on
gui de for suggested fl ui d vel oci ti es. To
avoi d erosi on, water hammer, or the
possi bi l i ty of noi se, the upper vel oci ty
l i mi ts shoul d not be exceeded. The
fi nal pi pe si zes shoul d be sel ected based
on consi derati ons of pi pi ng l ayout,
number of fi tti ngs, val ves, vi scosi ty of
fl ui d passi ng through the pi pe, and
pressure drop. Head l oss on the sucti on
si de of pumps shoul d be careful l y
anal yzed. Compare the l osses i n the
sucti on pi pi ng to the net posi ti ve sucti on
head avai l abl e wi th the speci fi c pump
sel ected.
7
Schedule of Piping
Fi gure 1 i s a gui de for prepari ng pi pi ng schedul es. I t i s not i ntended to repl ace speci fi c
requi rements of appl i cabl e cl assi fi cati on soci eti es or regul atory bodi es.

Abbreviations
ASTM Ameri can Soci ety of
Testi ng and Materi al s
Brz. bronze
Cu. copper
Fluid Design Velocities
Nominal

a
Limit
Service m/sec (ft/sec) m/sec (ft/sec)
Hot water sucti ons 0.06d (d) .9 (3)
Hot-water di scharge 0.18 d (3d) 2.4 (8)
Col d fresh water sucti on 0.18 d (3d) 4.6 (15)
Col d fresh water di scharge 0.30 d (5d) 6.1 (20)
Lube oi l servi ce pump sucti on 0.06d (d) 1.2 (4)
Lube oi l di scharge 0.12 d (2d) 1.8 (6)
Fuel oi l servi ce sucti on 0.06d (d) 1.2 (4)
Fuel oi l servi ce di scharge 0.09 d (1.5 d) 1.8 (6)
Fuel oi l transfer sucti on 0.06d (d) 1.8 (6)
Fuel oi l transfer di scharge 0.12 d (2 d) 4.6 (15)
Di esel oi l sucti on 0.12 d (2d) 2.1 (7)
Di esel oi l di scharge 0.30d (5d) 3.7 (12)
Hydraul i c oi l sucti on 0.09 d (1.5 d) 2.4 (8)
Hydraul i c oi l di scharge 0.48d (8d) 6.1 (20)
Seawater sucti ons
b
0.18 d (3d) 4.6 (15)
Seawater di scharge
b
0.30d (5d) 4.6 (15)
Steam 3.00 d (50d) 61.0 (200)
Steam exhaust, 14 800 kPag (215 psi g) 4.54d (75d) 76.2 (250)
Steam exhaust, hi gh vacuum 4.54d (75 d) 100.6 (300)

a
d i s the pi pe i nternal di ameter i n mm (i nches)
b
2.7 m/sec (8.8 ft/sec) nomi nal vel oci ty for gal vani zed steel pi pe
CuNi
Gal v.
Sch
Std.
Wt.
copper-ni ckel
gal vani zed
schedul e
standard
wei ght
8

Gate Valve
Gate Valve with Remote
Operating Gear Attached
Locked "Open"Valve
Locked "Closed"Valve
Globe Valve
Screw Down
Non-Return Valve
Lock Shut Valve
Swing Check Valve
Three -way Cock
Air Operated Three-Way
Cock (or Valve)
Relief Valve
Angle Valve
Pressure Control Valve
Self-Contained
Temperature Control
Valve w/ Manual Override
Butterfly Valve
Ball Valve
In-Line Relief Valve
Diverting Valve with
Manual Lever
Temperature Control
Valve
Air Operated
Butterfly Valve
Flexible Connector
Flexible Connector
Un-Insulated Pipe
Insulated Pipe
Air Vent with Flame Screen
Air Vent w/Flame Screen &
Closure
Air Vent w/Flame Screen,
Check Valve & Closure
Drip Pan
Thermometer
Thermometer
High Temperature Alarm
Low Temperature Alarm
High Level Alarm
Low Level Alarm
Pump Start
Pump Stop
Pressure Switch
Steam Blow-Out
Sounding Valve
with Lever
Simplex Strainer
Duplex Strainer
Orifice Plate
Pressure Gauge
Level Indicator
Tank Heating Coil
Gauge Glass
(Automatic Closure)
Plate Heat Exchange
Shell and Tube Heat
Exchanger
Centrifugal Pump
Positive Displacement Pump
Manhole in Tank
Flow Meter
Pipe Return to Tank
Pump Suction Bell
Filter
Differential Pressure
Indicator
Pressure Switch
Alarm
Motor
Piping Symbol
Symbol Description Symbol Description Symbol Description
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
R
LO
LC
T
LS
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
T
HTA
LTA
HLA
LLA
PSH
PSL
S
S
S
P
L
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
FM
F
P
PS
A
M
9

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#
#
1234567
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#

3600 Marine Engine
Applic ation and
Installation
Guide

G

Distillate Fuel
GHeavy Fuel


LEKM8463 8-98


Engine Systems -
Distillate Fuel Oil
Engine Fuel System Description
Engine Fuel Flow Rates
Bulk Storage And Delivery Systems
Day Tank (Distillate Fuel Service Tank)
Emergency Pump
Settling Tank
Fuel Cleanliness
Water Separation
Centrifuges
Sample Points
Suction Strainer
Centrifuge Supply Pump
Fuel Heater
Customer Connections
Flex Connections
Fuel Lines
Pressure and Flow Monitoring
Fuel Recommendations
Cetane Number
Filtering
Pour Point
Cloud Point
Sulfur
Viscosity
Additives
Fuel Sulfur Content
Specific Gravity
Fuel Temperature
Fuel Coolers
Day Tank Sizing As A Heat Sink
Day Tank Calculations
Fuel Heaters
Useful Fuel Formulas and Data
Specific Gravity and Density
Mass Flow Rate
Specific Heat
Heat Rejection
Burning Used Crankcase Oil
Continuous Blending
Reference Material

5
Engine Fuel System
Description
Refer to Fi gures 1, 2, and 3 on pages 24,
25 and 26 for schemati cs of the engi ne
fuel system.
The standard pri mary fuel system
components i ncl ude an engi ne dri ven
fuel transfer pump, dupl ex medi a type
fi l ters (secondary), uni t fuel i njectors
and a fuel pressure regul ator. Opti onal
Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed fuel system
components i ncl ude fl exi bl e hoses, a
manual fuel pri mi ng pump, and a
dupl ex pri mary fuel strai ner.
I f used, the pri mary dupl ex fuel strai ner
i s i nstal l ed remote from the engi ne i n
the transfer pump sucti on l i ne. The
strai ner has 178 mi cron (0.007 i n.)
cl eanabl e el ements. The manual pri mi ng
pump i s i nstal l ed on the engi ne i n
paral l el to the engi ne dri ven pump. The
manual pump hel ps to bl eed ai r from the
fuel pi pi ng before i ni ti al engi ne
operati on and fol l owi ng engi ne
mai ntenance (fi l ter el ement changes,
i njector repl acement, etc.). I t has a
sucti on l i ft of 2.6 m (8.5 ft) and a fl ow of
38 L (10 gal ) per 115 revol uti ons. The
manual pri mi ng pump has a l i ft of 7.8 m
(25.5 ft) i f the fuel l i nes between the fuel
tank and the pump are ful l , as after a
fi l ter el ement change.
To avoi d ai r sucti on i nto the fuel transfer
pump at l ow sucti on pressures and seal
l eakage at hi gh sucti on pressures, the
fuel pressure at the engi ne dri ven
transfer pump at rated speed must be
greater than -39 kPa (-5.7 psi ) or l ess
than 100 kPa (14.5 psi ). I f the manual
pri mi ng pump i s used the sucti on
pressure must be l ess than 50 kPa
(7.25 psi ). The engi ne dri ven transfer
pump may be used for fuel wi th a
vi scosi ty up to 40 cSt at 50C. Hi gher
vi scosi ty fuel s requi re a fuel booster
modul e to ci rcul ate and heat the fuel
pri or to engi ne operati on (see the

Heavy
Fuel Oil secti on of thi s gui de).
The engi ne dri ven transfer pump
del i vers fuel to the uni t i njectors vi a the
secondary fuel fi l ters. The 5 mi cron
(0.0002 i n.) dupl ex fi l ters are usual l y
both i n servi ce for normal operati on,
al though one housi ng may be i sol ated at
a ti me duri ng operati on for fi l ter
repl acement i f requi red. The
recommended fuel del i very pressure to
the i njectors i s 414-690 kPa (60-100 psi )
at rated speed.
The uni t i njector combi nes the functi ons
of pumpi ng, meteri ng and i njecti ng i nto
a si ngl e uni t. I t i s mounted i n the
cyl i nder head at the centerl i ne of each
cyl i nder. External mani fol ds suppl y fuel
from the transfer pump to the dri l l ed
passages i n the cyl i nder head,
el i mi nati ng the need for hi gh pressure
fuel l i nes. A 100 mi cron (0.004 i n.) edge
type fi l ter wi thi n each i njector prevents
contami nants from enteri ng the i njector
duri ng mai ntenance. Fuel ci rcul ates
through the i njectors and the porti on
that i s not used for combusti on cool s the
i njectors and i s returned to the fuel tank
vi a the pressure regul ati ng val ve. For
heavy fuel oi l appl i cati ons a speci al
cool i ng ci rcui t i s desi gned i n the uni t
i njector to suppl y and ci rcul ate the
cool ant through the i njector ti p (see the
Heavy Fuel Oil secti on of thi s gui de).
The fuel del i very pressure to the
i njectors i s control l ed by adjusti ng the
pressure regul ati ng val ve on si te. The
val ve i s a spri ng l oaded vari abl e ori fi ce
type mounted on the front ri ght si de of
the engi ne, and i t mai ntai ns adequate
i njector suppl y pressure for al l engi ne
speed and l oad ranges. The pressure
regul ator must be adjusted at the
i nstal l ati on si te. To provi de 414-690 kPa
(60-100 psi ) fuel to the i njectors, the fuel
return l i ne restri cti on must not exceed
350 kPa (51 psi ) at rated engi ne speed.
Engine Fuel Flow Rates
Refer to the tabl e on page 6 for 3600
engi ne fuel fl ow rates and heat
rejecti ons at vari ous engi ne speeds.
6
Bulk Storage and
Delivery Systems
Shi pboard fuel systems must i nsure a
conti nuous suppl y of cl ean fuel to the
engi nes. Bul k fuel i s usual l y stored i n a
l arge tank(s) and transferred to a
smal l er tank(s) (day or servi ce tank)
near the engi ne room by one of three
methods:
Fuel fl ows by gravi ty from the shi ps
mai n tank(s) to the servi ce tanks. The
engi ne dri ven transfer pump takes
fuel di rectl y from the servi ce tank.
Fuel i s normal l y returned from the
engi ne through a deaerati on tank
back to the transfer pump i nl et or
di rectl y back to the servi ce tank.
An el ectri c dri ven transfer pump
del i vers fuel from the shi ps mai n tank
to a settl i ng tank. After al l owi ng ti me
for settl i ng of water and sol i ds the fuel
i s transferred to the servi ce tank.
A fuel oi l separator may be used to
transfer fuel from the shi ps mai n or
settl i ng tank to the servi ce tank.
I nstal l vents on each tank to rel i eve ai r
pressure created by fi l l i ng and to
prevent vacuum formati on as fuel i s
consumed. Water and sedi ment shoul d
be peri odi cal l y drai ned from each fuel
tank.
Seal pi pi ng and fi tti ngs to prevent ai r or
di rt contami nati on. Ai r i n the system
causes hard starti ng, errati c engi ne
operati on, and can al so erode i njectors.
Fuel lines can be black iron pipe, steel
pipe or copper tubing. Galvanized,
aluminum, or zinc-bearing alloy pipe
must not be used.
3600 Engine Fuel Flow
Rated
Speed
rpm
Fuel Flow-L/min (gal/min) Fuel Heat Rejection
Without Injector
Tip Cooling, kW (Btu/min)
to Engine from Engine
3606 1000 41.5 (11.0) 32.4 ( 8.6) 12.5 ( 712)
900 38.0 (10.0) 30.0 ( 7.9) 11.0 ( 626)
750 31.5 ( 8.3) 24.5 ( 6.5) 10.5 ( 598)
720 30.0 ( 7.9) 23.6 ( 6.2) 10.0 ( 567)
3608 1000 41.5 (11.0) 30.0 ( 7.9) 16.7 ( 951)
900 38.0 (10.0) 27.6 ( 7.3) 14.6 ( 831)
750 31.5 ( 8.3) 22.6 ( 6.0) 14.0 ( 797)
720 30.0 ( 7.9) 21.4 ( 5.6) 13.3 ( 757)
3612 1000 78.5 (20.7) 60.1 (15.9) 25.0 (1423)
900 72.0 (19.0) 55.4 (14.6) 22.0 (1252)
750 61.2 (16.2) 47.3 (12.5) 20.2 (1150)
720 58.1 (15.3) 45.2 (11.9) 19.1 (1087)
3616 1000 78.5 (20.7) 55.2 (14.6) 33.3 (1895)
900 72.0 (19.0) 51.1 (13.5) 29.3 (1668)
750 61.2 (16.2) 43.2 (11.4) 26.9 (1531)
720 58.1 (15.3) 41.2 (10.9) 25.4 (1446)
Maximum inlet restriction on pump = -39 kPa (-5.7 psi).
Maximum return line restriction = 350 kPa (51 psi) at rated speed.

Day Tank (Distillate Fuel
Service Tank)
Day tanks are used i n al most al l mari ne
appl i cati ons. The i nstal l ati on desi gn
must consi der engi ne mounted transfer
pump l i mi tati ons. Total suction head
must not exceed 2.6 m (8.5 ft).
Locate tanks to avoi d fuel l evel s hi gher
than the engi ne fuel i njectors to prevent
fuel l eakage i nto the cyl i nders due to
stati c head when the engi ne i s shut
down. I f overhead mounti ng i s
unavoi dabl e, i ncl ude an open/cl ose
sol enoi d val ve i n the suppl y l i ne and a
3.45 kPa (0.5 psi ) check val ve i n the
return l i ne.
The del i very l i ne carryi ng fuel to the fuel
transfer pump and the return l i ne
carryi ng excess fuel to the servi ce tank
shoul d be no smal l er than the engi ne
fi tti ngs. Larger fuel suppl y and return
l i nes ensure adequate fl ow i f the fuel
tank feeds mul ti pl e engi nes over 9.14 m
(30 ft) from the tank or temperatures are
l ow. The maximum inlet flow restriction
is -39 kPa (-5.7 psi) at rated speed.
Caterpi l l ar fuel pumps pri me up to
2.6 m (8.5 ft) of sucti on l i ft, but pi pe si ze,
bends, and col d ambi ents modi fy thi s
capabi l i ty. Posi ti on fuel sucti on l i nes to
remove fuel about 76 mm (3 i n.) above
the tank bottom and near the tank end
opposi te the return l i ne. Do not use joi nt
cement affected by fuel or gasketed
connecti ons. Flexible fuel lines must be
installed at the engine fuel inlet and
outlet to accommodate engine motion.
The return l i ne shoul d enter the top of
the tank wi thout shutoff val ves. Avoi d
di ps so ai r passes freel y and prevents
vacuum i n the fuel system. Al l return
fuel from the engi ne must be al l owed to
deaerate before bei ng returned to the
engi ne. The maxi mum return fl ow
restri cti on i s 350 kPa (51 psi ) at rated
speed.
Al l engi nes add heat to the fuel as the
engi ne operates. The day tank can be
si zed to di ssi pate the added heat. I f thi s
i s not possi bl e fuel cool ers may be
requi red (see the secti on on Fuel
Temperature).
Fi gure 4 on page 27 shows a typi cal
del i very system from the day tank to a
mai n propul si on engi ne.
See Fi gure 5 for a recommended tank
desi gn. The rul es and regul ati ons for
fuel tanks of the appl i cabl e mari ne
soci ety must be observed.
7
8
Emergency Pump
An el ectri c motor dri ven emergency
pump may be requi red i n some engi ne
appl i cati ons for use as backup to the
engi ne dri ven pump. Thi s i s general l y a
mari ne soci ety requi rement for si ngl e
engi ne propul si on appl i cati ons.
Recommended fl ow rates are shown i n
the fol l owi ng tabl e and wi l l ful fi l l the
mi ni mum engi ne requi rements at al l
rated speeds between 700 and 1000 rpm.
The emergency pump must del i ver the
stated fl ow of di esel fuel at 65C (149F)
agai nst a head of 500 kPa (73 psi )
pressure. Adjust the fuel pressure
regul ator to 414-690 kPa (60-100 psi ).
Fuel treatment systems should be
capable of being maintained without
interruption in engine operation.
Settling Tank
The settl i ng tank shoul d hol d a 24 hour
mi ni mum suppl y of di sti l l ate fuel for the
propul si on engi ne, pl us the normal
expected ki l owatt l oad from the di esel
generator sets. Refer to the typi cal
settl i ng tank desi gn (Fi gure 14) i n the
Heavy Fuel Oil secti on of thi s gui de.
A heati ng coi l can be i nstal l ed i n the
tank. I t can be used as a standby heater
to bri ng the fuel to the proper centri fuge
temperature. The coi l shoul d keep the
di sti l l ate fuel temperature approxi matel y
20C (11F) above the pour poi nt. Fi t the
heati ng steam suppl y wi th an automati c
temperature regul ati ng val ve to control
fuel tank temperature.
R
R
TO SLUDGE TANK
TO FUEL OIL
TRANSFER PUMP
SLOPED BOTTOM
VALVES FITTED WITH REMOTE
OPERATING GEAR (AS REQUIRED
BY CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY)
SLUDGE
SPACE
STEAM BLOW-OUT
RETURN FROM
DEAERATION TANK
OR ENGINE
OVERFLOW TO SETTLING TANKS
BAFFLE
PLATE
MANHOLE
TO ENGINE TRANSFER
PUMP SUCTION
R
LLA
LOCAL THERMOMETER
HLA
ANTI-SIPHON OPENING
VENT PIPE LED TO
ATMOSPHERE AND FITTING
WITH FLAME SCREEN
AND DRIP PAN
I
Figure 5
Typical Arrangement of Service Tank
Flow Rate L/min (gal/min)
Engine 3606 3608 3612 3616
Fuel Pump 42 (11) 42 (11) 79 (21) 79 (21)
9
Use screw type pumps to transfer fuel
from the bunker tanks to the settl i ng
tank. They mi ni mi ze the possi bi l i ty of
emul si fyi ng water entrai ned i n the
di sti l l ate fuel . The transfer pump shoul d
operate automati cal l y and fi l l the
settl i ng tank i n l ess than two hours.
The fol l owi ng pump characteri sti cs are
provi ded for gui dance:
Operati ng pressure to sui t
condi ti ons of pi pi ng system
Operati ng fl ui d temperature 38C
(100F)
Vi scosi ty for si zi ng the pump motor
500 cSt
Fuel Cleanliness
Cl ean fuel i s essenti al . The fi nal fi l ters
are engi ne mounted and tested at the
factory and are never bypassed on an
operati ng engi ne. Opti onal factory
suppl i ed dupl ex pri mary fi l ters wi th
178 mi cron (.007 i n.) cl eanabl e mesh
screens col l ect l arge debri s pri or to the
engi ne transfer pump.
Water Separation
Wi th modern hi gh output engi nes usi ng
hi gh i njecti on pressure fuel pumps, i t i s
extremel y i mportant to mai ntai n water
and sedi ment l evel s at or bel ow 0.1%.
Dependi ng on how the engi nes are
appl i ed, water and sedi ment can col l ect
i n fuel tanks. Therefore, fuel meeti ng
the requi red speci fi cati ons when
del i vered to the si te can exceed l i mi ts
when used i n the engi ne. Several
methods can be used to remove excess
water and sedi ment:
A water and sedi ment separator can
be i nstal l ed i n the suppl y l i ne ahead of
the transfer pump. The separator must
be si zed to the handl e the fuel bei ng
consumed by the engi nes as wel l as
fuel bei ng returned to the tank.
Coal esci ng fi l ter systems work
effecti vel y to remove sedi ment and
water. I f the l evel i n the day tank i s
not mai ntai ned at a consi stent l evel ,
i nstal l them between the mai n tank
and the day tank. I f proper day tank
operati on i s mai ntai ned, a smal l er
system can be used between the
mai n tank and the day tank to cl ean
onl y the fuel bei ng burned. The fi l ters
can pl ug and careful attenti on must be
gi ven to fuel pressure l evel s at the
i njectors to guard agai nst
mi sfi ri ng.
A centri fuge system can be used,
parti cul arl y i f the fuel qual i ty
consi stentl y exceeds the defi ned l i mi ts
speci fi ed herei n.
Centrifuges
Cl ean di sti l l ate fuel wi th a separate
centri fuge system from those dedi cated
for heavy fuel on the same shi p (see
Fi gure 6 on page 28 of thi s secti on).
Even though the mai n propul si on
engi nes may be arranged for heavy fuel ,
si ze the di sti l l ate fuel treatment pl ant to
sui t both the mai n engi nes and the shi p
servi ce generator sets. Two transfer
pumps, two centri fuges and heaters are
normal l y used.
Use an automati c sel f cl eani ng
centri fuge. Consul t the centri fuge
manufacturer to si ze the fl ow.
The fuel centri fuge pi pi ng system must
al l ow one of the centri fuges to act as a
standby. The requi red fl ow rate can be
approxi mated as fol l ows:
P x b x 24 x 1.15 Q =
{
_______________
}
R x t
Where:
Q = Fl ow requi red, L/hr
P = Total Engi ne Output, kW
b = Fuel Consumpti on, g/kW-hr
R = Densi ty of fuel , kg/m
3
t = Dai l y separati ng ti me i n
automati c operati on: 23 hr
or:
P x be x 24 x 1.15 Q =
{
________________
}
R x t
Where:
Q = Fl ow requi red, gal /hr
P = Total engi ne output, bhp
be = Speci fi c fuel consumpti on,
l b/bhp-hr
R = Densi ty of fuel , l b/gal
t = Dai l y separati ng ti me i n
automati c operati on: 23 hr
10

Note:
The centrifuge manufacturer should
assist in the final centrifuge selection.
The centrifuge flow has been
increased by 15% as a safety factor
for operational tolerances.
Centri fuge seal water and control ai r
requi rements must be speci fi ed by the
centri fuge manufacturer.
Sample Points
The centri fuge operati ng effi ci ency i s
checked by drawi ng sampl es from both
si des of the centri fuge. Arrange the
poi nts as shown i n Fi gure 15 on page 48
of the Heavy Fuel Oil secti on.
Suction Strainer
I nstal l a si mpl ex strai ner ahead of the
centri fuge suppl y pump and use a
stai nl ess steel basket wi th perforati ons
si zed to protect the pump (0.8 mm
(1/32 i n.)). The strai ner body i s normal l y
manufactured from cast i ron or bronze.
Centrifuge Supply Pump
Mount an el ectri c motor dri ven suppl y
pump separatel y from the centri fuge
and si ze for the centri fuge fl ow. The
fol l owi ng pump characteri sti cs are
provi ded for gui dance:
Operati ng pressure - to sui t
condi ti ons of pi pi ng system
Operati ng fl ui d temperature - 38C
(100F)
Vi scosi ty for si zi ng pump motor -
500 cSt
Fuel Heater
The heater i s si zed usi ng the pump
capaci ty and the temperature ri se
requi red between the settl i ng tank and
the fi nal centri fuge. The heater shoul d
be thermostati cal l y control l ed and
sel ected to mai ntai n fuel temperature to
the centri fuge wi thi n 2C (4F). The
maxi mum preheati ng temperature for
di sti l l ate fuel i s 40 to 50C (104 to
122F).
Customer Connections
Flex Connections
Connecti ons to the engi ne must be
fl exi bl e hose l ocated at the engi ne i nl et
and outl et. Do not attach ri gi d fuel l i nes.
The factory provi ded fl ex connecti ons
can be ori ented to take maxi mum
advantage of mul ti pl e di recti on fl exi ng.
Fuel Lines
Bypass (return) fuel l eavi ng the engi ne
pressure regul ator shoul d be returned to
the engi ne day tank. Any fuel returned
di rectl y to the transfer pump i nl et must
be routed through a deaerator.
The fi nal i nstal l ati on must be
hydrostati cal l y tested to at l east 1.5
ti mes normal worki ng pressure or to
appl i cabl e mari ne soci ety requi rements,
whi chever i s greater.
After fabri cati on and testi ng, steel pi pi ng
must be removed and chemi cal l y cl eaned
(pi ckl ed) to remove mi l l scal e, di rt, etc.
Wash pi pi ng wi th sui tabl e sol vent and
dry thoroughl y. Coat the i nsi de of pi pi ng
wi th oi l pri or to fi nal assembl y.
Pressure and Flow Monitoring
Engi ne fuel l i nes have pressure
vari ati ons due to i njector spi l l pul ses.
Moni tori ng devi ces must i ncl ude
dampers or ori fi ces i n the l i nes to
mi ni mi ze pul se effects and obtai n
accurate readi ngs. Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed
gauges have proper dampi ng
i ncorporated i n the hardware.
Fuel Supply
Fuel Return
3606/3608
22 mm (7/8 in.)
22 mm (7/8 in.)
3612/3616
28 mm (1-1/8 in.)
22 mm (7/8 in.)
Engine Fuel Piping (Inside Diameter)
11
Fuel Recommendations
Caterpi l l ar 3600 engi nes are capabl e of
burni ng a wi de range of di sti l l ate fuel s.
Al so see the Heavy Fuel Oil secti on of
thi s gui de.
The fuel s recommended for 3600 engi nes
are normal l y No. 2-D di esel fuel and
No. 2 fuel oi l . No. 1 grades and I SO-F-
DMB fuel s are al so acceptabl e. Other
fuel types may be used when economi cs
or fuel avai l abi l i ty di ctate.
Consi der the fol l owi ng fuel
characteri sti cs when procuri ng fuel :
Cetane Number
The mi ni mum cetane number requi red
for average starti ng condi ti ons i s 40. A
hi gher cetane val ue may be requi red for
hi gh al ti tude operati on or col d weather
starti ng.
Filtering
Fuel s shoul d have no more than 0.1%
sedi ment and water. Storage of fuel for
extended peri ods of ti me can cause fuel
oxi dati on and formati on of sol i ds,
l eadi ng to fi l trati on probl ems.
Pour Point
The pour poi nt of the fuel shoul d be at
l east 6C (10F) bel ow the l owest
expected starti ng and operati ng
temperatures. The l ower pour poi nt of
No. 1 or No. 1-D fuel may be necessary
i n col d weather.
Cloud Point
The cl oud poi nt shoul d be bel ow the
l owest expected ambi ent operati ng
temperature. Thi s prevents fuel fi l ter
el ements pl uggi ng wi th wax crystal s.
Sulfur
Fuel s contai ni ng 0.5% or l ess sul fur may
be used wi th normal crankcase oi l drai n
i nterval s usi ng API CF performance oi l s.
Wi th sul fur above the 0.5% l evel , use
API CF oi l wi th an ASTM D-2896
mi ni mum total base number (TBN) of 10
ti mes the fuel sul fur for normal oi l drai n
i nterval s. See the gui de secti on on
Lubricating Oil for further detai l s.
Viscosity
Fuel vi scosi ty i s i mportant for
l ubri cati on of fuel system components
and fuel atomi zati on. The minimum
al l owabl e vi scosi ty at the i njectors i s
1.4 cSt.
Additives
Fuel addi ti ves are general l y not
recommended. Cetane i mprovers can be
used as necessary. Bi oci des may be
needed to el i mi nate mi croorgani sm
growth i n storage tanks. Treatment for
entrai ned water may al so be necessary
i n col d condi ti ons. Consult the fuel
supplier about the use of additives to
prevent incompatibility with additives
already in the fuel.
Fuel Sulfur Content
The percentage of sul fur i n fuel wi l l
affect engi ne oi l recommendati ons. Fuel
sul fur i s chemi cal l y changed duri ng
combusti on to form both sul furous and
sul furi c aci d. The aci ds chemi cal l y
attack metal surfaces and cause
corrosi ve wear.
Certai n addi ti ves used i n l ubri cati ng oi l s
contai n al kal i ne compounds formul ated
to neutral i ze aci ds. The measure of
reserve al kal i ni ty i s total base number
(TBN). Requi red TBN val ues are
essenti al to neutral i ze aci ds and
mi ni mi ze corrosi ve wear.
Distillate Fuel Recommendations
Requirements*
35% Maximum
0.02% Weight Maximum
40 Minimum
Not above lowest
expected ambient
temperature
30 Minimum and
45 Maximum
6C (10F) below
ambient temperature
0.5% Maximum
(See Sulfur Topic)
20.0 cSt Maximum
1.4 cSt Minimum
0.1% Maximum
Specifications
Aromantics (ASTM D1319)
Ash (ASTM D482)
Cetane Number (ASTM D613)
Cloud Point (ASTM D97)
Gravity API (ASTM D287)
Pour Point (ASTM D97)
Sulfur
(ASTM D2788, D3605, or D1552)
Viscosity, Kinematic @
38C (100F) (ASTM D445)
Water & Sediment (ASTM D1796)
*As delivered to fuel system.
12
The TBN recommendati on for an oi l i s
dependent on the amount of sul fur i n the
fuel used. For 3600 engi nes runni ng on
di sti l l ate fuel oi l , the mi ni mum new oi l
TBN (by ASTM D 2896) must be 10
ti mes the sul fur percent by wei ght i n the
fuel , wi th a mi ni mum TBN of 5
regardl ess of the sul fur content (see
Fi gure 7).
I n most oi l formul ati ons the TBN i s a
functi on of the ash beari ng addi ti ves i n
the oi l . Excessi ve amounts of ash
beari ng addi ti ves can l ead to excessi ve
pi ston deposi ts and l oss of oi l control .
Therefore, excessi vel y hi gh TBN or hi gh
ash oi l s shoul d not be used wi th 3600
engi nes runni ng on di sti l l ate fuel .
Successful operati on of 3600 engi nes on
di sti l l ate fuel has general l y been
obtai ned wi th new oi l TBN l evel s
between 10 and 15. See the gui de secti on
on Lubricating Oil for more i nformati on.
Periodically request fuel sulfur
information from the fuel supplier. Fuel
sulfur content can change with each
delivery.
NEW OIL TBN FOR
DISTILLATE FUEL
USED OIL TBN
LIMIT
0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
17
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
FUEL SULFUR % WEIGHT
T
B
N


A
S
T
M

D

2
8
9
6
TBN VS FUEL SULFUR FOR 3600 SERIES ENGINES ON DISTILLATE FUEL
NOTE:
OPERATION AT FUEL SULFUR LEVELS OVER 1.5%
MAY REQUIRE SHORTENED OIL CHANGE PERIODS
TO MAINTAIN ADEQUATE WEAR PROTECTION.
Figure 7
TBN vs Fuel Sulfur for 3600 Engines on Distillate Fuel
13
Specific Gravity
Fuel rack setti ngs are based on 35 API
(speci fi c gravi ty) fuel . Fuel oi l wi th a
hi gher API (l ower speci fi c gravi ty)
number reduces power output unl ess the
rack setti ng i s corrected. When usi ng
heavi er fuel s (l ower API number), a
corrected rack setti ng prevents power
output above the approved rati ng. The
Caterpi l l ar deal er wi l l correct the rack
setti ng for non-standard fuel s.
Fuel Temperature
The fuel temperature suppl i ed to the
engi ne can affect uni t i njector l i fe and
maxi mum power capabi l i ty. Reduced
l ubri cati on capabi l i ty as a resul t of hi gh
temperature/l ow vi scosi ty fuel may
resul t i n pl unger scuffi ng. The minimum
al l owabl e vi scosi ty at the i njectors i s
1.4 cSt. A maximum fuel temperature
limit of 72C (162F) to the unit injectors,
regardless of fuel viscosity, prevents
coking or gumming of the injectors. The
maxi mum fuel vi scosi ty to the uni t
i njectors of 20 cSt prevents overpressure
damage to the i njectors.
The engi nes are power set at the factory
wi th 30 3C (86 5F) fuel to the
engi ne transfer pump. Hi gher fuel
temperatures reduce maximumpower
capabi l i ty. The fuel stop power reduction
is 1% for each 5.6C (10F) fuel supply
temperature increase above 30C. I f the
engi ne i s operati ng bel ow the fuel stop
l i mi t, the governor wi l l add fuel as
requi red to mai ntai n the requi red
engi ne speed and power.
Day tank sizing is critical to maintain
the desired fuel supply temperature. Fuel
coolers may be required.
Fuel Coolers
Fuel cool ers are si te speci fi c and si zed to
handl e fuel heat not di ssi pated by the
day tank. The cool er must be l ocated on
the return ci rcui t wi th a three way
temperature regul ati ng val ve to control
fuel return temperature to the servi ce
tank (see Fi gure 4). Submi t the cool er
desi gn and materi al s to the appropri ate
cl assi fi cati on soci ety for approval .
The suggested materi al for a shel l and
tube type heat exchanger i s:
Shel l Red brass
Heads Cast i ron
Tubes Copper
Tube sheets Brass
Baffl es Brass
A pl ate type heat exchanger may al so be
used wi th ti tani um pl ates for sea water
cool i ng or stai nl ess steel pl ates for fresh
water cool i ng.
Day Tank Sizing as a Heat Sink
Day tank si zi ng i s cri ti cal when fuel to
the engi ne i s from a day tank wi thout a
fuel cool er. The suppl y temperature
must be wi thi n speci fi ed l i mi ts for
i njector l i fe and maxi mum power
capabi l i ty.
Day tank temperatures are i mpacted by:
Day tank wetted surface area
(i ncl udi ng tank bottom)
Engi ne(s) fuel consumpti on rate
Day tank repl eni shi ng l evel
Storage tank fuel temperature
Ambi ent temperature
Spaces conti guous to the day tank
(voi d tanks, cofferdams, vessel shel l
pl ati ng, etc.)
Return fuel temperature
Tank temperature cal cul ati on are
performed i n fi ve [5] steps. The fi rst
determi nes the fuel mass i n the tank at
each ti me i nterval . The second step i s
based on a fuel mi x temperature
resul ti ng from the engi ne dri ven
transfer pump fl ow rate to the engi ne
and the return fl ow rate to the day tank.
The thi rd step determi nes the day tank
fuel hei ght for each i ncremental ti me
el ement. Typi cal l y, the cal cul ati ons wi l l
be based upon a 30-60 mi nute i terati ve
ti me functi on. The end poi nt for the
cal cul ati on i s assumed to be when the
day tank i s refi l l ed. The fourth step
approxi mates the heat transfer from the
tank to the surroundi ng envi ronment
due to the temperature di fference
between the fuel mi x temperature and
the ambi ent temperature. Thi s
convecti ve heat transfer then
determi nes the resul tant tank
temperature. The fi fth step eval uates
the i mpact of the fi nal fuel suppl y
temperature on the engi nes maxi mum
power capabi l i ty.
The i ncl uded exampl e cal cul ati ons
shoul d onl y be used to provi de general
gui dance. I f the day tank si ze i s
margi nal use a fuel cool er.
To si mpl i fy the fol l owi ng cal cul ati ons, i t
i s assumed the day tank wal l s are
surrounded by free movi ng ai r. I f the
tank wal l s are conti guous to the shel l
pl ati ng, heat transfer from the day tank
wi l l be enhanced. Conversel y, i f the day
tank i s bounded by voi d spaces and
cofferdams, heat rejecti on from the day
tank wi l l be retarded. Typi cal l y, most
day tanks are l ocated wi th vari ous
combi nati ons of the precedi ng boundary
el ements. The i ndi vi dual performi ng the
eval uati on must be fami l i ar wi th the
i nstal l ati on as wel l as the fundamental
engi neeri ng concepts of the formul as
used i n the cal cul ati ons.
Day Tank Calculations
The fol l owi ng i nformati on i s requi red to
perform the cal cul ati ons:
Engi ne model
Engi ne devel oped power (MCR or CSR)
Engi ne speed
Brake speci fi c fuel consumpti on (bsfc)
I ni ti al day tank fuel temperature
Storage tank fuel temperature
(Make-up)
Ambi ent ai r temperature
Day tank l ength, wi dth, and hei ght
Typi cal ful l day tank fuel hei ght
(assume 95% of tank capaci ty)
Engi ne fuel transfer pump fl ow rate
(see page 6 of thi s secti on)
Fuel heat rejecti on from the engi ne
(see page 6 of thi s secti on)
I ncremental ti me el ement
Day Tank Thermal Capacity
Calculation
Exampl e:
Appl i cati on: Si ngl e mai n engi ne
Engi ne Model : 3612
Rated Power: 4640 bhp (CSR)
Rated Speed: 900 rpm
bsfc: 0.326 l b/bhp-hr
I ni ti al Day Tank Fuel Temperature =
85F
Storage Tank Temperature = 85F
Ambi ent Ai r Temperature = 95F
Day Tank Di mensi ons:
Length (L) = 12 ft.
Wi dth (W) = 8 ft.
Hei ght (H) = 8.42 ft.
Fuel Hei ght (@ 95% of total Capaci ty)
(H) = 8 ft.
Engi ne Fuel Oi l Transfer Pump Fl ow
Rate (q
xfer
) = 19.0 gpm
Heat rejecti on from engi ne to fuel oi l
(Q) = 1252 Btu/mi n
I ncremental ti me el ement, (t) =
60 mi n.
Assume that the day tank will be
replenished from the vessels
storage tanks when the day tank
level falls to approximately 50-55%
of normal operating capacity.
Some of the data above must be
converted to other uni ts pri or to
begi nni ng cal cul ati ons. The fol l owi ng
formul as can be used:
a) Engi ne Dri ven Transfer Pump Mass
Fl ow Rate = M
xfer
(l b/mi n)
Assume: #2 DO wi th an API
gravi ty of 35 (7.1 l b/gal )
14
15
M
xfer
= q
xfer x 7.1 l b/gal = 19.0 gpm x
7.1 l b/gal = 134.9 l b/mi n
b) Engi ne burn rate under ful l l oad
condi ti ons
1) Burn rate (gpm) =
bsfc x bhp x 1 Hr.
_____________________
Fuel densi ty x 60 mi n.
0.326 l b/bhp - hr x 4640 bhp x 1 hr.
=
_________________________________
7.1 l b/gal . x 60 mi n.
= 3.55 gpm
2) Fuel mass fl ow burn rate =
M
BR
(l b/mi n)
= 3.55 gpm x 7.1 l b/gal
= 25.21 l b/mi n
c) Engi ne fuel return rate under ful l
l oad condi ti ons:
1) Fuel return fl ow rate = q
rtn
(gal /mi n)
= Suppl y rate - burn rate
= 19.0 gpm - 3.55 gpm
= 15.45 gpm
2) Fuel return mass fl ow rate = M
RTN
(l b/mi n)
= 15.45 gpm x 7.1 l b/gal
= 109.70 l b/mi n
d) T
ENG
of fuel = (T
suppl y
- T
rtn
)
Q
T
ENG
= ______________
M
RTN x
c
p
1252 Btu/mi n
=
____________________________
(109.70 l b/mi n x 0.5 Btu/l b-F)
= 22.83F
e) 95% Capaci ty of Di esel Oi l Day Tank,
(l b)
Wei ght densi ty (p) for #2
di esel oi l = 52.42 l b/ft
3
M
DT
= L x W x H x p
DO
= 12 ft x 8 ft x 8 ft x 52.42 l b/ft
3
= 40258.6 l b.
Step 1
Cal cul ate the fuel mass i n the day tank
at speci fi c ti me i nterval s:
Day Tank Fuel Quanti ty = M
DT
- (M
BR
x t)
Where:
M
DT
= Day tank contents at a speci fi c
ti me step (l b)
M
BR
= Engi ne fuel consumpti on (l b/mi n)
t = I ncremental ti me step (mi n)
Assume the day tank i s repl eni shed at
55% of i ni ti al quanti ty of fuel . Prepare a
tabl e of vol umes as shown bel ow for our
exampl e.
0 40258.6 100.0
60 38746.0 96.2
120 37233.4 92.5
180 35720.8 88.7
240 34208.2 85.0
300 32695.6 81.2
360 31183.0 77.5
420 29670.4 73.7
480 28157.8 69.9
540 26645.2 66.2
600 25132.6 62.4
660 23620.0 58.7
720 22107.4 54.9
Refill 40258.6 100.0
Incremental
Time (Min)
Tank Fuel
Quantity (lb)
Capacity
(%)
16
Step 2
Cal cul ate the fuel oi l mi x temperature (T
mi x
):
[
(M
DT
- [(M
xfer
x t)]) T
DT
+ (M
RTN
x t) x (T
DT
+ T
ENG
)
]
(t -1)
(t -1) (t -1)
______________________________________________________________________________
M
DT
- (M
BR
x t)
(t -1)
Where:
M
DT
= Day tank contents at a
speci fi c ti me step (l b)
M
xfer
= Engi ne transfer pump mass
fl ow rate (l b/mi n)
t = I ncremental ti me step (mi n)
T
DT
= Day tank temperature for
(t -1)
previ ous ti me step or
starti ng temperature (F)
M
RTN
= Engi ne return mass fl ow
rate (l b/mi n)

T
ENG = Fuel temperature ri se
across the engi ne (F)
M
BR
= Engi ne fuel consumpti on
(l b/mi n)
Val ues for the exampl e cal cul ati on:
M
DT
= Day tank contents from
(t -1)
previ ous ti me step (l b)
M
xfer
= 134.9 l b/mi n
t = 60 mi n.
T
DT
= I ni ti al day tank temperature
(t -1)
i s used for fi rst i terati on, 85F
M
RTN
= 109.70 l b/mi n
T
ENG
= 22.83F
M
BR
= 25.21 l b/mi n
[(40258.6 - (134.9) (60)) (85)] + [(109.70) (60) (85 + 22.83)]
Tmi x =
_____________________________________________________
[40258.6 - (25.21) (60)]
= 88.9F @ t = 60 mi n.
Thi s cal cul ati on i s repeated for each i ncrement (t).
Prepare a summary tabl e as shown bel ow for each i ncrement (t).
0 85.0
60 88.9
120 92.9
180 97.1
240 101.5
300 106.1
360 110.9
420 116.0
480 121.3
540 126.9
600 132.9
660 139.3
720 146.1
Refill
Incremental
Time (Min)
Mix
Temperature (F)
17
Step 3
Cal cul ate the hei ght of fuel contai ned i n
the day tank at t = i ncremental ti me
step. Prepare a summary tabl e for each
ti me i ncrement (t).
M
DT
H =____________
p x L x W
Where:
H = Hei ght of fuel i n the tank
M
DT
= Fuel contai ned i n the day tank
at each i ncremental ti me step
p = Wei ght densi ty of #2 DO
(52.42 l b/ft
3
)
L = Length of day tank (12 ft)
W = Wi dth of day tank (8 ft)
Where:
Q
TK
= Heat transfer to/from
atmosphere (Btu)
This considers 6mm (0.25 in.) steel plate
forming the tank boundaries, and the
film coefficient for air and oil. The air
side film coefficient is predominant when
compared to the oil side film. The tank
thickness has a negligible effect.
U = Coeffi ci ent of heat transfer,
(0.0424 Btu/mi n ft
2
F)
L = Day tank l ength (ft)
W = Day tank wi dth (ft)
T
AMB
= Ambi ent temperature (F)
T
MI X
= Mi x temperature of return fuel
and fuel i n tank (F)
T
DT
= Day tank temperature
resul ti ng from heat transfer
to/from day tank (F)
t = I ncremental ti me step (mi n)
H = Fuel hei ght for speci fi c ti me
step (ft)
b) Temperature change i n the day tank
resul ti ng from heat to/from day tank:
Q
TK T
DT = _____________
M
DT
x C
p
Where:
T
DT
= Temperature change of fuel i n
the day tank (F)
Q
TK
= Heat transfer to/from
atmosphere (Btu)
M
DT
= Mass of fuel i n day tank (l b)
c
p
= Speci fi c heat of #2 MDO =
0.5 Btu/l b F
c) Day tank temperature resul ti ng from
heat transfer to/from day tank:
T
DT
= T
MI X
+ T
DT
Incremental Time (min) Height (ft)
0
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540
600
660
720
Refill
8.0
7.7
7.4
7.1
6.8
6.5
6.2
5.9
5.6
5.3
5.0
4.7
4.4
8.0
Step 4
Cal cul ate the heat transferred between the fuel i n the day tank and the atmosphere,
the T of the fuel i n the day tank due to the heat transfer, and the resul ti ng fuel day
tank temperature.
a) Heat transferred between the day tank and the atmosphere:
(T
MI X
+ T
DT
)
Q
TK
= [U x [ (H x (2L + 2W) + (L x W) ] x [ T
AMB
-
_______________
]] x t
2
18
Where:
T
DT
= Day tank temperature (F)
T
MI X
= Mi x temperature of return fuel
and tank fuel (F)
T
DT
= Temperature change of day
tank (F)
These three cal cul ati ons are
i nterdependent i n nature. Fi rst, Q
TK
i s determi ned for the fi rst i ncremental
ti me step. The resul ti ng val ue for Q
TK
i s then used to compute the T
DT
.
T
DT
i s then used to determi ne T
TK
.
Thi s process i s then repeated for each
i ncremental ti me step.
Exampl e a):
Q
TK
= [U [ H x (2L + 2W ) + (L x W)] x [ T
AMB
- (T
MI X
+ T
DT
)]] x t
____________
2
Q
TK
= 0.0424 x [7.7 (40) + 96 ] x [ 95 - (88.9 + 85)] x 60
_________
2
= 8283.6 Btu
Exampl e b):
Q
TK
T
DT
=____________
M
DT
x c
p
8283.6 Btu
=___________________________
(38746.0 l b) (0.5 Btu/l b F)
= 0.43 F (From atmosphere to day
tank)
Exampl e c):
T
DT
= T
MI X
+ T
DT
= 88.9 F + 0.43 F
= 89.3 F
Thi s seri es of cal cul ati ons i s then
repeated for the subsequent i ncremental
ti me steps.
Prepare a summary tabl e for each ti me
i ncrement (t).
Incremental
Time
(min)
Heat Rejection
to/from Day Tank
(Btu)
Temperature Chg.
in Day Tank
(F)
Day Tank
Temperature
(F)
0 - - 85.0
60 8283.6 0.43 89.3
120 4069.7 0.22 93.2
180 -4.0 0.00 97.1
240 -4022.0 -0.24 101.3
300 -7966.3 -0.49 105.6
360 -11818.7 -0.76 110.2
420 -15561.4 -1.05 114.9
480 -19257.8 -1.37 120.0
540 -22802.6 -1.71 125.2
600 -26253.3 -2.09 130.8
660 -29655.5 -2.51 136.8
720 -32973.6 -2.98 143.1
Refill - - 116.9
19
The l ast part i n Step 4 determi nes the day tank temperature after refi l l i ng
(T
DT
):
refi l l
[
(M
DT
- M
DT
) x T
MUF
]
+ (M
DT
x T
TK
)
ful l tn tn n T
DT = ____________________________________________________
refi l l
M
DT
ful l
Where:
M
DT
= Capaci ty of day tank, (l b)
ful l
M
DT
= Fuel i n day tank pri or to refi l l i ng, (l b)
tn
T
MUF
= Temperature of make-up fuel , (F)
T
TK
= Temperature of tank fuel pri or to refi l l i ng, (F)
n
Exampl e:
[(40258.6 - 22107.4) x 85] + (22107.4 x 143.1)
T
DT
= ____________________________________________
refi l l
40258.6 l b
= 116.9F
Step 5
The l ast step cal cul ates the maxi mum
power capabi l i ty of the engi ne at the
resul tant day tank temperature for each
ti me i nterval . A summary tabl e for each
i ncrement (t) i s al so prepared:
Note: The engines are power set at the
factory with 30 3C (86 5F) fuel to
the engine transfer pump. Higher fuel
temperatures reduce maximum power
capability. The fuel stop power reduction
is 1% for each 5.6C (10F) fuel supply
temperature increase above 30C. I f the
engine is operating below the fuel stop
limit, the governor will add fuel as
required to maintain the required engine
speed and power.
(T
DT
- T
ref
) 1
P
corr
= P
rated
x (1 -
[
___________x _____
]
)
10F 100
Where:
P
corr
= Corrected Engi ne Power, bhp
P
rated
= Rated bhp
T
ref
= 86 (Power setti ng)
T
DT
= Actual day tank fuel
temperature, F
Exampl e:
For t = 60, the corrected power of the
engi ne i s:
P
CORR
=
[ (89.3F - 86F) x 1 ]
4640 bhp x (1 - ___________________)
(10F) (100)
= 4625 bhp
20
Conclusion
The previ ous cal cul ati ons i ndi cate day
tank fuel temperatures can have an
effect on the maxi mum power capabi l i ty
of the engi ne. The exampl e was based
upon a fi xed pi tch propel l er appl i cati on.
Typi cal l y, a fi xed pi tch propel l er i s
sel ected and si zed to absorb 85-90% of
the engi ne's name pl ate rati ng. I n thi s
exampl e, thi s woul d equate to 3950-
4175 bhp. The l owest cal cul ated
corrected power was determi ned to be
4375 bhp. Thi s woul d l eave a 5-10%
power margi n and vessel performance
woul d not be affected.
Whi l e vessel performance may not be
affected i n thi s exampl e, the maxi mum
fuel temperature of 143.1F wi l l put the
fuel vi scosi ty near or bel ow the
mi ni mum al l owabl e vi scosi ty of 1.4 cSt
at the i njectors dependi ng on the type of
di sti l l ate fuel bei ng used. I n addi ti on,
the temperature of the fuel i n the tank
after refi l l i s now 116.9F i nstead of 85F
as used at the begi nni ng of the i terati on.
Therefore, conti nued operati on at ful l
l oad on thi s fuel tank woul d cause the
fuel temperature to ri se even hi gher
than the maxi mum temperature shown
i n thi s i terati on. To protect the fuel
i njectors a fuel cool er shoul d be used i n
thi s appl i cati on, despi te the fact that
avai l abl e engi ne power i s sti l l
acceptabl e.
Asi de from the i mpact on engi ne
performance, maxi mum fuel tank
temperatures are al so establ i shed by
vari ous mari ne cl assi fi cati on soci eti es
and regul atory bodi es. Thei r i nterest i s
based upon the i ncreased ri sks of fi re
that resul ts from el evated fuel
temperatures.
Fuel Heaters
Col d weather can form wax crystal s i n
No. 1 or No. 2 di esel fuel i f temperatures
go bel ow the cl oud poi nt. Smal l amounts
of heat added to the fuel before the
fi l ters can prevent cl oggi ng probl ems
due to wax. At temperatures bel ow the
cl oud poi nt, fuel wi l l fl ow through
pumps and l i nes but not fi l ters. At
temperatures bel ow the pour poi nt, fuel
wi l l not fl ow i n l i nes or pumps. The use
of fuel wi th a pour poi nt above the
mi ni mum expected ambi ent
temperature i s not recommended. Fuel
heaters wi l l often sol ve cl oud poi nt
probl ems but not pour poi nt probl ems
unl ess appl i ed to the enti re fuel storage
vol ume.
Incremental
Time (min)
Day Tank
Temp. (F)
Corrected Engine
Power (bhp)
0 85.0 -
60 89.3 4625
120 93.2 4607
180 97.1 4588
240 101.3 4569
300 105.6 4549
360 110.2 4528
420 114.9 4506
480 120.0 4482
540 125.2 4458
600 130.8 4432
660 136.8 4405
720 143.1 4375
Refill 116.9 4497
21
The fol l owi ng are several suggesti ons for
appl yi ng fuel heaters:
Use fuel heaters when the ambi ent
temperature i s bel ow the fuel cl oud
poi nt. Many types of heaters can be
used. Heat the fuel before the fi rst
fi l ter i n the fuel system. Do not use
fuel heaters when the ambient
temperature exceeds 15C (60F). The
maximum fuel temperature at the
outlet of the fuel heater must never
exceed 72C (162F).
Use heaters capabl e of handl i ng the
maxi mum fuel fl ow of the engi ne. The
restri cti on created must not exceed
the maxi mum al l owabl e.
Cool ant may be taken from taps on
the engi ne when usi ng the engi ne as
a heat source. Care must be taken to
assure that cool ant shunti ng to one
system does not adversel y affect
another system, and that both have
adequate fl ow.
Cauti on: Failed water sourced fuel
heaters can introduce excessive water
into the engine fuel system and cause
injector failure. Maintenance
responsibility of this type of heater must
be clearly defined.
When fuel heaters are used i n ambi ent
temperatures bel ow 0C (32F), start the
engi ne and run at l ow i dl e unti l the
engi ne temperature ri ses sl i ghtl y. Thi s
al l ows heat transfer to the fuel before
hi gh fuel fl ow rates at hi gh power output
occur, reduci ng fuel fi l ter wax pl uggi ng.
22
Useful Fuel Formulas and Data
The fol l owi ng i nformati on can be useful i n si zi ng fuel cool ers and heaters:
Specific Gravity (SG) and Density
API Gravi ty = (141.5/SG) - 131.5
SG = 141.5/(API Gravi ty + 131.5)
SG = Densi ty
__________
998 kg/m
3
Densi ty (kg/m
3
) = SG x 998 kg/m
3
Densi ty (l bm/gal ) = SG x 998 kg/m
3
1 l bm/ft
3
1 ft
3
x
___________
x
________
16.02 kg/m
3
7.48 gal
Mass Flow Rate

M (kg/sec) = Densi ty (kg/m


3
) x
1 m
3
x
Fl ow Rate (L/mi n)
_____ __________________
1000 L 60 (sec/mi n)

M (l bm/mi n) = Densi ty (l bm/gal ) x Fl ow Rate (gal /mi n)


Specific Heat (c
p
)
The fol l owi ng tabl e shows typi cal speci fi c heat val ues for two di fferent API gravi ty fuel s
i n Btu/l bm-F:
1 Btu/l bm-F = 4.186 kJ/kg-C
Heat Rejecti on

Q (kW) = M (kg/sec) x c
p
(kJ/kg-C) x T (C)

Q (Btu/mi n) = M (l bm/mi n) x c
p
(Btu/l bm-F) x T (F)
100F 140F 180F 200F 240F
API Gravity (38C) (60C) (82C) (93C) (115C)
30 0.463 0.482 0.501 0.511 0.530
40 0.477 0.497 0.516 0.526 0.546
23
Burning Used
Crankcase Oil
Wi th l egi sl ati on and ecol ogi cal
pressures, i t i s becomi ng i ncreasi ngl y
di ffi cul t to di spose of used oi l . Burni ng of
used crankcase oi l i n 3600 engi nes i s
not recommended due to the
detri mental effects on exhaust
emi ssi ons. However, i f anci l l ary methods
of reduci ng exhaust emi ssi ons to
acceptabl e l i mi ts are used, or i f
emi ssi ons are not a probl em, burni ng
crankcase oi l i n 3600 engi nes i s possi bl e
wi th these gui del i nes:
Onl y di esel engi ne crankcase oi l s can
be mi xed wi th the di esel engi ne fuel
suppl y. The rati o of used oi l to fuel
must not exceed 5%. Premature
fi l ter pl uggi ng wi l l occur at hi gher
rati os. Under no ci rcumstances
shoul d gasol i ne engi ne crankcase
oi l , transmi ssi on oi l s, speci al
hydraul i c oi l s not covered by
Caterpi l l ar recommendati ons,
greases, cl eani ng sol vents, etc., be
mi xed wi th the di esel fuel . Do not
use crankcase oi l s contai ni ng water
or anti freeze from engi ne cool ant
l eaks or from poor storage practi ces.
Adequate mixing is essential. Lube oi l
and fuel oi l , once mi xed, wi l l combi ne
and not separate. Mi x used crankcase
oi l wi th an equal amount of fuel ,
fi l ter, and then add the 50-50 bl end to
the suppl y tank before new fuel i s
added. Thi s procedure wi l l normal l y
provi de suffi ci ent mi xi ng. Fai l ure to
achi eve adequate mi xi ng wi l l resul t
i n premature fi l ter pl uggi ng by
sl ugs of undi l uted l ube oi l .
Fi l ter or centri fuge used oi l pri or to
putti ng i t i n the fuel tank to prevent
premature fuel fi l ter pl uggi ng or
accel erated wear or pl uggi ng of
fuel system parts. Soot, di rt, metal ,
and resi due parti cl es l arger than
5 mi crons (.0002 i n.) must be
removed.
Cauti on: Diesel fuel day tank sight
glasses may blacken. Ash content of the
lube oil in the fuel may also cause more
accumulation of turbocharger and valve
deposits.
Continuous Blending
I f the i nstal l ati on warrants, used
l ubri cati ng oi l can be bl ended and used
i n the engi ne i n a conti nuous manner.
The normal method uses a centri fuge
modul e si mi l ar to Fi gure 8. The
fol l owi ng i nformati on descri bes the
system:
Centrifuge No. 1
Engi ne crankcase oi l i s conti nuousl y
centri fuged except when the cl ean waste
oi l tank i s l ow, at whi ch ti me the di rty
waste oi l i s centri fuged and di rected to
the cl ean waste oi l tank.
Centrifuge No. 2
Di sti l l ate fuel /oi l mi xture daytank i s
conti nual l y centri fuged.
Metering Pump
Adds up to 5% cl ean waste oi l to the
di sti l l ate fuel (from the mai n suppl y
tank) when the daytank l ow l evel swi tch
cal l s for more fuel .
Static Mixer
Runs when the meteri ng pump i s on to
i nsure a proper homogeneous mi xture of
the fuel and cl ean waste oi l .
The centri fuge modul e i s el ectroni cal l y
control l ed and i ncl udes the components
wi thi n the dotted l i ne. Si ze the system
for appropri ate fuel del i very.
Reference Material
SEHS9031 Special I nstructions -
Storage Recommendations
SEBD0717 Diesel Fuel and Your Engine
SEBD0640 Oil and Your Engine
LEKQ4219 EDS 60.1 Fuel
Recommendations for
Caterpillar Diesel Engines
24
Figure 1
FUEL SUPPLY
15
FUEL RETURN
14 13 12
11
10
9
8
7
1
2 3 4 5
6
16
3606 and 3608 Engines
Fuel Flow Schematic
1. Fuel Filter Housings
2. Fuel Inlet Line
3. Unit Injector
4. Fuel Outlet Line
5. Fuel Return Manifold
6. Fuel Supply Manifold
7. Check Valve
8. Fuel Filter Change Valve
9. Check Valve
10. Fuel Pressure Control Valve
11. Fuel Supply Line
12. Check Valve
13. Fuel Transfer Pump
14. Check Valve
15. Fuel Priming Pump
16. Emergency Fuel Connection
25
2 3 1 4
8
9
15 14 13 12
11
10
7
6
5
FUEL SUPPLY
FUEL RETURN
16
Figure 2
3612 and 3616 Engines
Fuel Flow Schematic
1. Fuel Filter Housings
2. Fuel Outlet Line
3. Unit Injector
4. Fuel Inlet Line
5. Check Valve
6. Fuel Filter Change Valve
7. Check Valve
8. Fuel Supply Manifold
9. Fuel Return Manifold
10. Fuel Pressure Control Valve
11. Fuel Supply Line
12. Check Valve
13. Fuel Transfer Pump
14. Check Valve
15. Fuel Priming Pump
16. Emergency Fuel Connection
26
CHECK
VALVE
SECONDARY
FUEL FILTER
ELEMENTS CHECK
VALVE
CHECK
VALVE
FILTER
CHANGE VALVE
SECONDARY
FUEL FILTER
ELEMENTS
PRESSURE
RELIEF VALVE
(FUEL PUMP)
MAIN
FUEL
PUMP
HAND
PRIMING
PUMP
PRIMARY
FUEL FILTER
MAIN FUEL
TANK
PRESSURE
REGULATING VALVE
(RETURN FUEL)
UNIT
INJECTOR
CHECK
VALVE
EMERGENCY
FUEL INLET
(IF REQUIRED)
Figure 3
Fuel System Schematic
27
RRR
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Figure 4
D
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e

F
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u
p
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S
y
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m
28
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29
CENTRIFUGE #1
STATIC MIXER
METERING
PUMP
CENTRIFUGE#2
TRANSFER
PUMP
FROM
SUMP
ENGINE OIL
TO SUMP
TO
ENGINE
FROM
ENGINE
FUEL
DAY TANK
RECIRCULATION PUMP
DIRTY WASTE
OIL
CLEAN WASTE
OIL
Centrifuge Module Schematic
For Burning Used Crankcase Oil
(Continuous Blending Method)
FROM DISTILLATE
FUEL STORAGE TANK
Figure 8
Centrifuge Module Schematic
For Burning Used Crankcase Oil
(Continuous Blending Method)


Engine Systems - Heavy Fuel Oil

Heavy Fuel Usage
Economic Studies
Installation Costs
Operational Costs
Heavy Fuel Characteristics
Viscosity
Density
Heating Value
Fuel Consumption Corrections for Heating
Value and Density
Sulfur
Vanadium
Micro Carbon Residue
Asphaltenes
Calculated Carbon Aromaticity Index
Ash
Catalytic Fines
Water
Heavy Fuel Specifications
Blending of Heavy Fuel Oil with Distillate Fuel Oil
Addresses for Fuel Oil Sample Analysis
Heavy Fuel Treatment
Fuel Handling Systems
Bunker Tanks
Heavy Fuel System Components
Transfer Pumps
Settling Tank
Suction Strainer
Centrifuge Supply Pump
Preheater
Centrifuges
Centrifuge Sizing
Sampling Points
Sludge Tank
Fuel Feed Systems
System 1 Pressurized Fuel System
Service Tank-Heavy Fuel
Service Tank-Distillate Fuel
Heavy Fuel/Distillate Fuel Change Valve
Suction Strainer
Supply Pumps
Fuel Cooler
Pressure Control Valve
Automatic Back Flush Filter
Fuel Flow Meter
Deaeration Tank
Circulating Pumps
Final Heater
Viscometer
Final Filter
System 2 Atmospheric Fuel System
Service Tank-Heavy Fuel
Service Tank-Distillate Fuel
Heavy Fuel/Distillate Fuel Change Valve
Fuel Flow Meter
Mixing Pipe
Suction Strainer
Circulating Pumps
Final Heater
Viscometer
Final Filter
Burning Used Crankcase Oils
Unit Injector Tip Cooling
Separate Circuit Tip Cooling
Circulating Tank
Strainer
Circulating Pumps
Heat Exchanger
Temperature Regulating Valve
Series Circuit Tip Cooling
Lube Oil Recommendations
Lubricating Oil Centrifuging
Start/Stop Procedures
Low Load Operation
Turbocharger Wash
Engine J acket Water Preheating
Fuel Filter Preheating
Performance
Ratings
Heat Rejection
Air Flow
Exhaust Backpressure
Reference Material

33

Heavy Fuel Usage
Caterpi l l ar 3600 engi nes are desi gned to
operate on heavy fuel oi l s. Fuel oi l cost
represents 60-90% of the operati ng
expenses of an engi ne. Therefore,
reduci ng the cost of the fuel oi l by
burni ng heavy fuel can make economi c
sense. The Caterpi l l ar 3600 seri es
engi ne has been desi gned to burn
CI MAC K-55 fuel oi l (see

Heavy Fuel
Characteristics for i mportant
i nformati on) whi ch maxi mi zes the
savi ngs potenti al for fuel oi l costs.
Caterpi l l ar Speci al I nstructi on
REHS0104 (7/97) enti tl ed Guidelines for
3600 Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) Engines
contai ns very detai l ed i nformati on on
usi ng heavy fuel oi l . However, some of
the mandatory attachments l i sted i n
secti on 5 are not appl i cabl e for mari ne
propul si on appl i cati ons.
The 3600 engi ne phi l osophy has been to
offer engi nes opti mi zed for fuel s
i ncl udi ng crude, di sti l l ate and heavy fuel
oi l s. Components i n the engi ne are
changed to opti mi ze rel i abi l i ty and
effi ci ency. Some of the components that
are changed for a heavy fuel engi ne are:

Economic Studies
Whi l e there i s a potenti al for l ower fuel
costs, there are a number of trade-offs
when operati ng on heavy fuel . These
trade-offs must be eval uated agai nst the
fuel oi l savi ngs. Some of the trade-offs
for operati ng on heavy fuel versus
di sti l l ate fuel i ncl ude i ncreased capi tal
costs, reduced engi ne component l i fe,
hi gher mai ntenance costs, shorter ti mes
between overhaul and i ncreased
personnel costs.
Installation Costs
Typi cal i nstal l ati on costs for a heavy fuel
appl i cati on range from 25-85% more
than di sti l l ate fuel appl i cati ons. The
addi ti onal i nstal l ati on costs are a resul t
of addi ti onal equi pment requi red to treat
the heavy fuel and l ube oi l . Some of thi s
equi pment i ncl udes:
Addi ti onal tanks
Addi ti onal fuel oi l transfer pumps
Fuel oi l separators
Fuel oi l condi ti oni ng equi pment
(booster modul e)
Lube oi l separator
Tank heater
Steam system or el ectri c heati ng
system
I nsul ati on and heat traci ng on
fuel oi l pi pi ng
Addi ti onal equi pment on engi ne
Operational Costs
The cost of operati ng a heavy fuel pl ant
i s general l y l ower than operati ng a
di sti l l ate pl ant because of the l ower fuel
costs al ready descri bed. However, there
are a number of addi ti onal costs that
must al so be consi dered:
Addi ti onal operators to mai ntai n
addi ti onal equi pment
Greater spare parts usage as a resul t
of more frequent overhaul i nterval s
I ncreased downti me as a resul t of
more frequent overhaul i nterval s
Addi ti onal l ube oi l costs as a resul t of
contami nati on
More educated operators to servi ce
more sophi sti cated equi pment
Valve rotators
Special valve material
Recessed exhaust valves
Watercooled exhaust
valve seats
Increased air flow components
Lower inlet air temperature
Inlet manifold air temperature
control
Cuffed liners
Standard on all engines
Standard on heavy fuel engines
Standard on heavy fuel engines
Standard on heavy fuel engines
Standard on heavy fuel engines
Standard on heavy fuel engines
Required for heavy fuel engines
for extended low load operation
Standard on all engines
3600 Heavy Fuel Engines
34
Heavy Fuel
Characteristics
Viscosity
Vi scosi ty of a fuel oi l i s a measure of the
fuel s resi stance to fl ow. I n other words i t
i s a measure of the consi stency or
thickness of the fuel oi l . Proper vi scosi ty
can ai d the combusti on process by
hel pi ng to i nsure the proper spray
pattern from the i njector. I ncorrect
vi scosi ty can cause i ncreased thermal or
mechani cal l oadi ng on a number of
engi ne components.
The requi red i njecti on vi scosi ty of heavy
fuel i s 10-17 cSt (i njecti on temperature
not to exceed 135C). To obtai n the
proper i njecti on temperature the heavy
fuel must be heated pri or to i njecti on.
Refer to Fi gure 9 to determi ne the
approxi mate i njecti on temperature.
Exampl e:
Determi ne the i njecti on temperature for
a fuel oi l wi th a vi scosi ty of 380 cSt at
50C.
Sol uti on:
1. Fi nd 50C on the hori zontal axi s and
draw a verti cal l i ne through that
poi nt.
2. Fi nd 380 cSt on the verti cal axi s and
draw a hori zontal l i ne through that
poi nt.
3. Fi nd the i ntersecti on of the two l i nes.
4. Draw a l i ne paral l el to the fuel l i nes
i n the chart through the i ntersecti on
poi nt. A l i ne al ready exi sts for
380 cSt fuel at 50C (I BF 380).
5. Draw two hori zontal l i nes, one
through the 17 cSt poi nt on the
verti cal axi s and one through the
10 cSt poi nt on the verti cal axi s.
6. Where these two l i nes i ntersect the
380 cSt fuel l i ne draw verti cal l i nes to
determi ne the upper and l ower
temperature l i mi ts for i njecti on.
7. For thi s exampl e, the l ower i njecti on
temperature l i mi t i s approxi matel y
127C and the upper l i mi t i s 148C.
Si nce i njecti on temperature may not
exceed 135C, i njecti on vi scosi ty
woul d be l i mi ted to between 13 and
17 cSt.
8. Note that the vi scosi ty of the heavy
fuel s shown i n Fi gure 9 are for
typi cal fuel oi l s. A fuel sampl e must
be obtai ned wi th the vi scosi ty
measured at a mi ni mum of two
poi nts (i deal l y 95C and 50C) to
determi ne the true vi scosi ty
characteri sti cs of the fuel oi l .
35
Figure 9
36
Heating Value
Btu/lb
Higher Heating
Value
Sulfur
Sulfur
Lower Heating
Value
API
.82 .84 .86 .88 .90 .92 .94 .96 .98 1.00 1.02
Specific Gravity at 60 F
15,500
16,250
17,000
17,750
18,500
19,250
20,000
40

38

36

34

32

30

28

26

24

22

20

18

16

14

12

10

4%
3%
2%
1%
0%
4%
3%
2%
1%
0%
Heating Value
kJ/kg
46,540
44,795
43,050
41,305
39,560
37,815
36,070
Figure 10
Density
The densi ty of a heavy fuel oi l i mpacts
fuel separator effi ci ency. Conventi onal
separators can handl e fuel oi l s wi th a
densi ty up to 991 kg/m
3
at 15C. New
types of separators such as Al fa Laval s
ALCAP uni t can handl e heavy fuel oi l s
wi th a densi ty up to 1010 kg/m
3
at 15C.
The densi ty of a heavy fuel oi l wi l l al so
i nfl uence fuel oi l consumpti on when
computi ng the vol ume of fuel consumed.
Heating Value
There are two heati ng val ues for any
gi ven fuel oi l : the gross heati ng val ue,
whi ch i s al so referred to as the total
heati ng val ue or hi gher heati ng val ue,
and the net heati ng val ue, whi ch i s al so
referred to as the l ower heati ng val ue.
The gross heati ng val ue i ncl udes the
l atent heat of vapori zati on of the water
vapor formed duri ng the combusti on
process. Si nce thi s water vapor i s not
condensed i n a di esel engi ne the l atent
heat i s not recovered, so the l ower
heati ng val ue of the fuel i s used as a
reference for fuel consumpti on. I t i s
i mportant to i nsure that competi ti ve fuel
consumpti on data references a si mi l ar
heati ng val ue to get an accurate
compari son.
Heavy fuel typi cal l y has l ess speci fi c
heati ng val ue than l i ght crudes and
di sti l l ates. Heavy fuel al so has more
sul fur, free water and sedi ment not
contri buti ng to heati ng val ue. Fi gure 10
shows an exampl e for the decrease i n
heati ng val ue for both speci fi c gravi ty
and percent sul fur.
37
Fuel Consumption Corrections for
Heating Value and Density
Caterpi l l ar uses a standard l ower
heati ng val ue of 42,780 kJ/kg
(18,390 Btu/l b) for al l 3600 engi ne fuel
consumpti on data. Based on a gi ven
fuel s l ower heati ng val ue i t i s possi bl e to
cal cul ate the corrected fuel consumpti on
of an engi ne. As an exampl e, the
fol l owi ng tabl e shows a 3606 engi nes
speci fi c fuel consumpti on based on the
standard reference l ower heati ng val ue.
To correct the speci fi c fuel consumpti on
to a di fferent l ower heati ng val ue the
fol l owi ng formul a i s used:
corrected bsfc = rated bsfc x
standard LHV _____________
actual LHV
Based on thi s formul a i t i s al so possi bl e
to cal cul ate the amount of fuel consumed
for vari ous fuel s i n a si mi l ar appl i cati on
to compare fuel costs. The fol l owi ng
cal cul ati ons use three of the fuel s from
the precedi ng tabl e to show the amount
of fuel consumed by wei ght and by
vol ume for the 3606 engi ne shown
above:
IBF 180 cSt @40,065 kJ /kg (17,225 Btu/lb)
lower heating value
203 g 42,780 kJ/kg
1500 kW-hr x
______
x
____________
= 325 kg
kW-hr 40,065 kJ/kg
1000 x 325 kg
______________ = 339 L
960 g/L
0.334 l b 18,390 Btu/l b
2000 hp-hr x
_______
x
____________
= 713 l b
hp-hr 17,225 Btu/l b
713 l b
________ = 89 gal
8 l b/gal
Alaskan Crude @41,635 kJ /kg (17,900 Btu/lb)
lower heating value
203 g 42,780 kJ/kg
1500 kW-hr x
______
x
_____________
= 313 kg
kW-hr 41,635 kJ/kg
1000 x 313 kg
______________
= 352 L
890 g/L
0.334 l b 18,390 Btu/l b
2000 hp-hr x
_______
x
_____________
= 686 l b
hp-hr 17,900 Btu/l b
686 l b
_________
= 93 gal
7.4 l b/gal
No. 2 Diesel @42,520 kJ /kg
(18,280 Btu/lb) lower heating value
203 g 42,780 kJ/kg
1500 kW-hr x
______
x
_____________
= 306 kg
kW-hr 42,520 kJ/kg
1000 x 306 kg
______________
= 360 L
850 g/L
0.334 l b 18,390 Btu/l b
2000 hp-hr x
_______
x
______________
= 672 l b
hp-hr 18,280 Btu/l b
672 l b
_________
= 95 gal
7.1 l b/gal
Power Specific Fuel
Consumption
Lower Heating
Value
1500 bkW
2000 bhp
203 g/kWhr
.334 lb/bhphr
42,780 kJ/kg
18,390 Btu/lb
IBF 180
Crude
No.2
Crude
2.5
1.0
0
0.5
1500
Alaska
40
North Sea
180
Heavy
---
Light
16
17
34
36
0.96
0.89
0.85
0.84
17 225
17 900
18 280
18 280
40 065
41 635
42 520
42 520
8.0
7.4
7.1
7.0
960
890
850
840
Type % S Redwood1 cSt 50C Gravity Btu / lb kJ / kg lb / gal g/L
Viscosity Lower Heating Value Density
The fol l owi ng tabl e compares the speci fi c gravi ty and heati ng val ue of four di fferent
densi ty fuel s.
API Specific
Gravity
38
I n the same combusti on system, more
mass of heavi er fuel wi l l be requi red
because of l ower speci fi c energy. For
exampl e, 325 kg of I BF 180 wi l l be
requi red to produce 1500 kWhr vs
306 kg of No. 2 di esel .
Sulfur
Fuel sul fur i ncreases ri ng, l i ner, and
val ve gui de wear. Wi thout engi ne
modi fi cati ons and wi th temperatures
bel ow the dew poi nt of sul furi c aci d,
l i ner wear can i ncrease ten ti mes when
fuel sul fur i s i ncreased from 0.6% to
3.5%. The most effecti ve treatment of
fuel sul fur i s to keep the engi ne l i ner
and val ve stem temperature above the
dew poi nt of sul furi c aci d, neutral i ze
aci ds wi th hi gh al kal i ni ty l ube oi l s and
mai ntai n hi gh i nl et mani fol d ai r
temperature duri ng l i ght l oad operati on.
See Low Load Operati on secti on.
Copi ng wi th the effects of fuel sul fur i s
not a si mpl e task. Even though the use
of proper l ubri cants and correct oi l
change i nterval s reduces the degree of
corrosi ve damage, engi ne wear wi l l
i ncrease si gni fi cantl y when hi gh sul fur
fuel s produce aci d products duri ng
combusti on. These aci ds chemi cal l y
attack the engi ne causi ng corrosi ve
wear. Hi gh TBN oi l s hel p to control aci d
corrosi on but al so contai n hi gher l evel s
of ash. Unfortunatel y, hi gh ash oi l s i n
the absence of hi gh sul fur fuel i ncrease
deposi t formati on and wear. Here are
fi ve steps to combat the corrosi ve and
deposi t effects associ ated wi th fuel
sul fur.
Know the actual fuel sul fur content of
each bul k del i very. Sul fur content
can change wi th each del i very. Have
the fuel anal yzed by your suppl i er or
i ndependent l aboratory. Do not rel y
on publ i shed speci fi cati ons from the
fuel suppl i er to determi ne the actual
sul fur content.
As a starti ng poi nt for sel ecti ng the
correct TBN oi l , fol l ow the
recommendati ons i n the appropri ate
mai ntenance gui de and Fi gure 11. Let
I nfrared Anal ysi s, ASTM Procedure
D2896 resul ts (performed every 250
operati ng hours) and Trend Anal ysi s
of these data establ i sh the correct oi l
sel ecti on and change i nterval . Trend
Anal ysi s of the test resul ts i s the best
method to manage the oi l sel ecti on
and change i nterval . I nfrared
Anal ysi s determi nes the amount of
sul fur products i n the crankcase oi l .
ASTM D2896 measures the amount
of al kal i ne addi ti ve (TBN) i n the oi l to
neutral i ze aci ds.
Use an Ameri can Petrol eum I nsti tute
(API ) cl ass CF engi ne oi l . The oi l
must al so meet the requi rements of
the Caterpi l l ar Mi cro-Oxi dati on Test
(CMOT) and/or Fi el d Test
Qual i fi cati ons. The percentage of
sul fur i n the fuel wi l l affect the oi l
recommendati ons.
39
The sul fur products formati on
depends on the fuel sul fur content, oi l
formul ati on, crankcase bl owby, engi ne
operati ng condi ti ons, humi di ty, and
ambi ent temperature. The
effecti veness of an oi l formul ati on wi l l
depend on the addi ti ve package. A
bal anced addi ti ve package oi l of a
l ower TBN can be more effecti ve i n
fuel sul fur neutral i zati on and overal l
performance than some oi l s wi th
hi gher TBN val ues whi ch have
addi ti ves just for i ncreased TBN.
Adhere to a 250 operati ng hours oi l
Trend Anal ysi s program unti l the
correct oi l sel ecti on and change
i nterval have been determi ned. After
sel ecti on and change i nterval s have
been determi ned, conti nue to: 1) Use
the schedul ed oi l sampl i ng (SOS)
program to moni tor and trend wear
metal s (i ron, chromi um, l ead)
careful l y; 2) Use I nfrared Anal ysi s
Trendi ng to conti nual l y determi ne oi l
condi ti on; 3) Use ASTM D2896 to
measure and trend reserve al kal i ni ty
(TBN).
Be sure jacket water outl et
temperature i s above 85C (185F) to
mi ni mi ze sul fur attack. Sel ect the
proper thermostat to be i n the
preferred range of 85C-98C (18F-
208F).
A minimum initial TBN oil of 20 times
the fuel sulfur percent is recommended
(within the limits of oil availability). The
minimum TBN level of oil in the engine
sump is half the initial TBN of the new
oil (see Fi gure 11). Al so see the
Lubricating Oil secti on of thi s Gui de.
Vanadium
Fuel vanadi um forms hi ghl y corrosi ve
compounds duri ng combusti on. They
mel t at hi gh temperatures and attack
metal surfaces, especi al l y exhaust val ve
faces. I f the temperature i s above
stiction temperature, the mol ten
compounds sti ck to the val ve face,
remove oxi de coati ngs, and attack
mol ecul ar grai n boundari es. Leak
channel s then form on the val ve face,
reduci ng val ve cool i ng from seat contact.
Thi s accel erates the val ves deteri orati on
as i ts temperature ri ses even further.
Vanadi um cannot be economi cal l y
removed from heavy fuel . The engi ne
must be speci fi cal l y desi gned to reduce
vanadi um effects.
Micro Carbon Residue
Mi cro Carbon Resi due (MCR) i s a
measure of carbon deposi t formati on
trends duri ng combusti on. Carbon ri ch
fuel s can l ead to more soot and deposi ts,
whi ch are sources of abrasi ve wear and
val ve and turbocharger deposi ts.
Asphaltenes
Asphal tenes are l arge, heavy,
hydrocarbon mol ecul es contai ni ng heavy
metal s such as ni ckel , i ron, and
vanadi um. They are sl ower burni ng,
affect the combusti on process, and
requi re regul ar exhaust-si de turbi ne
washi ng.
40
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
USED OIL TBN
LIMIT
NEW OIL TBN FOR
HEAVY FUEL
TBN VS FUEL SULFUR FOR 3600 SERIES ENGINES ON RESIDUAL FUEL
FUEL SULPHUR - % WEIGHT
T
B
N


A
S
T
M

D

2
8
9
6
TBN vs Fuel Sulfur for 3600 Family of Engines on Heavy Fuel
T
B
N

-

A
S
T
M

D

2
8
9
6
Fuel Sulfur - % Weight
Figure 11
Total Base Number (TBN) for
Heavy Fuel Engines:
3600 engi nes operati ng on heavy fuel
must use an oi l speci fi cal l y bl ended for
heavy fuel engi nes. Oi l s for heavy fuel
engi nes are speci al l y bl ended for use
wi th l ube oi l centri fuges; these oi l s must
be abl e to rel ease water and
contami nants by centri fugi ng wi thout
the l oss of addi ti ves. These oi l s are
general l y avai l abl e from 20 TBN to
50 TBN (by ASTM D 2896); however,
the majori ty of Caterpi l l ar experi ence i s
wi th the 30 TBN and 40 TBN oi l s.
For 3600 engi nes runni ng on heavy fuel ,
the mi ni mum new oi l TBN must be 20
ti mes the fuel sul fur l evel , and the
maxi mum TBN i s 40 regardl ess of sul fur
l evel . Oi l s for heavy fuel 3600 engi nes
must al so pass the performance
requi rements for commerci al l y
avai l abl e oi l s.
41
Calculated Carbon
Aromaticity Index
The Cal cul ated Carbon Aromati ci ty
I ndex (CCAI ) i s an approxi mate
i ndi cator of fuel combusti on
characteri sti cs. Thi s i ndex was
devel oped by Shel l Oi l Co. I t can be
cal cul ated from the vi scosi ty and densi ty
of the fuel , usi ng the fol l owi ng formul a:
CCAI = D - [l og l og (V + 0.85)] - 81
Where:
V = Vi scosi ty of Fuel i n cSt @ 50C
D = Densi ty of fuel i n kg/m
3
@ 15C
Fuel s wi th a CCAI greater than 845 may
cause engi ne damage. Consul t
Caterpi l l ar for fuel s wi th a CCAI greater
than 845.
Ash
Ash can exi st i n fuel s and become
suspended i n oi l s. Fi l teri ng i s the most
effecti ve method for removal .
Catalytic Fines
Refi neri es i ncreasi ngl y use catal yti c
cracki ng to rai se the percentage of
di sti l l ate fuel s from crude. The catal yst
resi due i s smal l abrasi ve parti cl es of
al umi num and si l i con. The parti cl es
pass through medi a type fuel fi l ters,
cause damage to fuel i njecti on
equi pment, and i ncrease ri ng and l i ner
wear.
Centri fugi ng can remove a hi gh
percentage of catal yti c fi nes. Two
centri fuges i n seri es may be requi red to
remove the parti cl es to a safe l evel .
Water
Water exi sts i n al l fuel s and can damage
fuel i njecti on equi pment. Remove water
by settl i ng i n tanks and centri fugi ng.
Heavy Fuel
Specifications
Li mi ts for fuel as bunkered:
CI MAC desi gnati on K55
Vi scosi ty - cSt @ 50C 700
Densi ty - kg/m
3
@ 15C 1010
Sul fur - % by wei ght 5
Vanadi um - ppm 600
Mi cro Carbon Resi due - % by wei ght 22
Asphal tenes - % by wei ght 15
Water and Sedi ment - % by wei ght 1.0
Ash - % by wei ght 0.20
Al umi num - ppm 80
Si l i con - ppm 80
Fl ash poi nt 60C
Li mi ts for fuel at i njectors:
Vi scosi ty - cSt @ 135C max 10-17
Densi ty - kg/m
3
@ 15C 1010
Sul fur - % by wei ght 5
Vanadi um - ppm 600
Mi cro Carbon Resi due - % by wei ght 18
Asphal tenes - % by wei ght 15
Water and Sedi ment - % by wei ght 0.5
Ash - % by wei ght 0.15
Al umi num - ppm 3
Si l i con - ppm 3
Vanadi um/sodi um rati o 10
Blending of Heavy Fuel Oil
with Distillate Fuel Oil
The bl endi ng of heavy fuel oi l wi th
di sti l l ate fuel oi l shoul d be avoi ded. I t
must never be attempted on si te wi thout
speci al equi pment and trai ned
operators. I f bl endi ng of the fuel oi l i s
requi red, approval must be obtai ned
from the factory and the fuel oi l suppl i er.
Addresses for Fuel Oil Sample
Analysis
F.O.B.A.S. (Fuel Oi l Bunker Anal ysi s
and Advi sory Servi ce)
TNT-Skypak I nternati onal (UK) Li mi ted
Uni t 6, Spi tfi re Estate, Spi tfi re Way,
Hounsl ow, Mi ddl esex, Engl and, TW5,
9NW
Attn: ACP 80 Code DRX
Skypak Code CB10
I f no TNT-Skypak I nternati onal Servi ce
i s avai l abl e, send by ai r frei ght vi a
Heathrow Ai rport to the address above.
Attn: ACP 80 CODE DRX
SKYPAK CODE CB10
For inside U.K. send to the
following address:
FOBAS
c/o Cal eb Brett Laboratory Li mi ted
Ki ngston Road, Leatherhead
Surrey KT22 7LZ
Al ways noti fy FOBAS by tel ex when
sampl e i s sent @ tel ex #: 8953603-LR
LON G.
Other Addresses:
DNV Petrol eum Servi ces I nc.
DNVPS OSLO
Veri tasvei en 1
N-1322 Hovi k
Norway
phone: 47 67 57 9900
fax: 47 67 57 9393
DNVPS ROTTERDAM
Haastrechtstraat 7
3079 DC Rotterdam
phone: 31 10 292 2600
fax: 31 10 479 7141
DNVPS SI NGAPORE
10 Sci ence park Dri ve
DNV Technol ogy Centre
Si ngapore 118224
phone: 65 779 2475
fax: 65 779 5636
DNVPS TEANECK
111 Gal way Pl ace
Teaneck, NJ 07666
USA
phone: 201 833 1990
fax: 201 833 4559
DNVPS FUJAI RAH
Fujai rah Port
P.O. Box 1227
Fujai rah
UAE
phone: 971 9 228 152
fax: 971 9 228 153
Revi ew anal ysi s resul ts before the fuel
i s consumed. Separate suppl y tanks are
recommended.
To establ i sh fuel oi l trends the same
l aboratory and/or test methods must be
used.
Heavy Fuel Treatment
Fuel Handling Systems
Item
Minimum tank
temperature for
pumping
Tank heating
required
Minimum fuel
temperature at
injector to attain
10-17 cSt
Normal fuel
heating method
Fuel
Centrifuge
Fuel transfer
pump
Unit injector tip
cooling method
Remote
mounted final
fuel filters
Starting aid
Turbo wash for
exhaust turbine
40 cSt
2C (36F)
No
See Figure 1
Steam and/or
electricity
Yes
Engine driven
Series tip
cooling circuit
required
No
Jacket water
preheat to 45C
(113F)
Yes
> 40 cSt - 700 cSt
10C above pour point
Yes
See Figure 1
Steam and/or
electricity
Yes
Off engine
Separate tip
cooling circuit
required
Yes
Jacket water
preheat to 65C
(149F). Fuel heated
to proper viscosity
Yes
Installation Recommendations
for Heavy Fuel
Figure 12
42
43
Separate newl y bunkered heavy fuel
from previ ous bunkeri ngs. The fuel
shoul d remai n separated unti l
compati bi l i ty i s establ i shed.
Heat and i nsul ate al l heavy fuel pi pi ng
to al l ow fuel pumpi ng at ambi ent
temperatures. Pi pi ng carryi ng heavy
fuel at i njecti on temperature, i ncl udi ng
the booster pump sucti on and
reci rcul ati on l i nes, shoul d be heat traced
(ei ther steam or el ectri c). Li ne heati ng i s
al so requi red when starti ng a col d
engi ne on heavy fuel .
Heated heavy fuel storage tanks
(bunker, settl i ng, day and drai n tanks)
must be vented to atmosphere i n a safe
l ocati on. Vents must have a fl ame
screen, check val ve, cl osure (manual
vent shut off devi ce) and dri p pan as
requi red by cl assi fi cati on soci eti es.
I nstal l heati ng coi l s i n al l bunker tanks
to mai ntai n a temperature of 10C
(18F) mi ni mum above the fuel pour
poi nt. Heati ng coi l si zi ng must consi der
heat transfer requi red to rai se the
temperature of the fuel i n the tank i n a
gi ven ti me frame (for exampl e
0.56C/hr (1F/hr). The requi rements to
mai ntai n the fuel at i ts fi nal
temperature must be consi dered.
Normal l y, onl y the bunker tank
contai ni ng the fuel bei ng used i s heated.
The others are unheated unti l ready for
use.
The external fuel system desi gn may
vary from shi p to shi p. However, every
system must have cl ean fuel at the
correct vi scosi ty and pressure at the
engi ne. The fuel must be free of sol i d
matter and water. I n addi ti on to the
harm poorl y centri fuged fuel wi l l cause
to the engi nes i njecti on system, a hi gh
content of water may al so cause seri ous
probl ems wi th the fuel feed system
components. I nstal l wel l proven
equi pment and components i n the fuel
oi l system. Fol l ow centri fuge si zi ng
recommendati ons cl osel y.
Fuel treatment coordi nati on
responsi bi l i ty must be cl earl y
understood by al l concerned earl y i n a
project. Consi der usi ng a consul tant.
Caterpi l l ar wi l l advi se i n a general sense
but detai l ed gui dance must be obtai ned
from vendors.
Bunker Tanks
Fuel compati bi l i ty probl ems are
el i mi nated by i nstal l i ng a sui tabl e
number of bunker tanks and avoi di ng
mi xi ng fuel from di fferent bunkeri ngs.
Heati ng coi l s or bunker tank sucti on
heaters shoul d mai ntai n a mi ni mum
temperature of 10C (18F) above the
bunkered fuel s pour poi nt. Heati ng coi l
gri ds shoul d be manufactured from
seaml ess steel pi pe wi th a schedul e 80
mi ni mum wal l thi ckness. Use wel ded
joi nts i n the heati ng coi l gri ds wi thi n
the tanks.
Heavy Fuel System Components
See Figure 13 for a schematic of the
following components.
Transfer Pumps
Provi de two transfer pumps (one i n
standby) for pumpi ng from the bunker
tanks to the settl i ng tanks. Screw-type
pumps mi ni mi ze water emul si fi cati on
duri ng transfer operati ons. Arrange the
pumps for automati c operati on and si ze
them to fi l l the settl i ng tank i n 2 to 4
hours. The fol l owi ng pump desi gn
characteri sti cs are provi ded for
gui dance:
Operati ng pressureto sui t condi ti ons
of pi pi ng system
Operati ng fl ui d temperature = 38C
(100F)
Vi scosi ty for si zi ng pump motor
1000 cSt
Pump Fl ow (L/hr) = 2.95 x bkW
44
M
P
1
P
1
S
M
P
1
P
1
S
T
1
S
.
C
.
V
.
T
1
C
E
N
T
R
I
F
U
G
E

H
E
A
T
E
R
C
E
N
T
R
I
F
U
G
E

S
U
P
P
L
Y


P
U
M
P
R
V
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45
Settling Tank
Use two settl i ng tanks to obtai n proper
settl i ng of sol i ds and water i n the fuel
and to separate fuel s of di fferent
bunkeri ngs. Desi gn the tanks to hol d a
24 hour suppl y of fuel at ful l engi ne l oad
operati on. As a gui de, the settl i ng tank
vol ume shoul d be:
Vol ume (Li ters) = 5.9 x bkW
Vol ume (gal l ons) = 1.05 x bhp
A typi cal settl i ng tank desi gn i s shown
i n Fi gure 14. Baffl e pl ates reduce fuel
agi tati on i n rough seas. Sl ope the tank
bottom to form a sl udge space. The tank
shoul d be cofferdammed from the shi ps
si de and i nsul ated from thermal l osses.
The centri fuge pump sucti on pi pe must
be kept above the sl udge space and the
sl udge space fi tted wi th a drai n val ve.
Provi de the fol l owi ng addi ti onal
connecti ons:
Ai r vent (si zed to meet cl assi fi cati on
soci ety requi rements)
Overfl ow pi pe
Fi l l i ng pi pe
Steam bl ow-out, (for tank cl eani ng
wi th steam)
I nspecti on manhol e and l adder,
(i f requi red)
Local thermometer, (i n wel l )
Hi gh and l ow tank l evel al arms
Pump start/stop l evel swi tches
Fuel transfer pump sucti on pi pe
Remote and l ocal soundi ng, (l evel
gauges)
R
R
TO SLUDGE TANK
TO FUEL OIL
TRANSFER PUMP SUCTION
SLOPED BOTTOM
VALVES FITTED WITH REMOTE
OPERATING GEAR (AS REQUIRED
BY CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY)
SLUDGE
SPACE
HEATING COIL
STEAM VALVE
TEMPERATURE PROBE
STEAM BLOW-OUT (BLANKED)
FROM F. O. TRANSFER PUMP
TO OVERFLOW TANKS
BAFFLE
PLATE
MANHOLE
TO CENTRIFUGE
PUMP SUCTION
R
LOCAL THERMOMETER
HLA
INSULATION
VENT PIPE LED TO
ATMOSPHERE AND FITTED
WITH FLAME SCREEN
AND DRIP PAN
T
FROM CENTRIFUGE
PUMP STOP
LLA
OVERFLOW FROM
SERVICE TANK
R
PUMP START
Typical Arrangement of Settling Tank
NOTE: The rules and regulations for fuel tanks issued by
the classification society must be observed.
Figure 14
46
The tank heati ng coi l shoul d heat the
fuel evenl y to the requi red temperature
wi thi n 2 to 3 hours. The steam suppl y
must have a temperature regul ati ng
val ve to automati cal l y control the tank
fuel temperature.
The coi l desi gn must avoi d:
Agi tati on of the sl udge due to heati ng.
Locate the heati ng coi l a suffi ci ent
di stance above the sl udge col l ecti ng
space.
Fuel temperatures above 75C
(167F).
Heat transfer per uni t surface area
above 1.1 W/cm
2
(24 Btu/hr-i n
2
).
Carbon deposi ts can form on the
heati ng coi l at hi gher temperature
l evel s.
The fol l owi ng tank temperature
i nformati on i s provi ded for gui dance
onl y:
Suction Strainer
I nstal l a dupl ex strai ner ahead of the
centri fuge suppl y pumps. I t shoul d
i ncl ude stai nl ess steel baskets wi th
perforati ons si zed to protect the suppl y
pumps (approxi matel y 0.8 mm
[1/32 i n.]).
Centrifuge Supply Pump
The pump must be el ectri cal l y dri ven
and mounted separatel y from the
centri fuge. A hi gh temperature resi stant
screw pump i s recommended. Si ze i t for
the vi scosi ty bei ng pumped and the
desi gn centri fuge fl ow. The fl ow rate
through the centri fuge shoul d not exceed
the maxi mum fuel consumpti on of the
engi nes by more than 18%. The
fol l owi ng pump characteri sti cs are
provi ded for desi gn gui dance:
Operati ng pressure 5 Bar (75 psi )
Operati ng Fl ui d Temperature 100C
(212F)
Vi scosi ty for si zi ng pump motor
1000 cSt
Fol l ow the fuel oi l separator
manufacturer s recommendati ons for the
suppl y pump.
Preheater
The preheater i s normal l y si zed based
on the centri fuge suppl y pump capaci ty
and the temperature ri se requi red
between the settl i ng tank and the fi nal
centri fuge temperatures. The heati ng
surface temperature must avoi d fuel
cracki ng and be thermostati cal l y
control l ed to mai ntai n correct centri fuge
temperatures wi thi n 2C (4F). The
temperatures are determi ned by fuel
vi scosi ty. Contact the centri fuge
manufacturer for i nformati on regardi ng
puri fi cati on/separati on of heavy fuel
wi th speci fi c gravi ti es above 0.991.
The fol l owi ng tabl e i ndi cates the
requi red temperature at the centri fuge
for vari ous grades of fuel :
As a general rul e the mi ni mum heater
capaci ty i s:
M x T
.P = {
________
}
1700
Where:
P = Heat requi red, kW
M = Capaci ty of separator feed
pump, L/hr
T = Temperature ri se i n heater, C
P = (M x SH x T)
Where:
P = Heat requi red, Btu/hr
M = Capaci ty of separator feed
pump, l bs/hr
T = Temperature ri se i n heater, F
SH = Speci fi c heat of fuel , assume
0.48 Btu/l b/F
80
81-180
181-380
381-700
80 - 98 (176 - 208)
95 - 98 (203 - 208)
98 (208)
98 (208)
Fuel
cSt @ 50C
Temperature
C (F)
Centrifuge Temperature Ranges
80
81-180
181-380
381-700
45 (113)
55 (131)
60 (140)
60 (140)
Fuel
cSt @ 50C
Temperature
C (F)
Settling Tank Temperature
Centrifuges
The fuel oi l centri fuge, or separator,
must be si zed i n accordance wi th the
recommendati ons of the suppl i er. I nstal l
two automati c programmabl e
centri fuges as shown i n Fi gure 13.
Tradi ti onal l y fuel oi l separators for
heavy fuel have been operated wi th two
i n seri es as a puri fi er-cl ari fi er (the fi rst
centri fuge i s a puri fi er removi ng
entrai ned water and the second
centri fuge i s confi gured as a cl ari fi er by
repl aci ng the gravi ty di sc, thereby
al l owi ng removal of sol i d contami nants).
The current recommendati on i s to use
two separators i n paral l el wi th
control l ed parti al di scharge of sl udge
that operate on a conti nuous basi s.
Centrifuge Sizing
Major factors to consi der when sel ecti ng
fuel oi l centri fuges i ncl ude the number
of engi nes operati ng, engi ne rati ng,
speci fi c fuel consumpti on and fuel
densi ty. The mi ni mum separator system
capaci ty i s determi ned usi ng the
fol l owi ng formul a:
(P x b x 24)
Qmi n = N x
[
1.18 x
__________
]
(R x t)
Where:
Qmi n = mi ni mum separator system
capaci ty (L/hr)
N = number of engi nes
P = Maxi mum Conti nuous Rati ng of
engi nes (bkW)
b = Brake speci fi c fuel consumpti on
(g/bkW-hr)
R = Densi ty of the fuel oi l (kg/m
3
)
(use 950 kg/m
3
for typi cal heavy
fuel oi l )
t = Dai l y separati on ti me i n
automati c servi ce (hr) (23 for
puri fi er-cl ari fi er mode, 24 for
control l ed parti al di scharge
separators)

Note: The margin of 18 percent (1.18 in
the above formula) allows for non-I SO
conditions, wear, fuel contamination, etc.
The margin for a fuel oil separator system
may be reduced if the contaminant levels
of the fuel oil are low and an allowance is
made for non-I SO standard conditions.
However, the reduced margin requires
factory approval.
Exampl e:
Cal cul ate the mi ni mum separator
system capaci ty for two 3616 engi nes
operati ng at 900 rpm wi th a publ i shed
brake speci fi c fuel consumpti on of
202 g/bkW-hr. The maxi mum conti nuous
rati ng of the engi ne i s 4600 bkW and the
densi ty of the fuel i s 950 kg/m
3
. A
control l ed parti al di scharge separator
wi l l be used.
N = 2 engi nes
P = 4600 bkW
b = 196.5 g/bkW-hr
R = 950 kg/m
3
t = 24 hours
(4600 bkW x 196.5 g/bkW-hr x 24 hr)
Qmi n = 2 x
[
1.18 x
_______________________
]
(950 kg/m
3
x 24 hr)
Qmi n = 2,245 L/hr
Note: The fuel consumption of
additional auxiliary engines or boilers
that will use heavy fuel oil from the day
tank needs to be added to the minimum
separator system capacity.
The number of separators requi red can
be determi ned by di vi di ng the mi ni mum
separator system capaci ty (Q
mi n
) by the
maxi mum fl ow of the separator for the
gi ven vi scosi ty of the fuel oi l . Refer to
the separator manufacturer s
speci fi cati ons to determi ne the
maxi mum fl ow through the separator for
a gi ven fuel oi l vi scosi ty. Al l separators
are derated from thei r rated capaci ty
based on the vi scosi ty of the fuel oi l
(refer to the tabl e bel ow for typi cal
separator derates).
Fuel Oil
Viscosity - cSt @
50C (122F)
180
380
460
700
Separation
Temperature
C (F)
95-98
(203-208)
95-98
(203-208)
95-98
(203-208)
95-98
(203-208)
Maximum
Throughput
(% of rated capacity)
31
26
22
18
Typical Separator Derates
47
48
Note: Follow the manufacturers
recommendations in determining the
maximum throughput of the separator.
Under no circumstances should the
throughput rate of a separator exceed the
manufacturers recommendations.
Caterpi l l ar recommends suppl yi ng a
mi ni mum of one redundant fuel oi l
separator i n al l appl i cati ons except for
si ngl e engi ne i nstal l ati ons. I n thi s case
di sti l l ate fuel may be made avai l abl e as
a backup i n the event of a separator
fai l ure.
Exampl e:
Sel ect a fuel oi l separator wi th suffi ci ent
capaci ty to cl ean 2,245 L/hr of 380 cSt @
50C (122F) fuel oi l . The fol l owi ng
i nformati on i s provi ded by the separator
manufacturer:
Note: Capacity data is for example
purposes only. Follow the separator
manufacturers recommendations to
determine actual capacity.
Number of separators = mi ni mum
separator system capaci ty [Q
mi n
(L/hr)] /
[maxi mum separator capaci ty (L/hr)]
Number of separators = (2,245 L/hr )/
(3,000 L/hr)
Number of separators = 0.75 separators
rounded up to 1, pl us one redundant
separator
A total of two (2) 133-0831 fuel oi l
separators woul d be requi red for thi s
exampl e.
Caterpi l l ar recommends operati ng the
redundant separator duri ng normal
operati on. The throughput of the
separators shoul d be adjusted so the
total separator throughput i s no more
than 110 percent of the pl ants total fuel
consumpti on. Thi s wi l l i ncrease the
effi ci ency of each separator. I f one
separator i s out of operati on for an
extended peri od of ti me, the fl ow of the
remai ni ng separator(s) shoul d be
i ncreased so the total separator
throughput i s no more than 110 percent
of the pl ants fuel oi l consumpti on.
The separators shoul d be i nstal l ed i n
accordance wi th the manufacturer s
recommendati ons. Anci l l ary equi pment
for the separator shoul d be provi ded or
approved by the separator
manufacturer.
Sampling Points
Centri fuge effi ci ency i s determi ned by
taki ng fuel oi l sampl es upstream and
downstream of each centri fuge. Fi gure
15 i s a typi cal arrangement.
Sludge Tank
Locate the sl udge tank bel ow and as
cl ose as possi bl e to the centri fuges (see
Fi gure 16). The centri fuge sl udge pi pe
must have a conti nuous downward sl ope
toward the sl udge tank wi th no
hori zontal secti ons. I nsul ate and heat
trace l ong sl udge pi pes. Fol l ow the fuel
oi l separators manufacturer s
recommendati ons for sl udge system
desi gn and constructi on.
Viscosity - cSt @
50C (122F)
Rated
180
380
460
600
Capacity
L/hr
16,000
4,400
3,000
2,550
2,100
Separation
Temperature
-
98C (208F)
98C (208F)
98C (208F)
98C (208F)
Manufacturer Information for 133-0831
Centrifuge Module Group
FUEL OIL PIPE
GLOBE VALVE
6 mm (.25 in)
DRIP PAN
Figure 15
Typical Sampling Connection
49
CENTRIFUGE
LOCAL SOUNDING
AIR PIPE LED TO
ATMOSPHERE AND
FITTED WITH FLAME
SCREEN AND DRIP PAN.
MANHOLE
HLA
STEAM BLOW OUT
TO SLUDGE
PUMP SUCTION
SLOPED BOTTOM
HEATING
COIL
MISCELLANEOUS
DRAINS
Typi cal Arrangement of Sl udge Tank
NOTE: THE RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR FUEL TANKS
ISSUED BY THE CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY MUST BE OBSERVED
Typical Arrangement of Sludge Tank
NOTE: The rules and regulations for fuel tanks issued
by the classification society must be observed.
Figure 16
Sl udge tank capaci ty i s determi ned by:
Fuel cl eanl i ness
Ti me between emptyi ng
Number, si ze and type of centri fuges
di schargi ng to the sl udge tank
i ncl udi ng fuel oi l , di esel oi l and l ube
oi l uni ts.
Other sl udge sources usi ng the tank
The fi nal vol ume of the sl udge tank i s
normal l y determi ned by the system
desi gner, based on consul tati on wi th the
shi ps operator and centri fuge
manufacturer.
Fuel Feed Systems
Two heavy fuel oil systems are described.
System 1 is a pressurized fuel delivery
system typically used with viscosities
greater than 180 cSt @50C. System 2 is
an atmospheric fuel delivery system
typically used with viscosities up to
180 cSt @50C.
Consi der a pressuri zed fuel del i very
system for al l heavy fuel systems
because of the possi bi l i ty of deteri orati ng
fuel qual i ty and to mi ni mi ze the fl ow of
fuel at hi gh temperature. I t el i mi nates
gas formati on i n the fuel return l i nes
from the engi nes. As di scussed i n the
fuel treatment system, heat trace and
i nsul ate al l heavy fuel l i nes.
System 1 Pressurized
Fuel System
(viscosities above 180 cSt @50C,
see Figure 17 on page 60).
Service Tank-Heavy Fuel
Treated heavy fuel from the centri fuges
di scharges to the servi ce tank. The tank
and centri fuge pi pi ng shoul d al l ow
conti nuous centri fuge operati on and al so
conti nuousl y fi l l the servi ce tank.
A twenty-four hour fuel suppl y (at ful l
l oad engi ne operati on) i n the servi ce
tank provi des a reasonabl e ti me for
centri fuge mai ntenance. Fi gure 18
depi cts a typi cal servi ce tank. Baffl e
pl ates reduce fuel agi tati on i n rough
seas. The tank bottom i s sl oped to form a
sl udge space. I t shoul d al so be
cofferdammed from the shi ps si de and
i nsul ated from thermal l osses. The
suppl y pump sucti on pi pe must be kept
above the sl udge space and the sl udge
space fi tted wi th a drai n val ve. Provi de
the fol l owi ng addi ti onal connecti ons:
50
Ai r vent (si zed to meet Cl assi fi cati on
Soci ety requi rements)
Over fl ow pi pe
Fi l l i ng pi pe
Steam bl ow out (for tank cl eani ng
wi th steam)
I nspecti on manhol e and l adder
(i f requi red)
Local thermometer (i n wel l )
Hi gh and l ow tank l evel al arms
Fuel transfer pump sucti on pi pe
Remote and l ocal soundi ng
(l evel gauges)
Drai n to sl udge tank
Dependi ng on fuel vi scosi ty, the tank
heati ng coi l shoul d mai ntai n
approxi matel y 60C (140F) fuel
temperature duri ng engi ne operati on.
Fi t the steam suppl y wi th a regul ati ng
val ve to automati cal l y control tank fuel
temperature.
Locate the tank to keep an approxi mate
42 kPa (6 psi ) posi ti ve stati c head on the
suppl y pump i nl et.
Service Tank-Distillate Fuel
A separate, addi ti onal centri fuge i s used
to cl ean di sti l l ate fuel . The centri fuge
fl ow rate i s normal l y sel ected to meet
the requi rement of the auxi l i ary
generator di esel pl ant. However, when
heavy fuel mai n engi nes are used the
tank mi ni mum capaci ty shoul d i ncl ude
an addi ti onal 8 hour mi ni mum suppl y
for the mai n engi nes operati ng at ful l
l oad. Tank desi gn shoul d be si mi l ar to
the heavy oi l servi ce tank i n Fi gure 18.
R
R
TO SLUDGE TANK
TO FUEL OIL
TRANSFER PUMP
SLOPED BOTTOM
VALVES FITTED WITH REMOTE
OPERATING GEAR (AS REQUIRED
BY CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY)
SLUDGE
SPACE
HEATING COIL
STEAM VALVE
TEMPERATURE PROBE
STEAM BLOW-OUT
RETURN FROM
DEAERATION TANK
OVERFLOW TO SETTLING TANKS
BAFFLE
PLATE
MANHOLE
TO SUPPLY PUMP
SUCTION
R
LLA
LOCAL THERMOMETER
HLA
INSULATION
ANTI-SIPHON OPENING
VENT PIPE LED TO
ATMOSPHERE AND FITTING
WITH FLAME SCREEN
AND DRIP PAN
I
Typical Arrangement of Service Tank
Note: The rules and regulations for fuel tanks issued by
the classification society must be observed.
Figure 18
51
Heavy Fuel/Distillate Fuel
Change Valve
Thi s val ve al l ows the system to be
changed between heavy fuel and
di sti l l ate fuel . The val ve i s normal l y
remotel y control l ed from the engi ne
room by a pneumati c or el ectri c motor.
Li mi t swi tches on the val ve i ndi cate the
val ve posi ti on mode. The swi tches are
connected to i ndi cator l i ghts i n the
control room. The val ve body must be
manufactured from cast steel or bronze
and the val ve tri m and seal s must be
sui tabl e for the temperature i nvol ved.
I ncl ude a manual control overri de i n the
val ve.
Suction Strainer
I nstal l a si mpl ex strai ner ahead of each
suppl y pump. I t shoul d be heat traced
and have stai nl ess steel baskets wi th
perforati ons si zed to protect the suppl y
pumps. The strai ner body i s normal l y
manufactured from cast steel or bronze.
Supply Pumps
Provi de two el ectri c motor dri ven suppl y
pumps wi th one arranged as a standby.
A hi gh temperature resi stant screw type
pump i s recommended. Si ze i t to del i ver
about 150% of the consumed fuel . The
pressure l osses i n the pi pi ng system
i ncl udi ng the fi l ter and fl ow meter (i f
fi tted) must be consi dered.
The fol l owi ng pump characteri sti cs are
provi ded for desi gn gui dance for pump
sel ecti on:
Operati ng pressure - 690 kPa (100 psi)
Operati ng fl ui d temperature - 75C
(167F)
Vi scosi ty for si zi ng pump motor
1000 cSt
Fl ow - 150% of consumed fuel
requi rements
Fuel Cooler
An ai r cool ed fuel cool er i s normal l y
i nstal l ed i n the pump outl et l i ne. Thi s
prevents excessi ve reci rcul ati ng system
heat bui l dup when the suppl y pump i s
operati ng and the engi ne i s shutdown.
The cool er must be si zed to di ssi pate the
heat produced by the operati ng pump.
The cool er may not be requi red i n al l
fuel oi l systems.
Pressure Control Valve
The pressure control val ve mai ntai ns
constant fuel pressure at the requi red
l evel . Si ze the val ve to return the
fol l owi ng quanti ti es of fuel to the pump
i nl et si de:
Wi th engi ne(s) shutdown - 100% of
suppl y pump fl ow
Wi th engi ne(s) at ful l l oad - 33% of
suppl y pump fl ow
The val ve must be adjustabl e and set
between 350 and 400 kPa (51 to 58 psi ).
Automatic Back Flush Filter
An automati c back fl ush fi l ter shoul d
be i nstal l ed i n the suppl y l i ne to the
deaerati on tank. I nstal l a bypass fi l ter i n
paral l el wi th the automati c fi l ter to act
as a standby. The bypass fi l ters shoul d
not cause a pressure drop i n the system
duri ng the fl ushi ng cycl e. The automati c
back fl ush fi l ter can al so be i nstal l ed on
the hot si de of the fuel oi l condi ti oni ng
modul e. I t woul d then be l ocated after
the vi scosi ty control l er.
The fol l owi ng fi l ter desi gn
characteri sti cs are provi ded for
gui dance:
Fuel oi l vi scosi ty - to sui t fuel
speci fi cati on
Operati ng fl ui d temperature - 38 to
150C (100 to 302F)
Fl ow - see suppl y pump fl ow
Operati ng pressure - to 1000 kPa
(145 psi )
Steam jacketed or i nsul ated
Fi l ter rati ng - back fl ush fi l ter: 90%
separati on above 5 mi cron (mesh si ze
10 mi cron maxi mum)
Fi l ter rati ng - bypass fi l ter: 20 mi cron
nomi nal and 35 mi cron maxi mum
Maxi mum pressure drop across fi l ter
at normal operati ng vi scosi ty to be
approxi matel y:
cl ean fi l ter - 21 kPa (3 psi )
di rty fi l ter - 85 kPa (12 psi )
al arm - 152 kPa (22 psi )
Fuel Flow Meter
I f used, l ocate the fl ow meter between
the suppl y pumps and the deaerati on
tank. I nstal l i sol ati on val ves at the i nl et
and outl et connecti ons. Use a manual l y
control l ed val ved bypass for servi ce.
52
Deaeration Tank
The deaerati on tank i s arranged to
col l ect the gas/ai r entrai ned i n the fuel .
Equi p the tank wi th a vent val ve
actuated by a l evel swi tch i nstal l ed i n
the tank, and i nsul ate the tank. Base
the vol ume of the tank on about 10 to 15
mi nutes of operati on wi th the engi ne at
hal f-l oad consumpti on. Before prol onged
shutdowns, change the system over to
di sti l l ate fuel to al l ow gradual
temperature equal i zati on. Fi t the tank
wi th the fol l owi ng connecti ons:
Cl ean out connecti on
Outl et val ved for servi ce requi rements
Fi l l i ng pi pe
Vent connecti on wi th automati c ai r
pressure rel i ef val ve
Pressure gauge
Local thermometer (i n wel l )
Low l evel al arm
Level swi tch
Fuel return
Manual control l ed drai n val ve
The tank shoul d be capabl e of 1000 kPa
(145 psi ) worki ng pressure and be
approved by the appropri ate
Cl assi fi cati on Soci ety rul es and
regul ati ons.
Circulating Pumps
Ci rcul ati ng pumps ensure the fuel
i njectors are suppl i ed wi th suffi ci ent fuel
at the correct vi scosi ty and pressure.
Provi de two pumps wi th one for standby
operati on. A hi gh temperature resi stant
screw type pump i s recommended. Each
pump must ci rcul ate at l east four ti mes
the maxi mum requi red fuel
consumpti on. The pump di scharge
pressure shoul d be approxi matel y 690 -
880 kPa (100-128 psi ) to al l ow for
pressure l osses i n pi pi ng, heaters, fi l ters,
and the vi scometer. Adjust the engi ne
mounted pressure val ve on si te to suppl y
500-690 kPa (73-100 psi ) to the i njectors.
The engi ne mounted pressure val ve i s
used to regul ate pressure to the engi ne.
Set the ci rcul ati ng pump rel i ef val ve
hi gh enough (900 - 965 kPa [130 - 140
psi ]) to prevent fuel reci rcul ati ng around
the pump under normal condi ti ons.
The fol l owi ng pump desi gn
characteri sti cs are provi ded for gui dance
i n pump sel ecti on:
Desi gn pressure 1000 kPa (145 psi )
Operati ng fl ui d temperature 150C
(302F)
Vi scosi ty for si zi ng pump motor
500 cSt
Fl ow 4 ti mes consumed fuel
requi rements (mi ni mum)
Final Heater
The heater must mai ntai n a vi scosi ty of
10-17 cSt at the engi ne i njectors.
I ncrease the outl et temperature at the
heater by approxi matel y 4C (7F) to
compensate for pi pi ng l osses between
the engi ne and the heater. Normal l y two
fi nal heaters are i nstal l ed, each si zed to
handl e the total engi nes fuel fl ow. The
heaters can be steam or el ectri c.
As a general rul e the requi red mi ni mum
capaci ty of the heater i s:
M x T
P = {
_______
}
1700
Where:
P = Heat requi red, kW
M = Capaci ty of ci rcul ati ng feed
pump, L/hr
T= Temperature ri se i n heater, C
or:
P =
{
M x SH x T
}
Where:
P = Heat requi red, Btu/hr
M = Capaci ty of ci rcul ati ng feed
pump, l b/hr
T= Temperature ri se i n heater, F
SH = Speci fi c heat of fuel , assume
0.48 Btu/l b/F
The fol l owi ng heater temperature ri se
can be used, assumi ng a temperature i n
the servi ce tank of 60C (140F).
180
380
700
50 (90)
71 (128)
83 (150)
Fuel
cSt @ 50C
Temperature
C (F)
Temperature Rise thru Heater
53
Viscometer
A vi scometer i nstal l ed between the
heater outl et and the engi ne fuel
mani fol d control s the fi nal fuel heaters.
I t must wi thstand the pressure peaks
caused by the engi ne fuel i njectors.
The fol l owi ng fuel characteri sti cs at the
engi ne are provi ded for desi gn gui dance:
Vi scosi ty range (at i njectors) -
10-17 cSt
Operati ng fl ui d temperature - 150C
(302F)
Operati ng pressure - 965 kPa (140 psi )
For steam heated heavy fuel systems the
vi scometer shoul d automati cal l y control
the steam regul ati ng val ve, whi ch i s
i nstal l ed on the steam i nl et l i ne to the
heater. I f an el ectri c heater i s used, the
vi scometer shoul d control the contacts
that energi ze and deenergi ze the heati ng
coi l s as requi red to mai ntai n the proper
fuel temperature.
Final Filter
Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed fi nal fi l ters are
remote mounted and i nstal l ed i n the
suppl y l i ne di rectl y ahead of the engi nes.
The fi l ter handl es the total ci rcul ated
fuel fl ow, and has i sol ati ng val ves for
el ement servi ce on each fi l ter cani ster.
The val ve i s normal l y i n the center run
posi ti on, but can be used to i sol ate hal f
the el ements for servi ce. The fi l ter must
be steam jacketed or heat traced, and
provi ded wi th a di fferenti al pressure
gauge and al arm, and a drai n
connecti on.
The fol l owi ng fi l ter desi gn
characteri sti cs are provi ded for
gui dance:
Fuel vi scosi ty - 10-17 cSt
Operati ng temperature - 38 to 150C
(100 to 302F)
Fl ow - see suppl y pump fl ow
Operati ng pressure - 965 kPa
(140 psi )
Steam Jacketed operati ng pressure:
150 psi g of steam
7 l bs/hr - I nl i ne
6800 Btu/hr - I nl i ne
10 l bs/hr - Vee
10,240 Btu/hr - Vee
Fi l ter rati ng - 5 mi cron nomi nal
Maxi mum pressure drop across
fi l ter at operati ng vi scosi ty to be
approxi matel y:
Cl ean fi l ter - 14 kPa (2 psi )
Di rty Fi l ter - 84 kPa (12.0 psi )
Al arm - 103 kPa (15.0 psi )
System 2 Atmospheric
Fuel System
(Viscosities below 180 cSt @50C, see
Figure 19, page 61).
Service Tank-Heavy Fuel
See page 49 under the topi c Pressurized
Fuel System - Service Tank-Heavy Fuel.
Service Tank-Distillate Fuel
See page 50 under the topi c Pressurized
Fuel System - Service Tank-Distillate
Fuel.
Heavy Fuel/Distillate Fuel Change
Valve
See page 51 under the topi c Pressurized
Fuel System - Heavy Fuel/ Distillate Fuel
Change Valve.
Fuel Flow Meter
I f a fl ow meter i s used, l ocate i t between
the servi ce tanks and the mi xi ng pi pe.
Provi de i sol ati on val ves at the i nl et and
outl et connecti ons and a val ved bypass.
Mixing Pipe
The mi xi ng pi pe i s fabri cated from 200
to 300 mm (8 to 12 i n.) di ameter
schedul e 40 seaml ess pi pe and col l ects
the gas/ai r entrai ned i n the fuel duri ng
startup. Equi p the pi pe wi th an
adequatel y si zed vent l i ne l ed di rectl y to
atmosphere above the weather deck.
I nstal l a condensate trap i n the vent
l i ne. I nsul ate and fi t the pi pe wi th a
heati ng coi l .
Base the vol ume of the pi pe on about 10
to 15 mi nutes of operati on wi th the
engi ne at hal f-l oad consumpti on. Before
prol onged shutdowns the system i s
changed over to di esel oi l operati on. Thi s
al l ows for gradual temperature
equal i zati on. Fi t the pi pe wi th the
fol l owi ng connecti ons:
54
Fuel oi l fi l l i ng
Fuel return
Val ved drai n
Vent connecti on wi th condensate trap
Val ved outl et
Thermometer (wi th wel l )
Heati ng coi l
Cl ean out connecti on
Desi gn the mi xi ng pi pe for a pressure to
sui t the hei ght of the vent pi pe and
approval by the appl i cabl e cl assi fi cati on
soci ety.
Suction Strainer
I nstal l a si mpl ex strai ner ahead of each
ci rcul ati ng pump. I t shoul d be steam
jacketed or heat traced and use stai nl ess
steel baskets wi th perforati ons si zed to
protect the suppl y pumps. The strai ner
body i s normal l y manufactured from
cast steel or bronze.
Circulating Pumps
See page 52 under the topi c Pressurized
Fuel System -Circulating Pumps.
Final Heater
See page 52 under the topi c Pressurized
Fuel System -Final Heater.
Viscometer
See page 53 under the topi c Pressurized
Fuel System - Viscometer.
Final Filter
See page 53 under the topi c Pressurized
Fuel System - Final Filter.
Burning Used Crankcase Oils
See page 23 under the headi ng Burning
Used Crankcase Oils of Engine
Systems - Distillate Fuel Oil i n thi s
gui de.
Unit Injector Tip Cooling
To control erosi on and deposi t formati on,
the uni t i njector ti p i s cool ed for heavy
fuel operati on. Wi th fuel s up to 40 cSt @
50C, series circuit cool i ng i s provi ded by
routi ng combusti on fuel through the
i njector ti p. The engi ne i s equi pped wi th
the requi red hardware and addi ti onal
external pl umbi ng i s not requi red.
Fi gures 20 and 21, on pages 62 and 63,
show the engi ne pi pi ng for seri es ci rcui t
ti p cool i ng for an i n-l i ne and vee engi ne
respecti vel y.
Separate Circuit Tip
Cooling
For heavy fuel s above 40 cSt @ 50C, a
separateexternal cool i ng ci rcui t i s
desi gned i n the i njector to suppl y and
ci rcul ate cool ant around the ti p. SAE
10W l ubri cati ng oi l i s normal l y used for
the cool ant.
A cool i ng modul e must be used when the
engi ne i s equi pped wi th separateci rcui t
ti p cool i ng. Typi cal schemati cs are
shown i n Fi gure 22, page 64, for a si ngl e
engi ne i nstal l ati on and Fi gure 23, page
65, for mul ti pl e engi ne usage at the end
of thi s secti on. The modul e desi gn
shoul d provi de for cool ant pressure and
temperature measurement capabi l i ty.
Engi ne connecti ons are made at the
ri ght front of the engi ne.
Operate the modul e when the engi ne i s
runni ng, regardl ess of the fuel bei ng
burned. By conti nual l y suppl yi ng fresh
cool ant to the i njector ti ps, hi gh
temperature degradati on of the cool ant
i s prevented. The modul e does not
requi re operati on before engi ne start up.
The recommended separate ci rcui t
i njector cool i ng system i s shown i n detai l
i n Fi gure 24, page 66.
55
Circulating Tank
A baffl e pl ate i sol ates the cool ant return
from the ci rcul ati ng pump sucti on to
mi ni mi ze ai r entrai nment i n the sucti on
pi pi ng (see Fi gure 25). Sl ope the tank
bottom to form a sl udge space wi th a
drai n val ve. Locate the pump sucti on
above the sl udge space. Provi de the
fol l owi ng addi ti onal connecti ons: ai r
vent, fi l l i ng pi pe, access cover, l ocal
thermometer, hi gh and l ow l evel al arm,
gauge gl ass (automati c cl ose) and pump
sucti on.
The i nner tank surfaces must be
accessi bl e for cl eani ng. Cl ean i t pri or to
fi l l i ng the tank after constructi on or
repai rs.
Si ze the tank to prevent overfl owi ng due
to thermal expansi on when the system i s
shutdown as wel l as to mai ntai n a
mi ni mum ci rcul ati ng vol ume whi l e
operati ng. I f one cool i ng modul e i s used
for mul ti pl e engi nes, proper fl ow l evel s
must be mai ntai ned when one or more
engi nes are i sol ated for servi ce.
Strainer
I nstal l a si mpl ex strai ner ahead of the
ci rcul ati ng pumps and i ncl ude a
400 mi cron (0.016 i n.) stai nl ess steel
basket. The strai ner shoul d al so have a
di fferenti al pressure gauge and al arm.
The strai ner body i s normal l y
manufactured from cast i ron or bronze.
Circulating Pumps
Provi de two pumps wi th one acti ng as a
standby. Screw or gear pumps fi tted
wi th a pressure rel i ef val ve are
recommended. The fl ow requi red for
each pump depends on the engi ne model
i nstal l ed and the number of engi nes.
The cool ant fl ow requi red for each
engi ne i s as shown i n the fol l owi ng tabl e,
Coolant Flow and Heat Dissipation.
The fol l owi ng pump desi gn
characteri sti cs are provi ded for
gui dance:
Desi gn Pressure - 518 kPa (75 psi )
Operati ng Temperature - 65C (150F)
Vi scosi ty for Si zi ng El ectri c Motor -
1000 cSt
T
DRAIN CONNECTION
SLUDGE SPACE
RETURN FROM
COOLER
LOCAL FILLING
AIR VENT
HIGH AND LOW
LEVEL ALARMS
TOP COVER PLATE
(REMOVABLE)
LOCAL GAUGE GLASS
(AUTOMATIC CLOSE TYPE)
LOCAL THERMOMETER
OUTLET TO
CIRCULATING PUMPS
SLOPED BOTTOM
BAFFLE PLATE
Figure 25
Typical Injector Tip Cooling Circulating Tank
56
Heat Exchanger
A heat exchanger i s used i n the ci rcui t
when i t i s not practi cal to si ze the
ci rcul ati ng tank l arge enough to remove
the heat added to the cool ant from the
i njector ti p. I nformati on for tank si zi ng
to remove the requi red amount of heat i s
i ncl uded i n the Distillate Fuel secti on of
thi s gui de. I f a cool er i s requi red i t can
be ei ther shel l and tube or pl ate type,
and i ncl ude:
Drai ns
Ai r vents
Zi nc anodes (fi tted i n each head)
The suggested materi al for the shel l
and tube heat exchanger i s:
Shel l - Steel
Heads - Cast i ron
Tubes - 90/10 CuNi
Tube Sheets - 90/10 CuNi
Baffl es - Steel
The suggested materi al for a pl ate type
heat exchanger i s:
Frame - Mi l d steel
Pl ates (sea water) - Ti tani um or
al umi num brass; (Raw fresh water) -
Stai nl ess steel
Nozzl es (sea water) - Steel , coated;
(fresh water) - Steel , coated
Gaskets - Ni tri l e
Cl assi fi cati on soci eti es may requi re a
spray shi el d around the pl ates to
prevent l i qui d sprayi ng on equi pment or
personnel .
The heat exchanger shoul d be si zed
based on the fol l owi ng:
Temperature Regulating Valve
I nstal l a sel f-contai ned temperature
regul ati ng val ve wi th manual overri de
as shown i n Fi gure 24. Sel ect the val ve
to control the temperature of the cool ant
back to the ci rcul ati ng tank at 50 to
65C (122 to 150F).
The fol l owi ng val ve characteri sti cs are
provi ded for gui dance:
Desi gn pressure - 517 kPa (75 psi )
Desi gn temperature - 65C (150F)
Cast i ron or bronze body
Series Circuit Tip Cooling
Engi nes operati ng wi th heavy fuel
vi scosi ti es up to 40 cSt @ 50C are not
normal l y provi ded wi th a separate
ci rcui t i njector cool i ng system. The fuel
ci rcul ated wi thi n the i njector ti p
mai ntai ns the proper ti p temperature.
The fuel fl ow can be found i n Distillate
Fuel secti on of thi s gui de. The heat
rejecti on i s the same as i n the separate
ci rcui t ti p cool i ng descri pti on.
Lube Oil
Recommendations
Lubri cants for 3600 heavy fuel engi nes
depend on the fuel to be used and wi l l be
eval uated on an i ndi vi dual basi s. See the
Lubricating Oil secti on of thi s gui de.
Lubricating Oil
Centrifuging
A hi gher l evel of combusti on products i s
i ntroduced i nto the l ube oi l wi th heavy
fuel operati on. Remote mounted
centri fuges are recommended. See the
Lubricating Oil secti on of thi s gui de.
Start/Stop Procedures
The 3600 Engi nes are desi gned to start
and stop on heavy fuel and thi s i s the
preferred practi ce. Changi ng to di esel
can resul t i n i ncompati bl e mi xtures i n
the fuel system l eadi ng to i njector
sti cki ng. However, i n some i nstances i t
may be necessary to use di esel oi l and
dependi ng on condi ti ons, use the
fol l owi ng procedures.
Temporary shutdown - I f the engi ne i s
shutdown for l ess than 12 hours, the
jacket water shoul d be at l east 65C
(150F).
3606
3608
3612
3616
6 (20,472)
8 (27,296)
12 (40,944)
16 (54,592)
Engine Model
Flow
(minimum)
L/ min (GPM)
Dissipation
kW (Btu/hr)
Coolant Flow & Heat Dissipation
36
48
72
96
(9.5)
(12.7)
(19.0)
(25.3)
57
Extended shutdown I f the engi ne i s
shutdown for more than 12 hours and
l ess than three days, use the engi ne
jacket water heater. The fuel
ci rcul ati ng system can be shut down
or adjusted to a l ower temperature. I f
shut down i t must be heat traced to
al l ow restart. Shut off the i njector ti p
cool i ng ci rcui t. Before the engi ne i s
restarted, the fuel must be ci rcul ated
at the proper vi scosi ty unti l al l parts
of the fuel system, i ncl udi ng the
engi ne mounted fuel l i nes, have
proper temperature and fl ow.
I ndefinite shutdown I f the engi ne i s
shutdown for more than three days
(or for an unknown l ength of ti me) i t
shoul d be done usi ng di sti l l ate fuel .
Swi tch the engi ne to di sti l l ate fuel
15-30 mi n. before shutdown to purge
the fuel system of heavy fuel . Shutti ng
down on di sti l l ate al l ows the jacket
water heater and fuel condi ti oni ng
systems to be shut off. Use thi s
procedure when mai ntenance to the
fuel handl i ng equi pment i s needed, or
when work on the fuel i njectors or fuel
l i nes i s requi red.
Operati onal constrai nts may requi re the
above recommendati ons to be modi fi ed.
The i mportant consi derati ons that must
be adhered to are:
Ci rcul ati on of proper vi scosi ty fuel
pri or to startup.
Jacket water heati ng anyti me the
engi ne i s not runni ng and heavy fuel
i s i n the system.
I f the engi ne i s shut down for a l ong
peri od of ti me wi th the fuel system
operati ng, there i s the possi bi l i ty of a
mal functi oni ng fuel i njector l eaki ng fuel
i nto the cyl i nder. To avoi d the possi bi l i ty
of hydraul i c l ock, bar the engi ne over
wi th a cyl i nder pressure i ndi cator val ve
open pri or to startup.
Do not start and i dl e the engi ne for short
peri ods to mai ntai n jacket water
temperature. Thi s wi l l produce excessi ve
deposi ts i n the combusti on chambers
and gasways. Use the jacket water
heater to mai ntai n jacket water
temperatures.
Low Load Operation
Heavy fuel wi th poor i gni ti on qual i ty
requi res hi gher cyl i nder ai r temperature
and pressure for sati sfactory i gni ti on.
Thi s can be a si gni fi cant probl em at i dl e
and l i ght l oad condi ti ons i n pier-to-pier
operati ons. For these appl i cati ons, the
cool i ng system i s modi fi ed to a two step
i nl et ai r temperature control system
regul ati ng engi ne combusti on ai r
temperature. At engi ne l oads bel ow 40%
of maxi mum, a si gni fi cant i ncrease i n
the temperature of compressi on i s
achi eved. Thi s al l ows extended peri ods
of l i ght l oad operati on on heavy fuel
wi thout swi tchi ng to di sti l l ate fuel .
Fi gure 24 i s an esti mate of ti me al l owed
at part l oad whi l e usi ng heavy fuel . I f
operati on i s expected beyond these
ti mes, provi de the capabi l i ty to operate
the engi ne on di sti l l ate fuel . Swi tch-over
must be done so the fuel i njectors are
never runni ng wi thout fuel .
The shaded porti on of the graph
i ndi cates the area wi th a two step
cool i ng system to heat the i ntake ai r. See
the secti on i n thi s gui de on Fresh Water
Coolingfor cool i ng system schemati cs.
58
Turbocharger Wash
Heavy fuel engi nes are equi pped for
water washi ng of the turbi ne si de of the
turbocharger. Schedul ed washi ng at 100
hour i nterval s removes deposi ts from the
nozzl e ri ng and turbi ne wheel and
extends turbocharger overhaul i nterval s.
To cl ean the turbocharger the engi ne
must operate at reduced l oad for 5-10
mi n.
A 137-7024 tool group i s suppl i ed wi th
each heavy fuel engi ne. Speci al
I nstructi on SEHS9929 descri bes the
washi ng procedure and provi des a data
sheet to determi ne the effecti veness of
the process.
REAR VIEW
OF ENGINE OF ENGINE
LEFT SIDE VIEW
TURBO WASH SUPPLY
TURBO WASH RETURN
INLET HOSE
Figure 27
0 6 12 18 24
0
25
50
75
100
hp %
Hours/Day at Part Load
Requires Two
Step Inlet Air
Temp. Control
No. 2
or MDO
Required
Unlimited Heavy Fuel
Operation Permitted
Figure 26
3600 Heavy Fuel Operational Requirements
Hours/Day at Part Load
Typical Turbocharger Washing Arrangement for In-Line Engines
59
Dry parti cl e cl eani ng of the turbi ne si de
i s al so acceptabl e, al l owi ng ful l l oad
cl eani ng. For addi ti onal i nformati on
contact Caterpi l l ar I nc.
Engine Jacket Water
Preheating
Heat the engi ne jacket water pri or to
starti ng on heavy fuel . Thi s reduces the
vi scosi ty of the fuel i n the uni t i njector
and ai ds i n starti ng. Turn off the jacket
water preheater when the engi ne i s
runni ng.
The jacket water heater i s factory
suppl i ed when heavy fuel codes are
sel ected. The heater i s si zed to rai se the
jacket water temperature to the requi red
l evel wi thi n two hours.
Addi ti onal i nformati on i s i n the Fresh
Water Cooling Systemsecti on of thi s
gui de.
Fuel Filter Preheating
When operati ng on heavy fuel wi th a
vi scosi ty above 40 cSt @ 50C, the fi nal
fuel fi l ter i s steam jacketed (or opti onal
el ectri c heaters are used) and off-engi ne
mounted. Before the fuel condi ti oni ng
system i s operated, the vi scosi ty of the
fuel i n the fi l ter housi ngs must be
reduced to 1000 cSt or l ess. Thi s al l ows
fuel to be pumped through the fi l ter
wi thout col l apsi ng the el ements.
Requi red fuel temperature and heat-up
ti me vary dependi ng on fuel type and
i nstal l ati on. Take care not to overheat
the fuel or fi l ter el ements.
Performance
See gui de secti on on Engine Data for
rati ngs of heavy fuel burni ng engi nes.
See gui de secti on on Engine Performance
for di fferences i n rati ng condi ti ons for
heavy fuel engi nes.
Heat Rejection
See gui de secti on on Engine Data for
heat rejecti on data. I t wi l l di ffer from a
di sti l l ate engi ne due to rati ng
di fferences, i njector ti p cool i ng, and
hi gher ai r fl ow requi red on heavy fuel
engi nes.
Air Flow
See gui de secti on on Engine Data. To
mai ntai n a l ower exhaust val ve
temperature the ai r fl ow i s consi derabl y
hi gher than a di sti l l ate engi ne runni ng
at the same power and rpm.
Exhaust Backpressure
The exhaust backpressure limit i s
2.5 kPa (10 i n. H
2
O) when operati ng on
heavy fuel due to the effect of hi gher
backpressure on val ve temperature. The
exhaust fl ow i s hi gher for engi nes
capabl e of burni ng heavy fuel than on
engi nes confi gured for di sti l l ate fuel
(see note above on Air Flow).
Reference Material
REHS0104 Guidelines for 3600 HFO
Engines
SEBD0717 Diesel Fuel and Your Engine
SEBD0640 Oil and Your Engine
(Other Publ i cati ons)
ABS Notes on Heavy Fuel Oi l (1984)
Ameri can Bureau of Shi ppi ng
45 Ei senhauer Dri ve
Paramus, NJ 07652
USA
Tel . (201)368-9100
Attn: Book Order Department
40 cSt at 50C
> 40 cSt at 50C
45C (113F)
65C (150F)
Fuel
Viscosity
Jacket Water
Temperature
60
M
F
P
P
1
P
1
P
1
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Figure 17
T
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F
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S
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m
61
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Figure 19
T
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62
12
14
5
13
12
10
14
11
13
5
4
7
BYPASS
FUEL
SUPPLY
FUEL
1
8
2*
3*
6
9
6
TOP VIEW OF CYLINDER HAED
Figure 20
3600 Fuel System Schematic With Series Circuit Injector Tip Cooling
Model 3608
1. Fuel Transfer Pump (Eng. Mounted)
2. Hand Priming Pump
3. Fuel Filter Duplex Valve Shaft
4. Fuel Filters
5. Unit Injectors
6. Manual Drain Locations (8)
7. Fuel Pressure Regulator
8. Emergency Fuel Connection
9. Filtered Fuel
10. Fuel Manifold (Supply)
11. Fuel Manifold (Return)
12. Fuel To Injection
13. Bypass Fuel (To Tip Cool Circ.)
14. Fuel Return
* Left Hand Service Shown
_
Right Hand Service Available
63
TOP VIEW OF CYLINDER HEAD
12
14
5
13
7
9
4
6
1
8
2*
3*
5
13
14
12
6
10
11
BY - PASS
FUEL
SUPPLY FUEL
Figure 21
3600 Fuel System Schematic With Series Circuit Injector Tip Cooling
Model 3612
1. Fuel Transfer Pump (Eng. Mounted)
2. Hand Priming Pump
3. Fuel Filter Duplex Valve Shaft
4. Fuel Filters
5. Unit Injectors
6. Manual Drain Locations (8)
7. Fuel Pressure Regulator
8. Emergency Fuel Connection
9. Filtered Fuel
10. Fuel Manifold (Supply)
11. Fuel Manifold (Return)
12. Fuel To Injection
13. Bypass Fuel (To Tip Cool Circ.)
14. Fuel Return
* Left Hand Service Shown
_
Right Hand Service Available
64
P
INJECTOR TIP COOLING MODULE
SINGLE ENGINE
THERMOSTATIC
REGULATOR MAY
BE REQUIRED
LEVEL INDICATOR:
SIGHT GAGE
OR DIPSTICK
VENT
FILL
50-65C
DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE GAGE
OIL FILTER
UP TO 400
MICRON
INTERNAL
RELIEF
VALVE
PUMP
COOLANT: SAE 10W
WEIGHT OIL
DRAIN
56-71C
HEAT
EXCHANGER
T=6C
PRESSURE
GAGE
TEMPERATURE
GAGE (INLET)
LOW PRESSURE
ALARM
FLEXIBLE
CONNECTION
FACTORY SUPPLIED
ENGINE MOUNTED
PIPING
UNIT INJECTOR
ENGINE CONNECTIONS:
3606 & 3608=
3/4 - 16 THD
37 FLARED
3612 & 3616=
1 3/16 - 12 THD
37 FLARED
TEMPERATURE
GAGE
(OUTLET)
Figure 22
Typical Injector Tip Cooling Module
Single Engine
65
P
INJECTOR TIP COOLING MODULE
MULTIPLE ENGINES
THERMOSTATIC
REGULATOR MAY
BE REQUIRED
LEVEL INDICATOR:
SIGHT GAGE
OR DIPSTICK
VENT
FILL
50-65C
DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE GAGE
OIL FILTER
UP TO 400
MICRON
INTERNAL
RELIEF
VALVE
PUMP*
COOLANT: SAE 10W WEIGHT OIL

DRAIN
56-71C
PRESSURE
GAGE
TEMPERATURE
GAGE (INLET)
LOW PRESSURE
ALARM
ENGINE CONNECTIONS:
3606 & 3608=
3/4 - 16 THD
37 FLARED
3612 & 3616=
1 3/16 - 12 THD
37 FLARED
P
FLEXIBLE
CONNECTION
FACTORY SUPPLIED
ENGINE MOUNTED
PIPING
HEAT
EXCHANGER
T=6C
* System must be designed to provide proper flow and temperature to each engine. This must be maintained while an
individual engine is isolated for servicing. System may include variable speed pump, flow regulating valves, or bypass
plumbing.
TEMPERATURE
GAGE (OUTLET)
BALANCE
VALVE
BALANCE
VALVE
BACKPRESSURE VALVE
Figure 23
Typical Injector Tip Cooling Module
Multiple Engines
66
C
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2
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:
1
.






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Figure 24
I
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C
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S
y
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m


Diesel Engine Systems - Lubricating Oil
Engine System Description
Oil Pumps
Emergency Pumps
Prelubrication
Customer Supplied Prelube Pumps
Tilt Capability
Wet Sump
External Sump Tank
Under The Engine
Remote Sump With Scavenging Pump
Piping
Suction Strainer
Lube Oil Centrifuge
Centrifuge Supply Pump
Preheater
Sample Points
Lube Oil Storage and Transfer System
Clean Oil
Dirty Oil
Renovated Oil
Transfer Pump
Storage Tanks
Oil Guidelines
Caterpillar Micro-Oxidation Test
Oil Requirements
Commercial Oils
Lubricant Viscosity
Lubricant TBN
Oil Change Interval
SOS Analysis
Wear Analysis
Oil Condition Analysis
Initial Oil Change Interval
Oil Change Intervals Without Oil Analysis
Results
Increasing Oil Change Intervals
Estimating Oil Consumption
Oil Consumption as an Overhaul Guide
Reference Material

4

Engine System
Description
The l ube oi l system i s engi ne mounted
and factory tested. I t provi des a constant
suppl y of 85C (185F) fi l tered oi l at
430 kPa (62.4 psi ) pressure up to the
l i mi ts of a wel l desi gned cool i ng system.
An oi l pri ori ty val ve regul ates oi l
pressure at the cyl i nder bl ock oi l
mani fol d rather than at the oi l pump.
Thi s makes the oi l mani fol d pressure
i ndependent of oi l fi l ter and oi l cool er
pressure drops.
A gear dri ven oi l pump i s mounted on
the front l eft si de of the engi ne. Oi l to
the pump passes through a 650 mi cron
(.025 i n.) screen l ocated between the
sucti on bel l and sucti on tube. A scavenge
pump can be mounted on the front ri ght
si de of the engi ne to transfer oi l to, or
from, an external oi l sump. Schemati cs
of the l ube oi l system are shown i n
Fi gures 1, 2, and 3 at the end of thi s
secti on.
Oi l temperature regul ators di rect the oi l
to cool ers at oi l temperatures above 85C
(185F). Oi l fl ows from the cool ers to the
20 mi cron (.78 mi l s) fi nal fi l ters. From
the fi l ters, oi l fl ows through the pri ori ty
val ve to dri l l ed oi l passages i n the
cyl i nder bl ock.
Oi l fl ows to the rel i ef val ve and bypass
val ve ports of the pri ori ty val ve. Bypass
oi l al so fl ows to opti onal engi ne mounted
centri fugal oi l fi l ters.
The oi l pump rel i ef val ve opens at
1000 kPa (145 psi ) sendi ng col d oi l back
to the engi ne sump, preventi ng damage
to the l ubri cati on system components.
The bypass val ve opens at 430 kPa
(63 psi ) to send excess oi l back to the
engi ne sump.
Other major features of the system are:
Tube bundl e oi l cool ers are used wi th
seri es water fl ow and paral l el oi l fl ow.
The fi l ters can be changed whi l e the
engi ne i s runni ng. The maxi mum
change peri od i s 1000 hrs or when the
oi l fi l ter pressure drop reaches
104 kPa (15 psi ), whi chever occurs
fi rst. The oi l pri ori ty val ve mai ntai ns
ful l oi l pressure to the beari ngs
regardl ess of oi l fi l ter pressure drop.
Engi ne mounted centri fugal bypass oi l
fi l ters are avai l abl e opti ons. They
recei ve 3-4% of the oi l pump fl ow and
remove very smal l , sol i d, mi cron si ze
parti cl es and can extend oi l fi l ter
change peri ods but not beyond the
1000 hour change peri od. The
centri fugal fi l ters each have a di rt
capaci ty of 3.6 kg (8 l b) and requi re
cl eani ng at 1000 hour i nterval s.
Al l engi ne oi l systems are factory
i nstal l ed, pl umbed and tested as
i ntegral components unl ess a dry
sump, standby oi l pump, remote
mounted prel ube pump, or an oi l
centri fuge i s used. Thi s el i mi nates
contami nati on duri ng i nstal l ati on and
reduces i nstal l ati on costs.
The engi nes are shi pped wi thout oi l
from the factory unl ess speci fi ed
otherwi se.
Oil Pumps
Dri ve speed rati os are 1.524 ti mes
engi ne speed for the mai n oi l pump and
1.627 for the scavenge pump.
The oi l pump provi des more than the
requi red engi ne oi l at rated condi ti ons.
Thi s al l ows hi gh oi l pressure earl y i n the
operati ng speed range as wel l as
provi di ng fl ow margi ns for worn engi nes.
See Fi gure 4.
5

Emergency Pumps
An el ectri c emergency, or standby, oi l
pump i s usual l y requi red for si ngl e
engi ne mari ne propul si on appl i cati ons
by the appl i cabl e mari ne soci ety. Other
appl i cati ons may al so use an el ectri c
standby oi l pump. The emergency pump
i s connected i n paral l el to the engi ne
dri ven oi l pump. A l oss of engi ne dri ven
oi l pump pressure causes an al arm and
automati c start of the emergency pump
to al l ow the engi ne to conti nue
operati ng. The fol l owi ng engi ne oi l fl ow
rates are the

minimumrequi rements at
ful l power and rated speeds between 700
and 1000 rpm.
The emergency oi l pump cannot be used
for prel ubi ng the engi ne pri or to
starti ng. The emergency pump fl ow rate
and di scharge pressure are much hi gher
than a standard prel ube pump, and
under certai n condi ti ons i t can cause the
oi l fi l ter el ements to burst. A smal l er
separate prel ube pump i s requi red i n
addi ti on to the emergency pump.
Prelubrication
Engi ne prel ubri cati on i s requi red pri or
to starti ng or rotati ng the engi ne wi th
the barri ng devi ce. Thi s i nsures that
there i s suffi ci ent oi l at beari ng and
other contact faces to prevent di rect
metal to metal contact before engi ne
dri ven oi l pump pressure i s devel oped. A
prel ube oi l pressure sensor i s mounted
i n the most remote camshaft beari ng
from the engi ne oi l pump. When
suffi ci ent oi l pressure i s detected at thi s
sensor, the engi ne control system
provi des a green l i ght that al l ows engi ne
starti ng. Thi s sensor i s al so confi gured
as a starti ng i nterl ock to prevent engi ne
starti ng wi thout oi l pressure at the
sensor.
TYPICAL 3600 OIL PRESSURE
PERCENT OF ENGINE SPEED
O
I
L

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

T
O

M
A
I
N

G
A
L
L
E
R
Y

(
k
P
a
)
550
525
500
475
450
425
400
375
350
325
300
275
250
225
200
25 50 75 100
Typical 3600 Oil Pressure
Figure 4
Engine Flow Rate L /min (gpm)
3606
750 (198)
3608
770 (203)
3612
890 (235)
3616
1200 (317)
6
Caterpi l l ar has vari ous prel ubri cati on
systems avai l abl e that i ncl ude the motor
(ai r or el ectri c), prel ube pump, el ectri c
motor starti ng box (i f appl i cabl e), check
val ve, and engi ne pi pi ng. The check
val ve i s used at the di scharge of the
prel ube pump to prevent pressuri zed oi l
from fl owi ng to the prel ube pump duri ng
engi ne operati on. The Caterpi l l ar
prel ube system can be engi ne mounted
by the factory pri or to shi pment, or
shi pped l oose for customer i nstal l ati on.
Engi ne connecti ons for customer
suppl i ed prel ube systems are al so
avai l abl e.
For mari ne appl i cati ons i n general ,
Caterpi l l ar recommends remote
mounti ng the prel ube pump from the
engi ne. Thi s prevents any engi ne
vi brati on from affecti ng the pump and i t
al l ows the pump to be mounted i n an
easi l y accessi bl e l ocati on for servi ce.
However, remote mounted prel ube
pumps must be l ocated and pl umbed to
prevent excessi ve pump i nl et restri cti on.
For Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed pumps, the
maxi mum al l owabl e vel oci ty i n the
pump sucti on l i ne i s 1.5 m/sec (4.9 ft/sec)
to prevent pump cavi tati on, and the net
posi ti ve sucti on head of the pump i s 2 m
H
2
O (6.6 ft H
2
O). See the pump
manufacturer s data for customer
suppl i ed prel ube pumps.
Caterpi l l ar offers prel ube pumps
powered by compressed ai r or by si ngl e
phase AC, three phase AC, or DC
motors. Fl ow characteri sti cs of some
Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed pumps are shown i n
Fi gure 11 at the end of thi s secti on.
Two types of prel ubri cati on systems are
avai l abl e: i ntermi ttent and conti nuous.
I ntermi ttent prel ube i s general l y used
for mari ne appl i cati ons, and i nvol ves
runni ng the prel ube system for a few
mi nutes pri or to engi ne starti ng or
barri ng devi ce use. Wi th i ntermi ttent
prel ube the engi ne i s not avai l abl e for
i mmedi ate starti ng. I ntermi ttent
prel ube may take up to several mi nutes
dependi ng on oi l vi scosi ty, temperature,
engi ne condi ti on and system
confi gurati on. When the prel ube
pressure sensor measures 10 kPa
(1.5 psi ) the starti ng i nterl ock al l ows the
engi ne to be cranked. The intermittent
prelube pump should not be operated
continuously for more than 10 minutes.
Ti me for engi ne prel ube vari es wi th
engi ne si ze, oi l temperature and
vi scosi ty, etc. Typi cal curves for prel ube
pump performance are shown i n Fi gures
5 and 6.
Conti nuous prel ube i s typi cal l y used i n
emergency generator set appl i cati ons
where the engi ne must start on l oss
of power from a mai n generator and
assume l oad. Conti nuous prel ube
systems are desi gned for constant
operati on duri ng engi ne shutdown. A
spill tubei nstal l ed at the front of the
engi ne prevents excessi ve oi l from
fl oodi ng the cyl i nder heads and causi ng
hydraul i c l ock on startup. A l ower fl ow
pump i s al so used for conti nuous prel ube
systems. A jacket water heater must
al so be used for emergency generator
sets to keep the engi ne warm for qui ck
starti ng. An oi l heater i s general l y not
requi red wi th conti nuous prel ube si nce
the oi l ci rcul ates through the engi ne and
pi cks up heat from the engi ne bl ock that
i s kept warm by the jacket water.
The prel ube pump may al so be used as a
sump drai n pump. Two manual three-
way val ves are requi red to confi gure the
prel ube pump as a sump drai n pump.
The oi l sump drai n val ve i s connected to
the prel ube pump sucti on wi th one
three-way val ve, and the pump
di scharge goes to a waste oi l tank vi a the
other three-way val ve. The three-way
val ves are not suppl i ed by Caterpi l l ar.
I nstal l a pressure swi tch at the prel ube
pump outl et to automati cal l y shut down
the pump when there i s a l oss of
di scharge pressure. Thi s prevents
runni ng the pump dry when drai ni ng
the oi l sump.
7
3612 PRELUBE TIME
INTERMITTENT AIR PRELUBE
O
I
L

T
O

B
E
A
R
I
N
G

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

-

k
P
a

(
p
s
i
)
PRELUBE TIME - (SECONDS)
33 C (91.4 F) OIL
20 (2.9)
0
0
40 (5.8)
60 (8.7)
80 (11.6)
100 (14.5)
120 (17.4)
1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0
Figure 6
23 C (73 F) OIL
63 C (145.4 ) OIL
3608 PRELUBE TIME
INTERMITTENT ELECTRIC PRELUBE
140 (20.3)
120 (17.4)
100 (14.5)
80 (11.6)
60 (8.7)
40 (5.8)
20 (2.9)
PRELUBE TIME - (SECONDS)
O
I
L

T
O

B
E
A
R
I
N
G

P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

-

k
P
a

(
p
s
i
)
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Figure 5
3608 Prelube Time
Intermittent Electric Prelube
3612 Prelube Time
Intermittent Air Prelube
8
Customer Supplied Prelube Pumps
Locate a gear type pump wi th a pressure
rel i ef val ve near the front of the engi ne
wi th the fol l owi ng characteri sti cs:
Tilt Capability
Wet Sump
The standard 3600 engi ne confi gurati on
uses a wet oi l sump. Thi s i s an oi l pan
mounted di rectl y underneath and
connected to the engi ne bl ock. An oi l
pump sucti on pi pe wi th a sucti on bel l
near the center of the oi l pan exi ts the oi l
pan at the front of the engi ne and
connects di rectl y to the engi ne dri ven oi l
pump, (see Fi gures 1 and 2). See Fi gure
16 for wet sump oi l vol umes for each
engi ne model .
External Sump Tank
Engi ne room space, ti l t requi rements,
or the desi re to extend oi l change peri ods
may di ctate usi ng an external oi l sump
tank. The fol l owi ng arrangements and
Fi gures 9 and 10 at the end of thi s
modul e are provi ded for gui dance.
Under the Engine
The suggested desi gn of an external
sump tank i s shown i n Fi gure 9.
Extend the l ube oi l sump tank over the
enti re l ength of the engi ne to ensure
uni form thermal expansi on of the engi ne
foundati on structure. Use fl anged,
fl exi bl e, drai n connecti ons at each end of
the engi ne mounted sump to prevent
damage from vi brati on and thermal
growth. The connecti ons must be
compati bl e wi th engi ne l ube oi l at a
temperature up to 130C (266F), and
shoul d wi thstand exposure to fuel ,
cool ant, and sol uti ons used to wash
down the engi ne. Termi nate the drai n
pi pes from the engi ne oi l sump to the
external sump bel ow the mi ni mum oi l
l evel . Locate the engi ne sump drai ns as
far away as possi bl e from the oi l pump
sucti on area. The oi l shoul d be i n the
tank for the l ongest possi bl e ti me to
maxi mi ze degassi ng.
Figure 7
I ntermittent /Continuous
Note: If wet sump engine is installed at >0tilt, it will
reduce oil capacity and reduce the oil change interval.
Consult Caterpillar for specific details.
Continuous Tilt Angle Capability
Intermittent
Tilt
Criteria
10Pitch &
22.5Roll
(any combination)
10Pitch &
22.5Roll
(any combination)
Engine Model
Installation
Angle /
Rear Down
(Degrees)
0 1 2 3 4 5
Level
Installation
3606
3608
3612
3616
X X X X X X
X X X D D D
X X X X X X
X X X X D D
X
X
X
X
Marine
Propulsion
Marine
Auxiliary
Fl ow 76 Lpm 23 Lpm
(20 gpm) (6 gpm)
Operati ng
Pressure
Operati ng
Temperature
Vi scosi ty for
si zi ng el ectri c
motor
21C (70F)
340 cSt
172 kPa (24.5 psi )
X = Standard Sump, capable of meeting the
indicated tilt criteria.
D = Requires Dry Sump option to achieve the
indicated tilt criteria.
9
To provi de adequate degassi ng of the
external sump, a mi ni mum di stance of
approxi matel y 150 mm (6 i n.) must be
provi ded between the top of the tank
and the hi ghest oi l l evel expected i n the
tank. Provi de the transverse structure i n
the tank wi th ai r hol es and two 100 mm
(4 i n.) mi ni mum di ameter ai r vent pi pes,
one at the forward end of the tank and
another at the aft end.
The oi l passages i n the transverse
structure must ensure adequate oi l fl ow
to the pump sucti on pi pi ng. Fi t the end
of each sucti on pi pe wi th a bel l mouth to
keep pressure l osses to a mi ni mum. The
maxi mum avai l abl e sucti on l i ft to the
engi ne dri ven l ube oi l pump, i ncl udi ng
l osses i n the pi pi ng and strai ner, must
be kept bel ow 1.3 m (4 ft 3 i n.).
Cofferdam the external sump tank from
the shel l and fi t wi th a coi l to heat the
oi l to 38C (100F). The coi l s shoul d be
manufactured from corrosi on resi stant
materi al .
Locate a col l ecti ng sump at the aft end
of the tank. When used, the l ube oi l
centri fuge shoul d take oi l from the
col l ecti ng sump at a l evel bel ow the
mai n l ube oi l pump sucti on pi pe.
Di scharge the cl ean oi l from the
centri fuge near the l ube oi l pump
sucti on pi pi ng.
The i nner surfaces of the external sump
tank shoul d be accessi bl e for cl eani ng.
Thoroughl y cl ean the tank after
constructi on or repai rs and pri or to
fi l l i ng. Use fl anged joi nts on the sucti on
pi pi ng to the l ube oi l pump to al l ow
i nspecti on before use. The surfaces
above the mi ni mum oi l l evel must be
corrosi on protecti on coated. The tank
requi res a l ocal soundi ng tube as wel l as
a l ow l evel al arm contactor.
Remote Sump with
Scavenging Pump
An engi ne dri ven scavengi ng pump can
be provi ded to empty the oi l i n the
engi ne pan to a remote storage tank (see
Fi gure 10 at the end of thi s secti on).
Thi s arrangement i s normal l y used
where the foundati on structure hei ght i s
smal l . Oi l from the remote tank i s
returned to the engi ne oi l system by the
engi ne dri ven mai n pressure pump. Due
to the i mportance of the mai n engi ne
l ube oi l system, mari ne soci eti es and/or
the owner may requi re el ectri c motor
dri ven standby pumps. Thi s system can
become very compl ex due to the
addi ti onal pumps, pi pi ng and val ves.
Al so, the oi l l evel i n the remote storage
tank must be kept bel ow the engi ne
crankcase to prevent oi l l eak back i nto
the engi ne when the engi ne i s stopped.
Thi s can resul t i n a l ong narrow tank
taki ng useful space. I ncorporate the
features recommended i n the desi gn of
the remote sump tank l ocated bel ow the
engi ne as di scussed above.
Piping
The pi pi ng must be short wi th mi ni mum
bends and have a conti nual upward
sl ope towards the pump to avoi d pump
cavi tati on and keep sucti on pressure
drops l ow. I nstal l a non-return val ve i n
the pi pi ng to prevent the oi l from fl owi ng
backwards when the engi ne i s stopped.
The pi pes must be supported and have
fl exi bl e connecti ons at the engi ne and
auxi l i ary connecti ng poi nts. Provi de vent
and drai n connecti ons at the hi gh and
l ow poi nts i n the system.
Suction Strainer
I nstal l a sucti on strai ner i n the pi pi ng
between the tank and the l ube oi l
ci rcul ati ng pumps to protect the pumps
from l arge parti cl es col l ecti ng i n the
tank. I t shoul d have stai nl ess steel
basket wi th 650 mi cron (0.025 i n.)
perforati ons and magneti c i nserts.
Provi de a di fferenti al pressure gauge to
i ndi cate when manual cl eani ng of the
strai ner i s requi red.
10
Lube Oil Centrifuge
The engi ne i s provi ded wi th l ube oi l fi nal
fi l ters and centri fugal bypass fi l ters. A
l ube oi l centri fuge, or separator, can al so
be i nstal l ed as opti onal equi pment for
di sti l l ate fuel appl i cati ons and i s
requi red for heavy fuel appl i cati ons.
Heavy fuel engi nes produce hi gher l evel s
of l ube oi l contami nants than di sti l l ate
fuel engi nes. The l ube oi l separator
removes i nsol ubl es and water from the
l ube oi l , whi ch i ncreases the l i fe of the
l ube oi l and l ube oi l fi l ters.
The l ube oi l separator i s si zed based on
the power output of the engi ne. For
heavy fuel oi l appl i cati ons, the l ube oi l
must be conti nuousl y processed by the
l ube oi l separator at a mi ni mum fl ow
rate of 0.14 L/bkW-hr (0.028 gal /bhp-hr).
The l ube oi l centri fuge shoul d be of the
sel f-cl eani ng type due to the frequent
cl eani ng requi red. Sol i d bowl separators
must not be used for l ube oi l servi ce. The
fresh water and control ai r requi rements
for the centri fuge shoul d be speci fi ed by
the manufacturer. The sl udge di scharge
process shoul d be automati c wi th the
sl udge tank arranged si mi l ar to the fuel
oi l sl udge tank as descri bed i n the Heavy
Fuel Oil secti on of thi s gui de.
There are two methods for confi guri ng
the l ube oi l separator system. The fi rst
method i s to suppl y each engi ne wi th i ts
own dedi cated l ube oi l separator. The
second method i s to servi ce up to four
engi nes wi th one si ngl e l ube oi l
separator. Certai n requi rements must be
met i n order to use a si ngl e separator for
mul ti pl e engi nes:
Onl y Al fa Laval ALCAP model
separators, or si mi l ar model s from
other manufacturers, may be used i n
mul ti pl e engi ne appl i cati ons.
Al l precauti ons must be taken to
mi ni mi ze sump cross-contami nati on.
Thi s i ncl udes l ocati ng the changeover
mani fol d at the separator.
Uti l i ze Caterpi l l ar PLC and automati c
val ves for the changeover of sumps.
Use no more than four oi l sumps per
separator.
A redundant separator and the
necessary pi pi ng for the addi ti onal
separator must be i ncorporated i nto
the desi gn of the engi ne room.
The l ube oi l separators shal l be
oversi zed (greater than 0.14 L/bkW-hr
(0.028 gal /bhp-hr)).
Consul t Caterpi l l ar for a speci fi c project
or appl i cati on.
The centri fuge shoul d take oi l from the
rear of the engi ne and return i t to the
front of the engi ne so that cl ean oi l i s as
cl ose to the engi ne oi l pump sucti on as
possi bl e. Oi l connecti ons are provi ded at
both ends of the oi l sump. Shutoff val ves
are provi ded for customer connecti on,
but fl exi bl e connecti ons must be
provi ded by the customer.
The maxi mum amount of ti me a heavy
fuel engi ne can operate wi thout cl eani ng
the l ube oi l i s ei ght hours.
Centrifuge Supply Pump
The centri fuge suppl y pump can be
ei ther di rect dri ven from the centri fuge
or el ectri c motor dri ven. Si ze the pump
i n accordance wi th the manufacturer s
recommendati ons.
Preheater
Preheater si ze i s determi ned by pump
capaci ty and requi red temperature ri se
between ambi ent temperature and the
fi nal centri fuge. The fi nal outl et
temperature i s determi ned by the
centri fuge manufacturer, but wi l l range
between 85-95C (185-203F)
dependi ng on the grade and type of oi l
used. Other heater si zi ng consi derati ons
are:
Oi l temperature must be 95C
(203F) for engi nes centri fugi ng
duri ng engi ne operati on.
11
The heater must be oversi zed to
account for the heat normal l y
suppl i ed by an operati ng engi ne so
the centri fuge can be operated when
the engi ne i s shut down.
Thermostati cal l y control the heater to
mai ntai n the oi l temperature to the
centri fuge wi thi n 2C (4F).
Sample Points
Check the centri fuge effi ci ency by
drawi ng sampl es from poi nts upstream
and downstream of the centri fuge.
Fi gure 11 i s a typi cal arrangement.
Lube Oil Storage and
Transfer System
Fi gures 12 and 13 at the end of thi s
secti on show typi cal pi pi ng schemati cs
for operati onal l ubri cati ng oi l storage.
I t consi sts of three storage tanks, a
centri fuge and a transfer pump
arranged as fol l ows:
Clean Oil
Cl ean oi l from the storage tank i s pi ped
to suppl y the engi ne sump (or sumps)
ei ther by gravi ty, vi a the centri fuge, or
by the transfer pump.
Dirty Oil
Di rty l ube oi l i s removed from the engi ne
sump (or sumps) by the transfer pump
and di scharged to the di rty l ube oi l
storage and settl i ng tank.
Renovated Oil
Contami nated oi l can be cl eaned usi ng
the l ube oi l centri fuge and di scharged to
the renovated oi l tank.
Transfer Pump
The l ube oi l transfer pump can take oi l
from the engi ne sump (or sumps), the
cl ean oi l storage tank, the di rty l ube oi l
storage and settl i ng tank, and the
renovated oi l tank. The pump can
di scharge to the di rty l ube oi l and
settl i ng tank, the sl udge tank, and the
engi ne sump (or sumps). Use a gear type
pump and i ncl ude a rel i ef val ve. The
fol l owi ng characteri sti cs are provi ded for
gui dance:
Fl ow - 190 Lpm (50 gpm)
Pressure - 345 kPa (50 psi )
Operati ng Fl ui d Temp. - 130C
(266F)
Vi scosi ty for si zi ng el ectri c motor -
1000 cSt
Storage Tanks
A l ube oi l storage tank capaci ty tabl e i s
provi ded bel ow for gui dance. Many
vari abl es go i nto establ i shi ng tank
capaci ty the number of engi nes
i nstal l ed, sump vol ume, l ube oi l
consumpti on, etc.
Each tank shoul d have the fol l owi ng
connecti ons: fi l l i ng, vent, l ocal soundi ng,
gauge gl ass, heati ng coi l , thermometer
(wi th wel l ), transfer pump sucti on,
outl et, steam bl owout, manhol e and
l adder (i f requi red).
Preheat the oi l wi th tank heati ng coi l s to
approxi matel y 38C (100F). When
heati ng wi th steam or water, the heati ng
coi l s must be manufactured from
corrosi on resi stant materi al .
LUBE OIL PIPE
GLOBE VALVE
6 mm (.25 in)
DRIP PAN
Typical Sampling Connection
Figure 11
Typical Sampling Connection
Lube oil storage tank 7500 2000
Dirty oil storage
and settling tank 3780 1000
Renovated oil
storage tank 3780 1000
Tank Volumes
Liters Gallons
The engi ne can be fi l l ed wi th oi l from the
storage tank vi a the centri fuge, by the
l ube oi l transfer pump (wi th a strai ner)
through the forward or aft sump drai n
val ves, or through the fi l l i ng cap l ocated
on the engi ne crankcase cover.
Oil Guidelines
As wi th al l modern hi gh technol ogy
engi nes, oi l sel ecti on for the
3600 engi nes i s more cri ti cal and
possi bl y more ti me consumi ng than for
ol der, l ower speci fi c output engi nes.
Even though the process i s necessary, i t
must be recogni zed that newer engi nes
del i ver more power at l ower owni ng and
operati ng cost than thei r predecessors.
Fuel qual i ty has al so changed
consi derabl y over the past three
decades, maki ng the choi ce of oi l even
more compl i cated.
Even though choosi ng a proper oi l for
the 3600 engi nes may not be as si mpl e
as wi th ol der engi nes, i t can sti l l be a
fai rl y easy process i f al l vari abl es are
understood.
The hi gher technol ogy associ ated wi th
modern engi nes has pl aced greater
demands on the l ube oi l to perform i ts
functi ons; thi s i s true wi th 3600 engi ne
competi ti on as wel l . The reduced oi l
consumpti on of modern engi nes, whi l e
reduci ng operati ng cost, does mean the
oi l i s not conti nual l y bei ng repl aced by
oi l addi ti ons as on ol der engi nes.
Oi l sel ecti on i s further compl i cated by
the wi de oi l performance vari ati ons
wi thi n:
The API cl assi fi cati on (CF)
The base stocks and addi ti ve packages
avai l abl e on a worl d wi de basi s
The existence of these known variations
make blanket approval by brand name
impractical. This is the general practice
for 3600 engine competition as well.
To si mpl i fy the oi l sel ecti on process,
Caterpi l l ar has devel oped
recommendati ons to determi ne the most
sui tabl e oi l s for the 3600 Fami l y of
Engi nes. I n most i nstances, the owner
can sel ect the oi l company he prefers.
Caterpi l l ar wi l l assi st the customer and
suppl i er i n choosi ng an oi l that meets
engi ne requi rements based on the fuel
bei ng burned i n the engi ne. At all times,
it is the responsibility of the supplier to
maintain the quality and performance
level of his product.
The Caterpi l l ar Mi cro-Oxi dati on Test
speeds up and si mpl i fi es the screeni ng
and sel ecti on process. Rather than the
tradi ti onal method of sel ecti ng oi l
through expensi ve, ti me consumi ng
engi ne testi ng (typi cal of the method
used by competi tors as wel l ), the
Caterpi l l ar test i s an al ternati ve method
of i ni ti al l y screeni ng an oi l from the
sel ected suppl i er. Fi nal oi l acceptabi l i ty
i s obtai ned through demonstrati ng
sati sfactory oi l performance duri ng
engi ne operati on for an extended peri od
of ti me.
The Caterpi l l ar Mi cro-Oxi dati on Test
uses a metal test speci men (same al l oy
as the 3600 pi ston crown) heated to a
temperature si mi l ar to an operati ng
engi ne. A smal l amount of test oi l i s
i mpi nged on the metal surface and the
i nducti on ti me to rapi d deposi t
formati on i s measured.
Caterpillar
Micro-Oxidation Test
The fol l owi ng provi des i nterpretati on of
Caterpi l l ar Mi cro-Oxi dati on test
i nducti on ti mes:
Induction Time Oil Status
____________________ ____________
Less than 90 mi nutes Unacceptabl e
90 mi nutes or greater Acceptabl e
Caterpi l l ar wi l l consi der the use of oi l s
bel ow 90 mi nute test resul ts i f the oi l
suppl i er can provi de comparati ve fi el d
test resul ts i n excess of 7000 operati ng
hours. The fi el d test must be at si mi l ar
or hi gher l oad factors than the owner s
engi ne.
12
Caterpi l l ar has provi ded Mi cro-
Oxi dati on Test procedures and anal ysi s
techni ques to vari ous l aboratori es as
wel l as worl dwi de addi ti ve package
suppl i ers and major oi l compani es.
Contact them or si mi l ar l abs for
i nformati on on thei r capabi l i ti es and
fees. Test work done by l aboratori es
other than the Caterpi l l ar l ab l i sted
bel ow must be certi fi ed by Caterpi l l ar.
I nqui ri es about Caterpi l l ar Mi cro-
Oxi dati on testi ng can be di rected to:
Test & Devel opment
Caterpi l l ar I nc.
Techni cal Center - E
P.O. Box 1875
Peori a, I L 61656-1875
Tel ephone (309) 578-6604
Fax: (309) 578-4496
Oil Requirements
To be acceptabl e i n a 3600 engi ne,
an oi l must demonstrate sati sfactory
performance i n the fol l owi ng areas:
The oi l must have an API
cl assi fi cati on of CF. Mi l i tary
Speci fi cati on Mi l -L-2104D
oi l s al so meets thi s requi rement.
The oi l must pass the Caterpi l l ar
Mi cro-Oxi dati on test performed on
sampl es from the suppl i ers faci l i ty
supporti ng the engi ne. I f mul ti pl e
suppl i ers are i nvol ved, oi l must be
eval uated from al l suppl i ers. The test
can be run at l abs havi ng equi pment
and procedures approved by
Caterpi l l ar. The oi l acceptabi l i ty
remai ns val i d, consi stent wi th
constant oi l base stock, formul ati on,
and bl endi ng practi ces.
Schedul ed Oi l Sampl i ng (SOS),
TBN, vi scosi ty, oi l consumpti on and
crankcase pressure trends must be
anal yzed every 250 hours. An oi l
change i nterval chart i s provi ded for
i nstal l ati ons where SOS i s not
avai l abl e for schedul ed anal ysi s.
Dependi ng on oi l pan capaci ty (see
Fi gure 13), oi l changes must be
made at 1400 hour i nterval s
(maxi mum) for the fi rst 3000 hours
of operati on. I f no oi l rel ated
probl ems are encountered i n the fi rst
3000 hours, the change peri od may be
determi ned by oi l anal ysi s. After the
i ni ti al eval uati on, the oi l change
i nterval shoul d onl y be i ncreased at
250 hour i ncrements pri or to movi ng
to the next 250 hour i nterval
extensi on. The oi l must be anal yzed
at each i nterval .
Based on worl dwi de testi ng and qual i ty
control measures i n bl endi ng processes,
Caterpi l l ar DEO (CF) SAE 40 oi l s are
recommended for use i n the 3600 Fami l y
of Engi nes. I t does not requi re the Mi cro-
Oxi dati on test. Caterpi l l ar DEO (CF) oi l
meets the performance requi rements of
API CF, wi th hi gh detergency
effecti veness. I t has hi gh al kal i ni ty
(TBN 14) for the neutral i zati on of wear-
causi ng combusti on products and hi gher
fuel sul fur.

Note: Caterpillar DEO multigrade oils
are specially formulated for smaller
engines and are not recommended for the
3600 Family of Engines.
Commercial Oils
Caterpi l l ar recogni zes commerci al oi l s
that have successful l y compl eted 7000
hours of documented fi el d servi ce i n
3600 engi nes. Gui del i nes for fi el d testi ng
are avai l abl e through 3600 Customer
Servi ces i n the Large Engi ne Center.
Duri ng the test the engi ne must operate
at normal operati ng l oads and have the
fol l owi ng parameters moni tored: oi l
consumpti on, oi l deteri orati on, and val ve
recessi on. At the compl eti on of the fi el d
tri al , the condi ti on of the oi l and the
engi ne must be wi thi n the fol l owi ng
l i mi ts:
No ri ng sti cki ng or ri ng scuffi ng
No l i ner scuffi ng or carbon cutti ng
from excessi ve pi ston top l and deposi ts
13
14
Val ve recessi on must not exceed the
l i mi ts establ i shed by Caterpi l l ar for
the engi ne
Oi l consumpti on must not exceed two
ti mes the i ni ti al oi l consumpti on.
I ni ti al oi l consumpti on i s establ i shed
duri ng the fi rst 1000 hours of
operati on.
At the end of the speci fi ed oi l change
peri ods, the oi l condi ti on must remai n
wi thi n Caterpi l l ar l i mi t for oxi dati on,
ni trati on, and TBN.
Caterpi l l ar does not recommend l ube
oi l s by brand name. Fi el d operati on may
i denti fy oi l brands whi ch yi el d good
resul ts. Oi l s whi ch may be l i sted as
havi ng good fi el d operati ng resul ts do
not form a Caterpi l l ar recommendati on.
They serve onl y as potenti al oi l s whi ch
may be successful . Each parti cul ar oi l
company has control of i ts product and
shoul d be accountabl e for i ts oi l
performance. Establ i sh product
consi stency before usi ng any product.
Lubricant Viscosity
Use an SAE 40 grade oi l . SAE 30 and
some mul ti grade oi l s may be used i f the
appl i cati on requi res. SAE 30 i s
preferabl e to a mul ti -grade oi l .
Lubricant Total Base
Number (TBN)
The TBN recommendati on for an oi l i s
dependent on the sul fur l evel of the fuel
used. For 3600 engi nes runni ng on
di sti l l ate fuel oi l , the mi ni mum new oi l
TBN (by ASTM D 2896) must be 10
ti mes the sul fur percent by wei ght i n the
fuel , wi th a mi ni mum TBN of 5
regardl ess of the fuel sul fur content (see
Fi gure 6). I n most oi l formul ati ons the
TBN i s a functi on of the ash beari ng
addi ti ves i n the oi l . Excessi ve amounts
of ash beari ng addi ti ves can l ead to
excessi ve pi ston deposi ts and l oss of oi l
control . Therefore, excessi vel y hi gh
TBN or hi gh ash oi l s shoul d not be used
wi th 3600 engi nes runni ng on di sti l l ate
fuel . Successful operati on of 3600
engi nes on di sti l l ate fuel has general l y
been obtai ned wi th new oi l TBN l evel s
between 10 and 15.
3600 engi nes runni ng on heavy fuel oi l
must use an oi l speci fi cal l y bl ended for
heavy fuel engi nes. Oi l s for heavy fuel
engi nes are speci al l y bl ended for use
wi th l ube oi l separators; these oi l s must
be abl e to rel ease water and
contami nants by centri fugi ng wi thout
the l oss of addi ti ves. These oi l s are
general l y avai l abl e from 20 TBN to
50 TBN (ASTM D 2896), however most
Caterpi l l ar experi ence i s wi th 30 to
40 TBN oi l s. For 3600 engi nes runni ng
on heavy fuel oi l , the mi ni mum new oi l
TBN must be 20 ti mes the fuel sul fur
percent by wei ght i n the fuel , wi th a
maxi mum TBN of 40 regardl ess of the
fuel sul fur l evel (see Fi gure 15). Oi l s for
heavy fuel 3600 engi nes must al so pass
the performance requi rements for
commerci al l y avai l abl e oi l s as previ ousl y
descri bed.
Al ways consul t a Caterpi l l ar Deal er for
the l atest l ubri cant recommendati ons.
For more i nformati on on oi l and fuel
sul fur content refer to:
SEBD0640 Oil and Your Engine
Oil Viscosity C F
SAE 40 +5 to +50 +41 to +122
SAE 30 0 to +40 +32 to +104
SAE 20W-40 -10 to +40 +14 to +104
SAE 15W-40 -15 to +40 +5 to +104
Ambient Temperature Range
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
USED OIL TBN
LIMIT
NEW OIL TBN FOR
RESIDUAL FUEL
TBN VS FUEL SULFUR FOR 3600 SERIES ENGINES ON RESIDUAL FUEL
FUEL SULPHUR - % WEIGHT
T
B
N


A
S
T
M

D

2
8
9
6
TBN vs Fuel Sulfur for 3600 engines on Heavy Fuel
T
B
N

-

A
S
T
M

D

2
8
9
6
Fuel Sulfur - % Weight Figure 15
NEW OIL TBN FOR
DISTILLATE FUEL
USED OIL TBN
LIMIT
0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
17
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
FUEL SULFUR % WEIGHT
T
B
N


A
S
T
M

D

2
8
9
6
TBN VS FUEL SULFUR FOR 3600 SERIES ENGINES ON DISTILLATE FUEL
NOTE:
OPERATION AT FUEL SULFUR LEVELS OVER 1.5%
MAY REQUIRE SHORTENED OIL CHANGE PERIODS
TO MAINTAIN ADEQUATE WEAR PROTECTION.
TBN vs Fuel Sulfur for 3600 Engines on Distillate Fuel
T
B
N

-

A
S
T
M

D

2
8
9
6
Fuel Sulfur - % Weight Figure 14
15
16
Oil Change Interval
To achi eve maxi mum l i fe from the
engi ne oi l and provi de opti mum
protecti on for the i nternal engi ne
components, a Schedul ed Oi l Sampl i ng
program (SOS) must be used.
I nformati on i s avai l abl e through
Caterpi l l ar Deal ers. The program wi l l
determi ne oi l change i nterval s based on
trend anal ysi s and condemni ng l i mi ts
establ i shed for the engi ne. For an
opti mi zed program, oi l sampl es must be
taken every 250 operati ng hours
throughout the l i fe of the engi ne.
When extending lube oil life, Caterpillar
recommends that the oil change interval
not exceed 3000 hours unless the oil is
managed through the Caterpillar SOS
program.
SOS Analysis
Anal ysi s i s performed on sampl es taken
every 250 hours and requi res two test
procedures:
Wear Anal ysi s
Oi l Condi ti on Anal ysi s
Wear analysisi s usual l y performed
wi th an atomi c absorpti on
spectrophotometer or fl ame emi ssi on
spectroscopy (ASTM D3601). After
three sampl es are taken, trend l i nes for
the vari ous wear el ements are
establ i shed. I mpendi ng fai l ures can be
i denti fi ed when trend l i nes devi ate from
the establ i shed norm. The SOS program
has al so establ i shed l i mi ts for al l
appropri ate wear metal s. Contact a
Caterpi l l ar Deal er for more i nformati on.
Oil Condition Analysisi ncl udes the
fol l owi ng:
I nfrared anal ysi s moni tors soot, sul fur
products (from combusti on of the
fuel ), and oxi dati on. The soot i ndex
correl ates to the amount of soot or
carbon parti cl es i n the oi l . I nfrared
oxi dati on l evel correl ates wi th the
amount of oi l degradati on. Use sul fur
products readi ngs as part of an oi l
condi ti on trend anal ysi s.
Caterpillar Dealers can determine
acceptable concentration levels for the
various elements in the analysis program.
Other oi l condi ti on resul ts
determi ned from SOS i ncl ude:
maxi mum permi ssi bl e water (0.5%);
gl ycol i s not permi tted i n the oi l and
i t shoul d be changed i f detected
(ASTM D 2982 Procedure B);
maxi mum fuel di l uti on (3%).
Addi ti onal oi l condi ti on tests are
requi red unti l the fi nal change peri od
i s establ i shed.
The testi ng shoul d be conti nued
peri odi cal l y at oi l change i nterval s
and/or oi l brand or formati on
changes. The tests can be arranged
through Caterpi l l ar Deal ers and/or
i ndependent testi ng faci l i ti es:
TBN(Total Base Number)
The l i mi t i s reached when the TBN of
the used oi l i s 50% of the new oi l TBN
as measured by ASTM D 2896.
Viscosity
The l i mi t for used oi l vi scosi ty i s 3 cSt
above the new oi l vi scosi ty as
measured by ASTM D445 @ 100C.
Initial Oil Change Interval
The fol l owi ng chart i s the requi red
i ni ti al oi l change based on engi ne type
used and oi l sump si ze.
Engine Oil Pan Oil Change
Model Capacity Interval
Liters Gallons (Hours)
3606 697 * 184 1025
846 ** 224 1400
3608 761 * 201 925
1078 ** 285 1325
3612 909 * 240 750
1268 ** 335 1050
3616 1057 * 279 605
1649 ** 436 1025
* Typical marine oil pan; tilt angles > 0may change
volumes.
** Typical generator set or industrial oil pan.
Figure 16
17
Oil Change Intervals
without Oil Analysis Results
I f SOS anal ysi s resul ts are not avai l abl e,
see Fi gure 16 to determi ne oi l change
i nterval s. Even though oi l sampl i ng
resul ts may not be avai l abl e on the
recommended 250 hour i nterval s,
sampl es shoul d be anal yzed at every oi l
change peri od, even i f the turn around
ti me for the data may be l ong.
I f oil sample analysis is not available,
the oil must be changed in 500 hour
intervals when operating on heavy fuel.
Increasing Oil
Change Intervals
Change i nterval s can onl y be i ncreased
when anal ysi s resul ts i ndi cate the oi l
has not reached the contami nati on or
depl eti on l i mi ts. Trend l i nes for each
measured parameter must have a nearl y
constant sl ope and must not reach
condemni ng l i mi ts. I f condi ti ons are
favorabl e the oi l change i nterval may be
i ncreased i n 250 hour i ncrements. Oi l
change i nterval i ncreases are l i mi ted to
250 hours wi th conti nuous trendi ng of
sampl e resul ts. Consi der the effect of
upcomi ng l oad or operati onal changes on
change i nterval s before i mpl ementi ng
i ncreases.
Oi l change i nterval s can al so be
i ncreased by the addi ti on of an external
sump l ocated ei ther under or adjacent to
the engi ne (see Fi gures 9 and 10). The
precedi ng trend anal ysi s requi rements
sti l l appl y.
Estimating Oil
Consumption
Oi l consumpti on data al ong wi th fuel
consumpti on and mai ntenance
i nformati on can be used to esti mate total
operati ng cost. Oi l consumpti on data
may al so be used to esti mate the
quanti ty of makeup oi l requi red to
accommodate mai ntenance i nterval s.
Many factors can affect oi l consumpti on
i ncl udi ng l oad, oi l densi ty, oi l addi ti ve
packages, and mai ntenance practi ces.
The rate of oil consumption is called
BSOC (brake specific oil consumption)
and the unit of measure is grams per
brake kilowatt hour (g/bkW-hr) or pounds
per brake horsepower hour (lb/bhp-hr).
The typical BSOC for new3600 engines
operating at 100% load factor is
0.486 g/bkW-hr (0.0008 lb/bhp-hr).
Note: This value can vary significantly
due to engine condition, load factor and
maintenance practices. Also, with very
low consumption measurement methods
become difficult and numbers erratic.
Therefore, these values can only be used
as a guide for make-up oil requirements.
The following formula may be used to
estimate oil consumption per hour:
Engi ne bkW x Load Factor (%) x BSOC (g/bkW-hr)
L/hr =
______________________________________________
Densi ty of Oi l *
Engi ne bhp x Load Factor (%) x BSOC (l b/bhp-hr)
gal /hr =
_____________________________________________
Densi ty of Oi l *
*Typi cal engi ne oi l has a densi ty of 899 g/L (7.5 l b/gal ).
Oil Consumption as an
Overhaul Guide
When the oi l consumpti on of an engi ne
has i ncreased to roughl y three ti mes the
i ni ti al (new) consumpti on due to normal
wear, the engi ne mayneed to be
schedul ed for overhaul . However, the
3600 engi ne can easi l y operate wi th oi l
consumpti on up to 2.2 g/bkW-hr
(.0036 l b/bhp-hr) wi thout damage.
The true measure of when to overhaul an
engine is performance measured by trend
lines of output, specific fuel consumption,
and cylinder pressure. I f an engi ne i s
sti l l performi ng at acceptabl e l evel s i t
shoul d not be overhaul ed. Therefore,
to obtai n mi ni mum operati ng cost i t i s
essenti al to keep trend l i nes for l i sted
i tems.
Reference Material
SEBD0640 Oil And Your Engine
D2896 ASTM (American Society
of Testing and Materials)
18
TYPICAL 3600 OIL PRESSURE
PERCENT OF ENGINE SPEED
O
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a
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550
525
500
475
450
425
400
375
350
325
300
275
250
225
200
25 50 75 100
3608 Lube Oil System
16
9
8
1
17
2
8
7
6
5
3
14
4
13
11
15
10
12
1. Oil Pump
2. Prelube Pump
3. Oil Coolers
4. Oil Filters
5. Oil Thermostat Housing
6. Oil Filter Duplex Valve Handle
7. Priority Valve
8. Oil To Centrifugal Filters
9. Emergency Oil Connection
10. Oil Manifold (Oil To Piston Cooling Jets)
11. Oil Manifold (Oil To Bearings)
12. Oil To Main Bearings
13. Oil To Camshafts
14. Centrifugal Filters
15. Turbocharger
16. Bypass Oil
17. Check Valve
* Flow In Opposite Direction During Prelube
Figure 1
19
Figure 2
5
6
3
14
16
7
2
17
1
8
9
16
4
11 13
10
11
13
12
18
15
3612 Lube Oil System
1. Oil Pump
2. Prelube Pump
3. Oil Coolers
4. Oil Filters
5. Oil Thermostat Housing
6. Oil Filter Duplex Valve Handle
7. Priority Valve
8. Oil To Centrifugal Filters
9. Emergency Oil Connection
10. Oil Manifold (Oil To Bearing)
11. Oil Manifold (2) (Oil To Piston Cooling Jets)
12. Oil To Main Bearings
13. Oil To Camshafts
14. Centrifugal Filters
15. Turbochargers
16. Bypass Oil
17. Check Valve
18. Piston Cooling Jets
* Flow In Opposite Direction During Prelube
20
LUBRICATION SYSTEM SCHEMATIC
OIL COOLER
OIL TEMP.
REGULATOR
OIL COOLER
OIL FILTER (3FILTER ELEMENTS) VENT TO
SUMP
VENT TO
SUMP
OIL FILTER (3FILTER ELEMENTS)
FILTER
CHANGE
VALVE
PRIORITY VALVE
CENTRIFUGAL
OIL FILTER
NO FLOW AT LESS
THAN 100 kPa (15psi)
TO SUMP
MAIN OIL
MANIFOLD
CONTINUOUS
FLOW
COOLING JET
FLOW AT
140 kPa
(20 psi)
BY-PASS VALVE
TO SUMP
FLOW AT 430 kPa
(63 psi)
RELIEF VALVE
TO SUMP
FLOW AT
1000 kPa
(145 psi)
CHECK
VALVE
PRELUBE
OIL PUMP
MAIN
OIL
PUMP
STRAINER
ENGINE SUMP
BREATHER TO
ATMOSPHERE
Prelube Flow Pressure
Intermittent
Air
Electric (110/220 50 Hz)
Electric (115/230 60 Hz)
Electric (60-72 VDC)
Continuous
20 gpm
17 gpm
13 gpm
16 gpm
6 gpm
172 kPa
172 kPa
172 kPa
172 kPa
172 kPa
Figure 3
Lube Oil System Schematic
21
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0

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3600 Marine Engine
Applic ation and
Installation
Guide

G

Fresh Water Cooling
GSea Water Cooling


LEKM8465 8-98


Diesel Engine Systems -
Fresh Water Cooling
Operating Parameters
Basic System Configurations
Combined Circuit
Separate Circuit
Engine Coolant Flow Control
Temperature Regulation
Water Pumps
Standby Pumps
Flow Requirements
Heat Rejection
Aftercooler Correction Factors
Heat Rejection Tolerances
Heat Exchanger
Heat Recovery Units
Heat Exchanger
Heat Exchanger Sizing
Expansion Tanks
Expansion Tank Volume
System Pressures
External Circuit Resistance
Keel Coolers
Fabricated Cooler Performance and Sizing
Application
Performance and Sizing Criteria
Baseline Performance Conditions
Correction Factors
Worksheet
Design/Installation Considerations
Bypass Filters
Strainers
Packaged Keel Coolers
Keel Cooler Location
Keel Cooler Circuit Pumps
Keel Cooler Venting
Marine Gear Heat Rejection
Piping
Cleanliness
Venting
Line Sizing
Connections
Jacket Water Heating System
Water Treatment
System Monitoring
Serviceability
System Design
Design Forms
Heat Recovery
Heat Balance
Heat Balance Example

5
Operating Parameters
Basi c operati ng parameters for the fresh
water cl osed ci rcui t engi ne cool i ng
system are:
32C (90F) nomi nal water
temperature to the aftercool er and oi l
cool er when usi ng di sti l l ate or
heavy fuel .
90C (194F) nomi nal water
temperature to the cyl i nder bl ock
ci rcui t on di sti l l ate and 93C (199F)
on heavy fuel .
85C (185F) nomi nal oi l to beari ng
temperature.
Mari ne engi ne rati ngs are based on
32C (90F) water to the aftercool er
and 25C (77F) ai r to the turbocharger.
Mari ne engi nes whi ch must operate i n
sea water temperatures greater than
26C (79F) wi l l be al l owed to operate
wi thout any power derati on wi th water
to the aftercool er and oi l cool er of
38C (100F) maxi mum. Larger heat
exchangers wi l l be requi red to attai n
38C (100F) aftercool er/oi l cool er water
temperatures when sea water
temperatures exceed 26C (79F), but
the benefi ts wi l l be l onger val ve, exhaust
mani fol d, and turbocharger l i fe.
Consul t the deal er or factory project
engi neer i n those cases where
aftercool er/oi l cool er water temperatures
are expected to exceed the 38C (100F)
l i mi t.
Basic System
Configurations
Two basi c cl osed ci rcui t fresh water
cool i ng systems are used combi ned
ci rcui t and separate ci rcui t.
The

combined circuit confi gurati on i s
al so referred to as the si ngl e ci rcui t fresh
water system. I t i s typi cal l y used for
mari ne and heavy fuel appl i cati ons
where a si ngl e heat exchanger i s
preferred. The aftercool er and oi l cool er
ci rcui t i s external l y regul ated (fl ui d i nl et
temperature control ) to 32C (90F). The
system uses the aftercool er/oi l cool er
outl et water to cool a porti on of the hi gh
temperature outl et water. The bl ock
cool ant i s contai ned on the engi ne. Onl y
the water returni ng to the aftercool er/oi l
cool er pump requi res a cool i ng source.
Thi s resul ts i n si mpl e cool ant pi pi ng
i nstal l ati on. Refer to Fi gure 1 for a
typi cal combi ned ci rcui t fl ow di agram.
An i n-l i ne engi ne i s shown i n Fi gure 2
and a vee engi ne i n Fi gure 3. Fi gure 4
i s a pi pi ng schemati c for the combi ned
ci rcui t system. (Refer to pages 33 through
36 for illustrations.)
Fi gure 5, page 37, i s a di agram for a two
step i nl et ai r temperature control system
for conti nuous heavy fuel appl i cati ons.
See the Heavy Fuel secti on for further
detai l s.
The separate circuit cool i ng system
shown i n Fi gures 6, 7, and 8 i s avai l abl e
for mari ne appl i cati ons. I t i s normal l y
used for keel cool ed or radi ator cool ed
i nstal l ati ons to reduce the external
cool i ng package si ze. (Refer to pages 38-
40 for illustrations.)
Engine Coolant
Flow Control
The correct cool ant fl ows are provi ded by
factory i nstal l ed ori fi ces combi ned wi th
external ci rcui t resi stance (set at each
si te). The ori fi ces are si zed to provi de
proper fl ow spl i ts and pressure l evel s to
engi ne components (aftercool er, oi l cool er,
cyl i nder bl ock, cyl i nder heads, and
turbochargers). The external resi stance
setti ng i s cri ti cal . I t establ i shes total
ci rcui t fl ow by bal anci ng total ci rcui t
l osses wi th pump performance curves.
Set i t wi th an adjustabl e, l ockabl e val ve
or ori fi ce i n customer pi pi ng. Measure
external ci rcui t resi stance wi th bl ocked
open regul ators to assure al l fl ow i s
passi ng through the external ci rcui t. The
valve used to set the resistance must not
use elastomer seat material.
Typi cal factory and customer ori fi ce
l ocati ons are shown i n Fi gure 1 for a
combi ned system and Fi gure 6 for a
separate ci rcui t system.
Temperature Regulation
I nl et control temperature regul ators are
used on the jacket water and
aftercool er/oi l cool er (AC/OC) cool ant and
l ube oi l ci rcui ts. The standard regul ator
characteri sti cs are shown bel ow. Some
mari ne soci eti es requi re cool ant
temperature regul ators to have a
manual overri de capabi l i ty. I n these
cases the standard Caterpi l l ar regul ator
i s not acceptabl e and another suppl i er
must be used.
Heat recovery ci rcui ts usual l y requi re an
external regul ator to prevent over-
cool i ng the engi ne. I f the heat recovery
ci rcui t uses l ess than 30% of the
avai l abl e jacket water heat l oad, then an
external regul ator i s not requi red. I f
used, the heat recovery regul ator must
have a start-to-open temperature 5C
(9F) l ower than the jacket water ci rcui t
regul ator. See Heat Recovery wi thi n thi s
secti on.
Regul ator mounti ng l ocati on depends on
the cool i ng system type and engi ne
package confi gurati on. I f an expansi on
tank i s mounted on an accessory modul e
i n front of the engi ne, the regul ator may
be mounted on the tank. See the tabl e
bel ow for typi cal Caterpi l l ar regul ator
mounti ng l ocati ons. Regul ators suppl i ed
by other suppl i ers are usual l y mounted
i n the shi pyard pi pi ng.
Water Pumps
Al l engi nes have two engi ne dri ven fresh
water pumps mounted on the front
engi ne housi ng. The ri ght hand pump
(vi ewed from the fl ywheel end) suppl i es
cool ant to the cyl i nder bl ock, cyl i nder
heads, and turbocharger. The l eft hand
pump suppl i es cool ant to the aftercool er
and oi l cool ers. Compl ete pump
performance curves at vari ous pressure
heads are shown i n Fi gure 9. An engi ne
dri ven raw water pump i s avai l abl e and
i s gear dri ven off the front of the engi ne.
See Fi gure 46 i n the Engine Performance
secti on for raw water pump power
requi rements.
Some appl i cati ons wi l l requi re standby
pumps. El ectri cal l y dri ven standby
pumps are shown i n Fi gures 4 and 5
and are al so i ncl uded i n the fol l owi ng
descri pti on.

Standby Pumps
Typi cal l y an el ectri c standby pump i s
requi red to paral l el each engi ne dri ven
pump for si ngl e engi ne mari ne
propul si on appl i cati ons to meet mari ne
soci ety requi rements. Two fresh water
pumps are requi red for standby, or
emergency, servi ce. One paral l el s the
engi ne dri ven hi gh temperature jacket
water ci rcui t. The other paral l el s the
engi ne dri ven l ow temperature AC/OC
ci rcui t. Each external ci rcui t must be
i sol ated from the engi ne by check or
shutoff val ves.
6
Cooling Expansion Tank JW Regulator AC/OC Regulator Oil Regulator
System Location Location Location Location
Combined Module Engine Exp. Tank Engine
Combined Remote Engine Exp. Tank or Remote Engine
Sep. Circuit Module Exp. Tank Remote (in piping) Engine
Sep. Circuit Remote Remote Remote (in piping) Engine
Start-Open Full-Open Nominal
Temp Temp Temp
C (F) C (F) C (F)
AC/OC Circuit*:
Distillate and 27 (81) 37 (99) 32 (90)
Heavy Fuel
Two Step Control (at low load) 75 (167)
JW Circuit**:
Distillate Fuel 85 (185) 95 (203) 90 (194)
Heavy Fuel 88 (190) 98 (208) 93 (199)
Lube Oil Circuit: 76 (169) 89 (192) 83 (181)
* Dual temperature control may be required on heavy
fuel applications. See Heavy Fuel in the Engine
Systems section of this guide.
**Minimum allowable inlet water temperature is 83C
(181F) on distillate fuel and 85C (185F) on heavy
fuel.
7
Figure 9
320
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
0
0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800
Fresh Water Flow in L/min
P
u
m
p

R
i
s
e

(
k
P
a
)
Water Pump Performance
3606 & 3608 Engines
1000
900
750
720
AC/OC Pump
Operating
Line
JW Pump
Operating
Line
350 rpm Engine
320
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
0
0 400 1200 2000 2800 3600
Fresh Water Flow in L/min
P
u
m
p

R
i
s
e

(
k
P
a
)
Water Pump Performance
3612 & 3616 Engines
1000
900
750
720
AC/OC Pump
Operating
Line
350 rpm Engine
JW Pump
Operating
Line
I nstal l a water pressure l ow al arm
contactor at the di scharge of the engi ne
dri ven pump to control the operati on of
the standby motor dri ven pump. The
standby pump shoul d start
automati cal l y i f the engi ne dri ven pump
di scharge pressure fal l s bel ow 120 kPa
(17.4 psi ). The control confi gurati on
shoul d be arranged to operate onl y when
the engi ne i s runni ng. Addi ti onal l y, the
contactor shoul d be ti ed i nto the oi l step
functi on of the speed swi tch so that the
standby pump can onl y operate above
75% of rated speed. Thi s i s because the
engi ne dri ven pump pressure may be
l ower than the al arm set poi nt at l ow
engi ne speeds, but the pump pressure i s
sti l l suffi ci ent to cool the engi ne and the
standby pump i s not requi red.
Flow Requirements
Standby pump fl ow requi rements must
match the engi ne dri ven pump i t i s to
repl ace. See the fol l owi ng tabl e for pump
requi rements.
The recommended materi al s for the
standby pumps are:
Casi ng Cast I ron
I mpel l er Bronze
Shaft Stai nl ess Steel
Seal Mechani cal
For emergency pump connecti on
l ocati ons and si zes see Fi gure 4
(combi ned ci rcui t).
Heat Rejection
Heat rejecti on to engi ne cool ant comes
from the cyl i nder bl ock, cyl i nder heads,
watercool ed turbocharger turbi ne
housi ng, aftercool er, and oi l cool er.
Watercool ed mani fol ds are not used and
there i s no di rect heat rejecti on from
exhaust mani fol ds to the cool ant. Jacket
water heat rejecti on on 3600 Engi nes
al ways refers to the sum of the bl ock,
head, and turbocharger.
Nomi nal val ues for heat rejecti on,
cool ant fl ows, and temperatures are
shown i n the Engine Data secti on. For
the most current data al ways consul t
the TMI System.
Aftercooler
Correction Factors
Heat rejecti on correcti on factors for the
aftercool er can be cal cul ated for
vari ous ambi ent ai r and cool i ng water
temperatures (see Fi gure 10). A typi cal
correcti on factor for 45C ambi ent ai r
and 32C water to the aftercool er woul d
be approxi matel y 1.2 ti mes the nomi nal
aftercool er heat rejecti on val ve i n the
Engi ne Data secti on of thi s gui de.
Heat Rejection Tolerances
Cool ant Fl ow = 10%
Heat Rejecti on = 10%
The tol erances account for engi ne-to-
engi ne vari ati on, test data accuracy,
repeatabi l i ty, and scatter. The heat
rejecti on tol erance band does not
account for on-si te condi ti ons such as
ambi ent ai r temperature. Tol erance
gui del i nes are as fol l ows:
Heat Exchanger Tolerances
Base heat rejecti on capaci ty on the hi gh
si de of the tol erance band, i .e., +8% to
+10%. Thi s tends to assure normal
engi ne operati ng temperatures and
compensates for unexpected foul i ng
si tuati ons.
AC/OC Pump @ 32

C JW Pump @ 90C
Flow Rise Flow Rise
L/min gpm kPa psi L/min gpm kPa psi
3606/3608:
1000 rpm 1200 317 295 42.8 1460 385 295 42.8
900 rpm 1080 285 240 34.8 1315 347 240 34.8
750 rpm 900 238 170 24.7 1095 289 170 24.7
720 rpm 860 227 160 23.2 1050 277 160 23.2
3612/3616:
1000 rpm 1730 457 305 44.3 2920 771 290 42.1
900 rpm 1560 412 245 35.6 2630 694 240 34.8
750 rpm 1300 343 170 24.7 2190 578 170 24.7
720 rpm 1250 330 160 23.2 2100 554 155 22.5
8
9

1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
-20 0 20 40 60
Ambient Air Temp (C)
STD. Conditions
32C
37C
42C
47C
W
a
t
e
r

T
e
m
p

t
o

A
C
AfterCooler Heat Rejection
Correction Factors for Water and Ambient Air Temperature
NOTE: Applicable At or Near Rated Load Only.
H
A
C

C
o
r
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

F
a
c
t
o
r
27C
Figure 10
10
Heat Recovery Unit Tolerances
Assume recoverabl e heat avai l abl e i s at
the l ower end of the tol erance zone,
i .e., -8% to -10%. Thi s adjusts for the
regul ator control system characteri sti cs
and convecti on/radi ati on l osses from the
pi pi ng. See Heat Recoveryi n thi s secti on
of the gui de.
Heat Exchanger
The Caterpi l l ar shel l and tube type heat
exchangers provi de compact, rel i abl e,
and cost effecti ve cool i ng. Si nce heat
exchanger tubes can be cl eaned easi l y,
raw water i s usual l y routed through
tubes and engi ne cool ant through the
shel l . The fl ow i n the raw water secti on
i s ei ther si ngl e-pass or two-pass (see
Fi gure 11). A two-pass type fl ows raw
water twi ce through the exchanger;
si ngl e-pass types use raw water onl y
once. To provi de maxi mum temperature
di fferenti al and heat transfer i n si ngl e-
pass exchangers, the raw water fl ows
opposi te to cool ant fl ow. The di recti on of
fl ow i s not i mportant i n two-pass
exchangers.
I f the raw water contai ns debri s, use
strai ners to prevent tube pl uggi ng. I n
cases of extreme si l t contami nati on or
abrasi ve materi al s, consi der a back-fl ush
fi l ter. Some raw water sources contai n
hi gh l evel s of i mpuri ti es or hardness
whi ch accel erate heat exchanger foul i ng.
More frequent heat exchanger cl eani ng
wi l l be requi red i f treatment i s not
practi cal .
Heat exchanger performance depends on
raw water fl ow and temperature
di fferenti al . Ori fi ces or fi xed val ves must
be used to l i mi t raw water vel oci ty and
avoi d tube erosi on. Do not use
temperature regul ators i n the raw water
ci rcui t. Engi ne jacket water i s
thermostati cal l y control l ed and
addi ti onal control s add expense, cause
restri cti on, and decrease rel i abi l i ty.
Heat Exchanger Sizing
Combined Circuit:
The heat exchanger shoul d be si zed
usi ng a maxi mum cool ant temperature
at the AC/OC pump i nl et of 38C (100F)
for al l Mari ne engi nes. The heat
exchanger si zi ng must al so consi der the
maxi mum expected ambi ent ai r
temperature, maxi mum engi ne power
(rack stop power), maxi mum expected
raw water temperature, and 10% margi n
for a foul i ng and safety factor. Consul t a
project engi neer i f the vessel wi l l operate
i n sea water temperatures greater than
32C (90F). I t i s i mpracti cal to purchase
heat exchangers whi ch are si zed for l ess
than a 6C (11F) di fferenti al between
sea water and AC/OC water.
JACKET WATER
SINGLE PASS
JACKET WATER
COOLING
WATER
TWO-PASS
Figure 11
Heat Exchanger Types
11
Separate Circuit:
There are two heat exchangers requi red
for separate ci rcui t cool i ng systems, one
for the engi ne jacket water ci rcui t and
one for the AC/OC water ci rcui t. The
jacket water heat exchanger shoul d be
si zed usi ng a maxi mum cool ant
temperature at the jacket water pump
i nl et of 93C (199F) for heavy fuel
engi nes, and 90C (194F) for di sti l l ate
fuel engi nes. The jacket water heat
exchanger si zi ng must al so consi der
maxi mum engi ne power (rack stop
power), maxi mum expected raw water
temperature, and 10% margi n for a
foul i ng and safety factor.
The AC/OC heat exchanger shoul d be
si zed usi ng a maxi mum cool ant
temperature at the AC/OC pump i nl et of
38C (100F) for al l mari ne engi nes. The
AC/OC heat exchanger si zi ng must al so
consi der the maxi mum expected
ambi ent ai r temperature, maxi mum
engi ne power (rack stop power),
maxi mum expected raw water
temperature, and 10% margi n for a
foul i ng and safety factor. See the
previ ous note on combi ned ci rcui t heat
exchanger si zi ng i f sea water
temperature i s greater than 32C (90F).
Separate ci rcui t cool i ng systems are
most commonl y used i n appl i cati ons
where keel cool ers or radi ators are used
as the heat exchangers, to keep the
equi pment si ze to a mi ni mum.
Expansion Tanks
Caterpi l l ar expansi on tanks provi de:
Expansi on vol ume for cool ant
Cool ant l evel al arm
Si ngl e fi l l i ng l ocati on
Pressure cap & vent
Cool ant si ght gauge
Deaerati on chamber
Thermostat mounti ng
Drai n
Posi ti ve pump i nl et pressure
Caterpi l l ar offers two expansi on tanks.
The smal l er tank has an expansi on
vol ume of 75 L (20 gal ) and the l arger
tank has 245 L (65 gal ). Cal cul ati ons can
determi ne i f an auxi l i ary expansi on tank
i s requi red.
Two tank arrangements can be provi ded
by Caterpi l l ar as fol l ows:
Standard Volume Tank - For use wi th
cool i ng systems whose total vol ume i s up
to 1500 L (400 gal ), assumi ng a 4.4C
(40F) fi l l water temperature.
High Volume Tank - For use wi th cool i ng
systems whose total vol ume i s up to
5700 L (1500 gal ), assumi ng a 4.4C
(40F) fi l l water temperature.
Fi gures 12 and 13 on page 13 show the
two Caterpi l l ar expansi on tanks that are
avai l abl e.
Two possi bl e methods of arrangi ng the
expansi on tank i n the cool i ng system are
the ful l fl ow system and shunt type
system. The most i mportant poi nt wi th
ei ther system i s to ensure that ai r
entrai ned i n the cool ant i s removed to
prevent pump cavi tati on and cavi tati on
erosi on of i nternal engi ne components.
Deaerati on of the cool ant requi res a l ow
vel oci ty area. I n ei ther case, l ocate the
expansi on tank to prevent vacuum
formati on. The water level in the tank
should be the highest point in the cooling
circuit at any ship attitude.
Wi th the ful l fl ow system, the enti re fl ow
of cool ant passes through the expansi on
tank vi a a regul ator mounted on the
tank. Thi s al l ows ai r to be removed from
the cool ant because the tank has
i nternal baffl es that sl ow the water fl ow
down to 0.6 m/sec (2 ft/sec). The ful l fl ow
system provi des a si ngl e fi l l poi nt i n
both the combi ned and separate ci rcui t
systems. A make-up l i ne between the
two ci rcui ts i s requi red on the separate
ci rcui t system (see Fi gure 6). The ful l
fl ow system i s usual l y used when the
expansi on tank i s l ocated near the front
of the engi ne.
12
Wi th the shunt type system, the
expansi on tank i s connected to the
cool i ng system by one smal l er pi pe that
mai ntai ns a stati c head on the cool i ng
system. Separate vent l i nes must be run
from each system hi gh poi nt to the
expansi on tank to remove entrai ned ai r
from the cool ant. A deaerator chamber
must al so be i nstal l ed at the cool ant
outl et from the engi ne. The deaerator
removes entrai ned ai r from the cool ant
and a port i n the top of the chamber i s
used to connect to the expansi on tank.
Fi gure 5 shows a shunt type cool i ng
system used i n a heavy fuel engi ne two
step cool i ng system.
The shunt type system i s used i n
appl i cati ons where the expansi on tank
cannot be l ocated near the front of the
engi ne. I n thi s case the expansi on tank
i s mounted remotel y (usual l y on the next
deck up from the engi ne l evel ), and onl y
a few smal l connecti on l i nes to the tank
are requi red for vents and the stati c
head connecti on. Thi s prevents the need
for runni ng l arge cool ant pi pes over l ong
di stances through the engi ne room. The
cool ant regul ator i s mounted separatel y
from the expansi on tank i n a pl ace
conveni ent for the bui l der.
Expansion Tank Volume
Expansi on tanks must provi de adequate
vol ume for cool ant expansi on pl us
reserve. Total cool i ng system vol ume
must be known to determi ne the
mi ni mum acceptabl e expansi on tank
si ze. The total vol ume i s the engi ne
cool ant vol ume pl us the vol ume of al l
external (customer suppl i ed) ci rcui ts.
Vol ume data i s shown i n Fi gures 12 and
13 for the engi ne, ful l Caterpi l l ar
standard and hi gh vol ume expansi on
tanks, tank pi pi ng and the Caterpi l l ar
suppl i ed shel l and tube heat exchanger.
The requi red expansi on vol ume i s
cal cul ated as fol l ows:
Requi red Expansi on Vol ume =
(Total System Vol ume) x
(Expansi on Rate)
The expansi on rate depends on the
cool ant mi xture bei ng used, and can be
determi ned from the curves shown i n
Fi gure 14 on page 14.
Some i nstal l ati ons wi l l use the
Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed heat exchanger and
factory pi pi ng. I n those cases, the
vol ume of al l external pi pi ng must be
cal cul ated. The mi ni mum reserve
capaci ty i s determi ned from the
fol l owi ng tabl e:
Total External Circuit Volume Minimum Reserve Capacity
50% of Engine Coolant Volume 10% of Total System Volume
60% of Engine Coolant Volume 9% of Total System Volume
70% of Engine Coolant Volume 8% of Total System Volume
80% of Engine Coolant Volume 7% of Total System Volume
90% of Engine Coolant Volume 6% of Total System Volume
100% of Engine Coolant Volume 5% of Total System Volume
The minimum acceptable expansion tank volume is:
Minimum Tank Volume = (Expansion Volume) + (Minimum Reserve Capacity)
13
Figure 12
Expansion Tank Standard Volume 75 L (20 gal)
Expansion Tank High Volume 245 L (65 gal)
Figure 13
Engine
Engine
Coolant
Volume
Standard
Capacity
Increased
Capacity
Expansion
Tank
Piping
Heat
Exchanger
Expansion Tank
3606
3608
3612
3616
Engine
3606
3608
3612
3616
400
530
800
1060
105
140
210
280
(400)
(530)
(800)
(1060)
(875)
(1167)
(1751)
(2334)
475
475
475
475
125
125
125
125
(475)
(475)
(475)
(475)
(1042)
(1042)
(1042)
(1042)
300
300
300
300
80
80
80
80
(300)
(300)
(300)
(300)
(667)
(667)
(667)
(667)
150
150
200
200
40
40
55
55
(150)
(150)
(200)
(200)
(333)
(333)
(333)
(333)
50
50
100
100
15
15
30
30
(50)
(50)
(100)
(100)
(125)
(125)
(250)
(250)
Liters (kg)
U.S. Gallons (lb)
14
System Pressures
The fol l owi ng pressure l i mi ts appl y to al l
3600 Di esel Engi nes:
Water Pump Pressures:
Maxi mum Al l owabl e
Stati c Head ..........................145 kPa (15 m H
2
0)
Mi ni mum AC/OC Pump
I nl et (Dynami c).......................-5 kPa (-0.5 m H
2
0)
Mi ni mum JW Pump I nl et
(Dynami c)*.............................30 kPa (3.0 m H
2
0)
Mi ni mum Raw Water
Pump I nl et (Dynami c)...........-5 kPa (-0.5 m H
2
0)
Maxi mum Operati ng Pressures:
Engi ne Cool i ng Ci rcui ts........500 kPa (51 m H
2
0)
Caterpi l l ar Expansi on
Tanks ....................................150 kPa (15.3 m H
2
0)
Caterpi l l ar
Heat Exchangers ...............1000 kPa (102 m H
2
0)
Radi ators/Non-Cat Heat
Exchangers ...............................(Contact Suppl i er)
* Acceptabl e jacket water pump i nl et pressures are achi eved on
combi ned cool i ng systems by mai ntai ni ng the correct external
ci rcui t resi stance.
Figure 14
15
External Circuit Resistance
The method used to set external ci rcui t
resi stance depends on cool i ng system
geometry.
Method No. 1: Used when the cool i ng
ci rcui t i ncl udes the Caterpi l l ar
expansi on tank and regul ators mounted
on the front modul e assembl y (ful l fl ow
system). External pressure drop i s
measured from the engi ne outl et to the
col d fl ow entrance at the regul ator
housi ng. Measure both pressures as
cl ose to the same el evati on as possi bl e
(see Fi gure 15 and tabl e at ri ght).
Method No. 2: Used when the cool i ng
ci rcui t i ncl udes a remote-mounted
expansi on tank and remote regul ators
(shunt type system). External pressure
drop i s measured from the engi ne outl et
to the pump i nl et. Make pressure
measurements at the correspondi ng
outl et and i nl et el evati ons
(see Fi gure 16).
The above external resistance settings
must be made with blocked-open
regulators to assure full heat exchanger
flow. Refer to Engine Data Sheet 50.5,
Cooling System Field Test.
A lockable plug valve is preferred for
setting external resistance. A plate type
orifice or other adjustable valve may be
used, but it must not include an
elastomer seal element.
1000 90 (13)
900 73 (11)
750 51 (7.5)
720 47 (7)
Tolerance: 10%
Figure 15
rpm P (P1-P2) kPa (psi)
16
1000 85 (12)
900 66 (9.6)
750 42 (6)
720 38 (5.5)
Tolerance: 10%
1000 85 (12) 103 (15)
900 66 (9.6) 81 (12)
750 42 (6) 52 (7.5)
720 38 (5.5) 47 (7)
Tolerance: 10% 10%
Figure 16
1000 104 (15) 99 (14)
900 84(12) 77 (11)
750 58 (8) 50 (7)
720 52 (7.5) 44 (6)
Tolerance: 10% 10%
Engine Low Temperature High Temperature
Speed rpm Circuit P (P1-P2) Circuit P (P3-P4)
1000 91 (13)
900 71 (10)
750 45 (6.5)
720 40 (5.8)
Tolerance: 10%
3606 and 3608 Combined Circuit
External Circuit Resistance, kPa (psi)
3606 and 3608 Separate Circuit
3612 and 3616 Combined Circuit
3612 and 3616 Separate Circuit
17
The correct ci rcui t restri cti on must al so
be mai ntai ned for bypass fl ow. Systems
i ncl udi ng the modul e mounted expan-
si on tank wi th Caterpi l l ar regul ators
contai n factory i nstal l ed ori fi ces to
control bypass fl ow. For remote systems,
set the external bypass restri cti on to
130% 10% of the correspondi ng external
restri cti on val ue for ful l heat exchanger
fl ow. The restri cti on must be set before
the ci rcui t reaches regul ator start-to-
open temperature.
Keel Coolers
A keel cool er i s an outboard heat
exchanger attached to the submerged
porti on of a shi ps hul l . They are
typi cal l y used i n appl i cati ons
encounteri ng muddy or si l ty cool i ng
water.
Fabri cated keel cool ers use many shapes
(pi pe, tubi ng, channel , etc.). Materi al
choi ce depends on the cool i ng water
encountered. I t must be compati bl e wi th
the shi ps hul l materi al s to prevent
gal vani c corrosi on.
Fabricated Cooler Performance
and Sizing
Thi s gui de secti on may be used to
determi ne keel cool er performance
characteri sti cs, i ncl udi ng si zi ng, for
3600 Engi nes. Careful i denti fi cati on of
appl i cati on type, operati ng condi ti ons,
cool ant temperature speci fi cati ons, and
acceptance l i mi ts must be emphasi zed
for accurate anal ysi s.
Application
The data may be used for the fol l owi ng:
Determi ne keel cool er si ze (surface
area) requi red for ei ther a combi ned or
separate ci rcui t cool i ng system.
Determi ne the performance capabi l i ty,
i ncl udi ng the return to engi ne cool ant
temperature, for an exi sti ng keel cool er
confi gurati on.
Predi ct regulated cool ant temperatures
at any engi ne operati ng condi ti ons for
a speci fi c keel cool er confi gurati on.
Thi s i s an i terati ve process and
requi res temperature regul ator
characteri sti c curves (temperature vs
stroke and fl ow spl i t vs stroke) for the
thermostats bei ng used. Contact a
Caterpi l l ar Appl i cati on Engi neer for
thi s anal ysi s.
The general techni que for anal yzi ng keel
cool er performance i s based on
establ i shi ng a uni t heat rejecti on
capaci ty factor i n terms of kW/m
2
of
surface area per C temperature
di fference between cool ant-to-engi ne and
the raw water. Thi s i s determi ned from
the curves i n Fi gure 17 for a nomi nal
(typi cal ) set of condi ti ons, and i s referred
to as the baselineperformance. The
basel i ne capaci ty i s then adjusted for
actual operati ng condi ti ons usi ng a set of
correcti on factors. The correcti ons take
i nto account foul i ng factors (raw water
and cool ant), use of anti freeze (% gl ycol )
i f appl i cabl e, and actual steel thi ckness
of the heat transfer surface. Materi al s
other than structural (mi l d) steel are not
consi dered i n thi s anal ysi s.
For keel cool er si zi ng, the heat rejecti on
capaci ty factor i s used to cal cul ate the
total surface area requi red. Thi s i s based
on acceptance cri teri a for the speci fi c
engi ne and appl i cati on. Acceptance i s
normal l y based on cool ant-to-engi ne
temperature l i mi ts speci fi ed i n the
begi nni ng of thi s Coolingsecti on. After
determi ni ng the requi red surface area,
the structural members can be sel ected
based on space l i mi tati ons, avai l abi l i ty,
and total cool ant fl ow. The cross secti ons
sel ected (angl e i rons, channel s, etc.)
must provi de fl ow condi ti ons (vel oci ty
and turbul ence) used i n the capaci ty
cal cul ati ons and anal ysi s. Fl ow l osses
(pressure drop) through the cool er must
al so be cal cul ated to confi rm an
acceptabl e external ci rcui t resi stance.
18
To eval uate an exi sti ng keel cool er
confi gurati on (vessel repower, etc.), the
heat rejecti on capaci ty factor i s used to
cal cul ate the cool ant-to-engi ne
temperature. Thi s cal cul ati on shoul d be
done assumi ng ful l keel cool er fl ow
(thermostats ful l y open). I f the resul ti ng
cool ant temperature i s belowthe
maxi mum al l owabl e l i mi t, the keel
cool er desi gn i s acceptabl e rel ati ve to
heat rejecti on. Pressure drop through
the cool er must al so be cal cul ated to
determi ne i f external ci rcui t resi stance i s
acceptabl e.
The curves and techni ques i n thi s
secti on can al so be appl i ed to predi ct
engi ne cool i ng system temperatures for
speci fi c operati ng condi ti ons. Thi s
anal ysi s procedure requi res the
determi nati on of the equi l i bri um poi nt at
whi ch the system fl ows temperatures,
engi ne heat rejecti on, keel cool er
capaci ty, and thermostat temperature/
fl ow characteri sti cs are al l bal anced.
Refer thi s i terati ve process to a
Caterpi l l ar Appl i cati on Engi neer.
Performance and Sizing Criteria
Keel cooler sizing must be based on the
most critical set of operating conditions.
For mari ne propul si on engi nes
operati ng i n a consi stent type of raw
water, the cri ti cal case wi l l most l i kel y
be maxi mum engi ne power at rated
vessel speed at maxi mum expected
raw-water temperature. Exampl es
woul d i ncl ude ocean goi ng shi ps,
vessel s l i mi ted to the Great Lakes, or
l arge ri ver tugs.
For propul si on engi nes operati ng i n
mul ti pl e raw-water types, several
cases may have to be eval uated to
i denti fy the cri ti cal si tuati on. An
exampl e i s an ocean-goi ng vessel
enteri ng i nl and harbors vi a ri vers,
channel s, etc.
For mari ne auxi l i ary engi nes, the
cri ti cal condi ti on wi l l most l i kel y be
maxi mum l oad, sti l l water (shi p
anchored), and maxi mum raw-water
temperature. I f l oad demand vari es
si gni fi cantl y between anchored and
under-wayoperati on, both condi ti ons
must be eval uated.
The keel cool er desi gn must meet the
fol l owi ng cri teri a:
Structural (mi l d) steel wel ded to shi ps
hul l . I f raw water temperature exceeds
30C, particularly in salt water, the use
of packaged coolers made of corrosion
resistant materials is recommended.
Engi ne cool ant fl owi ng from rear to
front of the vessel (counter-fl ow). I f thi s
i s not possi bl e due to the hul l desi gn
and pi pi ng l i mi tati ons, or i f an exi sti ng
cool er wi th spl i t fl ow types i s bei ng
anal yzed, contact a Caterpi l l ar
Appl i cati on Engi neer.
No pai nt or protecti ve coati ngs appl i ed
to heat transfer surfaces.
The engi ne cool ant must meet the
fol l owi ng:
Water used must meet Caterpi l l ar
speci fi cati ons.
Condi ti oner must be used and
mai ntai ned at proper concentrati on
l evel s.
Use of anti freeze (gl ycol ) i s acceptabl e.
Engi ne cool ant fl ow through the cool er
must meet the fol l owi ng:
Fl ow vel oci ty:
Maxi mum 2.5 m/sec (8.2 ft/sec)
Mi ni mum 0.5 m/sec (1.65 ft/sec)
Desi gn Poi nt** 1.5 m/sec (4.92 ft/sec)
Turbul ent fl ow (natural or i nduced)
** Rated engi ne speed wi th ful l fl ow through
cool er (thermostats ful l y open)
19
Baseline Performance Conditions
The basel i ne performance curves i n
Fi gure 17 are for the fol l owi ng
condi ti ons:
Engi ne Cool ant:
Treated Fresh Water (no gl ycol )
Engi ne Cool ant Foul i ng Factor:
0.0010 (no excessi ve hardness)
Raw Water Foul i ng Factor:
0.0030 (typi cal ri ver water)
Steel Thi ckness:
6.35 mm (0.25 i n)
Correction Factors
The baselinekeel cool er performance
(uni t heat rejecti on capaci ty) obtai ned
from Fi gure 17 must be adjusted to
account for actual condi ti ons. Correcti on
factors (mul ti pl i ers) requi red are shown
i n Fi gures 18 and 19.
Use of extremel y hard water
Fi gure 18
Use of anti freeze (gl ycol )
Fi gure 18
Raw water foul i ng factors
Fi gure 18
Steel thi ckness (heat transfer surface)
Fi gure 19
Coolant: Treated Water W/O Glycol (ff=0.0010)
Raw Water: Typical River Water (ff=0.0030)
Hull Material: Steel
U
n
i
t

H
e
a
t

R
e
j
e
c
t
i
o
n

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

(
k
W
/
m
2
)
C
o
o
l
a
n
t

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

T
h
r
o
u
g
h

C
o
o
l
e
r

C
S
T
Note: C
ST
=

(T
COOLANT TO ENGINE
T
RAW WATER
)

=

in

C

0.40
0.38
0.36
0.34
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.22
0.20
0.18
0 2 4 6 8 10
2.5 m/sec
2.0 m/sec
1.5 m/sec
1.0 m/sec
0.5 m/sec
Vessel Speed (knots)
Keel Cooler Performance & Sizing
Baseline Heat Rejection Capacity
Figure 17
20

M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s

C
o
r
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

F
a
c
t
o
r
M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
.8
.6
.4
0 2 4 6 8 10
3.175 mm
(0.125 in)
6.350 mm
(0.250 in)
9.525 mm
(0.375 in)
12.70 mm
(0.50 in)
19.05 mm
(0.75 in)
BASELINE
Vessel Speed (knots)
Figure 18
Keel Cooler Performance & Sizing
Capacity Corrections for Material Thickness
(Structural Steel) Figure 19
Keel Cooler Performance Correction Factors
Correction Factors for Cooling System Water:
Water meets Caterpi l l ar speci fi cati ons .....................................................(basel i ne)1.00
Extremel y hard water (>15 grai ns/gal )......................................................................0.90
Correction Factors for Antifreeze:
0% gl ycol .....................................................................................................(basel i ne)1.00
10% gl ycol .....................................................................................................................0.97
20% gl ycol .....................................................................................................................0.94
30% gl ycol .....................................................................................................................0.91
40% gl ycol .....................................................................................................................0.88
50% gl ycol .....................................................................................................................0.85
Correction Factors for Raw-Water Type
Correction Factors @
*Fouling Vessel Speed
Raw-Water Description Factor <2 knots >2 knots
Ri ver water (basel i ne) 0.0030 1.00 1.00
Open sea (ocean water) 0.0007 1.11 1.16
Great Lakes 0.0010 1.10 1.13
Chi cago Canal 0.0060 0.88 0.85
* Foul i ng factor i s shown here for reference onl y and i s used to cal cul ate the vessel
speed correcti on factor.
21
Worksheet
A worksheet for cal cul ati ng keel cool er
si ze (surface area) i s shown on page 22.
Thi s worksheet appl i es to combi ned and
separate ci rcui t systems. A separate
ci rcui t system requi res two worksheets:
one for the l ow-temperature (aftercool er/
oi l cool er) ci rcui t, and one for the hi gh
temperature (jacket water) ci rcui t.
Design/Installation Considerations
Large cross-secti onal channel s are often
used for keel cool er passages. Thi s can
resul t i n water vel oci ti es that are too
sl ow for effecti ve heat transfer. I nserts
can be i nstal l ed to create l ocal i zed hi gh
water vel oci ty or turbul ence. An effecti ve
desi gn for keel cool er i nserts i s a ladder-
likedevi ce i nserted through the ful l
l ength of the keel cool er passages.
Construct the l adder usi ng rods [6 mm
(1/4 i n.) di ameter] and fl at bar (approxi -
matel y the same shape, but 70% of the
cross secti onal area of the keel cool er
fl ow passages). Use the same metal al l oy
as the hul l and keel cool er. The fl at bar
cross pi eces must not restri ct fl ow. They
shoul d redi rect the fl ow to avoi d the
l ami nar fl ow due to sl ow average
vel oci ty. I nsert the l adder i nto the keel
cool er fl ow passages and wel d on end
i nl et and outl et mani fol ds.
Bypass Filters
Wel ded structural steel cool er systems
requi re strai ners between the cool er and
the pump i nl et. Materi al such as wel d
sl ag and corrosi on products must be
removed from the system to prevent
wear and pl uggi ng of cool i ng system
components. Use a conti nuous bypass
fi l ter used to remove smal l er parti cl es
and sedi ment. The el ement si ze of the
conti nuous bypass fi l ter shoul d be 20 to
50 mi crons (0.000787 to 0.000197 i n.).
Water fl ow through the bypass fi l ter
must not exceed 19 L/mi n (5 gal /mi n).
Strainers
Ful l fl ow strai ners are desi rabl e. Si ze
the strai ner screens no l arger than
1.6 mm (.063 i n.) mesh. Connecti ons
must be no smal l er than the
recommended l i ne si ze. A di fferenti al
pressure gauge across the dupl ex
strai ner can be used to determi ne
servi ce peri ods.
Pressure drop across a strai ner at
maxi mum water fl ow must be
consi dered as part of the systems
external resi stance. The strai ner shoul d
have no more than 1 m (3 ft) H
2
O
restri cti on i n cl ean condi ti on.
Packaged Keel Coolers
Packaged keel cool ers are purchased and
bol ted to the outsi de of a shi ps hul l .
They are normal l y copper-ni ckel al l oy
and are i ni ti al l y toxi c to mari ne growth,
one of the more i mportant advantages
over fabri cated keel cool ers. The toxi ci ty
wi l l decl i ne wi th ti me, but the keel cool er
can be parti al l y restored by cl eani ng the
heat transfer surfaces wi th a vi negar-
sal t sol uti on. Another advantage of
packaged keel cool ers i s thei r
compactness and l i ght wei ght compared
to fabri cated keel cool ers. They can have
l ess than 20% of the heat transfer
surface of a fabri cated cool er.
Manufacturers publ i sh si zi ng gui del i nes
for speci fi c condi ti ons.
Never paint packaged keel coolers. Pai nt
greatl y reduces heat transfer.
Packaged keel cool ers are rarel y the
same materi al as the shi ps hul l .*
I f the pi pi ng i s not the same materi al
as the cool er, i t must be el ectri cal l y
i sol ated from the hul l metal and the
shi ps pi pi ng.
Keel Cooler Location
Locate the cool er i n a protected area and
l ow on the hul l . The area i mmedi atel y
forward of the propel l ers i s a regi on of
hi gh water vel oci ty. I t i s hi gh enough on
the hul l to be protected from groundi ng
damage. The effects of sandbl asti ng the
cool er (from the propel l ers) duri ng
astern maneuvers must be consi dered.
*Cool ers of al umi num al l oy reduce the gal vani c corrosi on
probl ems associ ated wi th di ssi mi l ar metal s submerged i n sal t
water, i e. al umi num and copper ni ckel .
22
KEEL COOLER SIZING WORKSHEET
GENERAL INFORMATION:
Project Engine
Application
Fuel Type
Rated Power bkW Rated Speed rpm
Cooling System Type (Combined or Separate)
DESIGN-POINT CONDITIONS:
Engine Power bkW
Engine Speed rpm
Heat Rejection Data (from TMI):
Jacket Water kW
Oil Cooler kW
Aftercooler kW
Vessel Speed knots
Maximum Expected Raw Water Temperature C
Raw Water Type / Description
CIRCUIT ANALYSIS INFORMATION:
Circuit Being Analyzed
Total Circuit Heat Rejection kW
Max Allowable Coolant-to-Engine Temp C
Regulator (Thermostat) Part Number
Start-to-Open Temperature C
Full-Open Temperature C
Total Circuit Flow L/min
Coolant Velocity thru Keel Cooler m/sec
Max Allowable Circuit Resistance kPa
Coolant Water Type
Antifreeze Content (glycol) %
Steel Thickness of Heat Transfer Surface mm
CIRCUIT ANALYSIS INFORMATION:
Baseline Unit Heat Rejection Capacity (Figure 17) = (kW/sq m)
Total Correction Factor (see Figures 18 and 19): C
Water Glycol Raw-Water Thickness
Factor Factor Factor Factor
( ) x ( ) x ( ) x ( ) =
Corrected Unit Heat Rejection Capacity:
Baseline Total Correction
Capacity Factor
( ) x ( ) = (kW/sq m)
Temperature Difference Calculation: C
Coolant-to-Engine Raw Water
Temperature Temperature
( ) C - ( ) C = C
Unit Heat Rejection Capacity @ Design Temperatures:
Corrected Unit Temperature
Capacity Difference
( ) x ( ) = kW/sq m
Total Surface Area Required:
Total Circuit Unit Capacity
Heat Rejection @ Design Temps
( ) / ( ) = sq m
Keel Cooler Circuit Pumps
The engi ne dri ven water pump wi l l
normal l y ci rcul ate engi ne fresh water
through the cool er. I f the total external
resi stance cannot be hel d wi thi n l i mi ts,
an auxi l i ary pump wi l l be requi red.
Keel Cooler Venting
Proper venti ng of fabri cated keel cool er
channel s i s cri ti cal for good cool i ng
system operati on. Both ends of each
channel secti on shoul d have manual or
automati c vent val ves to remove ai r
duri ng i ni ti al system fi l l i ng. Thi s i s
i mportant because the shi ps tri m can
vary from vessel to vessel and ai r can be
trapped i f the channel s are vented at
onl y one end. I f ai r gets trapped i n the
channel secti ons duri ng i ni ti al fi l l , the
expansi on tank vol ume wi l l drop
dramati cal l y when the engi ne i s runni ng
because that ai r wi l l be compressed by
the pump pressure and cool ant wi l l take
i ts pl ace. Thi s trapped ai r can al so cause
the external ci rcui t resi stance to be set
i mproperl y, whi ch may resul t i n poor
cool ant fl ow to the engi ne. Pump
cavi tati on may al so resul t from ai r
trapped i n the keel cool er.
MarineGearHeat Rejection
Mari ne gears have an effi ci ency of about
97%. Approxi mate heat rejecti on to the
mari ne gear cool i ng system i s:
H = P x F
Where:
H = Mari ne Gear Heat Rejecti on, (kW)
P = Engi ne Power, (kW)
F = Gear Effi ci ency Loss, (0.03)
H = P x F x 42.41
Where:
H = Mari ne Gear Heat Rejecti on,
(Btu/mi n)
P = Engi ne Power, (hp)
F = Gear Effi ci ency Loss, (0.03)
The gear manufacturer can suppl y
actual heat rejecti on val ues as wel l as
requi red cool i ng temperatures. Use the
graphs previ ousl y presented to cal cul ate
the addi ti onal cool i ng area requi red for
the mari ne gear.
Piping
Use bl ack seaml ess pi pe wi th
connecti ons fi tted i n the fl ow di recti on to
mi ni mi ze turbul ence. Do not use
galvanized pipe.
Cleanliness
Al l external pi pe and water passages
must be cl eaned before i ni ti al engi ne
operati on. Strainers are available from
Caterpillar to be installed in pipes
leading to externally added equipment.
They are avai l abl e for 100 mm, 127 mm,
and 152 mm (4 i n., 5 i n., and 6 i n.) pi pe
si zes and al l have 1.6 mm (1/16 i n.) mesh
si ze. I nstall them on site prior to startup
and remove after commissioning.
Venting
Proper venti ng i s requi red for al l
appl i cati ons. Route vent l i nes to the
expansi on tank at an upward sl ope
wi thout di ps. Avoi d traps i n customer
suppl i ed pi pi ng, but i f thi s i s not possi bl e
they must be vented. When i t i s not
practi cal to route vent l i nes to a common
poi nt, use automati c ai r-rel ease val ves.
The val ves are sui ted for l ow vel oci ty
cool ant areas such as expansi on tanks.
They may al so be adapted to deaerati on
chambers. Locati ons must be sel ected to
col l ect entrai ned ai r. Automati c ai r
rel ease val ves are avai l abl e i n several
styl es. The heavy duty (cast i ron body)
styl e i s recommended. I n addi ti on to the
automati c venti ng feature, the val ves
usual l y have a fast-vent port avai l abl e.
Typi cal l y i t i s a pi pe pl ug whi ch can be
removed or repl aced by a bal l val ve,
al l owi ng venti ng duri ng i ni ti al system
fi l l .
23
24
Line Sizing
Water vel oci ty gui del i nes are:
Maxi mum Vel oci ty
m/sec ft/sec
Pressuri zed Li nes 4.5 15
Pressuri zed
Thi n-Wal l Tubes 2.0-2.5 6.5-8
Sucti on Li nes
(Pump I nl et) 1.5 5
Low Vel oci ty
Deaerati on Li ne 0.6 2
Connections
Cool i ng system wel d fl anges for customer
connecti ons are shown i n Fi gures 20, 21,
22, and 23. (Refer to pages 41-44 for
illustrations.)
Caterpi l l ar fl exi bl e joi nt assembl i es are
avai l abl e i n the three pi pe si zes used on
cool i ng systems: 100 mm, 127 mm,
and 152 mm (4 i n., 5 i n., and 6 i n.).
Use fl exi bl e joi nts for al l connecti ons to the
engi ne, but do not use rubber hoses.
Mi ni mi ze the l ength and wei ght of pi pi ng
mounted on the engi ne. Pl ace the fl exi bl e
connecti on as cl ose to the engi ne
connecti on as possi bl e, preferabl y ri ght at
the engi ne connecti on. Thi s mi ni mi zes the
stresses on the water pump housi ngs
caused by pi pi ng wei ght. Provi de adequate
pi pe support on the hul l si de of system
pi pi ng to mi ni mi ze pi pe movement and
fl ex connecti on l oadi ng. Arrange fl exi bl e
connecti ons, check val ves and shutoff
val ves as shown i n Fi gure 4 when
emergency cool i ng connecti ons are used so
that the engi ne can conti nue to operate
wi th the standby pump. Thi s i s
parti cul arl y i mportant i n si ngl e engi ne
propul si on appl i cati ons.
Ori ent the fl ex connector to take
maxi mum advantage of i ts fl exi bi l i ty.
Consi der normal and maxi mum expected
movement ranges when sel ecti ng
connectors. Materi al compati bi l i ty must
al so be eval uated. The i nternal surface
must be compati bl e wi th the cool ant used
over the anti ci pated operati ng
temperature and pressure ranges. The
l i ner materi al must al so be compati bl e
wi th potenti al cool ant contami nants such
as l ube oi l , fuel , and system cl eani ng
sol uti ons. The outer cover must be
compati bl e wi th i ts envi ronment
temperature extremes, ozone, grease, oi l ,
pai nt, etc.
Jacket Water Heating
System
Jacket water heati ng systems al l ow
starti ng at ambi ent temperatures bel ow
0C (32F). Heated water must enter the
top of the cyl i nder bl ock and exi t from
the bottom. Thi s mai ntai ns a posi ti ve
water pressure to the heater pump and
avoi ds pri mi ng and cavi tati on probl ems.
The jacket water heater and pump
shoul d automati cal l y turn on when the
engi ne i s shutdown and automati cal l y
stop when the engi ne i s started.
The Caterpi l l ar system i s a prepackaged
shi pped l oose uni t i ncl udi ng:
Ci rcul ati ng pump
El ectri c water heater
Control panel i ncl udi ng control s for
starti ng/stoppi ng pump, hi gh
temperature shutdown, no fl ow
shutdown, etc.
Pi pi ng, val ves and fi tti ngs are on the
uni t -- the customer must pl umb the
uni t to the engi ne
A typi cal jacket water heati ng package i s
shown i n Fi gure 24. (Refer to page 45 for
illustration). The heati ng requi rements
for each engi ne i s shown i n Fi gure 25.
Figure 25
Coolant Temperature Above Ambient
25
Water Treatment
Caterpillars water quality recommen-
dations must be followed, parti cul arl y i n
cl osed cool i ng systems. Excessi ve
hardness wi l l cause deposi ts, foul i ng,
and reduced cool i ng system component
effecti veness. Water hardness i s
descri bed i n grai ns per gal l on, one grai n
bei ng equal to 17.1 parts per mi l l i on
(ppm) or mg/L, both expressed as
cal ci um carbonate. Water contai ni ng up
to 3.5 grai ns per gal (60 ppm) i s
consi dered soft and causes few deposi ts.
Cool i ng system water must meet the
fol l owi ng cri teri a:
Chl ori de (CL).......2.4 g/gal (40 ppm) max.
Sul fate (SO4).....5.9 g/gal (100 ppm) max.
Total
Hardness .......10.0 g/gal (170 ppm) max.
Total Sol i ds......20.0 g/gal (340 ppm) max.
pH ...................................................5.5 - 9.0
Water softened by removal of cal ci um
and magnesi um i s acceptabl e. Corrosi on
i nhi bi tors added to water mai ntai n
cl eanl i ness, reduce scal e and foami ng,
and provi de pH control . Wi th the
addi ti on of an i nhi bi tor, mai ntai n a
pH of 8.5 to 10.
Exposi ng engi ne cool ant to freezi ng
ambi ent temperatures requi res the use
of anti freeze. Ethyl ene gl ycol i s most
common. The concentrati on requi red can
be determi ned from Fi gure 26. Al so refer
to Form No. SEBD0970-01, Coolant and
Your Engine.
Caterpi l l ar recommends usi ng a 50/50
mi xture of gl ycol /water. Concentrati ons
l ess than 30% requi re the addi ti on of
corrosi on i nhi bi tors to mai ntai n
cl eanl i ness, reduce scal e and foami ng,
and provi de aci di ty and al kal i ni ty (pH)
control . The rust i nhi bi tor must be
compati bl e wi th the gl ycol mi xture and
not damage fl exi bl e connecti ons, seal s, or
gaskets. Avoi d sudden changes i n cool ant
composi ti on to mi ni mi ze adverse effects
on nonmetal l i c components.

Note: Caterpillar antifreeze contains the
proper amount of coolant conditioner. Do
not use coolant conditioner elements or
liquid coolant conditioners with
Dowtherm 209 Full-Fill Coolant.
Caterpillar inhibitors are compatible
with ethylene glycol base antifreeze.
Soluble oil or chromate solutions must
not be used.
Note: Water treatment may be regulated
by local codes when cooling water
contacts domestic water supplies.
Caterpi l l ar s cool ant addi ti ve i s avai l abl e
i n 19 L (5 gal ) and 208 L (55 gal )
contai ners: Part Nos. 8C3680 and
5P2907 respecti vel y. Caterpi l l ar does not
recommend addi ti ves from other
suppl i ers. Caterpi l l ar anti freeze i s
avai l abl e i n 3.8 L (1 gal ) and 208 L
(55 gal ) contai ners: Part Nos. 8C3684
and 8C3686 respecti vel y.
Figure 26
COOLANT FREEZING AND BOILING TEMPERATURES
VS. ETHYLENE GLYCOL CONCENTRATION
26
System Monitoring
Make provi si ons for pressure and
temperature di fferenti al measurements
across major components. Thi s al l ows
accurate setup and performance
documentati on of the cool i ng system
duri ng the commi ssi oni ng procedure.
Future system probl ems or component
deteri orati on (such as foul i ng) are easi er
to i denti fy i f basi c data i s avai l abl e. I t
al so provi des i nformati on for rel ati ng
on-sitecondi ti ons to the ori gi nal
factory test.
Temperature and pressure measurement
l ocati ons shoul d gi ve an accurate
readi ng of fl ui d stream condi ti ons.
Preferred l ocati ons are i n strai ght
l engths of pi pi ng reasonabl y cl ose to
each system component. Avoi d pressure
measurements i n bends, pi pi ng
transi ti on pi eces, or turbul ent regi ons.
Sel f-seal i ng probe adapters are avai l abl e
i n several si zes of mal e pi pe threads and
strai ght threads for O-ri ng ports. The
adapters use a rubber seal al l owi ng
temperature or pressure to be measured
wi thout l eakage. Probe di ameters up to
3.2 mm (0.125 i n.) may be used. The
strai ght-threaded adapters are used on
the engi nes wi th avai l abl e ports. Pi pe
threaded adapters are more easi l y
i ncorporated i n the external customer
suppl i ed system. The adapters are an
excel l ent al ternati ve to permanentl y
i nstal l ed thermometers, thermocoupl es,
and pressure gauges. They are not
subject to breakage, fati gue fai l ures, and
gauge-to-gauge readi ng vari ati ons.
Serviceability
Access to heat exchangers i s requi red for
tube rodding(cl eani ng) or removal of the
tube-bundl e assembl y. Engi ne water
pumps shoul d al so be easy to remove.
Remote water temperature regul ators
must be accessi bl e, and appropri ate
i sol ati on val ves provi ded. Appl y si mi l ar
gui del i nes to heat recovery uni ts,
deaerati on chambers, and other
components requi ri ng servi ce.
System Design:
Engine Data, Criteria
and Guidelines
Design Forms:
I ncl uded i n thi s secti on are forms for
recordi ng desi gn i nput for both the
combi ned (page 27) and separate ci rcui t
systems (page 28). See the Engine Data
secti on of thi s gui de for heat rejecti on
and cool ant fl ow val ues for both di sti l l ate
and heavy fuel engi nes. Use Fi gure 10 to
correct the AC/OC water and ambi ent
ai r temperatures when di fferent from
standard condi ti ons.
27
3600 Combined Cooling System
PROJECT: _______________________________________________ DATE: ______________
ENGINE: ____________________________________ SPEED: ___________________ (RPM)
APPLICATION: _______________________________ POWER: __________________ (BKW)
ALTITUDE: _______________ (M) COOLANT: ______________________________
(T3)= C
CYL BLOCK & HEAD
HEAT REJ (H3) = kW
TEMP RISE (t3) = C
(Q3)=
L/MIN
(T7)= C
JW
PUMP
JW
REG.
85C
OIL
OIL
REG.
OIL COOLER(S)
HEAT REJ (H4)= kW
TEMP RISE (t4)= C
(Q4)=
L/MIN
(T4)= C
MIX=1
T6= C
MIX=2
T2= C
(Q2)= L/MIN
INLET AIR
(TO)= C
(T5)= C
AFTERCOOLER
HEAT REJ (H5)= kW
TEMP RISE (t5)= C
TURBO
AC/OC
PUMP
(Q5)=
L/MIN
INL. MANIFOLD
EXPANSION
TANK
T1= C
AC/OC
REG.
ENGINE
MODULE
ORIFICE
(BYPASS FLOW)
ORIFICE
(H.E. FLOW)
HEAT EXCHANGER
HEAT REJ (H2)= kW
TEMP RISE (t2)= C
FULL FLOW (Q2)= L/MIN
28
3600 Separate Circuit System
PROJECT: _______________________________________________ DATE: ______________
ENGINE: ____________________________________ SPEED: ___________________ (RPM)
APPLICATION: _______________________________ POWER: __________________ (BKW)
ALTITUDE: _______________ (M) COOLANT: ______________________________
INLET AIR
(T0)= C
TURBO
T1= C
AC/OC
PUMP
MAKE-UP
LINE
(T3)= C
(Q3)=
L/MIN
CYL. BLOCK & HEAD
HEAT REJ (H3)= kW
TEMP RISE (t3)= C
OIL
85C
REG.
(T4)= C
OIL COOLER(S)
HEAT REJ (H4)= kW
TEMP RISE (t4)= C
(Q4)=
L/MIN
INL. MANIFOLD
MIX
T6= C
(T5)= C
(Q5)=
L/MIN
AFTERCOOLER
HEAT REJ (H5)= kW
TEMP RISE (t5)= C
JW
PUMP
AC/OC HEAT EXCHANGER
HEAT REJ (H1)= kW
TEMP RISE (t1)= C
FULL FLOW (Q1)= L/MIN
JW HEAT EXCHANGER
HEAT REJ (H3)= kW
TEMP RISE (t3)= C
FULL FLOW (Q3)= L/MIN
EXPANSION
TANK
T7= C
ORIFICE
(H.E. FLOW)
ORIFICE
(BYPASS FLOW)
JW
REG.
ENGINE
MODULE
ORICICE
(H.E. FLOW)
ORIFICE
(BYPASS FLOW)
AC/OC
REG.
29
Heat Recovery
The 3600 Engi nes convert about 44% of
thei r i nput fuel energy i nto mechani cal
power compared to 33% on ol der engi nes.
The remai ni ng i nput fuel energy
transforms i nto heat from fri cti on and
combusti on. I t i s carri ed from the engi ne
by jacket water (i ncl udi ng turbocharger
cool i ng water), oi l cool er water,
aftercool er water, exhaust, surface
radi ati on, and convecti on.
Heat recovery i s a vi abl e opti on wi th the
3600 Engi ne, but because of hi gh overal l
thermal effi ci ency i t must be gi ven more
del i berate consi derati on. Ol der engi nes
have tradi ti onal l y hi gher percentages of
heat rejected to the exhaust and cool i ng
systems, maki ng heat recovery more
desi rabl e.
Heat recovery desi gn best sui ted for any
i nstal l ati on depends on many techni cal
and economi c consi derati ons. However,
the pri mary functi on of any desi gn i s to
cool the engi nes. Engi nes must be
adequatel y cool ed even when heat
recovery demand i s l ow.
Due to the wi de vari ety of uses for the
heat recovered from a di esel engi ne, i t i s
i mpracti cal to di scuss speci fi c systems i n
detai l . Uti l i ze desi gn consul tants or
factory assi stance when consi deri ng heat
recovery.
The typi cal heat bal ance of 3600 Engi nes
i s shown i n Fi gure 27.
TOTAL FUEL ENERGY INPUT
100%
OIL COOLING WATER 4%
CYLINDER BLOCK, HEADS, & TURBO
COOLING WATER 9%
AFTERCOOLER COOLING WATER 12%
RADIATION 2%
EXHAUST GAS 29%
MECHANICAL WORK ENERGY 44%
Figure 27
Typical 3600 Heat Balance
ISO Conditions
30
Heat rejecti on val ues for mari ne
propul si on engi nes are i ncl uded i n the
Engine Data secti on of thi s gui de. The
fol l owi ng data i s i ncl uded for al l four
engi nes at 750, 800, 900 and 1000 rpm.
Jacket water heat rejecti on (i ncl udes
turbo)
Oi l cool er heat rejecti on
Aftercool er heat rejecti on
Exhaust gas heat rejecti on usi ng the
l ower fuel heati ng val ue
Exhaust stack gas temperature
Vol ume fl ow of the exhaust gas
Cool ant fl ow jacket water and
AC/OC water
Heat rejecti on for mari ne auxi l i ary
engi nes i s gi ven i n Form No. LEKX6559,
the Technical Data secti on of the EPG
A&I Gui de.
When consi deri ng heat recovery for
3600 Engi nes revi ew the cool i ng system
parameters. The two cool i ng systems
avai l abl e are the combi ned ci rcui t and
separate ci rcui t, and ei ther system can
use the hi gh temperature jacket water
ci rcui t for heat recovery. Fi gure 28 shows
a combi ned ci rcui t cool i ng system and
Fi gure 29 shows a separate ci rcui t
cool i ng system, both wi th heat recovery
from the hi gh temperature jacket water
ci rcui t. The fl ow restri cti on i n the heat
recovery ci rcui t i s cri ti cal because al l of
the cyl i nder bl ock fl ow i s di rected to the
heat recovery uni t. Pressure measuri ng
l ocati ons at the i nl et and outl et
connecti ons of the engi ne are provi ded,
but a factory project engi neer shoul d be
consul ted to determi ne the permi ssi bl e
pressure di fferenti al of the heat recovery
system. Exhaust gas heat recovery i s
al so avai l abl e i n ei ther arrangement but
detai l s are not shown. I f the heat
recovery ci rcui t uses l ess than 30% of the
avai l abl e jacket water heat l oad, then an
external temperature regul ator i s not
requi red. I f a regul ator i s used i t must be
set 5C (9F) l ower than the jacket water
ci rcui t regul ator to prevent overcool i ng
the engi ne. I nstal l a ful l fl ow bypass
val ve to i sol ate the heat recovery ci rcui t
when not i n use. A heat recovery uni t
bypass l i ne may be requi red i f the heat
recovery uni t cannot use the ful l amount
of cool ant fl ow.
31
Heat Balance Example
Use a 3606 Engi ne wi th a si ngl e ci rcui t cool i ng system rated at 1730 kW (2320 bhp) at
900 rpm (usi ng di sti l l ate fuel ) as an exampl e.
Heat Rejecti on Avai l abl e
See Technical Data wi thi n the Engine Data secti on of thi s gui de.
kW Btu/mi n
Bl ock, head and turbocharger 373 21,212
Oi l cool er water 185 10,521
Aftercool er water 402 22,877
Total water heat rejection at approx. 45C (113F) 960 54,610
Exhaust heat rejection 1256 71,475
Total Fuel Energy I nput = ________BSFC x kW x Qc________
(1000 g/kg)(60 mi n/hr)(60 sec/mi n)
Where Qc = LHV of Fuel = 42,780 kJ/kg (18,390 Btu/l b)
= 195.5 x 1730 x 42,780
3,600,000
= 4,019 kW (228,710 Btu/mi n)
Practi cal Exhaust Heat Recovery, assumi ng 177C (350F)
gas temperature after heat exchanger
Q (avai l abl e) = mc
p
T
Where: m = mass fl ow rate, kg/hr
c
p = speci fi c heat of exhaust gas = 0.018
kW - mi n
kg - C
T = exhaust temp drop through heat recovery, C
The exhaust gas mass fl ow rate i s obtai ned by mul ti pl yi ng the vol umetri c fl ow rate
(372.1 m
3
/mi n i n thi s exampl e) by the densi ty. See the conversi on formul a i n the
Exhaust secti on.
Q (avai l abl e) = .018 x 11,439 x (403-177) x 1/60
Q (avai l abl e) = 776 kW (44,160 Btu/mi n)
Note: Thi s exampl e does not consi der the heat of vapori zati on of water, a product of combusti on and not usual l y retri evabl e.
n = Thermal effi ci ency = Brake kW = 1730 = 43.0%
Fuel kW 4019
Jacket Rejecti on = 373 = 9.3%
4019
Heat Balance
Typi cal heat bal ance cal cul ati ons are i l l ustrated i n the fol l owi ng i nformati on. These are
typi cal numbers onl y, meant to i l l ustrate the cal cul ati ons requi red. Val ues sel ected are
from the Engi ne Data secti on of thi s gui de. For the l atest data use the TMI System.

32
Heat Balance (continued)
Oi l Cool er =
185
= 4.6%
4019
Aftercool er =
402
= 10.0%
4019
Exhaust =
1256
= 31.3%
4019
Radi ati on =
73
= 1.8%
4019
100%
Available Heat Recovery
Usi ng hi gh temperature jacket water ci rcui t and exhaust gas
Q = Qj + Qex
Q (Avai l abl e) = 373 + 776
Q (Avai l abl e) = 1149 kW (65,386 Btu/mi n)
n (Avai l abl e) = .43 + 1149
4019
n (Avai l abl e) = 71.6%
33
Figure 1
3600 Combined Circuit Cooling
Typical System Schematic
34
Typical 3606 and 3608
Combined Cooling Schematic
1. Aftercooler/Oil Cooler Pump
2. Aftercooler
3. Jacket Water Pump
4. Oil Coolers
5. Thermostat Housing (JW circuit)
6. Water Manifold
7. Jacket Water Pump Suction LIne
8. Water From Heads
9. Water To Block
10. Turbocharger
11. Vent Line
Figure 2
35
Typical 3612 and 3616
Combined Cooling Schematic
1. Aftercooler/Oil Cooler Pump
2. Aftercoolers
3. Jacket Water Pump
4. Oil Coolers (2) *
5. Thermostat Housing (JW circuit)
6. Water Manifold
7. Jacket Water Pump Suction Line
8. Water From Heads
9. Water To Block
10. Turbochargers
Figure 3
* Three Coolers Required On Some Applications.
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Figure 4
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6
3
)
1
7
1

(
6
.
7
3
)
1
7
1

(
6
.
7
3
)
1
4
3

(
5
.
6
3
)
1
4
3

(
5
.
6
3
)
1
7
1

(
6
.
7
3
)
3
6
1
6
1
4
3

(
5
.
6
3
)
1
4
3

(
5
.
6
3
)
1
4
3

(
5
.
6
3
)
1
7
1

(
6
.
7
3
)
1
7
1

(
6
.
7
3
)
1
4
3

(
5
.
6
3
)
1
4
3

(
5
.
6
3
)
1
7
1

(
6
.
7
3
)
F
L
A
N
G
E

T
A
B
L
E
37
Figure 6
3600 Separate Circuit Cooling
Typical System Schematic
38
39
Typical 3606 and 3608
Separate Circuit Cooling Schematic
1. Aftercooler/Oil Cooler Pump
2. Aftercooler
3. Jacket Water Pump
4. Oil Coolers
5. Water Manifold
6. Water From Heads
7. Water To Block
8. Turbocharger
9. Vent Line
Figure 7
40
* Three Coolers Required On Some Applications.
Typical 3612 and 3616
Separate Circuit Cooling Schematic
1. Aftercooler/Oil Cooler Pump
2. Aftercoolers
3. Jacket Water Pump
4. Oil Coolers (2) *
5. Outlet Housing
6. Water Manifold
7. Water From Heads
8. Water To Block
9. Turbochargers
Figure 8
41
EXPANSION
TANK
HEAT
EXCHANGER
JW
PUMP
AC/OC
PUMP
STAT
STAT MIX
A
B
C
D
E
CATERPILLAR SUPPLIED
WELD FLANGES
AC
OIL
COOLER
EXPANSION
TANK
Figure 20
Weld Flange ID mm
ENGINE A B C D E
3606 143 171 143 143 171
3608 143 171 143 143 171
3612 143 171 143 143 171
3616 143 171 143 143 171
3600 Combined Circuit Treated Water Cooling System
Customer Connections
42
Weld Flange ID mm
ENGINE A B C D E F G H I J K
3606 143 110 110 171 171 110 110 143 143 143 171
3608 143 110 110 171 171 110 110 143 143 143 171
3612 143 143 143 171 171 143 143 171 143 143 171
3616 143 143 143 171 171 143 143 171 143 143 171
EXPANSION
TANK
H
HEAT
EXCHANGER
JW
PUMP
AC/OC
PUMP
AUX
JW PUMP
STAT
STAT MIX
OIL
COOLER
AC
A
G
F
E
B
K
J
I
CATERPILLAR SUPPLIED
WELD FLANGES
EMERGENCY WATER LINES
C
D
AUX
AC/OC
PUMP
Figure 21
3600 Combined Circuit Treated Water Cooling System with Auxiliary Pumps
Customer Connections
43
CATERPILLAR SUPPLIED
WELD FLANGES
STAT
EXPANSION
TANK
HEAT
EXCHANGER
JW
PUMP
AC/OC
PUMP
A
B
C
D
E
AC
OIL
COOLER
STAT
F
G
HEAT EXCHANGER
Weld Flange - mm
3606
3608
3612
3616
110
110
143
143
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
171
171
171
171
Engine A B C D E F G
Figure 22
3600 Separate Circuit Treated Water Cooling System
Customer Connections
44
HEAT
EXCHANGER
JW
PUMP
AC/OC
PUMP
A
B
E
H
AC
OIL
COOLER
STAT
C
D
F
G
AUX
JW PUMP
AUX
AC/OC
PUMP
STAT
EXPANSION
TANK
I
J
K
HEAT EXCHANGER
CATERPILLAR SUPPLIED
WELD FLANGES
EMERGENCY WATER LINES
Weld Flange ID - mm
3606
3608
3612
3616
110
110
143
143
110
110
143
143
110
110
143
143
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
171
110
110
143
143
110
110
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
143
171
171
171
171
Engine A B C D E F G H I J K
Figure 23
3600 Separate Circuit Treated Water
Cooling System With Auxiliary Pumps
Customer Connections
45
Outlet Position For Horizontal
And Vertical Mounting
Ref.
15.92
404.4
Ref.
21.50
546.3
Ref.
24.18
614.1
Red
Power on
Light
Elem.
C
L
46.00
1168.4
Ref.
This Edge up For
Horizontal mounting
8.34
211.8
C.G.
22.97
583.4
20.00
508.0 12.00
304.8
MTG.
.84
21.4
4.25
108.0
4.06
103.12
MTG.
.125 M.P.T
Drain Plug
42.00
1066.8
51.314
1303.4
MTG.
This Edge Up For
Vertical Mounting
C.G.
Ref.
12.63
320.8
Ref.
18.00
457.2
26.75 (730 mm)
For Element
Removal
Max Elem.Dia.
5-1/8" (130 mm)
Ref.
5.31
134.9
C
L
Ref.
1.44
36.58
Power In
(1.106 Dia. 26 mm)
24 V.D.C. to Control
Relay Col. (.875 Dia 22 mm)
4.60
116.84
5.00
127.0
Base Down
Mounting Edge
5.50
139.7
Coolant Inlet
1.25 N.P.T.
35.00
889.00
41.25
1047.75
53.00
1346.2
Rotate Outlet Position
As Shown For Base Down
Mounting
Coolant Outlet
1.00 N.P.T.
CL 3 180 4 5 CAT
Sample Model No.
Large Coolant
Heating System


120 - 12000 Watts
150 - 15000 Watts
180 - 18000 Watts
240 - 24000 Watts
(Incoloy Sheath Elements)
1 - 1 Phase
3 - 3 Phase
Designed to Caterpillar
Specifications
Hertz 5 - 50Hz
Blank - 80 Hz
2 - 220/230v.
3 - 380v.
4 - 480v.
5 - 575v.
Main Power
Typical Jacket Water
Heating System
Figure 24
NOTES:
1. THE HEATING SYSTEM MUST BE MOUNTED IN THE PROPER POSITION
TO ENSURE COMPLETE FILLING OF THE HEATING TANK. THE OUTLET
MUST ALWAYS BE AT THE HIGHEST POINT OF THE INSTALLED SYSTEM.
IF THE HEATING TANK IS NOT COMPLETELY FULL, PREMATURE
ELEMENT FAILURE MAY RESULT.
2. COOLANT PUMP SUPPLY LINE MUST BE 1.25 NPT MIN.
PUMPING SPECIFICATIONS:
WARM WATER LP.M. (GPM) (HEAD IN METERS (FT)
15.6C (50F) 62M (25) SUCTION LIFT 0 (0) 195.7 (60)
26.6C (80F) 65.6M (20) SUCTION LIFT 37.8 (10) 180 (55)
37.8C (100F) 52.5M (16) SUCTION LIFT 75.7 (20) 147.5 (45)
48.9C (120F) 36.1M (11) SUCTION LIFT 113 (30) 131 (40)
60C (140F) 19.7M (6) SUCTION LIFT 151 (40) 98.4 (30)
82.2C (180F) 13.1M (4) POSITIVE SUCT. 169 (50) 85.6 (20)
3. THE COOLANT PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE IS ADJUSTABLE FROM
3.6-25.4 kPa COMPLETELY FULL, PREMATURE ELEMENT MAY RESULT.
(25-175 P.S.I.) AND IS PRE-SET TO RELIEVE AT 10.9 kPa (75 P.S.I.) AND
HAS AN .75 NPT OUTLET.
4. TOTAL SYSTEM WEIGHT 130 Kg (266 LBS.)
5. DIMENSIONS SHOWN AS
INCHES
mm
46
CYLINDER BLOCK,
HEAD & TURBO
JW PUMP
REGULATOR
(ENGINE JW)
HEAT
EXCHANGER
EXPANSION
TANK
FACTORY ORIFICES
AC/OC
PUMP
FACTORY OR
CUSTOMER
ORIFICE
OIL COOLER
AFTERCOOLER
MIXED TEMP. FROM
ENGINE AND HEAT
RECOVERY CIRCUIT
FACTORY OR
CUSTOMER
ORIFICE
REGULATOR
MIX FROM
AC/OC
HEAT RECOVERY
UNIT
FULL FLOW
BYPASS
VALVE
HEAT RECOVERY REGULATOR
( SET 5C BELOW JACKET WATER
REGULATOR)
HEAT RECOVERY UNIT BYPASS LINE
(OPTIONAL BASED ON HEAT RECOVERY
UNIT FLOW)
Figure 28
3600 Combined Circuit Heat Recovery System
With Heat Recovery on Jacket Water Circuit
47
HEAT
RECOVERY
UNIT
CYLINDER BLOCK,
HEAD & TURBO
JW PUMP
REGULATOR
(ENGINE JW)
MAKE-UP
LINE
FULL FLOW
BYPASS
VALVE
HEAT EXCHANGER
(JW CIRCUIT)
EXPANSION TANK
VENT LINE
OIL COOLER
AFTERCOOLER
FACTORY ORIFICES
AC/OC
PUMP
REGULATOR
(AC/OC)
HEAT EXCHANGER
(AC/OC CIRCUIT)
CUSTOMER
ORIFICE
CUSTOMER
ORIFICE
HEAT RECOVERY REGULATOR
( SET 5C BELOW JACKET WATER
REGULATOR)
HEAT RECOVERY UNIT BYPASS LINE
(OPTIONAL BASED ON HEAT RECOVERY
UNIT FLOW)
Figure 29
3600 Separate Circuit Heat Recovery System
With Heat Recovery on Jacket Water Circuit


Diesel Engine Systems -
Sea Water Cooling

General
Sea Connections
Sea Water Strainer
Sea Water Pumps
Fresh Water Heat Exchanger
Marine Gear Cooler
Sea Water Temperature Cooling
Central Cooling System
Sea Connections
Sea Water Pumps
Low Temperature Fresh Water Pumps
Fresh Water Coolers
Temperature Control Valve
Expansion Tank
Pressure Control Valve
Galvanic and Electrolytic Corrosion
Marine Growth

51

General
Fi gure 30 i s a typi cal si ngl e ci rcui t sea
water cool i ng system desi gned for
mari ne appl i cati ons. The fresh water
ci rcui t i s cool ed wi th sea water havi ng a
maxi mum temperature of 32C (90F).
Si nce the l ubri cati ng oi l and ai r
aftercool er are cool ed di rectl y by water
from the fresh water cool i ng ci rcui t, onl y
one fresh water heat exchanger i s
requi red. The aftercool er and oi l cool er
systems are an i ntegral part of the basi c
engi ne desi gn; nothi ng i s requi red from
the shi pyard to pi pe these systems. The
arrangement reduces the sea water
pi pi ng system and l owers the cost of
expensi ve copper-ni ckel al l oy pi pi ng,
fi tti ngs, and val ves. The resul t i s l ess
wear, corrosi on probl ems, and
mai ntenance.
Sea Connections
Locate sea chests to mi ni mi ze the i ntake
of si l t, ai r, or di scharges from overboard
shi p connecti ons. Locate and desi gn
them to mi ni mi ze entrance l osses and
sucti on probl ems when the shi p i s
underway. Make every effort to
mi ni mi ze the possi bi l i ty of the sea chests
becomi ng ai r bound under condi ti ons of
rol l , pi tch, and astern operati on. Keep
them cl ear of bi l ge keel s and l ocated to
not i nterfere wi th docki ng bl ocks.
The sea chests shoul d have removabl e,
gal vani zed, perforated gri ds l ocated at
the shel l l i ne. The gri d must have a
mi ni mum cl ear area of 1.5 ti mes the
area of the i nl et sea val ve. Use stai nl ess
steel bol ts and l ocki ng wi re for gri d
attachment.
Fi t the sea chests wi th baffl e pl ates to
trap entrai ned ai r. A vent val ve i s used
between the baffl e pl ate and shel l to
vent ai r above the weather deck. Use
steam or compressed ai r to cl ear the
gri d.
Al l pi pe connecti ons to the sea chest
shoul d be as short as possi bl e and made
of schedul e 80 thi ckness mi ni mum.
When requi red, use gusset brackets to
prevent excessi ve stresses at wel ded
connecti ons.
Protect the sea chest i nteri or wi th anti -
foul i ng pai nt and sacri fi ci al anodes
(zi nc).
Do not al l ow overboard connecti ons to
di scharge i n l i feboat (or work boat)
l aunchi ng areas.
Where practi cal , al l sea val ves shoul d be
fl anged gate or gl obe type. Lug type
butterfl y val ves may al so be used. Angl e
val ves can be used where the
i nstal l ati on of gate, gl obe or butterfl y
val ves are i mpracti cal . Sea val ves shoul d
be control l abl e from a deck above the sea
chest. Fi t al l val ves wi th open/cl ose
i ndi cators. The recommended materi al s
for sea chest or overboard di scharge
val ves are cast steel , bronze or nodul ar
i ron. Cast i ron and mal l eabl e i ron val ves
are not recommended. The val ve seat,
di sk, and stem must be made from
corrosi on resi stant materi al such as
monel al l oys.
I nstal l the hi gh and l ow sea chests on
the port and starboard si des of the shi p.
For a typi cal arrangement i ncl udi ng
overboard di scharge connecti ons, see
Fi gure 31.
52
P
S
SS
M
P
1
P
1
R
E
D
U
C
T
I
O
N


G
E
A
R

O
I
L


H
E
A
T


E
X
C
H
A
N
G
E
R
A
I
R

V
E
N
T
S
D
R
A
I
N
D
R
A
I
N
W
E
A
T
H
E
R


D
E
C
K
A
I
R

V
E
N
T
M
A
I
N


E
N
G
I
N
E

F
R
E
S
H
W
A
T
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R

H
E
A
T


E
X
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A
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S
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L
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(
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)
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B
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(
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)
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A

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/


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A
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P
U
M
P
C
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P
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A
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3
6
0
0


E
N
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I
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E
A
I
R


V
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T
A
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V
E
N
T

(
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Y
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)
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S
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A

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E
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S
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S

&


A
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X
.


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S
Y
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S
.
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:





D
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N
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S


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Figure 30
S
e
a

W
a
t
e
r

C
o
o
l
i
n
g

S
y
s
t
e
m
N
O
T
E

D
e
n
o
t
e
s

P
i
p
e

A
n
c
h
o
r

P
o
i
n
t
53
AIR VENT
AIR VENT HOLE
BAFFLE PLATE
STEAM OR
COMPRESSED AIR
BLOW OUT
GATE OR GLOBE VALVE
CAST STEEL OR
BRONZE
DOUBLER PLATE
OR STEEL INSERT
SECURING BOLTS
FITTED WITH LOCKING
PIN OR WIRE
REMOVABLE GRID
SHELL
TANK TOP
PIPE NOZZLE, SCH 80
FITTED WITH GUSSET PLATES
Typical Sea Chest
STEAM BLOW OUT
(OR AIR)
GATE VALVE
CAST STEEL OR
BRONZE
PIPE NOZZLE, SCH 80
FITTED WITH GUSSET PLATES
SHELL
DOUBLER PLATE
Typical Overboard
Figure 31
Typical Sea Chest
Typical Overboard
54
Sea Water Strainer
Use dupl ex strai ners wi th changeover
val ves between the sea chests and the
sea water pumps. They must be bronze
or gal vani zed cast i ron and have
stai nl ess steel baskets wi th 5 mm
(3/16 i n.) di ameter perforati ons. The
perforati on si ze must be smal l er than
the tube di ameter of the heat exchanger
to mi ni mi ze fl ow passage foul i ng. Fi t
each strai ner wi th a zi nc anode. Locate
them to al l ow servi ci ng and cl eani ng of
the baskets. Pressure l oss through the
strai ner when cl ean and at ful l fl ow
condi ti ons shoul d be as l ow as possi bl e,
approxi matel y 7 kPa (1 psi ). Use a
di fferenti al pressure gauge or swi tch for
earl y warni ng of strai ner pl uggi ng.
Sea Water Pumps
Two centri fugal sea water pumps are
normal l y used, one engi ne dri ven and
one el ectri cal l y dri ven. The engi ne
dri ven sea water pump i s not sel f-
pri mi ng, so i t must be l ocated bel ow the
l i ght water l i ne of the shi p or a pri mi ng
arrangement must be provi ded. The
pump ri se of the engi ne dri ven pump
versus capaci ty i s shown i n Fi gure 32.
The engi ne power requi red to dri ve the
Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed pump i s shown i n
the

Engine Performance
secti on of thi s gui de. The el ectri cal l y
dri ven sea water pump capaci ty i s
determi ned by the type of cool er used,
heat to be di ssi pated, and the sea water
i nl et temperature. The heat to be
di ssi pated i n the mai n engi ne fresh
water heat exchanger i s l i sted i n the
Engine Data secti on of thi s gui de.
I n many sea water systems, the pump
suppl yi ng cool i ng water to the mai n
engi ne heat exchanger al so suppl i es
cool i ng water to auxi l i ary heat
exchangers (such as the reducti on gear
oi l cool er). I n these arrangements the
capaci ty of the sea water pump must be
i ncreased to al l ow for the addi ti onal
requi rements.
Start and stop control of the el ectri c
motor dri ven pump shoul d be wi th a
pressure swi tch i nstal l ed i n the common
di scharge l i ne from the pumps. The
swi tch starts the pump at 35 kPa (5 psi )
and stops at 245 kPa (35 psi ). The pi pes
connecti ng to the i ndi vi dual pumps must
be at l east equal to the pump sucti on
di ameter, to mi ni mi ze the restri cti ons i n
the sucti on pi pi ng.
The suggested materi al for the pumps i s:
Casi ng bronze
I mpel l er bronze
Shaft monel
Seal mechani cal
Figure 32
320
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
0
0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800
Fresh Water Flow in L/min
P
u
m
p

R
i
s
e

(
k
P
a
)
Water Pump Performance
3606 & 3608 Engines
1000
900
750
720
AC/OC Pump
Operating
Line
JW Pump
Operating
Line
350 rpm Engine
320
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
0
0 400 1200 2000 2800 3600
Fresh Water Flow in L/min
P
u
m
p

R
i
s
e

(
k
P
a
)
Water Pump Performance
3612 & 3616 Engines
1000
900
750
720
AC/OC Pump
Operating
Line
350 rpm Engine
JW Pump
Operating
Line
320
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
0
0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000
Water Flow (L/min)
Pump
Rise
(kPa)
Water Pump Performance
3600 Auxiliary Water Pump
1000
900
750
720
350 rpm (Engine)
55
Fresh Water Heat
Exchanger
Caterpi l l ar suppl i es both shel l and tube
and pl ate type cool ers for the fresh water
heat exchanger. Si nce the heat
exchanger tubes can be cl eaned easi l y
wi th a shel l and tube type, sea water i s
usual l y routed through the tubes and
the engi ne cool ant through the shel l .
The fl ow i n the sea water si de of the
heat exchanger i s ei ther si ngl e-pass or
two-pass. A two-pass uni t fl ows sea
(raw) water twi ce through the heat
exchanger; si ngl e-pass uni ts use sea
(raw) water onl y once. To provi de
maxi mum temperature di fferenti al and
heat transfer i n si ngl e-pass heat
exchangers, the sea (raw) water must
fl ow opposi te the cool ant fl ow. The
di recti on of the sea (raw) water fl ow i n
two-pass heat exchangers i s not
i mportant.
Heat exchanger performance wi l l
depend on the sea water fl ow and
temperature di fferenti al . Ori fi ces or
fi xed val ves must be used to l i mi t the
sea water vel oci ty to avoi d erosi on i n the
heat exchanger tubes. The maxi mum
vel oci ty through the tubes must not
exceed 2.5 m/sec (8.2 ft/sec).
Fi t each heat exchanger wi th:
Drai ns
Ai r vents
The suggested materi al for the heat
exchangers i s:
Shel l Steel
Heads Cast I ron
Tubes 90/10 CuNI
Tube Sheets 90/10 CuNi
Baffl es Steel
A pl ate type heat exchanger can be
substi tuted for the shel l and tube type. I f
i nstal l ed, the suggested materi al for the
pl ate heat exchanger i s:
Frame Mi l d steel , pai nted
Pl ates (sea water) Ti tani um or
al umi num brass
Pl ates Stai nl ess steel
(raw, fresh water)
Nozzl es (sea water) Steel , coated
Nozzl es (fresh water) Steel , coated
Gaskets Ni tri l e
Cl assi fi cati on soci eti es may requi re a
spray shroud around the pl ates to
prevent l i qui d spray on equi pment or
personnel i f a gasket fai l s.
The Engine Data secti on of thi s gui de
has heat rejecti on to the sea water for
the vari ous propul si on engi ne rati ngs
based on 32C (90F) fresh water to the
AC/OC ci rcui t. Add a safety margi n of
10% to the total heat rejecti on to al l ow
for heat exchanger foul i ng.
56
Marine Gear Oil Cooler
Reducti on gear l ube oi l heat exchangers
normal l y use sea water taken di rectl y
from the engi ne sea water ci rcul ati ng
system. The water fl ow requi red i s
obtai ned from the gear manufacturer.
Fi t each cool er wi th the fol l owi ng:
Drai n
Ai r vents
Zi nc anode (fi tted i n each head)
Sea Water Cooling
Temperature
I f sea water temperature to the fresh
water heat exchanger i s too l ow, i t can be
rai sed by i nstal l i ng a three-way val ve
fi tted just i nboard of the overboard
di scharge val ve. The val ve can ei ther be
l ocal l y or remote control l ed. The val ve
bypass feeds water di rectl y back to the
common sucti on pi pe of the sea water
ci rcul ati ng pumps. Pressure drop across
the val ve woul d normal l y be about
35 kPa (5 psi ), and must be i ncl uded i n
the sea water pump total dynami c head
requi rements.
Central Cooling System
Fi gure 33 i s a gui de for a central cool i ng
system for both engi ne and auxi l i ary
equi pment. The fresh water system i s a
cl osed ci rcui t wi th al l components
connected i n paral l el wi th separate fresh
water ci rcul ati ng pumps.
The sea water system ci rcul ates water
from the sea chests through the
central fresh water cool ers and then
overboard.
Thi s arrangement wi l l reduce the extent
of the sea water pi pi ng system and
thereby reduce wear, corrosi on, and
mai ntenance. Some di sadvantages to
thi s system are the addi ti onal el ectri cal
l oads requi red for the addi ti onal
ci rcul ati ng pumps, and a somewhat
hi gher capi tal and i nstal l ati on cost.
Sea Connections
See secti on under Sea Water Cooling
Systemfor a descri pti on of sea
connecti ons and the sucti on strai ner.
57
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58
Sea Water Pumps
Provi de two el ectri cal l y dri ven
centri fugal sea water pumps wi th one
arranged as a standby. The pumps must
be sel f pri mi ng and have the capaci ty to
handl e the compl ete cool i ng system.
Determi ne the capaci ty and head
characteri sti cs of the pumps from the
type of cool ers used and the heat
rejecti on. The total dynami c head of the
ci rcul ati ng pumps shoul d i ncl ude
fri cti on l osses i n the pi pi ng, pressure
l oss through the cool er, stati c di scharge
head (i f any), and vel oci ty head. Add a
10% margi n to the cal cul ated head to
al l ow for foul i ng and agi ng of the
system.
For other characteri sti cs of the sea
water pumps, see the pump descri pti on
i n thi s secti on.
Low Temperature Fresh
Water Pumps
Provi de two el ectri cal l y dri ven fresh
water pumps wi th one arranged as a
standby. The pumps must be centri fugal
type and capabl e of del i veri ng the
vol ume necessary to cool al l the
auxi l i ary heat exchangers i n the l ow
temperature ci rcui t when ci rcul ati ng
fresh water at approxi matel y 26-32C
(79-90F).
The suggested pump materi al i s:
Casi ng Cast i ron
I mpel l er Bronze
Shaft Stai nl ess steel
Seal Mechani cal
Fresh Water Coolers
The fresh water central cool er (or
cool ers) can be ei ther shel l and tube or
pl ate type. The cool er constructi on
shoul d be si mi l ar to those outl i ned i n the
previ ous secti on. Pressure drop across
the cool ers on the sea water ci rcui t can
be obtai ned from the cool er
manufacturer. I nstal l two cool ers wi th
each bei ng capabl e of handl i ng the total
heat from the vari ous sources.
Temperature Control Valve
The l ow temperature fresh water ci rcui t
shoul d achi eve about 26-32C (79-90F)
at the di scharge to the auxi l i ary heat
exchanger ci rcui ts when cool ed by
seawater at a maxi mum temperature of
about 25C (77F). Thi s ensures that the
l ow temperature engi ne cool ant ci rcui t
can operate between 32-38C (90-100F)
wi th a maxi mum approach temperature
of 6C (11F) between the central cool i ng
ci rcui t and engi ne cool i ng ci rcui t. The
central cool i ng temperature control
val ve shoul d be sel f-contai ned and fi tted
wi th a manual overri de. The val ve must
have a cast i ron body wi th bronze
i nternal components.
Expansion Tank
The expansi on tank compensates for
vol ume changes i n the cool i ng water
ci rcui t, serves as a degassi ng tank, and
provi des suffi ci ent stati c pressure on the
cool i ng system
The fol l owi ng desi gn cri teri a i s provi ded
for gui dance:
Pressure from expansi on tank - Locate
tank above hi ghest poi nt i n fresh
water ci rcui t.
Vol ume - Approxi matel y 10% of fresh
water system vol ume wi th a mi ni mum
of 160 L (50 gal ).
Vent pi pes from hi gh poi nts i n the
system must have separate connecti ons
to the expansi on tank. The pi pes on a
conti nual upward sl ope wi l l prevent ai r
l ocks. The connecti on on the tank must
be bel ow the mi ni mum water l evel i n the
tank to prevent the entry of ai r.
Fabri cate the tank from mi l d steel . I t
must be provi ded wi th the fol l owi ng
connecti ons: ai r vent, manhol e, l ocal
chemi cal fi l l , overfl ow, gauge gl ass,
outl et strai ner, drai n, vent(s) from
engi ne or equi pment, and fi l l i ng.
See Fi gure 34 for a typi cal expansi on
tank arrangement.
Pressure Control Valve
A val ve i s i nstal l ed to bal ance the
system i f one or more of the heat
exchangers i s shut off. I n response to
pressure di fferences across the
exchangers, the val ve wi l l open or cl ose
and try to mai ntai n the pressure at i ts
ori gi nal setti ng. As a resul t, the water
fl owi ng through the remai ni ng heat
exchangers wi l l remai n unchanged, and
the temperature rel ati onshi ps wi l l
remai n constant. Fabri cate the val ve
from cast i ron, wi th bronze i nternal
components, and stai nl ess steel tri m.
Galvanic and Electrolytic
Corrosion
El ectri cal current i n cool ant fl owi ng
through di fferent metal s can cause
gal vani c corrosi on. The cool ant acts as
an el ectri cal conductor between metal s
that are coupl ed together. An
el ectromoti ve force or a potenti al vol tage
exi sti ng between di ssi mi l ar metal s
al l ows current to fl ow. Gal vani c
corrosi on occurs on the l east resi stant
(i .e., the l east noble) metal .
I n mari ne appl i cati ons where sea water
i s hi ghl y conducti ve, a sacri fi ci al
materi al i s pl aced i n sea water fl ow
passages to act as the anode and absorb
current fl ow. Typi cal l y, the sacri fi ci al
anodes are zi nc rods strategi cal l y pl aced
i n the pi pi ng and near cri ti cal
components such as heat exchangers,
pumps, val ves, etc. The shel l and tube
heat exchangers provi ded by Caterpi l l ar
are manufactured from materi al whi ch
i s desi gned for a sea water envi ronment.
Do not i nstal l zi nc sacri fi ci al anodes i n
the i nl et or outl et bonnet of Caterpi l l ar
suppl i ed shel l and tube heat exchangers
because these i ncrease turbul ence i n the
tubes and can break off and l odge i nsi de
the tubes. Thi s further i ncreases
turbul ence and l eads to tube erosi on and
l eakage. General l y bl ack i ron pi pi ng i s
used for sea water systems and thi s
provi des the best gal vani c protecti on for
the heat exchanger. I f copper-ni ckel or
stai nl ess steel pi pi ng i s used, zi nc or i ron
anodes shoul d be provi ded i n the pi pi ng
to protect the heat exchangers. Rods
must be i nspected regul arl y and
repl aced when necessary. The
recommended i nspecti on i nterval i s
every 50 hours unti l a wear rate i s
establ i shed. A l i sti ng of zi nc rods
currentl y avai l abl e through the
Caterpi l l ar Parts System i s shown bel ow
i n Fi gure 35. Thi s may be used as a
gui de i n sel ecti ng sui tabl e zi nc rods for
speci fi c appl i cati ons. Check the status,
avai l abi l i ty, and possi bl e addi ti onal
si mi l ar parts, pri or to maki ng a fi nal
sel ecti on.
Brass pl ugs attach the zi nc rods to
system components. The rods are hel d i n
pl ace by strai ght threads. A typi cal zi nc
anode assembl y i s shown i n Fi gure 36.
INSPECTION OPENING
VENT PIPE
BAFFLE PLATES
FRESH WATER
FILLING
EXPANSION TANK
LEGS
DECK
DRAIN & OVERFLOW
TO BILGE
LO LC LO LO
LLA
HLA
100mm
(4 inches)
WATER LEVEL
GAUGE GLASS
LOCAL CHEMICAL
FILL CONNECTION HIGH & LOW
LEVEL ALARM
VENTS FROM
SYSTEM HIGH
POINTS
STATIC HEAD PIPE
TO PUMP SUCTION PIPING
Fresh Water Expansion Tank Figure 34
59
60
Appl y seal ant onl y to the shoul der of the
zi nc rod before assembl i ng to the brass
pl ug. Seal ant i s not to be appl i ed to the
strai ght threaded joi nt between the rod
and pl ug. Appl y thread seal ant to the
external pi pe thread of the pl ug
fol l owi ng normal procedures and
speci fi cati ons as i l l ustrated bel ow i n
Fi gure 36.
Brass pl ugs currentl y avai l abl e through
the Caterpi l l ar Parts System for use
wi th Caterpi l l ar zi nc rods are shown
bel ow i n Fi gure 37. Check status and
avai l abi l i ty pri or to fi nal sel ecti on.
Sacri fi ci al anodes are not provi ded wi th
the factory suppl i ed heat exchangers.
They can be ordered through the
Caterpi l l ar parts di stri buti on system.
Si mi l ar to gal vani c corrosi on, el ectrol yti c
corrosi on occurs wi th an external source
of current fl ow through the cool ant.
Despi te sea water or engi ne cool ant
mi xture qual i ty, presence of an el ectri cal
potenti al can cause el ectrol yti c corrosi on
damage to the cool i ng system materi al s.
Al umi num materi al s are attacked very
rapi dl y by thi s type of corrosi on. Most
materi al s common to cool i ng systems,
such as copper, brass, bronze, copper-
ni ckel , steel , and cast i ron, are
suscepti bl e to el ectrol yti c corrosi on.
El ectri cal systems must be desi gned to
el i mi nate conti nuous el ectri cal potenti al
on any cool i ng system component.
El ectrol yti c corrosi on i s extremel y
di ffi cul t to troubl eshoot, si nce the source
of el ectri cal current must be l ocated. A
common cause i s i mproper groundi ng or
corroded ground connecti ons. Care must
be taken duri ng desi gn, i nstal l ati on, and
mai ntenance phases to assure al l
grounds are ti ght and corrosi on free.
Zinc
Rod Size (mm) (in) (mm) (in)
Zinc Anode Summary
Straight
Thread
Rod Length
From Shoulder
Zinc
Rod Diameter
BRASS PLUG ZINC ROD
APPLY SEALANT TO SHOULDER AREA
APPLY SEALANT
(NO TEFLON TAPE)
DO NOT APPLY SEALANT
TO THIS AERA
Sealant Application Zinc Anode
Typical Zinc Anode
BRASS PLUG ZINC ROD
APPLY SEALANT TO SHOULDER AREA
APPLY SEALANT
(NO TEFLON TAPE)
DO NOT APPLY SEALANT
TO THIS AERA
Sealant Application Zinc Anode
Typical Zinc Anode
Figure 36
6L3104
6L2283
6L2287
6L2281
6L2280
5B9651
6L2288
6L2289
7F9314
6L2016
6L2284
6L2285
1/4 - 20
1/4 - 20
3/8 - 16
3/8 - 16
3/8 - 16
3/8 - 16
3/8 - 16
3/8 - 16
3/8 - 16
5/8 - 18
3/4 - 10
3/4 - 10
38.1
57.0
22.4
30.2
41.0
50.8
63.5
76.0
114.3
20.5
53.8
63.5
1.50
2.25
0.88
1.19
1.62
2.00
2.50
3.00
4.50
0.81
2.12
2.50
9.5
10.0
12.7
12.7
13.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
22.0
31.8
31.8
0.38
0.39
0.50
0.50
0.51
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.87
1.25
1.25
Figure 35
Typical Zinc Anode
Sealant Application - Zinc Anode
61
Marine Growth
Over a peri od of ti me, mari ne growth
wi l l adversel y i mpact the effi ci ent
operati on of heat exchangers. I t i s
necessary to peri odi cal l y disassemble
heat exchangers to cl ean heads and
tubes. The use of l ocal thermometers,
hi gh temperature al arms, and other
i nstrumentati on can warn of gradual
l oss of sea water fl ow, and are hi ghl y
recommended. Peri odi c chemi cal
treatment wi l l al so combat mari ne
growth i n sea water systems. The
chemi cal type and concentrati on must be
control l ed to prevent deteri orati on of
components i n the sea water ci rcul ati ng
system, and to mi ni mi ze envi ronmental
i mpact. Contact a knowl edgeabl e
suppl i er i f a chemi cal treatment system
i s to be i nstal l ed. Conti nuous l ow
concentrati on chemi cal treatment vi a
ei ther bul k or sel f-generati ng el ectri cal
processes are avai l abl e from vari ous
manufacturers.
Rod
Thrd.
Brass Plug Plug
Thread
Dia.
(mm)
Min.Dia.
(mm)
Min.Thk.
(mm)
1/4 - 20
3/8 - 16
3/8 - 16
5/8 - 18
3/4 - 10
6L2282
6L2279
5B9169
6L2020
6L2286
1/4 - 18
3/8 - 18
1/2 - 14
3/4 - 14
1-1/4 -11-1/2
11.2
14.5
18.0
23.2
38.0
28
30
35
40
55
6
7
8
9
11
Brass Plug Summary
External Boss
Figure 37
Drill

3600 Marine Engine
Applic ation and
Installation
Guide

G

Air Intake
GExhaust
GStarting Air
GCrankcase Fumes Disposal


LEKM8466 8-98

Engine Systems - Air Intake



Engine Room Intake Air
Filtered Air To Engine Room
Outside Air To Engine Air Filters
Air Cleaners Outside The Engine Room
Air Cleaners In The Engine Room
Cleanliness
Inlet Restriction
Mass/Volume Flow Conversions
Caterpillar Air Cleaners
Precleaners
Air Cleaner Dimensions
Air Cleaner Restriction
Air Inlet Silencer
Air Inlet Adapters
Flex Connections
Air Inlet Shut Off
Turbocharger Speed Sensor
Turbocharger Loading
Turbocharger Air Inlet Design
Ventilating Air Calculation Guide
Design Conditions

5
Engine Room
Di esel engi ne rooms contai n many pi eces
of equi pment usi ng combusti on and
venti l ati on ai r. Ai r requi rements other
than the engi ne must be consi dered.
A method for eval uati ng both
combusti on and venti l ati ng ai r
requi rements i s provi ded at the end of
thi s secti on. Cl assi fi cati on soci ety and/or
regul atory rul es shoul d al so be revi ewed.
The fol l owi ng systems may requi re
engi ne room combusti on and/or
venti l ati on ai r.
Engi ne room ai r fl ow arrangements
general l y fal l i nto two categori es:
Engi ne room suppl i ed wi th fi l tered ai r
for engi ne combusti on and radi ated
heat removal . The engi ne uses
combusti on ai r from the engi ne room
usi ng an ai r i ntake si l encer at the
turbo i nl et. Thi s system i s normal l y
used i n vessel s operati ng i n cl ean
ambi ent surroundi ngs.
Engi ne room suppl i ed wi th venti l ati on
ai r for heat removal and engi ne
combusti on ai r suppl i ed through
dedi cated ai r cl eaners. The cl eaners
may be engi ne room mounted. Thi s
arrangement i s normal l y used i n
i nl and waterways where the vessel
can encounter di rty ambi ent
condi ti ons. The ai r cl eaners for the
engi ne can be part of the Caterpi l l ar
engi ne suppl y.

Combustion Air
Hi gh temperature ai r suppl i ed to the
engi ne i nl et (combusti on ai r) can cause
severe engi ne probl ems i ncl udi ng hi gh
exhaust temperatures, pi ston probl ems,
turbocharger compressor l i fe reducti on
and turbocharger turbi ne damage. The
maxi mum ai r temperature suppl y to the
engi ne i nl et i s 45C (113F) for standard
rati ngs. Thi s shoul d be the maxi mum
temperature ai r that the engi ne recei ves
under the hi ghest ambi ent temperatures
expected. Cool er ai r i n the range of 10 -
30C (50 - 86F) i s general l y desi rabl e.
Temperatures above 45C (113F) wi l l
usual l y requi re a derated condi ti on, even
i f thi s occurs for onl y a short ti me.
Filtered Air To Engine
Room
The engi ne room ai r must suppl y
engi nes and boi l ers wi th combusti on ai r,
remove radi ant heat, and provi de
comfortabl e engi ne room worki ng
condi ti ons. The fol l owi ng factors must be
consi dered:
Combusti on ai r must be free from
water spray, dust and oi l mi st.
Water spray, dust, exhaust gas fumes,
oi l y vapors, etc. must not enter the
venti l ati on fan ai r i nl et pl enums.
Fi gure 1 i s a suggested pl enum
arrangement for fi l tered combusti on
and venti l ati on ai r.
Combustion Air
Main engines
Ship service
generator engines
Boilers
Ventilation Air/
Heat radiation
Main Engines
Ship service
generator engines
Exhaust piping
Boilers
Steam and
condensate piping
Generators
Electrical
equipment
including motors
Hot tanks
6
Heated engi ne room ai r may be
requi red (for starti ng purposes onl y)
i n appl i cati ons at very col d ambi ents
(-25C (-13F)). Thi s assumes
combusti on ai r i s bei ng drawn from
outsi de the shi p and the engi ne i s
precondi ti oned wi th preheaters for
fuel , water and oi l temperatures of
0C (32F). I n col d weather
operati ons provi de a door from the
engi ne room casi ng i nto the pl enum
to warm the col d outsi de ai r.
The door woul d be cl osed i n warm
weather. A suggested arrangement i s
shown i n Fi gure 2. Admi tti ng
engi ne room ai r must be done wi thout
the possi bi l i ty of al l owi ng di rt or
debri s i n the engi ne ai r i nl et system.
Al so, do not reci rcul ate oi l l aden ai r or
warm engi ne room ai r through engi ne
room doors.
DECK
DECK PIECE
DUCT TO ENGINE ROOM
STEEL TRANSITION PIECE
ENGINE ROOM SUPPLY FAN
WIRE MESH GRID
ENGINE ROOM FILTERS,
CLEANABLE TYPE
WIRE MESH
PLENUM CHAMBER
LOUVERS
DESIGN AIR FLOW
VELOCITY ABOUT
150MPM (500FPM)
HEIGHT AS REQUIRED
BY CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY
BUT AT LEAST 600mm (24")
DECK DRAINS
Typical Air Plenum
Arrangement
DECK DRAINS
Typical Warm Air
Arrangement
DOOR
CASING
EXHAUST
SYSTEM
DECK
SILENCER
DECK
FAN
DECK PIECE
DUCT TO
ENGINE ROOM
WARM AIR
FROM CASING
FILTER
LOUVERS
COLD
OUTSIDE AIR
DECK
HEIGHT AS REQUIRED
BY CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY
BUT AT LEAST 600mm (24")
Figure 1
Figure 2
Typical Air Plenum
Arrangement
Typical Warm Air
Arrangement
7
Ai r cl eaner i ci ng can occur i n
saturated ai r envi ronments when the
ambi ent ai r dew poi nt i s near freezi ng
temperature. Vel oci ty and pressure
changes at the ai r cl eaner i nl et reduce
the moi sture hol di ng capaci ty of the
ai r, resul ti ng i n moi sture
condensati on and i ce crystal
formati on. The i ce bui l dup reduces ai r
fl ow area and i ncreases the pressure
di fferenti al across the ai r cl eaner.
Eventual l y a pl ateau i s reached where
the pressure di fferenti al remai ns
constant even though i ce bui l dup may
conti nue. Power l oss and i ncreased
fuel consumpti on wi l l resul t duri ng
these peri ods.
Consi der two speed engi ne room
suppl y fans for col d cl i mate operati on.
Engi ne room ai r ducti ng desi gn
shoul d consi der:
a) Engi ne cool ai r duct di scharges
shoul d be near and di rected at the
turbochargers ai r i nl ets. Thi s
arrangement assumes water free
ai r.
b) A smal l er ai r fl ow shoul d evenl y
di stri bute venti l ati on ai r al ongsi de
the engi ne, coupl i ng, reducti on
gear, and generator (i f fi tted) to
di ssi pate radi ant heat.
c) Di stri bute suffi ci ent ai r fl ow
throughout the engi ne room and
i n areas where work or
mai ntenance take pl ace.
Engi ne room suppl y fans shoul d
mai ntai n a sl i ght overpressure i n the
engi ne room. Thi s pressure shoul d
normal l y not exceed 0.062 kPa
(0.25 i n H
2
O).
Exhaust fans may be requi red i f the
venti l ati on ai r from the engi ne room
cannot be l ed through a stack wi th
natural venti l ati on.
Rooms wi th fuel oi l centri fuges shoul d
have separate spark proof exhaust
fans di schargi ng to atmosphere. Do
not l ocate the di scharge near fresh
ai r i nl ets.
I nstal l fi re dampers i n the venti l ati on
ducti ng at fans and al l exhaust
openi ngs.
Outside Air
To Engine Air Filters
Air Cleaners Outside The
Engine Room
Combusti on ai r shoul d be taken di rectl y
from the atmosphere through remote
mounted ai r cl eaners i n di rty
envi ronments, hot cl i mates, and tropi cal
servi ce operati ons (see Fi gure 3 on page
23). They are dedi cated to engi ne
combusti on ai r and can be Caterpi l l ar
suppl i ed. One ai r cl eaner i s provi ded for
each turbocharger. Combusti on ai r i s
ducted from the ai r cl eaner to the
turbocharger ai r i nl et. The turbocharger
ai r i nl et i s provi ded wi th a transi ti on
pi ece and fl exi bl e connecti on as shown i n
Fi gure 3. The ducti ng between the ai r
cl eaner and the turbocharger shoul d be
corrosi on resi stant materi al of suffi ci ent
thi ckness and sti ffness. The ai r vel oci ty
i n the duct shoul d not exceed 25 m/sec
(82 ft/sec), and the ducti ng abl e to
wi thstand a mi ni mum restri cti on of
12.5 kPa (50 i n. H
2
O), whi ch i s al so the
structural capabi l i ty of the Caterpi l l ar
ai r cl eaner.
Air Cleaners In
The Engine Room
Locate the ai r cl eaners as cl ose to the
turbocharger as possi bl e. Each
turbocharger i s provi ded wi th a separate
Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed ai r cl eaner (see
Fi gure 4 on page 24).
Cleanliness
Ai r i ntake ducti ng must be cl eaned of al l
debri s. Ri vet type fasteners shoul d not
be used and wel di ng shoul d be
mi ni mi zed. Remove sl ag from the
ducti ng i nteri or. Due to the di sti nct
possi bi l i ty of i nl et screen fai l ures and
subsequent turbocharger damage,
Caterpi l l ar does not provi de devi ces to
trap debri s ahead of the turbocharger.

Ducting should be made of material
durable enough to withstand prolonged
operation without debris loosening and
entering the turbocharger.
I nstal l an i denti fi abl e bl anki ng pl ate
ahead of the turbocharger to prevent
debri s from enteri ng duri ng i ni ti al
engi ne i nstal l ati on. The pl ate shoul d
have a warni ng tag i ndi cati ng i t must be
removed pri or to starti ng the engi ne.
The Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed shi ppi ng cover
can be used.
I nstal l takedown fl anges i n the ducti ng
to al l ow i nternal i nspecti on pri or to
i ni ti al startup.
Inlet Restriction
The maximum allowable inlet restriction
is 3.7 kPa (15 in. H
2
O) with dirty air
cleaner elements, and 1.2 kPa (5 in. H
2
O)
with initially clean elements.
Mass/Volume Flow
Conversions
The vol umetri c ai r fl ow found i n TMI
and i n the Engi ne Data secti on of thi s
gui de are at condi ti ons of 95.9 kPa (28.4
i n. hg) i nl et pressure and 25C (77F)
i nl et temperature. The fl ow al so
si mul ates the restri cti on of a cl ean ai r
cl eaner and i s appl i cabl e for condi ti ons
of 100 kPa (29.6 i n. Hg) i nl et pressure
and 25C (77F) i nl et temperature
(whi ch represent SAE J1995 and I SO
3046 condi ti ons).
.
The correspondi ng mass ai r fl ow (M) can
be cal cul ated usi ng the fol l owi ng
rel ati onshi ps:

Note: Heavy fuel oil burning engines
require higher inlet air flow than
distillate burning engines. See the
Engine Data section of this guide.
Caterpillar Air Cleaners
Caterpi l l ar ai r cl eaners consi st of hi gh
effi ci ency washabl e paper el ements
packaged i n a l ow restri cti on
weatherproof housi ng. They may be
bul khead or deck mounted wi th the ai r
i nl et faci ng downward. Modi fi cati on i s
requi red for el ement support i f
hori zontal entry i s requi red. Dependi ng
on envi ronmental operati ng condi ti ons,
two housi ngs are avai l abl e. One housi ng
contai ns two el ements (doubl e) and the
other contai ns three el ements (tri pl e).
Housi ngs are al so avai l abl e wi th
precl eaners (see Fi gure 5).
Figure 5
The cl eaners are 99.5 percent effi ci ent
for proper turbocharger and aftercool er
performance. Use of l ess effi ci ent
el ements wi l l resul t i n turbocharger
compressor wheel and aftercool er
foul i ng. Di rt on the turbo compressor
wheel can cause rotati ng i mbal ances
l eadi ng to turbocharger fai l ure. Foul i ng
of the aftercool er core resul ts i n reduced
performance and hi gh exhaust
temperature probl ems.
Al l ai r cl eaner housi ngs are now epoxy
coated and can be used for operati on i n a
sal t spray envi ronment.
1-Double Element
Housing
1-Double Element
Housing
2-Double Element
Housing
2-Double Element
Housing
1-Triple Element
Housing
1-Triple Element
Housing
2-Triple Element
Housing
2-Triple Element
Housing
3606
3608
3612
3616
Standard Duty
Without Precleaner
Heavy Duty
With Precleaner
8
.
V
Ai r
(m/mi n) = .01486 x M
Ai r
(kg/hr)
.
V
Ai r
(cfm) = .2382 x M
Ai r
(l b/hr)
9
An opti onal soot fi l ter rated at 70%
effi ci ency i s avai l abl e (Fi gure 6) to
extend el ement l i fe i n appl i cati ons
where exhaust gases can be reci rcul ated.
Consi derati on shoul d be gi ven to ai r
cl eaner el ement servi ce as a di rty
el ement can wei gh 35 kg (78 l b).
See Fi gure 7.
Precleaners
Precl eaners adapt to standard ai r
cl eaners (Fi gure 8) produci ng heavy
duty ai r cl eaners whi ch extend fi l ter
servi ce peri ods. They impose added air
restriction and are not recommended for
heavy fuel engines. Precl eaners provi de
94 percent effi ci ency i n severe dust
appl i cati ons. Heavy duty ai r cl eaners
provi de the same protecti on as standard
fi l ters, but they al l ow further extensi on
of fi l ter change peri ods. Servi ce peri ods
i mprove si x to seven ti mes over that of
standard ai r cl eaners.
Air Cleaner Dimensions
See Fi gure 9 on page 10.
Air Cleaner Restriction
Ai r cl eaner restri cti on versus engi ne ai r
fl ow i s shown i n Fi gure 10. Restri cti on
i ncl udes the ai r cl eaner housi ng and
el ements. The ai r fl ows shown are based
on the amount of ai r goi ng through one
doubl e or one tri pl e el ement housi ng.
Total engi ne ai r fl ow for propul si on
engi nes can be found i n the Engine Data
and Engine Performancesecti ons of thi s
gui de. Heavy fuel engi ne ai r fl ow i s i n
the Engine Data secti on. Al so check the
TMI System. The ai r fl ow entered on the
chart i s the fl ow through one ai r cl eaner
housi ng.
Cauti on: TMI air flow data is the flow
required for an entire engine. As an
example, since the vee engines require
two air cleaner housings, the air flow
taken from TMI for a 3612 or 3616
Engine requires division by 2 before
entering the chart.
The Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed ai r cl eaner
housi ngs contai n a pop uptype i ndi cator
set for a maxi mum restri cti on of 3.7 kPa
(15 i n. H
2
0).
MINIMUM CLEARANCE FOR
FILTER ELEMENT REPLACEMENT
(DOOR OPENING SPACE)
OPTIONAL
SOOT
FILTER
750mm (MINIMUM)
(CUSTOMER
SUPPLIED
SUPPORTS)
CONCRETE
MOUNTING
PAD
765mm
A
IR
F
L
O
W
OPTIONAL
SOOT
FILTER
750mm (MINIMUM)
(CUSTOMER
SUPPLIED
SUPPORTS)
CONCRETE
MOUNTING
PAD
A
IR
F
L
O
W
A
IR
F
L
O
W A
IR
F
L
O
W
A
IR
F
L
O
W
765mm
MINIMUM CLEARANCE FOR
FILTER ELEMENT REPLACEMENT
(DOOR OPENING SPACE)
Figure 6 Figure 8
Figure 7
Standard
Heavy
Heavy
2
2
3
16 (35.3)
16 (35.3)
16 (35.3)
23 (50.7)
23 (50.7)
23 (50.7)
232 ( 511.5)
352 ( 776.0)
490 (1080.3)
278 ( 612.9)
435 ( 959.0)
566 (1247.8)
Duty
Rating
Element
Qty.
Element
Weight (ea.)
Retention
Cap. (ea.) Clean Dirty
Clean Dirt
Air Cleaner Specifications - kg (lbs.)
Total Weight
(including housing)
10
Engine Air Intake Silencer
A Caterpi l l ar ai r i ntake si l encer can be
used i n an engi ne room usi ng fi l tered
ai r. The si l encer can be mounted di rectl y
to the turbocharger compressor i nl et as
shown i n Fi gure 11.
A Caterpi l l ar ai r i ntake fi l ter/si l encer i s
al so avai l abl e for use wi th 3606 and
3612 engi nes. I t cannot be used wi th
3608 and 3616 engi nes due to excessi ve
i nl et restri cti on. The fi l ter/si l encer
provi des good ai r fi l trati on, but i t shoul d
be used i n a cl ean engi ne room
envi ronment (fi l tered ai r). I t shoul d be
remote mounted from the turbocharger
i nl et as shown i n Fi gure 11.
Air Inlet Adapters
Caterpi l l ar offers vari ous ai r i nl et
adapters for connecti ng the shi pyard
furni shed ducti ng to the turbocharger
ai r i nl et. They are shown i n Fi gures 12
through 14. They are shi pped l oose and
i ncl ude gaskets and mounti ng hardware.
Cauti on: Turbocharger performance
may be adversely affected if Caterpillar
supplied air intake components are not
used. They are designed to provide the
proper air flow pattern ahead of the
turbocharger.
Figure 9
1344 mm
(53 in)
612 mm
(24 in)
AIR OUTLET
508 mm
(20 in)
344 mm
(14 in)
739 mm
(29 in)
688 mm
(27 in)
750 mm
(30 in)
1/8-27 NPT MALE
325 mm
(13 in)
MIN DISTANCE BETWEEN
AIR INLET AND SUPPORT
SURFACE
RIGHT SIDE VIEW FRONT VIEW
1550 mm
(61 in)
1480 mm
(58 in)
740 mm
(29 in)
693 mm
(27 in)
1328 mm
(52 in)
664 mm
(26 in)
AIR INLET
AIR OUTLET
50 mm (2 in) MINIMUM
200 mm (8 in) MAXIIMUM
ENGAGEMENT
BOTTOM VIEW
AIR INLET
35 mm
(1.5 in)
41 mm
(1.75 in)
5/8-11 UNC-28
12 PLACES
11
10.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10,000 11,000 12,000
Standard Duty 2 Element
3 Element with Precleaners
Air Cleaner Performance Curves
Airflow - CFM - Corrected to 28.4 in. Hg & 77F
R
e
s
t
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

(
I
n
.

H


O
)
2
Figure 10
Air Cleaner Performance Curves
Figure 11 Typical Air Inlet Filter/Silencer
(for 3606 and 3612 engines only)
12
The i nl et el bow shown i n Fi gure 13 can
be rotated i n 30 i ncrements.
Flexible Connections
Fl exi bl e connecti ons are requi red to
i sol ate engi ne vi brati on and noi se from
the ducti ng system. The fl ex shoul d be
as cl ose to the engi ne as practi cal . The
fl ex engagement wi th the ai r i ntake duct
shoul d be a mi ni mum of 50 mm (2 i n.)
and a maxi mum of 200 mm (8 i n) (see
Fi gures 12 and 14). Care must be used
to prevent exhaust pi pi ng heat from
deteri orati ng rubber fl ex connecti ons.
TURBO SPEED PICKUP LOCATION
M12 X 1.25-6g THD
NO. 6 PORT
9/16-18 THD
3 PLACES
1380 mm (54.33 in)
1388 mm (54.65 in)
1467 mm (57.75 in)
1644 mm (64.75 in)
1601 mm (63 in)
5
1
7

m
m

(
2
0

i
n
)
3
8
2

m
m

(
1
5

i
n
)
2
4
7

m
m

(
9
.
7
5

i
n
)
0
2
1
5
.
5

m
m

(
0
.
6
1

i
n
)
4
5
6

m
m

(
1
8

i
n
)
5
9
9

m
m

(
2
4

i
n
)
0
3

SHIPYARD
DUCTING
508 mm (20 in)
PIPE
400 mm (15.75 in) 305 mm (12 in)
CATERPILLAR
FLEXIBLE JOINT
50 mm (2 in) MINIMUM
200 mm (8 in) MAXIMUM
ENGAGEMENT
DOUBLE BAND CLAMPING
CATERPILLAR
AIR INLET ADAPTER
Figure 12
508 mm (20 in)
132 mm (5.2 in)
CATERPILLAR
FLEXIBLE
CONNECTION
CATERPILLAR
AIR INLET
TRANSITION PIECE
CATERPILLAR
90 AIR INLET
ADAPTER
324 mm (12.75 in)
305 mm (12 in)
50 mm (2 in)
SHIPYARD
DUCTING
Figure 14
Figure 13
Typical Air Inlet Transition
Piece Adapter (Rectangular To Round)
13
Air Inlet Shutoff
An i nl et ai r shutoff must be mounted
di rectl y i n the ai r stream between the
turbocharger compressor outl et and the
aftercool er housi ng. The shutoff i s
actuated ei ther manual l y or
el ectroni cal l y. I t i s for emergency use
onl y, not for normal engi ne shutdowns.
Turbocharger Speed
Sensor
I f a turbocharger speed sensor i s
requi red, the magneti c speed pi ckup i s
mounted i n the 90 i nl et compressor
i nl et el bow (see Fi gure 13). A speci al
compressor nose cone and si gnal
condi ti oner i s requi red wi th the strai ght
i nl et adapter shown i n Fi gure 12.
Turbocharger Loading
Fi gure 15 shows the maxi mum
turbocharger l oads and how to cal cul ate
the turbocharger l oad.
HOSE
ADAPTER
HOSE
B
D
E K
ELBOW
L
Y
J
F
N
A
100 mm 50 mm
TYPICAL
TURBO C
L
Z
T
ADAPTER
HOSE
30
P
K
ELBOW
MAXIMUM LOADS FOR TURBOCHARGER INTAKE
HORIZONTAL SIDE AIR INLET VERTICAL OR AXIAL AIR INLET
D, F & E = Adapter Weight
B & K = 1/2 Hose Weight
Moment (Vertical Inlet):
M
V
= JF + ND + AB
Moment (Axial Inlet):
M
A
= YE + LK
With Caterpillar Supplied Hardware
J = 548 mm N = 625 mm A = 700 mm
Y = 705 mm L = 945 mm
D = 13 kg E = 14 kg F = 16 kg
B = 3 kg K = 3 kg
2 2
M
V
= .548 (16) + .625 (13) + .700 (1.5)
M
V
= 18 kg-m which is less than 30 kg-m/OK
M
A
= .705 (14) + .945 (1.5) = 11 kg-m which is
less than 30 kg-m/OK
P = Adapter Weight
K = 1/2 Hose Weight
M
S
= ZP + TK 7 kg-m
With Caterpillar Hardware
P = 13 kg K = 3 kg
2
Z = 420 mm T = 500 mm
M
S
= .420 (13) + .500 (3/2) = 6.21 < 7/OK
Allowable
Max Moment = 30 kg-m
Figure 15
Maximum Loads For Turbocharger Intake
Vertical Or Axial Air Inlet Horizontal Side Air Inlet
14
Turbocharger Air Inlet
Design
For an axi al ai r i nl et, the Caterpi l l ar
ai r i nl et adapter shown i n Fi gure 12
shoul d be used. Thi s ensures smooth
fl ow condi ti ons at the turbocharger
i nl et. I f a bend i s used to connect to the
Caterpi l l ar strai ght i nl et adapter, make
the bend radi us as l arge as possi bl e. As
a mi ni mum the bend radi us shoul d be
equal to the pi pe di ameter, 508 mm
[20 i n.], or preferabl y one and a hal f
ti mes the pi pe di ameter. I f an ai r i nl et
el bow i s requi red, use the Caterpi l l ar
suppl i ed adapter shown i n Fi gure 14.
These two adapters are desi gned i n
conjuncti on wi th the turbocharger to
provi de favorabl e ai r fl ow at the
compressor i nl et.
Ventilating Air
Calculation Guide
Definition of Engine Room
The space contai ni ng propul si on
machi nery, auxi l i ary di esel engi nes,
boi l ers, generators and other major
el ectri cal machi nery, etc.
Design Conditions
The outsi de ambi ent ai r temperature i s
assumed to be 35C (95F).
Engine room air flow calculations
The total ai r fl ow i s the sum of the
combusti on ai r fl ow for engi nes and
boi l ers added to the venti l ati on ai r fl ow
for removal of radi ated engi ne room
heat.
The total ai r fl ow shoul d al ways be
greater than 150% of the combusti on ai r
fl ow.
Machi nery areas separated from the
engi ne room, such as auxi l i ary
machi nery and boi l er rooms, shoul d be
cal cul ated separatel y.
Combustion Air Flow Requirements
Ai r fl ows at vari ous engi ne rati ngs are i n
the Engi ne Data secti on of thi s gui de.
Consul t TMI for the l atest data.
For repowers where a non -3600 shi p
servi ce generator engi ne may remai n i n
pl ace, the combusti on ai r fl ow for the
generator can be esti mated by:
P
dg
x Q
d
q
dg = ________
p
Where:
q
dg
= Combusti on ai r fl ow for non-
3600 engi nes, m
3
/sec
P
dg
= Maxi mum brake shaft power,
kW
Q
d
= Speci fi c combusti on ai r
requi rement per
manufacturer s data
15
Note: Where values for Q
d
are not
available, the following may be used for
calculations:
Q
d
= 0.0023 kg ai r/kW x sec
p = 1.15 kg/m
3
(densi ty of ai r)
Combusti on ai r fl ow for boi l ers can be
cal cul ated as fol l ows:
Q
s
x Q
f
x Q
a
q
b = _____________
p
Where:
q
b
= Combusti on ai r fl ow for
boi l ers, m
3
/sec
Q
s
= Total steam consumpti on at
sea, kg/sec
Q
f
= Fuel consumpti on i n kg (fuel )
per kg (steam).
Note: I f specific data is not available,
Q
f
=0.079 kg/ kg may be used for
calculations.
Q
a
= Combusti on ai r requi rements
i n kg (ai r) per kg (fuel )
Note: I f specific data is not available,
Q
a
=16.8 kg/ kg may be used for
calculations.
p = 1.15 kg/m
3
(densi ty of ai r)
The total combusti on ai r fl ow can be
cal cul ated as fol l ows:
qc = qdp + qdg + qb
Where:
q
c
= Sum of combusti on ai r fl ow,
m
3
/sec
q
dp
= Combusti on ai r fl ow for
propul si on engi nes, m
3
/sec
Note: I f the main engines use combustion
air directly from atmosphere, q
dp
will be
zero.
q
dg
= Combusti on ai r fl ow for
generator engi nes, m
3
/sec
q
b
= Combusti on ai r fl ow for
boi l ers, m
3
/sec
16
Air flow requirements for removal
of radiated heat
Heat radiated from propulsion
engine
Heat radi ated from the propul si on
engi nes i s found i n the Engi ne Data
secti on of thi s gui de. Check the TMI
system for the l atest data.
Heat radiated from generator set
engines
I n repowers where a non-3600 generator
set engi ne i s al ready i n pl ace the
radi ated heat can be esti mated by:
L
d

dg = Pdg x _____
100
Where:

dg
= Shi p servi ce generator engi ne
radi ated heat, kW
P
dg
= Maxi mum brake shaft power,
kW
L
d
= Percent of heat l oss as taken
from Fi gure 16
6
5
4
3
2
1
1 5 10 15
Brake Power
bkW x 10
3
H
e
a
t

L
o
s
s

%
L
d
Percent of Heat Loss
Figure 16
Percent Of Heat Loss
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
0 .367 .735 1.1025 1.47 1.8375 lb/min x 10
3
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 kg/s
Heat Loss in Percent From a Boiler,
At Maximum Steam Consumption at Sea
H
e
a
t


L
o
s
s


%
L
b
3
2
1
0 50 100
% Boiler Load
H
e
a
t


L
o
s
s


%
Bpl
Boiler Constant at Partial Load in Percent
Figure 17
Figure 18
Heat Loss In Percent From A Boiler,
At Maximum Steam Consumption At Sea
Boiler Constant At Partial Load In Percent
17
Heat rejected from boilers
The heat radi ated from boi l ers can be
cal cul ated as fol l ows:
L
b
b
= Q
s
x Q
f
x h x ____x B
pl
x B
e
100
Where:

b
= Heat radi ated from boi l ers, kW
Q
s
= Total steam consumpti on at sea,
kg/sec
Q
f
= Fuel consumpti on i n kg (fuel ) per
kg (steam)
Note: I f specific data is not available,
Q
f
=0.079 kg/ kg may be used for
calculations.
h = Lower heati ng val ue of fuel , kJ/kg
Note: Where specific data is not
available, h =41800 kJ / kg may be used
for calculations.
L
b
= Percent heat l oss @ maxi mum
steam consumpti on per
Fi gure 17
B
pl
= Boi l er parti al l oad constant per
Fi gure 18 bel ow
B
e
= 0.1 for boi l ers l ocated di rectl y
bel ow exposed casi ng
B
pl
18
Heat rejected from steam and
condensate pipes
The heat rejected from steam and
condensate pi pes can be cal cul ated as
fol l ows:
L
p

p
= Q
s
x Q
f
x h x _____
100
Where:

p
= Heat rejected from steam and
condensate pi pi ng, kW
Q
s
= Total steam consumpti on, kg/sec
Q
f
= Fuel consumpti on i n kg (fuel ) per
kg (steam)
Note: I f specific data is not available,
Q
f
=0.079 kg/ kg may be used for
calculations.
h = kJ/kg - Lower heati ng val ue of
fuel
Note: I f specific data is not available,
h =41800 kJ / kg may be used for
calculations.
L
p
= Heat l oss from steam and
condensate pi pes as a percent of
energy suppl i ed to the boi l er
Note: I f specific data is not available,
0.15 percent may be used for
calculations.
Heat rejected from generators
The heat rejected from generators can be
cal cul ated as fol l ows:
N

g
= P
g
x (1-
_____
)
100
Where:

g
= Heat rejected by generator, kW
P
g
= Output of generator, kW
N = Generator effi ci ency, percent
Note: I f specific data is not available,
N =96% may be used for calculations.
Heat rejected from electrical
equipment
For conventi onal shi ps where detai l s of
the el ectri cal i nstal l ati on are not known
the heat rejected i s assumed to be 10%
of the effecti ve output of the generators
and can be cal cul ated as fol l ows:
10

el
= P
g
x _____
100
Where:

el
= Heat rejected by el ectri cal
machi nery, kW
P
g
= Output of generator, kW
Heat rejected from exhaust pipes
The heat rejected from exhaust pi pi ng,
Q
ep
, can be approxi mated from
Fi gure 19. The heat rejecti on i s gi ven i n
kW/m of pi pe versus di ameter of pi pe
wi th four di fferent types of i nsul ati on.
Heat rejected from hot tanks
The heat rejected by hot tanks, Q
t
, i s
based on the sum of the hot tank surface
area conti guous wi th the engi ne room.
These val ues may be approxi mated from
Fi gure 20.
Heat Rejection from Tanks
kW/m
2
(Btu/min/ft
2
)
@ 60(140F)
kW/m
2
(Btu/min/ft
2
)
@ 70(158F)
0.060 (0.320)
0.012 (0.063)
0.105 (0.550)
0.021 (0.111)
Uninsulated
Approx. 50 mm
(2 in.) insulation
Figure 20
19
Heat rejected from other machinery
Eval uate the heat rejected from other
machi nery, Q
o
. I ncl ude mi scel l aneous
refri gerati on compressors, steam
turbi nes, i nci nerators, etc., whi ch may
be uni que to the parti cul ar shi ps engi ne
room.
Total air flow for removal of
machinery rejected heat
The sum of the ai r fl ow for removal of
machi nery radi ated heat can be
cal cul ated as fol l ows:

dp
+
dg
+
b
+
p
+
g
+
el
+
ep
+
t
+
o
q
h
= ________________________________________
P x c x t
Where:
q
h
= sum of ai r fl ow for removal of
rejected heat, m
3
/sec

dp
= heat rejected from propul si on
engi nes, kW

dg
= heat rejected from generator
engi nes, kW

b
= heat rejected from boi l ers,
kW

p
= heat rejected from steam and
condensate pi pes, kW

g
= heat emi tted from generators,
kW

el
= heat emi tted from el ectri cal
i nstal l ati on, kW

ep
= heat emi tted from exhaust
pi pes, kW

t
= heat emi tted from hot tanks,
kW

o
= heat emi tted from other
components, kW
P = 1.15 kg/m
3
(densi ty of ai r)
c = 1.01 kJ/kg C (speci fi c heat
capaci ty of the ai r)
t = 12.5C (i ncrease of mean
temperature i n the engi ne
room)
A
B
C
D
1.0
(17.34)
0.5
(8.67)
0.3
(5.20)
0.1
(1.73)
100
(4)
200
(8)
400
(16)
600
(24)
800
(32)
1000
(40)
2000
(80)
PIPE DIAMETER - mm (in)
H
E
A
T

R
E
J
E
C
T
I
O
N

P
E
R

P
I
P
E


L
E
N
G
T
H


-


k
w
/
m


(
B
T
U
/
f
t
)

The graph is based on the temperature difference t = 350C


Curve A 40mm Mineral wool with = 0.038 W/m x C
Curve B 50mm Mineral wool with = 0.038 W/m x C
Curve C 70mm Asbestos free calcium silicate
bowl with = 0.070 W/m x C
Curve D 70mm Mineral wool with = 0.037 W/m x C
Heat Rejected From Exhaust Piping
Figure 19 Heat Rejected From Exhaust Piping
20
TURBOCHARGER
REDUCTION GEAR
CATERPILLAR
3600 ENGINE
TANKTOP
EXPANSION JOINT
& TRANSITION PIECE
FIXED SUPPORT
508 mm (20 in) DUCT
DECK
DECK
AIR HEATER (IF REQUIRED)
DOOR FOR COLD WEATHER OPERATION
DECK
CASING AREA
PLENUM HOUSE
FILTER
LOUVER
750 mm
(30 in)
Remote Mounted Air Cleaners
Combustion Air From Outside Engine Room
Figure 3
Remote Mounted Air Cleaner Arrangement
Combustion Air From Outside Engine Room
21
TURBOCHARGER
REDUCTION GEAR
CATERPILLAR
3600 ENGINE
TANKTOP
EXPANSION JOINT
& TRANSITION PIECE
Remote Mounted Air Cleaner Arrangement
Combustion Air From Inside Engine Room
AIR FILTER
750 mm
(30 in)
508 mm (20 in) DUCT
FIXED SUPPORT
CASING AREA
DECK
DECK
DECK
Figure 4
Remote Mounted Air Cleaner Arrangement
Combustion Air From Inside Engine Room


Diesel Engine Systems - Exhaust

Manifolds
Exhaust Backpressure Limits
Exhaust Backpressure Calculations
Exhaust Flow
Mass/Volume Conversions
Exhaust Connections
Turbocharger
Flexible Connections
Exhaust Piping
Cleanliness
Silencer
Silencer Data
Exhaust Noise
Sizing
Exhaust Gas Economizer
Exhaust Slobber
Emissions
Nitrogen Oxide
Hydrocarbons
Particulates
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Dioxide
Sulfur Dioxide
3600 Emissions Data
Effect of Ambient Conditions
Control Methods
Measurement Units and Conversions

25

Manifolds
The General I nformati on secti on of thi s
gui de gi ves a descri pti on of the engi ne
exhaust mani fol d systems.
Mani fol d shi el di ng i s avai l abl e to meet
OSHA and vari ous mari ne soci ety
temperature requi rements. Shi el ds al so
reduce heat rejecti on to the
surroundi ngs. Refer to the Caterpi l l ar
TMI System for mani fol d heat rejecti on
to the atmosphere. The TMI data
assumes shi el ded mani fol ds are used.
Exhaust Backpressure
Limits
For di sti l l ate fuel operati on, the total
3600 Engi ne exhaust backpressure l i mi t
i s 2.5 kPa (10 i n. H
2
O). Thi s l evel has
been establ i shed to mai ntai n l ow brake
speci fi c fuel consumpti on and exhaust
temperatures, and i t shoul d be kept
bel ow thi s l i mi t. However, some
appl i cati ons may have a hi gher
backpressure l evel , parti cul arl y when
repoweri ng exi sti ng i nstal l ati ons. An
i ncrease i n fuel consumpti on of
approxi matel y 0.8% per 2.5 kPa
(10 i n. H
2
O) of exhaust back pressure
above 2.5 kPa (10 i n. H
2
O) wi l l occur.
Backpressures up to 6.7 kPa
(27 i n. H
2
O) are al l owed wi th factory
approval .
The maxi mum exhaust backpressure
l i mi t for heavy fuel operati on i s 2.5 kPa
(10 i n. H
2
O) due to the effect of hi gher
backpressure on exhaust val ve
temperature. Consul t the factory i f
hi gher backpressures are expected.
Vee engi ne exhaust pi pi ng shoul d be
desi gned wi th equal restri cti ons on each
bank to prevent unequal bank-to-bank
backpressures.
Measure system backpressure i n a
strai ght l ength of the exhaust pi pe,
preferabl y 3 to 5 pi pe di ameters away
from the l ast si ze transi ti on from the
turbocharger outl et. See Fi gure 1 for a
typi cal measurement l ocati on. I n thi s
exampl e, the backpressure
measurement woul d onl y i ncl ude the
components downstream of the
measurement l ocati on. The actual
backpressure i ncl udes the components
upstream of the measurement l ocati on
as wel l , and i t can be cal cul ated as
shown i n the fol l owi ng secti on.

Exhaust Backpressure
Calculations
Use the fol l owi ng formul a to keep
exhaust backpressure bel ow the
l i mi t. Cal cul ate a pi pe di ameter
accordi ng to the formul a, then
choose the next l arger commerci al l y
avai l abl e pi pe si ze.
Pressure drop l i mi ts of the exhaust
system i ncl ude l osses due to pi pi ng,
fi tti ngs and the exhaust si l encer.
Calculate backpressure by:
L x S x Q
2
x 3.6 x 10
6
P (kPa) =
_____________________
+
D
5
(pressure drop of si l encer and other components)
L x S x Q
2
P (i n. H
2
O) =
___________
+
187 x D
5
(pressure drop through si l encer and other components)
P = Backpressure (kPa), (i n. H
2
O)
psi = 0.0361 x i n. water col umn
kPa = 6.3246 x mm water col umn
L = Total Equi val ent Length of pi pe (m), (ft)
Q = Exhaust gas fl ow (m
3
/mi n), (cfm)
D = I nsi de di ameter of pi pe (mm), (i n.)
S = Densi ty of gas (kg/m
3
), (l b/ft
3
)
352.5
S (kg/m
3
) =
__________________________
Stack Gas Temperature
+ 273C
39.6
S (l b/ft
3
) =
____________________________
Stack Gas Temperature
+ 460F
26
To obtai n equi val ent l ength of strai ght
pi pe for vari ous el bows:
33 D
L =
_____Standard El bow
X (Radi us of el bow equal s pi pe di ameter)
20 D
L =
_____Long El bow
X (Radi us > 1.5 di ameter)
15 D
L =
_____
45 El bow
X
66 D
L =
_____
Square El bow
X
where X = 1000 mm or 12 i n.
As shown above, i f 90 bends are
requi red a radi us of at l east one and a
hal f ti mes the pi pe di ameter l owers the
resi stance.
The fol l owi ng tabl e l i sts exhaust
restri cti on for vari ous Caterpi l l ar
suppl i ed exhaust components (based on
MCR rati ngs).
Rectangul ar to Round Adapter
(Turbo Outl et). . .0.5 kPa (2.0 i n. H
2
O)
Expander 356 mm x 457 mm di ameter
(14 i n. x 18 i n.) (Round to Round
Expander). . . . . 0.25 kPa (1.0 i n. H
2
O)
356 mm (14 i n.) Di ameter
Bel l ows. . . . . . . . .0.1 kPa (0.4 i n. H
2
O)
457 mm (18 i n.) Di ameter
Bel l ows. . . . . . .0.025 kPa (0.1 i n. H
2
O)
As a gui de, the total fl ow l oss of the
standard Caterpi l l ar exhaust adapters i s
1 kPa (4 i n. H
2
O). Thi s l eaves an
addi ti onal 1.5 kPa (6 i n. H
2
O) of fl ow
l osses for the exhaust pi pi ng and
si l encer.
Example:
Fi gure 1 shows a typi cal exhaust system
for a 3600 Engi ne from the turbocharger
to the stack outl et. The components
i ncl uded i n thi s exampl e are as fol l ows:
Rectangul ar to 14 i n. Round Adapter
14 i n. Bel l ows
14 i n. to 18 i n. Round Adapter
Two Standard Radi us 18 i n. El bows
Vari ous Lengths of Strai ght Pi pe
18 i n. Bel l ows
Exhaust Si l encer
Exhaust Openi ng to Atmosphere
To cal cul ate the total backpressure for
these components, use the precedi ng
formul as to determi ne the equi val ent
l ength of pi pi ng and el bows, and add i n
the backpressure val ues for the other
components. Assume the engi ne i s a
3606 engi ne wi th an MCR rati ng of
2030 bkW at 1000 rpm (exhaust gas fl ow
of 437 cmm at 412C from the

Engine
Data secti on).
Equi val ent l ength for 18 i n. (457 mm)
Standard El bow:
33 D 33 (457)
L =
_____
=
_______
= 15.1 m
X 1000
Total l ength of pi pi ng and equi val ent
l ength of two el bows:
L = 0.5 m + 15.1 m + 2 m + 0.5 m +15.1 m + 2 m + 4 m = 39.2 m
Backpressure i n pi pi ng and el bows:
352.5
S =
________
= 0.515 kg/m
3
412+273
(39.2)(0.515)(437
2
)(3.6)(10
6
)
P =
____________________________
= 0.7 kPa
457
5
26
27
Figure 1
EXHAUST BACKPRESSURE
MEASUREMENT LOCATION
APPROX.
3D TO 5D
CATERPILLAR 3606 ENGINE
STANDARD
RADIUS
ELBOW
14 in. TO 18 in. ROUND
ADAPTER
RECTANGULAR TO 14 in.
ROUND ADAPTER
14 in. BELLOWS
18 in. BELLOWS
D
STANDARD
RADIUS
ELBOW
2m
2m
4m
SILENCER
0.5m
0.5m
Exhaust Flow
Mass/Volume Conversions
Air flow and temperature data for
propulsion engines can be found in TMI
and the Engine Data and Engine
Performance sections of this guide. The
flows available in TMI and Engine Data
and Engine Performance sections of this
guide are volume flows. Mass flow
conversions are:
Exhaust fl ow i n kg/hr =
(exhaust fl ow i n m
3
/mi n) (21150)
______________________________
(exhaust gas temp i n C) + 273
Exhaust fl ow i n l b/hr =
(exhaust fl ow i n ft
3
/mi n) (2333)
______________________________
(exhaust gas temp i n F) + 460
Exhaust Connections
Turbocharger
Turbochargers are l ocated at the
fl ywheel end of the engi nes. The
turbocharger exhaust outl et i s
rectangul ar wi th an area equi val ent to
311 mm (12 i n.) di ameter. An opti onal
cast adapter provi des a ci rcul ar
connecti on poi nt (see Fi gure 2). Al so
avai l abl e are a 355 mm (14 i n.) fl exi bl e
bel l ows (for mi sal i gnment and thermal
growth), an expansi on transi ti on from
355 mm (14 i n.) to 457 mm (18 i n.),
a 457 mm (18 i n.) bel l ows and an
exhaust fl ange wi th bol ti ng and
mounti ng hardware. See Fi gures 2
and 3.
306 mm
(12.05 in)
356 mm
(14 in)
818 mm
(32.20 in)
Exhaust Outlet
Rectangular to 14 Inches Diameter Round
267.37 mm
(10.53 in)
457 mm
(18 in)
1085.37 mm
(42.73 in)
306 mm
(12.05 in)
Exhaust Outlet
Rectangular to 14 Inches Diameter Round Pipe to
18 Inches Diameter Round Pipe
Figure 3
Figure 2
Backpressure i n other components:
Rectangul ar to 14 i n. Round Adapter 0.5 kPa
14 i n. Bel l ows 0.1 kPa
14 i n. to 18 i n. Round Adapter 0.25 kPa
18 i n. Bel l ows 0.025 kPa
Exhaust Si l encer 0.375 kPa (esti mated)
Exhaust Openi ng to Atmosphere 0.55 kPa (esti mated)
1.8 kPa
Total system backpressure:
P = 0.7 + 1.8 = 2.5 kPa
Thi s meets the 2.5 kPa backpressure l i mi t establ i shed for 3600 engi nes,
so thi s appl i cati on woul d be acceptabl e.
28
29
A 90 exhaust outl et adapter i s al so
avai l abl e. I ts outl et can be ori ented i n
15 i ncrements around a verti cal pl ane
(see Fi gure 8).
The exhaust outl et from the
turbocharger can be rotated i n 30
i ncrements (see Fi gure 4). Turbocharger
water l i nes are avai l abl e for al ternate
turbocharger exhaust ori entati ons.
Figure 4
EXHAUST STACK POSITIONS POSSIBLE ON THE TURBOCHARGER
INLINE ENGINE VEE ENGINE
REAR VIEW REAR VIEW
90 DEG
60 DEG
0 DEG
30 DEG
90 DEG
60 DEG
30 DEG
LH TURBO
30 DEG
0 DEG
RH TURBO
0 DEG
Exhaust Stack Positions Possible On The Turbocharger
Flexible Connections
Exhaust pi pi ng must be i sol ated from
the engi ne wi th fl exi bl e connecti ons
i nstal l ed cl ose to the engi ne exhaust
outl et. I t has three pri mary functi ons:
I sol ates the wei ght of the exhaust
pi pi ng from the engi ne.
Reduces vi brati onal fati gue stresses.
Al l ows rel ati ve shi fti ng of exhaust
components. Shi fti ng may resul t from
expansi on and contracti on due to
temperature changes and torque
reacti ons when the engi ne or shi p set
generators are resi l i entl y mounted.
Prestretch the bel l ows duri ng
i nstal l ati on to al l ow for thermal growth
expected. Approximately 20 mm (.8 in.)
of vertical growth will occur at the
exhaust bellows. Four smal l straps can
be tack wel ded between the two end
fl anges to prevent the bel l ows from
bei ng i nstal l ed i n a fl exed condi ti on.
Attach a warni ng tag to note the wel d
straps; the tag must be removed before
starti ng the engi ne.
The i nstal l ati on l i mi tati ons of
Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed fl exi bl e exhaust
bel l ows are shown i n Fi gure 5.
FLANGES MUST BE
PARALLEL
FREE LENGTH
L
A
B OR C
L = 305 (356 mm I.D.)
L = 457 (457 mm I.D.)
Figure 5
Installation Limitations Of Bellows - Type
Flexible Exhaust Fittings
A
Max. Offset
Between Flanges
B
Max. Compression
From Free Length
C
Max. Extension
From Free Length
Spring rate of bellows = 55.8 kN / m (318.7 lb/in.) : Axial
163.9 kN / m (936.0 lb/in.) : Lateral
457 mm (18 in.) I.D.
Spring rate of bellows = 13.37 kN / m (76.4 lb/in.) : Axial
25.7 kN / m (146.8 lb/in.) : Lateral
Lagging or insulation must not restrain flexibility of bellows.
355 mm (14 in. ) I.D.
mm
0
22.20
in.
0
.87
mm
0
30.00
in.
0
1.18
mm
100.00
0
in.
3.94
0
mm
50.00
0
in.
1.97
0
mm
99.06
0
in.
3.90
0
mm
52.32
0
in.
2.06
0
30
ROLLED ANGLE
FLATBAR RING
TOP OF STACK
RAIN CAP
DETAIL OF TYPICAL
RAIN CAP
150mm ( 6 in )
SCH 40 PIPE
HEIGHT TO SUIT
BACK PRESSURE
HEIGHT TO SUIT
WATER SEAL
10 mm ( 3 / 8 in )
BOTTOM PLATE
DETAIL OF TYPICAL
DRAIN POT
STACK
SWAY BRACE
SILENCER
SILENCER
MOUNTING FEET
DECK
EXPANSION
JOINT
DRAIN
DECK
EXPANSION JOINT
& TRANSITION PIECE
TURBO CHARGER
REDUCTION GEAR
TO BILGE
SPRING
HANGER
FIXED SUPPORT
DECK
CATERPILLAR
3600 ENGINE
TANKTOP
Typical Exhaust Pipe System
Figure 6
Typical Exhaust Pipe System
Exhaust Piping
A common exhaust system for multiple
installations is not acceptable. Combi ned
exhaust systems wi th boi l ers or other
engi nes al l ow operati ng engi nes to force
exhaust gases i nto engi nes not
operati ng. Every gal l on of fuel burned
provi des about one gal l on of water i n the
exhaust. The water vapor condenses i n
col d engi nes and causes engi ne damage.
Soot cl ogs turbochargers, aftercool ers,
and ai r cl eaner el ements. Duct val ves
separati ng engi ne exhausts i s
di scouraged. Hi gh temperatures warp
val ve seats and soot deposi ts cause
l eakage.
Each engi ne shoul d have an exhaust
pi pe l ed to atmosphere at the top of the
stack as shown i n Fi gure 6. A fl exi bl e
exhaust fi tti ng must be mounted di rectl y
on the transi ti on pi ece at the
turbocharger outl et.
The maxi mum gas vel oci ty shoul d not
exceed 50 m/sec (164 ft/sec) at ful l l oad.
Avoi d sharp bends, but where bends are
necessary have the l argest possi bl e
radi us. The mi ni mum radi us shoul d be
two pi pe di ameters. The pi pi ng shoul d
be as short as possi bl e and i nsul ated.
Protect the i nsul ati on by mechani cal
l aggi ng to keep i t i ntact. I nsul ate al l
fl exi bl e exhaust fi tti ngs wi th removabl e
qui l ted bl ankets.
Exhaust pi pi ng must be abl e to expand
and contract. I nstal l fl exi bl e exhaust
fi tti ngs between fi xed poi nts i n the
system. I t i s recommended that one
fi xed poi nt be i nstal l ed at the
turbocharger outl et di rectl y after the
fl exi bl e exhaust fi tti ng. Thi s wi l l prevent
the transmi ssi on of forces resul ti ng from
wei ght, thermal expansi on, or l ateral
di spl acement of the exhaust pi pi ng
acti ng on the turbocharger.
MAXIMUM LOADS FOR TURBOCHARGER EXHAUST
VERTICAL EXHAUST
BELLOWS
ADAPTER
HORIZONTAL EXHAUST
R
G
BELLOWS
H
285 mm
HORIZONTAL EXHAUST
M
Q
ADAPTERS
C
BELLOWS
S
285mm
C
I
I
Figure 8
Figure 7
C, H & S = Adapter Wei ght
I = 1/2 Bel l ows Wei ght
Vertical Exhaust
C + I = 180 kg Maxi mum
(i ncl udes al l forces acti ng on turbo)
Horizontal Exhaust
Mh
1
= MS + QI
Mh
2
= GH + RI
Wi th Caterpi l l ar Hardware
Mh
1
= .104 (47) + .516 (6) = 8 mkg<120 OK
Mh
1
= .100 (47) + .580 (6) = 8.2 mkg<120 OK
Vertical Load
28 + 6 = 34 kg<180 OK
}
Al l owabl e Maxi mum
Moment = 120 mkg
Q = 516 mm
M = 104 mm
H = 47 kg
12 kg
I =
______
= 6 kg
2
R = 580 mm
G = 100 mm
S = 47 kg
C = 28 kg
.
..
.
..
.
..
Maximum Loads For Turbocharger Exhaust
Horizontal Exhaust
Careful consi derati on must be gi ven to
turbocharger l oadi ng. Fi gures 7 and 8
show the maxi mum al l owabl e l oads.
Thermal growth of the exhaust pi pi ng
must be anti ci pated to avoi d excessi ve
l oad on supporti ng structures. Steel
exhaust pi pe expands 1.13 mm/m for
each 100C (0.0076 i n./ft for each 100F)
ri se of exhaust temperature. Thi s
amounts to 16.5 mm (0.65 i n.) expansi on
for each 3.05 m (10 ft) of pi pe from 35 to
510C (100 to 950F).
Support pi pi ng usi ng spri ng or rol l er
type hangers to al l ow for pi pe
movement, and to mi ni mi ze the
transmi ssi on of sound to other parts of
the shi p.
Fi t exhaust pi pi ng wi th conti nuousl y
open water drai ns (see Fi gure 6).
Combi ni ng of the i ndi vi dual engi ne
exhaust outl ets on 3612 and 3616 vee
engi nes can create probl ems. The
combi ni ng fabri cati on may resul t i n
unequal thermal growth and
backpressure from one bank to the other.
The unequal growth can put unwanted
l oadi ng i nto the turbocharger mounti ng
or the fl ex bel l ows. Unequal
backpressure can adversel y affect the
operati on and performance of the
engi ne. See Fi gure 9 for a suggested
pi pi ng arrangement.
Pi pi ng must be desi gned wi th engi ne
servi ce i n mi nd. I n many cases an
overhead crane i s needed to servi ce the
heavi er engi ne components.
31
32
Cleanliness
I nstall an identifiable blanking plate to
prevent debris from falling into the
turbocharger during installation. The
Caterpi l l ar shi ppi ng cover can be used.
I nstal l i t di rectl y on the turbi ne housi ng
and attach a warni ng tag i ndi cati ng the
pl ate must be removed before starti ng
the engi ne.
Silencer
Verti cal or hori zontal si l encers can be
used. When practi cal ori ent the si l encer
verti cal l y and use si de i nl ets to
el i mi nate extra i nl et and di scharge
el bows. Locate them as cl ose as possi bl e
to the end of the exhaust pi pe. The exact
l ocati on can be sel ected based on the
avai l abl e space wi thi n the engi ne room
or casi ng areas. Si l encers fi tted wi th a
spark box must have accessi bl e cl eani ng
ports. Use resi l i ent mounts to l i mi t noi se
and vi brati on transfer to the
surroundi ng structures.
Si ngl e si l encers on vee engi nes shoul d
have dual i nl ets rather than a Y, T,
or 180 degree abrupt enl argement.
Provi de a mi ni mum of 5 di ameters of
strai ght pi pi ng upstream of the si l encer
i nl et and 2.5 di ameters downstream
from the outl et to mi ni mi ze turbul ence.
I nsul ate the si l encer to avoi d
temperatures bel ow the dew poi nt of
sul furi c aci d and to protect personnel
from i njury. A si l encer wi th hi gher heat
resi stant materi al i s requi red when
i nsul ati ng l aggi ng i s used.
MAIN EXHAUST
PIPE
45 ELBOW
CONCENTRIC REDUCER
90 ELBOW
FIXED PIPE SUPPORT
KEEP AS SHORT AS POSSIBLE
TO MINIMIZE PIPE EXPANSION
AND WEIGHT
TRANSITION PIECE
TURBOCHARGER
12 OR 16 CYLINDER ENGINE
EXHAUST TO SILENCER
EXPANSION JOINT
PART SECTION
Typical Exhaust Pipe System
On Caterpillar Vee 12 & 16 Cylinder Engines
Figure 9
Silencer Data
The fol l owi ng techni cal i nformati on has
been obtai ned from Beai rd I ndustri es
I nc. and i s presented to provi de a gui de
for si l encer sel ecti on i nformati on. Other
manufacturers can be used wi th 3600
Engi nes.
Exhaust Noise
See the Noisesecti on of thi s gui de for
3600 noi se data. The procedure gi ven i n
thi s secti on esti mates the si l enced A-
wei ghted sound l evel of exhaust noi se
3m (10 ft) from the exhaust pi pe of an
engi ne usi ng a Maxi m MSA1 or
MSA2 si l encer. I t may be used when
unsi l enced engi ne noi se data i s
unavai l abl e or when a fi rst
approxi mati on of si l enced sound l evel s i s
desi red. The reducti on i n sound l evel
achi eved wi th a si l encer i s dependent on
the frequency di stri buti on of the noi se
source.
I nformati on Requi red
Engi ne horsepower
Si l encer model
Procedure:
SL = SL
o
- NR dB(A) at 3m (10 ft)
SL
o
= Unsi l enced engi ne sound
l evel at 3m (10 ft)
determi ned from Fi gure 10
as a functi on of horsepower
(dB(A))
NR = Si l encer noi se reducti on
factor obtai ned from
Fi gure 11 as a functi on of
si l encer model (dB)
Exampl e:
Horsepower - 1000 hp
Si l encer Model - MSA1
SL
o
= 114 dB (A) (from Fi gure 10)
NR = 20 dB (from Fi gure 11)
SL = SL
o
- NR
= (114) - (20)
SL = 94 dB (A) at 3 m (10 ft)
Si zi ng Maxi m Si l encer Model s MSA1 -
MSA2
I nformati on Requi red:
Q
o
= Vol ume Fl ow Rate (ft
3
/mi n)
T
o
= Exhaust Gas Temperature (
o
F)
P = Al l owabl e Si l encer Pressure
Drop (i n. H
2
O)
Procedure:
Determi ne standard vel oci ty (V
s
) from
Fi gure 12, whi ch corresponds to
the al l owabl e si l encer pressure drop.
Determi ne vel oci ty correcti on factor
(C
r
) from Fi gure 13, whi ch
corresponds to the Exhaust Gas
Temperature.
Cal cul ate mi ni mum si l encer area.
A
mi n
= Q di vi ded by C
r
V
s
.
From Fi gure 11 sel ect a si l encer
si ze wi th an area, m
2
(ft
2
), equal to or
greater than A
mi n
Exampl e 1 (Determi ne si l encer si ze):
Q
o
= 10,000 ft
3
/mi n
T
o
= 850F
P = 4 i n. H
2
O maxi mum
a. V
s
= 4,000 ft/mi n (Fi gure 12)
b. C
r
= 1.57 (Fi gure 13)
c. A
mi n.
= Q
o
di vi ded by C
r
V
s
= 10,000
di vi ded by (1.57)(4,000) =1.59 ft
2
d. Si l encer Si ze = 18 i n. (A=1.77 ft
2
)
(Fi gure 11)
Exampl e 2 (Determi ne actual pressure
drop for the si l encer si zed i n Exampl e 1):
V
s
= Q
o
di vi ded by C
r
A = 10,000
di vi ded by (1.57)(1.77) = 3599 ft/mi n
P = 3.25 i n. H
2
O (Fi gure 12)

Note: Heavy fuel engines require a
higher air flow. This must be taken into
account when sizing the
silencer.
33
34
130
120
110
100
10
2
10
3
10
4
T
u
r
b
o
c
h
a
r
g
e
d
S
L


(
d
B
(
A
)

@

1
0

f
t
)
o
Horsepower
UN Silenced A Weighted Sound
Level Versus Engine Output
A
Inlet
B
Outlet
C
Spark Box Outlet
Typical MAXIM Silencer

Exhaust Silencer Specifications
MSA1 MSA2
Size
mm (in) A B C
Weight
kg (lb)
Area
m
2
(ft
2
)
NR
db A B C
Weight
kg (lb)
Area
m
2
(ft
2
)
NR
db
305 (12)
356 (14)
406 (16)
457 (18)
508 (20)
559 (22)
610 (24)
660 (26)
711 (28)
762 (30)
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
76 (30)
91 (36)
102 (40)
114 (45)
127 (50)
137 (54)
152 (60)
163 (64)
173 (68)
183 (72)
175 (69)
196 (77)
221 (87)
254 (100)
274 (108)
295 (116)
325 (128)
345 (136)
384 (151)
411 (162)
305 (12)
356 (14)
406 (16)
457 (18)
508 (20)
559 (22)
610 (24)
660 (26)
711 (28)
762 (30)
76 (30)
91 (36)
102 (40)
114 (45)
127 (50)
137 (54)
152 (60)
163 (64)
173 (68)
183 (72)
277 (109)
259 (102)
302 (119)
323 (127)
366 (144)
409 (161)
419 (165)
465 (183)
508 (200)
549 (216)
305 (12)
356 (14)
406 (16)
457 (18)
508 (20)
559 (22)
610 (24)
660 (26)
711 (28)
762 (30)
259 (570)
338 (745)
494 (1090)
649 (1430)
812 (1790)
1002 (2210)
1200 (2645)
1338 (2950)
1742 (3840)
2028 (4470)
.08 (.785)
.10 (1.07)
.13 (1.39)
.16 (1.77)
.20 (2.18)
.25 (2.64)
.29 (3.14)
.34 (3.68)
.40 (4.28)
.46 (4.91)
338 (745)
438 (965)
608 (1340)
839 (1850)
987 (2175)
1202 (2650)
1542 (3400)
1746 (3850)
2195 (4840)
2336 (5150)
.08 (.785)
.10 (1.07)
.13 (1.39)
.16 (1.77)
.20 (2.18)
.25 (2.64)
.29 (3.14)
.34 (3.68)
.40 (4.28)
.46 (4.91)
Dimensions Dimensions
Note: Dimensions are approximate, and listed in cm(in).
Unsilenced A-Weighted Sound Level Versus Engine Output
Typical MAXIM

Silencer
Figure 10
Figure 11
35
Exhaust Gas Economizer
Separate exhaust gas economi zers
shoul d be used for each engi ne.
However, i f each engi ne has separate gas
secti ons and i t i s acceptabl e to the owner
and regul atory agency, a common
economi zer can be used. Exhaust gas
fl ow and temperature at vari ous
propul si on engi ne l oads i s found i n the
Engine Data secti on.
Exhaust Slobber
(extended periods of
insufficient load)
Extended engi ne operati on at no l oad or
l i ghtl y l oaded condi ti ons (l ess than 15%
l oad) may resul t i n exhaust mani fol d
sl obber, whi ch i s a bl ack oi l y mi xture of
fuel and/or oi l and soot. The presence of
exhaust mani fol d sl obber does not
necessari l y i ndi cate an engi ne probl em,
and i s not usual l y harmful to the engi ne.
The resul ts can be unsi ghtl y and
objecti onabl e.
6
7
8
9
10
5
4
3
2
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
10
3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10
4
MAXIM
MSA1
MSA2
MAXIM Silencer Pressure Drop
Versus Exhaust Gas Velocity (V )
s
P


(
i
n
c
h
e
s

o
f

H


O
)
2
s (fpm) V

Maxim

Silencer Pressure Drop


Versus Exhaust Gas Velocity (V
s
)
Figure 12
36
A normal l y operati ng engi ne shoul d be
expected to run for at l east one hour at
l i ght l oads wi thout si gni fi cant sl obber.
Some engi nes may run for as l ong as
four or more hours before sl obberi ng.
However, al l di esel engi nes wi l l
eventual l y sl obber i f run at l i ght l oads.
I f extended i dl e or l i ghtl y l oaded peri ods
of engi ne operati on are mandatory, the
effects of the engi ne sl obber can be
avoi ded by l oadi ng the engi ne to at l east
30% l oad for approxi matel y ten mi nutes
every four hours. Thi s removes fl ui ds
accumul ated i n the mani fol d. Correctl y
si zed engi nes for each appl i cati on
mi ni mi zes exhaust mani fol d sl obber.
Emissions
Di esel engi nes emi t substances that are
regul ated i n many areas. They i ncl ude
ni trogen oxi des (NO
x
), parti cul ates,
hydrocarbons, sul fur oxi des, carbon
monoxi de, and carbon di oxi de. Check
l ocal regul ati ons to determi ne
l i mi tati ons and speci al permi ts whi ch
mi ght appl y.
Types of Emissions
Nitrogen Oxides
Ni trogen oxi des are formed by
decomposi ti on of the mol ecul ar oxygen
and ni trogen present i n the combusti on
ai r and recombi nati on as ni trogen
oxi des. Thi s occurs duri ng hi gh
temperature combusti on. Ni trogen
oxi des consi st pri mari l y of ni tri c oxi de
(NO) and ni trogen di oxi de (NO
2
). The
desi gnati on NO
x
i ndi cates 1 or 2 oxygen
atoms can be present i n the mol ecul e.
General l y, over 90% of the NO
x
i n di esel
exhaust i s i n the form of NO. The NO
gradual l y oxi di zes to the more harmful
NO
2
speci e i n the atmosphere. By
conventi on, the NO
x
mass emi ssi ons
(such as g/hr) are usual l y gi ven as an
equi val ent mass of NO
2
.
NO
x
emi ssi ons i n parts per mi l l i on by
vol ume can be cal cul ated approxi matel y
from the mass emi ssi on rate
(i f avai l abl e) and the exhaust fl ow:
1. 8
1. 7
1. 6
1. 5
1. 4
6 0 0 8 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0
Cr
T ( F)
Vel oci t y Correct i on Fact or ( Cr)
Versus Exhaust Gas Temperat ure
o
T
0
(F)
Velocity Correction Factor (Cr)
Versus Exhaust Gas Temperature Figure 13
37
(NO
x
mass emi ssi ons)
NO
x
concentrati on = 629 x
_____________________
(Exhaust mass fl ow)
Where:
NO
x
concentrati on i s i n parts per mi l l i on (ppm)
NOx mass emi ssi ons are i n g/hr of equi val ent NO
2
Exhaust mass fl ow i s i n kg/hr
Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons are unburned or parti al l y
burned fuel and l ubri cati ng oi l .
Hydrocarbon emi ssi ons i n parts per
mi l l i on can be cal cul ated approxi matel y
from the mass emi ssi on rate and the
exhaust fl ow:
(HC Mass Emi ssi ons)
HC concentrati on = 2067 x
_____________________
(Exhaust Mass Fl ow)
Where:
HC concentrati on i s i n parts per mi l l i on (ppm)
HC mass emi ssi ons are i n g/hr
Exhaust mass fl ow i s i n kg/hr
Particulates
Parti cul ate emi ssi ons i ncl ude unburned
carbon (soot), ash, hi gh mol ecul ar wei ght
hydrocarbons, and sul fates. The l evel of
parti cul ate emi ssi ons depends on the
type of measuri ng system used. There i s
no uni versal l y accepted method for
measuri ng mari ne di esel emi ssi ons.
Parti cul ates can be measured by passi ng
a known porti on of the exhaust through
a fi l ter whi ch i s wei ghed before and after
the sampl i ng. The amount of parti cul ate
col l ected on the fi l ter depends on the
temperature of the fi l ter, and on whether
the sampl e i s di l uted wi th cl ean ai r. The
di l uti on rati o i s accounted for i n
cal cul ati ng the emi ssi ons.
Caterpi l l ar has devel oped a correl ati on
between smoke and parti cul ate
concentrati on whi ch can be used to
approxi mate parti cul ate emi ssi ons.
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon monoxi de (CO) resul ts from
i ncompl ete combusti on of the fuel . CO
emi ssi ons i n parts per mi l l i on (by
vol ume) can be cal cul ated from the mass
emi ssi on rate (i f avai l abl e) and the
exhaust fl ow:
1034 (CO mass emi ssi ons)
CO concentrati on =
__________________________
(Exhaust mass fl ow)
Where:
CO concentrati on i s i n parts per mi l l i on (ppm)
CO mass emi ssi ons are i n g/hr
Exhaust mass fl ow i s i n kg/hr
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon di oxi de (CO
2
) i s one of the
pri mary natural byproducts of
combusti on (water i s the other pri mary
byproduct). Si nce CO
2
emi ssi ons are
bei ng moni tored i ncreasi ngl y worl dwi de,
i t i s i mportant to be abl e to determi ne
the amount of CO
2
i n the exhaust.
Several factors affect CO
2
emi ssi ons
i ncl udi ng the engi ne output (amount of
fuel burned), the carbon/hydrogen rati o
of the fuel , and the heati ng val ue of the
fuel . Consul t a Caterpi l l ar
representati ve for CO
2
emi ssi ons data
for a parti cul ar appl i cati on.
Sulfur Dioxide
The sul fur present i n the fuel oxi di zes
pri mari l y to sul fur di oxi de (SO
2
). A
smal l amount, general l y 2% or l ess, ends
up as sul fate. The emi ssi ons of sul fur
di oxi de depend onl y on the sul fur l evel of
the fuel and the fuel consumpti on rate of
the engi ne. Sul fur di oxi de emi ssi ons can
be cal cul ated by the formul a:
Speci fi c SO
2
emi ssi ons =
(0.01998) (bsfc) (Fuel sul fur i n percent)
Where:
Speci fi c SO
2
emi ssi ons are i n g/kW-hr
Fuel sul fur i s i n percent by wei ght
bsfc i s i n g/kW-hr
Exampl e:
Fuel sul fur...............................................................0.25%
Fuel consumpti on........................................195 g/kW-hr
Speci fi c SO
2
= (0.01998) (195) (0.25)
Emi ssi ons = 0.974 g/kW-hr
SO
2
emi ssi ons i n parts per mi l l i on (by vol ume) can be
cal cul ated from the mass emi ssi on rate and the exhaust
fl ow:
452 (SO
2
mass emi ssi ons)
SO
2
concentrati on =
_________________________
(exhaust mass fl ow)
Where:
SO
2
concentrati on i s i n parts per mi l l i on (ppm)
SO
2
mass emi ssi ons are i n g/hr
Exhaust mass fl ow i s i n kg/hr
38
3600 Emissions Data
Factors affecti ng emi ssi ons i ncl ude
engi ne rati ng, rated speed, turbocharger,
ti mi ng, ambi ent condi ti ons, and fuel .
Emi ssi ons l evel s for some rati ngs are
avai l abl e i n the TMI . Consul t the factory
for emi ssi on esti mates for rati ngs not i n
the TMI . I nformati on that must be
provi ded wi th an emi ssi ons request
i ncl udes:
Rated speed and power
Type of rati ng
(e.g., MCR, Shi p set auxi l i ary)
Duty cycl e descri pti on
Ambi ent condi ti ons
Fuel type
Speed and l oad poi nt for requested
emi ssi ons.
Effect of Ambient
Conditions
Ambi ent condi ti ons affect emi ssi ons.
Hotter i nl et ai r and hi gher al ti tudes wi l l
i ncrease NO
x
and parti cul ate emi ssi ons.
Control Methods
Caterpi l l ar Engi nes are devel oped to
mi ni mi ze exhaust emi ssi ons. Features of
3600 Engi nes i ncl udi ng hi gh pressure
uni t i njectors and l ow temperature
aftercool i ng reduce exhaust emi ssi ons.
On some rati ngs NO
x
emi ssi ons can be
reduced by retardi ng i njecti on ti mi ng.
NO
x
emi ssi ons can be reduced by
approxi matel y 20%. Parti cul ates, vi si bl e
smoke, fuel consumpti on, exhaust
temperature, exhaust fl ow, and
turbocharger speed are al l i ncreased by
retardi ng ti mi ng for NO
x
control .
Al ti tude capabi l i ty i s reduced wi th
retarded ti mi ng. Consul t the factory for
avai l abi l i ty of reduced NO
x
emi ssi on
engi nes.
Exhaust after treatment of vari ous types
has been tested on di esel engi nes. NO
x
can be reduced by sel ecti ve catal yti c
reducti on by ammoni a i n whi ch
ammoni a i s added to the exhaust gas
and reacted wi th the NO
x
as a catal yst.
Parti cul ates can be removed by cerami c
fi l ters. These systems are consi dered
experi mental .
Measurement Units and
Conversions
Emi ssi on rate can be cal cul ated from
brake speci fi c emi ssi ons:
Emi ssi on rate (g/hr) =
(brake speci fi c emi ssi ons i n g/hp-hr) x (power i n hp)
Emi ssi on regul ati ons are often i n terms
of parts per mi l l i on (ppm) or grams per
standard cubi c meter at a reference
exhaust oxygen concentrati on to take
di l uti on i nto account. The fol l owi ng
formul a can be used to convert pol l utant
concentrati on actual l y present to the
reference oxygen concentrati on:
20.9 - 0 ref
X ref = X actual
______________
20.9 - 0 actual
Where:
X actual = Pol l utant concentrati on i n ppm at actual
exhaust oxygen concentrati on.
X ref = Pol l utant concentrati on i n ppm at reference
exhaust oxygen concentrati on.
0 actual = Oxygen concentrati on i n actual exhaust i n
percent
0 ref = Reference exhaust concentrati on i n percent
Exampl e:
Measured 1000 ppm NO
x
at 8% oxygen.
Equi val ent at 5% oxygen
20.9 - 5
X ref = 1000 ppm
________
20.9 - 8
= 1233 ppm


Diesel Engine Systems - Starting Air

Starting Systems
Ambient Capability
Prelubrication
Air Starters
Air Tank Sizing
Air Tank Requirements
Customer Connections
Cleanliness
Testing

41

Starting Systems
Ai r starti ng motors are used on vi rtual l y
al l 3600 Engi nes. Fi gure 1, on page 45,
i s a typi cal overal l schemati c of a mari ne
engi ne ai r starti ng system.

Ambient Capability
The 3600 Engi ne can be started wi thout
combusti on ai ds down to 0C (32F). Do
not l oad the engi ne unti l i t has reached
proper operati ng temperatures.

Note:

Do not inject ether into the air
intake system. I f ambi ents bel ow 0C
(32F) are to be encountered, use jacket
water and/or oi l preheaters. See the
Coolingand Lubricating Oil secti ons of
thi s gui de.
Most 3600 Engi nes are started wi th
jacket water and oi l temperatures near a
25C (77F) ambi ent. Jacket water
and/or oi l preheati ng may be requi red i n
some appl i cati ons. Addi ti onal ai r tank
vol ume may be requi red wi th l ower
ambi ent temperatures.
The approxi mate effect of l ow
temperatures on engi ne cranki ng i s
shown i n Fi gure 2.
The curves show approxi matel y:
The amount of pressure i ncrease at
the starter ai r i nl et to achi eve the
equi val ent of 24C (75F)
cranki ng rpm.
The amount of ai r tank capaci ty
i ncrease to achi eve the equi val ent of
24C (75F) cranki ng ti me.
Exampl e:
I f a 1000 L (265 gal ) ai r tank at
828 kPa (120 psi ) cranks an engi ne
for 6 seconds at 24C (75F),
approxi matel y 50% more, or 1500 L
(397 gal ), i s needed to crank for
6 seconds at -4C (25F).
I f 1034 kPa (150 psi ) ai r at 24C
(75F) cranks an engi ne to 180 rpm,
approxi matel y 25% more, or 1293 kPa
(188 psi ), i s needed to crank to 180 rpm
at -4C (25F).
Prelubrication
The engine must be prelubed prior to
each start. The conti nuous prel ube pump
i s el ectri cal l y dri ven. I f an i ntermi ttent
ai r dri ven prel ube pump i s used,
i ncrease the ai r tank vol ume accordi ngl y.
TheCaterpillar intermittent air prelube
pump consumption rate is 28.2 L/ sec
(60 cfm) based on free air at 15.6C @
99 kPa (60F @14.4 psia). See the
Lubricating Oil section of this guide for
prelube time requirements.
Air Starters
The Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed ai r starti ng
system i ncl udes vane type ai r starti ng
motors, a l ubri cator, an ai r rel ay val ve, a
strai ner, a shutoff val ve, and a pressure
regul ator i f requi red by the ai r suppl y
system.
Fi gure 3, page 46, shows an ai r starti ng
system wi th el ectri c prel ube and Fi gure
4, page 47, shows an ai r starti ng system
wi th ai r prel ube.
Typi cal l y the i n-l i ne engi nes use one
vane type starti ng ai r motor and the vee
engi nes use two.
Turbi ne starters are al so avai l abl e by
speci al order for i nstal l ati ons requi ri ng
l ow pressure ai r starti ng. They operate
on ai r pressures from 621 kPag (90 psi g)
to 829 kPag (120 psi g).
250
200
150
100
24(75) 10(50) -4(25) -18(0) -32(-25)
VOLUME
PRESSURE
%

R
E
Q
U
I
R
E
D
TEMPERATURE C ( F)
Figure 2
Pressure Requirements
Vane type starters operate on gauge ai r
pressures from 621 kPag (90 psi g) to
1550 kPag (225 psi g) at the starter inlet
ports. Air pressure at the starter must not
exceed 1550 kPag (225 psig). An ai r
pressure drop i s associ ated wi th each
ai r suppl y component (such as the
l ubri cator, strai ner, rel ay val ves, etc.)
duri ng starti ng. The dynami c l osses
range from 207 to 414 kPa (30 to 60 psi )
dependi ng on engi ne model and suppl y
l i ne pressure. Thus, 621 kPag (90 psig)
air tank pressure will not start the
engine. A mi ni mum suppl y l i ne pressure
of 862 kPag (125 psi g) i s recommended
for proper starti ng, regardl ess of
starter type.
Every i nstal l ati on wi l l have a di fferent
pressure drop i n the suppl y l i ne,
dependi ng on the l ength of suppl y l i ne,
pi pi ng si ze, and the number of val ves,
el bows, etc. For an i ni ti al system
eval uati on, a 207 kPa (30 psi ) suppl y
l i ne pressure drop may be assumed.
Note: The air pressure in the air receiver
will decrease when the starter operates if
the system pressure is the same as the
pressure delivered to the starting air
motors. I n this case, the air starting
pressure must be higher at the beginning
of the starting sequence. I f system
pressure is much greater than that
required by the air motor(s) and a
regulating valve is used, then air
pressure in the air receivers will not
decrease upon initial cranking.
A pressure regul ator must be used to
reduce the ai r pressure when the suppl y
pressure exceeds 1550 kPag (225 psi g).
Dependi ng on starter type, the pressure
regul ator shoul d be set to operate
between 860 to 1550 kPag (125 to
225 psi g). Thi s wi l l ensure 621 kPag
(90 psi g) or greater pressure to the
starter i nl et port duri ng cranki ng. The
regul ator must be si zed to handl e the
fol l owi ng ai r fl ows at the stated
regul ator outl et pressure setti ngs:
The hi gher 1550 kPag (225 psi g) setti ng
wi l l i mprove starti ng under adverse
starti ng condi ti ons such as l ow ambi ent
temperature. Two Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed
pressure regul ators are avai l abl e. They
are rated for tank pressures of up to
4140 kPag (600 psi).
Air Tank Sizing
At l east two el ectri c motor dri ven ai r
compressors are normal l y used to fi l l the
shi ps starti ng ai r tanks from
atmospheri c pressure to maxi mum
pressure i n the ti me requi red by
regul atory agenci es. About 60 mi nutes
shoul d be al l owed i f the shi p i s not
cl assed. The compressors shoul d be
arranged for automati c start/stop
operati on and fi tted wi th an unl oadi ng
devi ce.
Due to the many vari abl es encountered
i n the engi ne starti ng process, the exact
amount of starti ng ai r requi red for al l
engi ne i nstal l ati ons cannot be predi cted.
The 3600 Ai r Start Tank Si zi ng Curve,
Fi gure 5, shows the requi red tank
vol ume for i n-l i ne or vee engi nes versus
the desi red number of starts for di fferent
i ni ti al tank pressures. Most mari ne
soci eti es requi re a mi ni mum of 6
consecuti ve starts for propul si on engi ne
appl i cati ons. Refer to the appl i cabl e
mari ne soci ety rul es for other
appl i cati ons. The curves for 1600 kPa
(230 psi ) and l ess al l ow for 6% pressure
drop between the tank and the starter.
For pressures greater than 1600 kPa
(230 psi ), the curves assume regul ati on
to 860 kPa (125 psi ) at the starter. See
the tabl e above for regul ator ai r
fl ow capaci ti es.
42
Static Regulator
Outlet Pressure
kPag (psig)
862 (125)
1550 (225)
Estimated Dynamic
Pressure At The
Starter kPag (psig)
620-655 (90-95)
1172 (170)
Air Flow Capacity
Per Starter L/sec
(SCFM)
400 (720)
615 (1300)
43
I f the engi ne wi l l be started at ambi ent
temperatures l ower than 25C (77F),
addi ti onal storage tank vol ume may be
requi red. Addi ti onal vol ume may al so be
requi red i f the ai r i s used for other
purposes besi des starti ng ai r, such as ai r
prel ube and pneumati c control s. The
Caterpi l l ar i ntermi ttent ai r prel ube
pump consumpti on rate i s 28.2 L/sec
(60 cfm). The pump motor operati ng ai r
pressure i s 689 kPa (100 psi ), and i t i s
suppl i ed wi th i ts own ai r pressure
regul ator. The i ntermi ttent prel ube
pump wi l l normal l y operate between one
and fi ve mi nutes before the engi ne i s
started, but shoul d not be run for l onger
than ten mi nutes.
Air Tank Requirements
Ai r tanks must meet al l appl i cabl e
speci fi cati ons [e.g., Ameri can Bureau of
Shi ppi ng, Ll oyds Regi ster, The Ameri can
Soci ety of Mechani cal Engi neers
(ASME)] and be compl ete wi th the
fol l owi ng:
Safety Val ve Drai ns
Gauge I nspecti on Openi ngs
I nl ets Outl ets
Check the safety val ves peri odi cal l y for
sti cki ng. Fi t the recei ver drai ns wi th
automati c drai n traps to keep water and
compressor oi l from accumul ati ng.
Customer Connections
Vane type starters must be suppl i ed
wi th cl ean ai r. Deposi ts of oi l -water
mi xture must be removed by traps
i nstal l ed at i nterval s i n the l i nes. Li nes
shoul d sl ope toward the traps and away
from the engi ne.
Ai r suppl y pi pes shoul d be short and at
l east equal i n si ze to the motor i ntake.
Bl ack seaml ess steel ASTM-A106 grade
B pi pe i s preferabl e wi th wal l thi ckness
dependent on the l i ne ai r pressure and
the type of connecti ons (socket wel d,
threaded, etc.) used i n the system.
A fl exi bl e connecti on i s requi red cl ose to
the engi ne and posi ti oned to make
maxi mum use of i ts fl exi bi l i ty.
Caterpi l l ar suppl i ed starti ng systems
i ncl ude a fl exi bl e hose 610 mm (2 ft)
l ong.
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0 0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TIME / START = 3 SEC
REGULATOR PRESSURE = 860 kPa
FINAL TANK PRESSURE = 415 kPa
INITIAL TANK
PRESSURE (kPa)
7
0
0

k
P
a
1
4
0
0
k
P
a
1
0
0
0

k
P
a
1
6
0
0
k
P
a
2
0
0
0
k
P
a
3
0
0
0
kP
a
4000 kPa
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0 0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TIME / START = 3 SEC
REGULATOR PRESSURE = 860 kPa
FINAL TANK PRESSURE = 415 kPa
INITIAL TANK
PRESSURE (kPa)
7
0
0

k
P
a
3600 Air Start Tank Sizing
V
e
e

A
i
r

S
t
o
r
a
g
e

T
a
n
k

V
o
l
u
m
e

(
M
3
)
Number of Available Starts Figure 5
I f the engi ne operates at ambi ents bel ow
0C (32F), and operates i n a hi gh
humi di ty envi ronment, an ai r dryer i s
needed to prevent condensed water from
freezi ng i n pi pi ng. When the same air is
used for other purposes, e.g., engine
controls, the air dryer is essential.
Cleanliness
Purge the compressed ai r l i nes of debri s
and l oose wel d materi al pri or to i ni ti al
startup. Di rty suppl y l i nes can damage
starters and cause mal functi ons of the
rel ay val ve. A damaged val ve can open
or keep open the mai n ai r suppl y l i nes
and cause pi ni on and fl ywheel ri ng gear
teeth damage (pi ni on spi nni ng whi l e
engagi ng).
Testing
Hydrostati cal l y test the compressed ai r
l i nes to at l east 1.5 ti mes the system
worki ng pressure, or to the
requi rements of the appl i cabl e
regul atory agency.
44
45
M

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46
START/PRELUBE
SWITCH
BATTERY
SHUT OFF
SWITCH
RELAY
SWITCH
PRELUBE
PUMP
OIL
MANIFOLD
OIL
PAN
AIR STARTING MOTOR
OILER
RELAY
VALVE
STRAINER
SHUTOFF
VALVE
AIR
FILTER
WATER
SEPARATOR
AIR
STORAGE
AIR
COMPRESSOR
CUSTOMER SUPPLIED
MANUAL
BARRING
INTERLOCK
ELECTRIC/AIR
START RELAY
VALVE
OIL PRESSURE
SWITCH/VALVE
AIR
COMPRESSOR
PRESSURE REGULATOR
& RELIEF VALVE
(WHEN REQUIRED)
1550 kPa (225 psi) MAX
Figure 3
Air Starting Motor - Electric Prelube
Pump with Electric Controls
START/PRELUBE
SWITCH
BATTERY
24 VDC
OPENS AT 250 RPM
OIL PRESSURE
SWITCH/VALVE
AIR STARTING MOTOR - AIR DRIVEN PRELUBE PUMP
WITH ELECTRIC CONTROLS
PRELUBE PUMP
OILER
RELAY VALVE
PRESSURE
RELIEF
VALVE
PRESSURE
REDUCING
VALVE
OIL PAN
OIL
MANIFOLD
AIR STARTING MOTOR
OILER
MANUAL
BARRING
INTERLOCK
STRAINER
SHUTOFF
VALVE
RELAY
VALVE
PRESSURE REGULATOR
& RELIEF VALVE
(WHEN REQUIRED)
1550 kPa (225 psi) MAX
CUSTOMER SUPPLIED
AIR
COMP.
AIR
STORAGE
AIR
FILTER
WATER
SEPARATOR
Figure 4
Air Starting Motor - Air Driven Prelube Pump
with Electric Controls
47


Engine Systems -
Crankcase Ventilation

51

Crankcase Ventilation
Normal combusti on pressures i n an
i nternal combusti on engi ne cause some
bl owby past pi ston ri ngs i nto the
crankcase. To prevent pressure bui l dup
wi thi n the crankcase, vent tubes and
crankcase breathers are provi ded.
Do not vent crankcase fumes i nto the
engi ne room. Fumes cl og ai r fi l ters and
i ncrease ai r i nl et temperature causi ng
engi ne damage. They can al so cause
probl ems i n the el ectri cal equi pment.
Crankcase fumes shoul d be di scharged
to the atmosphere through a venti ng
system as shown i n Fi gure 1. A separate
vent l i ne for each engi ne i s requi red. The
vee engi nes have breathers l ocated on
the servi ce si de of the engi ne. Crankcase
vent pi pes must be l arge enough to
mi ni mi ze backpressure. Bl owby on a
new engi ne wi l l be approxi matel y
.02 m
3
/hr/bkW (.5 ft
3
/hr/bhp). The pi pes
shoul d al so be adequatel y si zed to
accommodate a worn engi ne. Si ze vent
pi pi ng for .04 m
3
/hr/bkW (1 ft
3
/hr/bhp)
wi th a maxi mum of 13 mm H
2
O
(0.5 i n. H
2
O) pressure drop i n the pi pi ng.
Loops or l ow spots i n a crankcase vent
pi pe must be avoi ded to prevent
condensati on from col l ecti ng i n the pi pe
and restri cti ng normal fume di scharge.
Where hori zontal runs are requi red,
i nstal l the pi pe wi th a gradual
41.7 mm/m (.5 i n./ft) sl ope from the
engi ne. I n typi cal mari ne i nstal l ati ons,
the wei ght of the vent pi pes wi l l requi re
separate off-engi ne supports as part of
the i nstal l ati on desi gn (see Fi gure 1).
Vent the pi pe di rectl y to atmosphere at
the top of the stack and fi t wi th a
gooseneck (wi th fl ame screen) to keep
rai n or spray from enteri ng the engi ne.
Gi ve consi derati on to other equi pment
l ocated near the di scharge area. The
smal l amount of oi l carryover can
accumul ate over ti me and become
unsi ghtl y.
An oi l vent/condensate trap i nstal l ed i n
the pi pi ng wi l l mi ni mi ze the amount of
oi l di scharge through the vent pi pe
(see Fi gure 1).
I n col d cl i mate condi ti ons the oi l
vent/condensate trap shoul d be i nstal l ed
cl oser to the engi ne breather connecti on
to prevent condensati on from freezi ng i n
the trap.
Under no ci rcumstances shoul d
crankcase pressure vary more than
25.4 mm H
2
O (1.0 i n. H
2
O) from
ambi ent barometri c pressure. Make
measurement at the engi ne di psti ck
l ocati on wi th the engi ne at operati ng
temperature and speed, and at 50%-75%
rated l oad.
52
75 mm SCH 40 PIPE
236mm
78mm
275mm
394mm
157mm
904mm
200mm SCH 40 PIPE
75mm SCH 40 PIPE
DRAIN TO SLUDGE
ON WASTE OIL TANK
20mm SCH 40 PIPE
200 X 75mm REDUCER
DETAIL OF OIL VENT /
CONDENSATE TRAP
STACK
VENT DETAIL
TOP OF STACK
VENT
OIL VENT /
CONDENSATE TRAP
SEE DETAIL ABOVE
DECK
CONTINUOUS GRADUAL
SLOPE UPWARDS
FIXED SUPPORT
DECK
FLEXIBLE CONNECTOR
CATERPILLAR
3600 ENGINE
TANKTOP
EXPANSION JOINT
& TRANSITION PIECE
DECK
TURBO CHARGER
REDUCTION GEAR
GOOSE NECK
WITH
FLAME
SCREEN
Figure 1

Detail Of Oil Vent /
Condensate Trap

3600 Marine Engine
Applic ation and
Installation
Guide

G

Mounting and Alignment


LEKM8467 8-98
Mounting and Alignment

Foundation Design
Engines
Marine Gear
Generator Sets
Construction Materials
Dual Engine Installation
Installations Near the Ships Side
Mounting
Hard Mounting
Resin Chocking
Steel Chocking
Collision Blocks
Guide Blocks
Hold Down Bolts
Isolation Mounts
Caterpillar Silicone Shear Pads
Christie & Grey Mounts
Alignment
Hard Mounting
Preparation and Cleaning
Engine Installation

Marine Gear Input Shaft Face Runout


Axial Alignment
Coupling Installation
Final Axial Alignment
Cold Crankshaft Deflection Check
Hot Alignment
Hot Crankshaft Deflection Check
Isolation Mounting
Caterpillar Silicone Shear Pads
Procedure
Christie & Grey

5
Foundation Design

Engines
Thi s secti on deal s wi th propul si on
engi ne and mari ne gear foundati ons and
thei r rel ati onshi p to shi p frami ng. Refer
to

Mountingand Alignment of thi s
secti on for i nformati on on bol ti ng,
chocki ng, and al i gnment.
The majori ty of 3600 Mari ne
appl i cati ons wi l l be cl assed by a Mari ne
Cl assi fi cati on Soci ety. The contractor or
engi neeri ng fi rm must submi t structural
drawi ngs and/or modi fi cati ons to the
soci ety for approval . Al so, submi t the
drawi ngs to Caterpi l l ar for revi ew. I f
requi red, engi ne foundati on steel shoul d
be certi fi ed and approved by the
cl assi fi cati on soci ety.
Frame l i ne and fl oor spaci ng wi l l depend
on the shi p type, cl assi fi cati on soci ety
requi rements, shi pyard procedures,
producti on and fabri cati on techni ques,
etc. From a machi nery standpoi nt, i t i s
desi rabl e for fl oors and brackets to be
al i gned verti cal l y wi th the engi ne
crankshaft beari ngs and cyl i nder bl ock
bul kheads. Thi s provi des ri gi di ty for the
engi ne and reducti on gear uni ts.
Mai n beari ng spaci ngs on the
Caterpi l l ar 3600 Fami l y of Engi nes
are 410 mm (16.1 i n.) and 460 mm,
(18.1 i n.) for the i n-l i ne and vee engi nes
respecti vel y. At thi s di stance the frame
and/or fl oor spaci ng may be too cl ose for
i nspecti on and mai ntenance of the i nner
bottom structure. When thi s occurs the
spaci ng requi rement may i ncrease to a
maxi mum of 610 mm (24 i n.).
Exact anal yti cal methods cannot al ways
be used to desi gn engi ne foundati ons.
The desi gn i s al so i nfl uenced by several
factors, i ncl udi ng previ ous successful
i nstal l ati ons, the desi gner s experi ence,
and the basi c di mensi ons of the speci fi c
engi ne bei ng i nstal l ed. See the Engine
Data secti on of thi s gui de for speci fi c
i nformati on on 3600 Engi ne wei ghts and
di mensi ons.
The engi ne foundati on must resi st
verti cal , hori zontal , and fore-and-aft
defl ecti on. I ntegrate the foundati on i nto
the reducti on gear foundati on to connect
the overal l structure to the shi ps i nner
bottom structure as shown i n Fi gure 1.
The thrust from the propel l er and the
dynami c forces from the mai n engi ne
and reducti on gear are evenl y
di stri buted over a l arge area of the i nner
bottom structure.
Sectional View At A
Ships Transverse Frame
Figure 1
6
As shown i n Fi gure 2 on page 28, the
foundati ons l ongi tudi nal foundati on
gi rders l ocated on each si de of the engi ne
or gear box conti nue bel ow the tank top
as keel sons i n the i nner bottom
structure. When i t i s not possi bl e to use
one pi ece gi rders and keel sons, they
shoul d at l east be i n al i gnment above
and bel ow the tank top.
The mai n engi ne foundati on must have
suffi ci ent ri gi di ty to transmi t stati c and
dynami c forces from the mai n engi ne
i nto the foundati on. The gi rder and face
pl ate must:
I ncrease bendi ng i nerti a of the
structure
Faci l i tate chock i nstal l ati on
Permi t i nstal l ati on of si de bl ocks and
col l i si on chocks
Provi de a work shelf for servi ci ng the
si de of the engi ne
The mai n engi ne and reducti on gear
foundati on must al so be desi gned to
absorb the l oads from:
Shi ps vi brati on
Propel l er thrust
Thrust and torque of the engi ne
Shi ps moti on at sea
Thermal , stati c and dynami c effects
Crash reversal s
Because the l oads ori gi nate from sources
other than the engi ne, the foundati on
secti ons shoul d be uni nterrupted and
have adequate secti on strength.
To avoi d natural frequency resonance
between engi ne and hul l , the shi p
bui l der must ensure resonance between
torque exci tati on and the natural
transverse hul l frequenci es does not
occur.
Foundation Deformations
The desi gner must assess the ri gi di ty of
the foundati on versus the engi ne and
gear deformati on. The fol l owi ng engi ne
bendi ng i nerti as may be used to
eval uate the foundati on system:
Doubl e conti nuous fi l l et wel di ng must be
used for the enti re engi ne foundati on
and i nner bottom structure i n the
proxi mi ty of the engi ne and gear box.
Ful l penetrati on wel ds are
recommended when heavy scantl i ngs
are requi red, such as l ongi tudi nal
gi rders and engi ne foundati on top
fl ange. Submi t detai l s of the mai n
engi ne scantl i ngs and wel di ng to the
appropri ate cl assi fi cati on soci ety.
Engi ne foundati on desi gn i nvol ves:
Engi ne posi ti on rel ati ve to the
structure, ei ther as new constructi on
or repower. Thi s may be the most
i mportant consi derati on.
Bul khead and deck l ocati ons.
Depth of doubl e bottom.
Spaci ng and l ocati on of the transverse
fl oor and l ongi tudi nal gi rders.
Other engi ne room machi nery.
Table of Bending Inertias
Engine Model Bending Inertia (I
x
)
3606
3608
3612
3616
3.8 E11 mm
4
3.8 E11 mm
4
6.0 E11 mm
4
6.0 E11 mm
4
Figure 3
I
x
= Inertia About x Axis
7
More engi ne l ocati on possi bi l i ti es wi l l be
avai l abl e i n new shi p constructi on. The
mai n engi nes l ocati on may be moved
somewhat to faci l i tate opti mum shafti ng
posi ti oni ng. Speci fi c repoweri ng i s
di scussed i n more detai l i n the
Repowering Applications secti on of thi s
gui de. The foundati on gi rders must be
i ntegral wi th the l ongi tudi nal keel sons
wi thi n new engi ne room constructi on.
The di stance of the foundati on gi rders
from the engi ne centerl i ne i s determi ned
by the engi ne mounti ng feet l ocati on
shown i n Fi gures 4 through 8 on pages
29 through 33 i n the Mountingsecti on.
After al l owi ng chocki ng cl earance, the
hei ght of the mounti ng feet bel ow the
hori zontal centerl i ne of the engi ne
determi nes the foundati on hei ght. See
the Mounting secti on for chocki ng
di scussi on.
Extend the engi ne foundati on top fl ange
beyond the forward engi ne mounti ng
foot to al l ow room for col l i si on bl ocks. At
thi s poi nt, taper the fl ange downward to
meet the tank top at a fl oor. Revi ew the
top fl ange l ength and i ts l ocati on
rel ati ve to the shi ps frami ng. I t must
extend beyond a frame to accommodate
one pai r of brackets at the forward end
before i t tapers gradual l y downward to
the tank top.
The forward taper i s general l y
determi ned by the shi ps transverse
frame spaci ng. I n cl osel y spaced
frami ng, the end taper shoul d extend
over two frame spaces whi l e i n shi ps
wi th l arger frame spaces, the forward
taper woul d general l y extend over one
frame space, Fi gure 9. The taper shoul d
be gradual , but wi l l depend on the fl oor
spaci ng; approxi matel y 30- 45 above
the hori zontal .
Improper Tapering Off - Engine Foundation
Proper Tapering Off - Engine Foundation Figure 9
8
Al so taper the foundati on gi rder top
fl ange down to the tank top. The sl opi ng
fl ange can be thi nner than the
foundati on top fl ange, about 60 to 75% of
the top fl ange thi ckness. Make the
sl opi ng fl ange from strai ght fl at bar or
fl at bar tapered to a l esser wi dth at the
tank top end, Fi gure 10. The fl ange must
have a ful l penetrati on wel d at the tank
top. Doubl e conti nuous wel ds are
general l y used i n the foundati on and ful l
penetrati on wel ds are used where thi ck
pl ates (1/2 i n.) joi n each other.
The foundati on top fl ange must be wi der
than requi red for engi ne mounti ng feet.
I ncl ude requi rements for si de gui de
bl ocks and dammi ng when usi ng poured
chocki ng.
The aft end foundati on l ocati on i s
determi ned i n a si mi l ar manner to the
forward usi ng the l ast set of mounti ng
foot bol ts and the need for rear col l i si on
bl ocks. The engi ne top fl ange shoul d
have a transi ti on i nto the reducti on gear
foundati on.
Plan View Of Main Engine Girders
Foundation Girders-Tapered Brackets
Figure 10
9
Transverse brackets must be provi ded at
each frame. I n general , the brackets are
wel ded at the top to the top fl ange, and
at the bottom to the tank top unl ess
there i s no l ongi tudi nal structure under
the tank top. Where no l ongi tudi nal
keel son or frame i s present, the bracket
fl ange must be cut to cl ear the tank top.
See Fi gure 11. Brackets and bracket
fl anges must never be pl aced on
unsupported soft pl ati ng. The
transverse wi dth of each bracket i s
general l y determi ned by the space
between the l ongi tudi nal keel son at the
foundati on gi rder and the next outboard
l ongi tudi nal keel son or frame. The
bracket shape i s i n general terms about
45, but i s determi ned by the geometry
of the structure. Where wi del y spaced
transverse fl oors are present on the shi p,
i ntermedi ate brackets wi th i ntermedi ate
frames under the tank top must be
i nstal l ed. See Fi gure 12.
Figure 11
Figure 12
10
Brackets, whether at frames or at
i ntermedi ate frames, wi l l occasi onal l y
i nterfere wi th engi ne hol d down bol ts.
When thi s occurs two opti ons are:
Sl ot the transverse bracket to permi t
i nserti ng the bol t. See Fi gure 11
Crank (sl ope) the bracket to cl ear the
bol t. See Fi gure 13.
Marine Gear Foundation
Design
The mari ne gear fore and aft posi ti on i s
determi ned by the propel l er shaft
coupl i ng fl ange l ocati on. The hei ght
above basel i ne i s establ i shed by the
propel l er shaft el evati on. El evati on and
geometry above basel i ne of the reducti on
gear i nput shaft establ i shes the engi ne
crankshaft centerl i ne.
The reducti on gear mounti ng fl ange i s
general l y much wi der than the
mounti ng fl ange under the mai n engi ne.
I n many i nstal l ati ons they are l ocated at
di fferi ng di stances from the engi ne
centerl i ne. Consequentl y, the reducti on
gear foundati on has a di fferent
confi gurati on than the engi ne
foundati on. As menti oned previ ousl y, the
engi ne and gear box foundati ons must
be i ntegrated i nto one uni t. Thi s al l ows
the combi ned foundati on to be connected
to the shi ps i nner bottom structure for
engi ne and gear support.
Wi th the reducti on gear posi ti oned, the
forward and aft ends of the gear
foundati on top fl ange can be determi ned.
The el evati on of the top fl ange above
basel i ne can al so be establ i shed by
al l owi ng 25 to 40 mm (1 to 1 1/2 i n.) for
chocki ng bel ow the reducti on gear
mounti ng fl ange. Joi n the two
foundati ons to form one uni t i ntegral
wi th the shi ps structure. I n new shi p
constructi on, the l ongi tudi nal gi rders i n
the engi ne room are usual l y posi ti oned
to accommodate the mai n engi ne
foundati on requi rements, Fi gure 14. I n
new shi p constructi on, the gi rders woul d
be cranked (sl oped) to match the posi ti on
needed for the engi ne and gear box
foundati on. Thi s may not be true on
repowers, as the gi rders were posi ti oned
to sui t the ori gi nal engi ne. See the
secti on on Repowering Applications.
Avoi d cutouts through the foundati on
l ongi tudi nal gi rder where possi bl e.
Occasi onal l y, an openi ng wi l l be requi red
i n a foundati on gi rder for access or for
pi pi ng. When thi s occurs the openi ng
shoul d be ci rcul ar i n shape or have
rounded corners to el i mi nate stress
concentrati ons. Openi ngs i n foundati on
gi rders shoul d be as smal l as practi cal
and near the neutral axi s of the gi rder.
Figure 13
Elevation
11
I n cases where the cutout becomes too
l arge (about 1/3 the depth of the gi rder)
wel d a rei nforci ng ri ng or doubl er pl ate
to the gi rder to compensate for the
removed materi al .
Generator Set Foundations
The pri nci pal s of propul si on engi ne
foundati ons at the tank top l evel appl y
to generator sets as wel l . Al i gn the
generator foundati on wi th l ongi tudi nal
gi rders. I t must be supported by
transverse brackets or chocks between
the foundati on fl ange and the tank top.
Al i gn the brackets wi th the fl oors or
frames.
Generators mounted on Caterpi l l ar s
ri gi d base and si tti ng on spri ng i sol ators
do not need the foundati on depth
requi red by propul si on engi nes. They are
often constructed of two heavy angl es
ti ed together by several transverse
angl es.
Fi gure 15 i l l ustrates generator sets
l ocated on i ntermedi ate deck l evel s
above the tank top; the same foundati on
pri nci pal s appl y.
Deep transverse web frames ti ed i nto
the hul l or supported by col umns are
opti mum for i ntermedi ate deck l evel
mounti ng.
Use conti nuous wel di ng at al l
foundati on l ocati ons.
Figure 14
Elevation
Plan View
12
Construction Materials
Fabri cated foundati on steel must meet
cl assi fi cati on soci ety requi rements.
Soci ety requi rements are al so a good
gui de for uncl assed vessel s. Hi gher
strength steel s are normal l y not used i n
engi ne and gear box foundati ons as
thi nner scantl i ngs may l ead to potenti al
probl ems wi th foundati on buckl i ng.
Pl ate thi cknesses of the vari ous
structural components may vary wi th
the sel ecti on of the engi ne. I n general ,
the fol l owi ng minimum pl ate
thi cknesses are provi ded for gui dance.
Engi ne foundati on top fl ange - 38 mm
(1 1/2 i n.)
Engi ne foundati on gi rders - 19 mm
(3/4 i n.)
Reducti on gear top fl ange - 44 mm
(1 3/4 i n.)
Reducti on gear gi rder - 22 mm (7/8 i n.)
Transverse brackets - Same as gi rder
thi ckness or at l east equal to the
thi ckness of the fl oors i n the doubl e
bottom.
Bracket fl ange - No l ess than 60% of
the bracket thi ckness but at l east
13 mm (1/2 i n.). Brackets may be
fl anged or have a fl at bar wel ded to the
web of the bracket. I n ei ther i nstance,
the free bar wi dth shoul d be a
mi ni mum of 152 mm (6 i n.).
Dual Engine Installation
The pri nci pl es outl i ned previ ousl y for
si ngl e mai n engi ne i nstal l ati ons are
appl i cabl e for mul ti pl e mai n engi nes.
One further recommendati on i s to joi n
the mai n engi ne foundati ons together
wi th a bracket extendi ng between the
two i nboard foundati on gi rders,
Fi gure 16. The bracket depth i s
determi ned by the desi red fl oor pl ate
hei ght. The thi ckness and scantl i ngs are
determi ned by the depth and span of the
bracket between the two gi rders. Where
deep brackets or l ong spans are present,
sti ffen the bracket between the two
l ongi tudi nal gi rders by a standard si ze
rol l ed beam or fl at bar. The center
brackets may have smal l l i ghteni ng
hol es for pi pi ng, etc.
Figure 15
Section Through
Generator Set Foundation
Section Through
Generator Set Foundation
13
S
e
c
t
i
o
n

T
h
r
o
u
g
h

S
h
i
p
Figure 16
M
a
i
n

E
n
g
i
n
e

N
o
.

2
M
a
i
n

E
n
g
i
n
e

N
o
.

1
14
Mounting
Mai n propul si on engi nes are normal l y
bol ted di rectl y to the engi ne foundati on
usi ng resi n chocks. Steel shi ms can al so
be used. I sol ati on mounti ng i s al so
avai l abl e from Caterpi l l ar. Engi ne
mounti ng Footprintsare shown i n
Fi gures 4 through 8, pages 29 through
33.
Thi s secti on pri mari l y deal s wi th
propul si on engi ne mounti ng systems.
Mount mari ne auxi l i ary engi nes used for
shi ps servi ce generator set appl i cati ons
on the factory suppl i ed ri gi d base setti ng
on factory suppl i ed spri ng i sol ators. See
the 3600 EPG Application and
I nstallation Guide, Form No. LEKX1002
for further detai l s.
Hard Mounting
Resin Chocking
Mari ne Cl assi fi cati on Soci ety rul es may
appl y on speci fi c i nstal l ati ons usi ng
poured resi n chocks. Do not use lead as a
shim material. I t is easily deformed and
has poor support characteristics.
Fi gure 18 i s an exampl e of a poured
resi n chock.
Installations Near the
Ships Side
I n smal l shi ps or where twi n screw/twi n
engi nes are used, the mai n engi ne
gi rders may be cl ose to the shi ps si de.
When thi s occurs the outboard engi ne
gi rder may be bracketed di rectl y to the
shi ps web frami ng as shown i n
Fi gure 17.
The bracket web woul d usual l y be of a
thi ckness equi val ent to the web frame
thi ckness. The face bar of the bracket
may be sni ped or wel ded di rectl y to the
web frame face pl ate. A wel ded
connecti on i s preferabl e. However, when
wel ded di rectl y a fl at bar chock must be
provi ded on both si des of the web frame.
Figure 17 Section Thru Ship
15
Use the fol l owi ng cri teri a:
Normal l y si x mounti ng feet (3 per
engi ne si de) are used for resi n
chocki ng. However, four mounti ng feet
have suffi ci ent area for resi n chocks on
the 3606 and the 3608 Engi nes. The
3612 and 3616 Engi nes requi re 6 feet.
The chocki ng arrangement, pl anni ng
and pouri ng shoul d be revi ewed by an
approved resi n manufacturer.
The shi pyard normal l y has fi nal
responsi bi l i ty for chocki ng materi al
i nstal l ati on.
Most cl assi fi cati on soci eti es permi t the
use of Chockfast Orange, manufactured
by the Phi l adel phi a Resi ns Corp., USA.
The fol l owi ng gui del i nes appl y:
A maxi mum dead wei ght l oadi ng of
7 kg/cm
2
(100 psi ).
A maxi mum total l oadi ng, deadwei ght
pl us bol t tensi on, of 35 kg/cm
2
(500 psi ).
The combi ned bol t tensi on shoul d
exceed 2.5 ti mes deadwei ght, but
cannot exceed the requi rement above.
Permanentl y l ock the hol d-down
bol ts.
The chock operati ng temperature
must not exceed 80C (176F).
The chock area shoul d be greater than
130 cm
2
(20 i n
2
).
I ncrease the amount of resi n used by
10% to provi de al l owances for
dammi ng. The seati ng must have
enough footpri nt to faci l i tate foam
rubber dammi ng stri ps.
The resi n thi ckness must be 12 mm
to 45 mm (0.5 i n. to 1.75 i n.). Also see
section on I solation Mounts.
Do not al l ow resi n materi al to fl ow
between the engi ne and the foundati on
mounti ng pl ate.
Mounti ng surfaces must be free of di rt,
grease and rust. Spray adjoi ni ng
surfaces and bol ts wi th a rel ease agent
for future removal of machi nery bol ts,
jacki ng screws, etc.. For detai l ed
i nformati on contact the resi n
manufacturer.
Steel Chocking
Caterpi l l ar does not offer steel mounti ng
pl ates for mari ne propul si on engi nes.
Pl ates avai l abl e for generator set
engi nes can be modi fi ed to fi t. They are
50 mm (2 i n.) thi ck. An exampl e of
typi cal pl ates i s shown i n Fi gure 19.
The fol l owi ng can be used for gui dance:
Chocks must be manufactured from
steel pl ate or cast steel materi al . Use
the same type of materi al for al l
chocki ng on an engi ne. They are al so
requi red at each mounti ng foot.
The recommended fi ni shed machi ned
chock thi ckness i s 38 mm (1.5 i n.).
Mi ni mum thi ckness i s 25 mm (1 i n.).
Using several loose metal shims is not
recommended.
Di rt, grease, pai nt and rust must be
removed from the mounti ng surfaces
pri or to i nstal l i ng the chocks.
The chock and top pl ate surface
smoothness shoul d be at l east
3.2 mi crometer (125) fi ni sh and have
a mi ni mum of 80% contact surface on
each si de of the chock.
Engine Foot
Foam Dam
Poured Resin Chock
Foundation Top Plate
13mm (
1
/
2
")
Minimum Overfill
Tack Weld and Sealant
Plastic Foam
Strip Dam
13 19mm (
1
/
2
"
3
/
4
")
Pouring Gap
Metal Front Dam
A A
Figure 18
Section A-A Elevation
Plan View
16
Do not wel d chocks i n pl ace. They
must be removabl e for i nspecti on.
The fi nal l ocati on of hol d down bol t
hol es i s determi ned wi th the engi ne i n
pl ace on the foundati on. See gui de
secti on, Hold Down Bolts, on page 18.
For easy posi ti oni ng, the top fl ange of
the engi ne foundati on shoul d al l ow for
tapered chocks. Taper the chock
approxi matel y 1, see Fi gure 20. An
al ternati ve i s a paral l el top fl ange and
tapered steel pads wel ded to the
engi ne top fl ange, Fi gure 20.
Figure 19
Jam Nut
Hex Nut
Steel Chock
Engine
Spot Face
Top Plate
Top Plate Machined
to Form Taper
Jam Nut
Hex Nut
Steel Chock
Engine
Spot Face
Top Plate
Tapered Steel Shim
spot welded
Weld
Ground Body Bolt Non-Ground Body Bolt
Typical Steel Chock
Figure 20
17
Plan View
(Viewed from top of engine)
Collision Blocks
Col l i si on bl ocks are normal l y requi red
on mari ne i nstal l ati ons. Gui de bl ocks
are opti onal when usi ng the
recommended bol ti ng method descri bed
bel ow. For l ocati on, see Fi gure 21. The
fi gure al so shows hol e and bol t si ze
detai l of the normal hol d down bol ts as
wel l as the ground body bol ts used at the
rear of the engi ne.
Col l i si on bl ocks are normal l y
manufactured by the engi ne i nstal l er.
Use steel pl ates 25-38 mm (1 to 1.5 i n.)
thi ck. Extend the top of the pl ate to the
top of the engi ne mounti ng foot. The
base must be wel ded to the top pl ate of
the engi ne foundati on. Col l i si on bl ocks
must have cl earance to al l ow for thermal
growth of the engi ne. At engi ne
operati ng temperature, the rear col l i si on
bl ocks shoul d have a 0.15 mm (0.006 i n.)
gap between the feet and the bl ocks. See
Fi gure 21. Use the fol l owi ng val ues for
engi ne thermal expansi on:
The thermal expansi on coeffi ci ent for
the 3600 Engi ne bl ock i s equal to:
10 E
6
mm/mm/C
(5.6 E
6
i n./i n./F)
Opti onal col l i si on bl ocks can al so be
l ocated at the front of each of the front
mounti ng feet. Al l ow enough cl earance
for thermal growth of the engi ne. Locate
them cl ose enough to be used as an
al i gnment reference poi nt. See
Fi gure 21.
Figure 21
A Dim
A
A
44 dia. Leveling Screws
1 1/2-12 THD
4 Places
25.4 mm (1.0 in)(Typical)
152 mm (6.0 in)
(Typical)
Ground Body Bolts
514 mm (20.20 in)
(Typical)
Collision Stops
Set 0.15 0.60 mm
(0.006 0.002 in) Clearance
Chock
Ship Structure
All Bolts Except Two Rear Are
25.4 mm (1.00 in) bolts in 33 mm (1.29 in)
holes. Torque to 271 15 Nm (200 10 lb ft)
After final alignment of the marine transmission
and engine, secure the two rear engine mounting feet to the
ship structure with ground body bolts. Use the existing
holes in the engine mounting feet as drill guides for
drilling and reaming to a nominal size of 35 mm dia. (1.38 in).
Maximum clearance between the ground body bolt and reamed
hole to be 0.020 mm (.0008 in). Torque to 3383Nm (25010 LB FT).
Front Chock Spacing
Engine Type
3606
3608
3612
3616
A dim
2 mm (0.08 in.)
2.5 mm (0.10 in.)
2 mm (0.08 in.)
3 mm (0.12 in.)
Section A-A
Guide Blocks
Front gui de bl ocks are not requi red i f
ground body bol ts are used i n both rear
mounti ng feet. See Hold Down Bolts. I f
gui de bl ocks are used, permanentl y
secure them at the si des of each front
mounti ng foot wi th 0.50 0.05 mm
(0.02 0.002 i n.) cl earance.
Hold Down Bolts
After fi nal al i gnment of the mari ne gear
and engi ne, secure both rear engi ne
mounti ng feet to the shi p structure wi th
one ground body bol t per foot. Use the
rear and outermost exi sti ng hol es i n the
feet as a gui de for dri l l i ng and reami ng
to a nomi nal si ze of 35 mm (1.38 i n.)
di ameter. Maxi mum cl earance between
the ground body bol t and reamed hol e i s
0.020 mm (0.0008 i n.). Torque the bol ts
to 338 13 Nm (250 10 l b-ft) (see
Fi gure 20).
The ground body bol ts shoul d be torqued
to 338 13 Nm (250 10 l b-ft) when
the engi ne i s mounted on resi n chocki ng
(see fi gure 18). The ground bol t torque
shoul d be i ncreased to 90020 Nm
(66515 l b-ft) when the engi ne i s
mounted on steel chocks (see fi gure 20).
The two front bol ts i n the outermost hol e
of each rear foot and the two bol ts i n the
outermost hol es of each of the remai ni ng
mounti ng feet are 25.4 mm (1.00 i n.)
bol ts i n a 33 mm (1.29 i n.) cl earance
hol e. The torque val ue for bol ts whi ch
are i nstal l ed i n these l ocati ons i s
27115 Nm (20010 l b-ft) when the
engi ne i s mounted on resi n chocki ng and
shoul d be i ncreased to 80020 Nm
(59015 l b-ft) when the engi ne i s
mounted on steel chocks. The mounti ng
feet hol es can be used as a dri l l gui de.
The cl earance al l owed i s suffi ci ent to
accommodate thermal growth of the
engi ne.
Usi ng ground body bol ts i n both rear
feet does not pose thermal expansi on
probl ems across the engi ne wi dth. An
opti onal bol ti ng method al l ows one
ground body bol t to be used at the rear
outermost hol e of the ri ght rear
mounti ng foot. Wi th thi s opti on, al l the
remai ni ng hol d down bol ts woul d be
treated the same as i n the paragraph
above.

Note: This method does require
guide blocks at the front of the engine.
I f practi cal , i nsert the bol ts wi th the bol t
head down and the nuts on top. Thi s
permi ts peri odi c i nspecti on of the bol ted
connecti on. After dri l l i ng the bol t hol es
i n the foundati on, spot face the l ower
contact face of the top fl ange normal to
the bol t hol e.
Ei ght or twel ve hol d down bol ts wi l l be
requi red based on four or si x mounti ng
feet. The bolt material should be SAE
grade 8 steel or better.
Isolation Mounts
Caterpi l l ar s i sol ati on mounti ng
systems:
Transfer steady state engi ne torque
reacti on to the shi p structure.
Al l ow al i gnment of the engi ne to the
mari ne gear.
I sol ate the shi p from engi ne vi brati on.
I sol ate the engi ne from shi p vi brati on.
Caterpi l l ar offers two types of i sol ati on
mounti ng systems:
Caterpi l l ar si l i cone shear pads and the
Chri sti e and Grey system. For ei ther,
l ocate the si x engi ne ri gi d body modes at
the mounts wi thi n the fol l owi ng
constrai nts:
Keep the rol l mode bel ow 70% of the
engi ne fi ri ng frequency at l ow i dl e.
I sol ate exci tati on pul ses from torque
reacti on.
One-hal f order resonances,
parti cul arl y the si de-si de and rol l
modes, are exci ted at speeds cl ose to
l ow i dl e when the engi ne i s operati ng
under no l oad condi ti ons. Thi s must be
consi dered.
I n general , keep modes away from
typi cal one-hal f and fi rst
order resonances.
Contact Caterpi l l ar for the sui tabi l i ty of
a soft mount desi gn for a parti cul ar
i nstal l ati on.
18
19
Figure 22
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Caterpillar Silicone Shear Pad
The si l i cone shear pads, Fi gures 22 and 23,
provi de i sol ati on for hi gher frequency
vi brati on, such as the vi brati on causi ng
structureborne noi se. At the same ti me they
restrai n overal l engi ne moti on. Large engine
displacements need not beaccommodated at
the torsional coupling and other
engine/ installation interfaces.
Note: The Caterpillar shear pad mounting
system is not recommended for 3606 engines
rated or operated below 900 rpm for an
extended period of time.
20
Figure 23
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21
A thi n l ayer of hi gh si l i cone rubber i s
sandwi ched between two metal pl ates,
el i mi nati ng metal -to-metal contact
between the engi ne and the shi p
structure. The pads are al so used
between the mounti ng feet and
restrai ni ng stops on the engi ne
foundati on pl ates. Thi s prevents
excessi ve movement forward, aft, and
si de-to-si de. Shear pads on top of the feet
are used for verti cal restrai nt. The
fol l owi ng tabl e l i sts the shear pad
mounti ng confi gurati ons for al l four
3600 engi nes:
Engine
Total Number of Feet
Rear Foot
Configuration
Middle Foot
Configuration
Front Foot
Configuration
3606
Four (4) Mounting Feet
3608
Six (6) Mounting Feet
3612
Six (6) Mounting Feet
3616
Eight (8) Mounting Feet
5 pads vertically
Fore-Aft collision pad
Side-to-side pad
Top pad
5 pads vertically
Fore-Aft collision pad
Side-to-side pad
Top pad
5 pads vertically
Fore-Aft collision pad
Side-to-side pad
Top pad
5 pads vertically
Fore-Aft collision pad
Side-to-side pad
Top pad
Not Required
5 pads vertically
Top pad
(vertical restraint)
5 pads vertically
Top pad
(vertical restraint)
5 pads vertically
Top pad
(vertical restraint)
5 pads vertically
Top pad
Side-to-side pad
5 pads vertically
Top pad
Side-to-side pad
5 pads vertically
Top pad
Side-to-side pad
5 pads vertically
Top pad
Side-to-side pad
3600 Shear Pad Mounting Configurations
22
Christie & Grey Mounts
Thi s mounti ng system, Fi gure 24, uses
si x spri ng-rubber combi nati on i sol ators
to i sol ate vi brati on and noi se. During
operation the engine is free to move.
The torsional coupling, water, oil, fuel
lines and exhaust connections must
accommodate greater engine motion. I n
addi ti on, the engi ne coupl i ng and/or
output dri ve l i ne must be fl exi bl e
enough to mai ntai n the engi ne beari ng
l oads, as wel l as dri ven equi pment
beari ng l oads bel ow appropri ate l i mi ts.
Chri sti e & Grey i sol ators are bui l t wi th
an i nternal buffer uni t to el i mi nate the
need for col l i si on bl ocks on most
appl i cati ons.
Installation and
Alignment
Thi s secti on provi des the basi s of the
al i gnment process and al i gnment
vari abl es. Always use the appropriate
Caterpillar Special I nstruction, Service
Literature and I nstructions. Use the
specifications from the coupling and
driven equipment manufacturer to
install and align the components.
When the engi ne transi ti ons from an at
rest condi ti on to normal operati ng
temperatures, the thermal growth of the
engi ne and the dri ven equi pment must
be compensated for duri ng the
al i gnment process. As an exampl e, the
total engi ne crankshaft centerl i ne
change due to thermal growth and oi l
fi l m l i ft can be expected to be
approxi matel y 0.38 mm (0.015 i n.)
Hard Mounting
These recommendati ons cover the
i nstal l ati on and al i gnment of coupl i ngs
to the 3600 Fami l y of Engi nes engi nes
dri vi ng free standi ng mari ne reducti on
gears. These recommendati ons appl y
speci fi cal l y to hard mounted engi nes.
The recommendati ons offered are a
gui del i ne onl y. Correct al i gnment of the
equi pment i s the responsi bi l i ty of the
person performi ng the al i gnment.
Cauti on: The person performing the
alignment procedure should be
familiar with basic alignment
terminology as well as the basic
alignment tooling and its use. I mproper
alignment may result in loss of life,
serious injury, and/ or equipment
damage. Alignment should be performed
by trained and qualified personnel.
Before the fi nal al i gnment procedure can
be started the fol l owi ng condi ti ons must
be met:
Per manufacturer s i nstal l ati on
i nstructi ons, i nstal l and al i gn the
propel l er shaft and mari ne gear to
each other.
Permanentl y anchor the mari ne gear.
The shi p must be i n the water wi th al l
permanent bal l ast i n pl ace.
Fuel , water, and temporary bal l ast
tanks must be fi l l ed to normal
operati ng l evel s (general l y 1/2 to 3/4
ful l ).
Al l major machi nery wei ghi ng over
450 kg (1000 l b) must be i nstal l ed or
si mul ated by equi val ent wei ghts
appropri atel y l ocated.
Preparation and Cleaning
Remove al l di rt, burrs, grease and pai nt
from:
Mati ng surfaces of the engi ne
mounti ng feet and the mounti ng pads.
Matchi ng surfaces of the engi ne
fl ywheel and coupl i ng.
Mati ng surfaces of the mari ne gear
i nput shaft and the coupl i ng.
Mounti ng surfaces of the Caterpi l l ar
spl i t spacer ri ng, i f appl i cabl e.
Engine Installation
Locate the approxi mate l ocati on of
each engi ne mounti ng foot on the
engi ne foundati on rai l s. Thi s can be
done by referri ng to the shi p
i nstal l ati on drawi ngs and usi ng the
centerl i ne of the mari ne gear i nput
shaft as a reference. Mark a rough
outl i ne of the mounti ng feet l ocati ons
on the engi ne foundati on rai l s.
23
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Figure 24
I nspect the engi ne foundati on rai l s.
The engi ne mounti ng feet areas must
be rust free, smooth, and free from
wel d spl atter, etc.
Move the engi ne i nto pl ace over the
foundati on.
Cauti on: Use liftingequipment with
sufficient capacity tohandle the
weight of the engine.
Posi ti on the engi ne fl ywheel face
rel ati vel y paral l el to the mari ne gear s
i nput fl ange. Exact paral l el i sm i s not
necessary at thi s poi nt.
Lower engi ne onto the foundati on wi th
the mounti ng feet on the previ ousl y
marked outl i nes.
Lightlyl ubri cate the engi ne
foundati on under the verti cal
al i gnment jacki ng bol ts wi th oi l or
grease.
I nstal l hori zontal jacki ng screws and
brackets. Note the screws and brackets
are not part of the normal engi ne
suppl y. Typi cal l y the brackets are
i nstal l ed on the four corner feet and
they must be posi ti oned to al l ow
suffi ci ent travel of the jacki ng bol ts for
movement of the engi ne to i ts fi nal
al i gned posi ti on.
Pri or to the coupl i ng i nstal l ati on,
check fl ywheel face and bore runout
accordi ng to the procedures and
speci fi cati ons outl i ned i n the engi ne
servi ce manual . See the gui de secti on
on Service and Maintenance.
Note: Damage to the main and rod
bearings may occur if they are not
prelubed prior to rotating the engine.
Marine Gear Input Shaft Runout
(Face and Bore)
Fol l ow the mari ne gear manufacturer s
procedures for i nstal l ati on and
al i gnment. Check the i nput shaft face
and bore runout. Di mensi ons must meet
the mari ne gear manufacturer s
speci fi cati ons.
Axial Alignment
The exact axi al spaci ng between the face
of the engi ne fl ywheel and the gear
i nput fl ange must be checked and
adjusted pri or to fi nal pl acement of the
engi ne and coupl i ng i nstal l ati on.
a. Measure Crankshaft End Pl ay
Pri or to performi ng the axi al
al i gnment the crankshaft end pl ay
must be measured.
Remove one crankcase i nspecti on
cover.
Use a 1524 mm (5 ft) pry bar between
the crankshaft and the cyl i nder bl ock.
Do not pry on the damper. Move
(thrust) the crankshaft al l the way
towards the front of the engi ne. A
defi ni te klunk can be heard when the
crankshaft bottoms out agai nst the
thrust washer.
I nstal l a di al i ndi cator wi th the ti p on
the fl ywheel face.
Prel oad the di al i ndi cator stem a
mi ni mum of one turn. Adjust the
i ndi cator bezel so the poi nter i s set on
zero. Do not rotate the fl ywheel or
runout error may be i ntroduced
resul ti ng i n i ncorrect readi ngs.
Move (thrust) the crankshaft al l the
way towards the rear of the engi ne
and record the readi ng on the di al
i ndi cator. Thi s measurement i s
known as crankshaft end pl ay.
Move (thrust) the crankshaft forward
agai n. The di al i ndi cator shoul d
return to zero.
Repeat thi s procedure two or three
ti mes to veri fy resul ts.
Veri fy that the measured end pl ay i s
within 0.4 0.2 mm (0.016 0.008 in.).
See the servi ce manual for the l atest
speci fi cati ons.
Note: Do not remove the dial indicator at
this time. Periodically check to ensure the
crankshaft does not move while
positioning the engine to the appropriate
axial spacing dimension.
b. Measure the Mari ne Gear I nput
Shaft End Pl ay
Follow the marine gear manufacturer s
procedure to accuratel y measure total
i nput shaft end pl ay.
Record i nput shaft total end pl ay.
Veri fy that the end pl ay measured
meets the tol erances speci fi ed by the
manufacturer.
c. Cal cul ate the modi fi ed axi al spaci ng
di mensi on.
24
To accuratel y pl ace the engi ne, the
engi ne crankshaft and mari ne gear
i nput shaft must remai n fi xed.
I deal l y the shafts woul d be pl aced i n
thei r normal axi al operati ng posi ti ons
whi l e posi ti oni ng the engi ne. Thi s i s
not easi l y done, and once set they
tend to move one way or the other. I t
i s suggested that both shafts be
thrusted compl etel y forward or
compl etel y aft and axi al spaci ng be
modi fi ed accordi ngl y.
For exampl e:
Coupl i ng overal l l ength
(mati ng surface to mati ng surface) =
431.8 mm (17 i n.)
Spl i t spacer ri ng wi dth =
63.5 mm (2.5 i n.)
Total measured crankshaft end pl ay =
0.36 mm (0.014 i n.)
Total measured i nput shaft end pl ay =
0.10 mm (0.004 i n.)
Assume that both the crankshaft and
the i nput shaft normal l y center
themsel ves i n the mi ddl e of thei r total
end pl ay when rotati ng (thi s must be
veri fi ed wi th the mari ne gear suppl i er).
I f both shafts are thrusted ful l y aft,
0.05 mm (0.002 i n.) must be added to
the axi al spaci ng di mensi on. Thi s
compensates for the mari ne gear i nput
shaft movement that wi l l occur once the
shaft i s rotati ng. To compensate for the
engi ne crankshaft movement that wi l l
occur, 0.18 mm (0.007 i n.) must be
subtracted from the axi al spaci ng
di mensi on.
Axi al spaci ng di mensi on = coupl i ng
l ength + spl i t spacer ri ng l ength.
Axi al spaci ng di mensi on =
431.8 mm (17 i n.) + 63.5 mm (2.5 i n.) =
495.3 mm (19.5 i n.).
Modi fi ed Axi al Spaci ng Di mensi on =
495.3 mm (19.5 i n.) + 0.05 mm (0.002 i n.)
- 0.18 mm (0.007 i n.) =
495.17 mm (19.495 i n.).
Position the Engine
Thrust the engine crankshaft and gear
input shaft fully forward or aft.
Mount a dial indicator with the tip on
the marine gear input flange face.
Preload the indicator a minimum of one
revolution.
Adjust the indicator dial to zero.
Preload the dial indicator (previously
installed on the engine flywheel) a
minimum of one revolution and set the
indicator to zero.
Use an inside micrometer to measure
the distance between the engin flywheel
face and the pilot of the marine gear
input flange. Measure along a line
perpendicular to the marine gear input
flange.
Compare the figure to the modified
axial dimension calculated previously. I f
this number is not within the tolerances
specified by the coupling supplier, use
the fore and aft jacking screws to
position the engine accurately.
After the engine is accurately placed,
check the dial indicators on the flywheel
and the marine gear input flange
making sure the crankshaft or the
marine gear input shaft has not moved.
I f the dial indicators are not on zero, the
engine must be moved in the correct
direction by the amount shown on the
dial indicators.
Coupling Installation
I nstal l and al i gn the coupl i ng accordi ng
to i nstructi ons and speci fi cati ons
suppl i ed by the coupl i ng manufacturer.
The coupling must have enough axial
tolerance to avoid restricting movement
of the engine crankshaft and marine gear
input shaft within their respective end
play allowances. The tol erances must be
met i n both col d and hot condi ti ons.
Al l owance must be made for a change i n
crankshaft centerl i ne from col d
al i gnment condi ti ons to hot runni ng
condi ti ons. Verti cal thermal growth
changes the l ocati on of the crankshaft
centerl i ne as the engi nes bl ock
temperature i ncreases. Typi cal l y the
growth of the engi ne wi l l be greater than
the dri ven equi pment. Verti cal growth of
the engi ne and dri ven equi pment must
be eval uated to determi ne the col d
al i gnment crank offsets.
25
Figure 25
Crankshaft Maximum Cantilever Load
The total engine crankshaft centerline
change due to thermal growth and oil
film lift can be expected to be
approximately 0.38 mm (0.015 in.).
Obtain the driven equipment growth
from the manufacturer.
Note: Damage to the main and rod
bearings may occur if they are not
prelubed prior to rotating the engine.
Final Axial Alignment
Measure the axi al space di mensi on and
crankshaft end pl ay. I f these di mensi ons
are not wi thi n appropri ate tol erances,
they must be corrected and the enti re
al i gnment procedure repeated.
Shimming, Bolting, Dowelling,
Guide & Collision Stop
Recommendations
After fi nal col d al i gnment i s compl eted
and checked, the engi ne must be
shi mmed and dowel l ed i n posi ti on.
Col l i si on stops may al so be requi red. See
gui de secti on on Mounting.
Cold Crankshaft Deflection Check
The crankshaft defl ecti on must be
checked to veri fy stress has not been
i nduced i nto the engi ne cyl i nder bl ock as
a resul t of engi ne mounti ng and
al i gnment. Fol l ow the engi ne servi ce
manual procedure to perform thi s check.
Refer to the servi ce manual to veri fy
that crankshaft defl ecti on i s wi thi n
speci fi ed l i mi ts.
Hot Alignment
Repeat the col d al i gnment procedure
after the engi ne has been run and water
and oi l temperatures have reached
normal operati ng poi nts. Record the
temperatures every 15 mi nutes as the
al i gnment i s bei ng checked.
Record the di al i ndi cator readi ngs and
veri fy they are wi thi n speci fi ed coupl i ng
l i mi ts i n the hot condi ti on.
Hot Crankshaft Deflection Check
Fol l ow the engi ne servi ce manual
procedure to check crankshaft defl ecti on
after the engi ne has been run and the
water and oi l temperatures have
reached thei r normal operati ng poi nt.
Note: Attention must be given to the
warning statements in the service
manual concerning the removal of
crankcase access covers when the engine
is hot. Explosions in the crankcase can
occur, resulting in injury or damage if
the covers are removed too soon after
operating the engine.
The combi ned overhung wei ght of the
fl ywheel and coupl i ng i nfl uences the
stati c defl ecti on of the crankshaft.
Fi gure 25 shows the al l owabl e
canti l evered crankshaft l oads.
26
27
Isolation Mounting
Caterpillar Silicone Shear Pads
The procedure for thi s mounti ng system
i s very si mi l ar to the al i gnment used for
the hard mounted system descri bed
above. Read that secti on before
begi nni ng the al i gnment of shear pad
mounti ng system.
Note: Before beginning the alignment
procedure, read and understand the
entire procedure. I mproper alignment of
this machinery may result in loss of life,
serious injury, and/ or equipment
damage.
Contact a Caterpi l l ar 3600 Mari ne
Project Engi neer at (765) 448-5000 to
recei ve a copy of the i nstal l ati on
procedures for the si l i cone shear