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Population,

Sex Ratio, Civil Status, Age Distribution



According Wolchover (2011) to Worldwide, there are 107 boy babies born for every 100 girl
babies. This skewed ratio is partly due to sex-selective abortion and "gendercide," the killing of
female infants, in countries such as China and India where males are more desired. But even
discounting those factors, the completely natural male-to-female sex ratio still hovers around
105:100, meaning that women are inherently more likely to give birth to boys.

According to Milan, (2013), the decreasing share over time of the population that was married
and the corresponding increase in the unmarried population may be related to a number of
factors, including a higher average age at marriage and an increase in the divorced or separated
population. Among the population that was never married, there was a large increase in the
proportions for those in their twenties and thirties in 2011 compared to 1981. For young adults
aged 25 to 29, the proportion who were never married rose from about one-quarter of this
population (26.0%) in 1981 to close to three-quarters (73.1%) in 2011. Additionally Even among
individuals in their early thirties, the proportion of men who were never married increased from
15.0% in 1981 to 54.0% in 2011. For women, the increase was from 10.5% in 1981 to 43.4% in
2011. From age 65onward, however, there was relative convergence between the sexes, and for
both, the share that was never married was slightly larger in 1981 than in 2011

According to the Philippine Statistic authority (2012), In the Philippines, the aging index or the
proportion of persons aged 60 years and over per 100 persons under the age of 15 years was
computed at 20.3 percent in 2010. This means that there is one person aged 60 years and over for
every five children under 15 years old. In 2000, the aging index was computed at 16.1.


Reference: Milan A (2013), Marital Status: Overview, 2011, retrieve October 3,2014 from
http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-209-x/2013001/article/11788-eng.htm#wb-tphp

Philippine Statistic authority (2012),The Age and Sex Structure of the Philippine Population:
(Facts from the 2010 Census ) retrieve October 3, 2014 from http://web0.psa.gov.ph/

Excreta Disposal
According to Sphere (2013), Family toilets are the preferred option where possible. One
toilet for a maximum of 20 people should be the target. Where there are no existing toilets, it is
possible to start with one for 50 people and lowering the number of users to 20 as soon as
possible. In some circumstances, space limitations make it impossible to meet these figures. In
such cases, advocate strongly for extra space. However, it should be remembered that the
primary aim is to provide and maintain an environment free from human faeces.
Households should be consulted on the siting and design, and the responsible cleaning
and maintenance of shared toilets. Generally, clean latrines are more likely to be
frequently used. Efforts should be made to provide people living with chronic illnesses
such as HIV and AIDS with easy access to a toilet as they frequently suffer from chronic
diarrhoea and reduced mobility.

As the world hurtles toward its urban future, the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW), one of
the most important by-products of an urban lifestyle, is growing even faster than the rate of
urbanization. Ten years ago there were 2.9 billion urban residents who generated about 0.64 kg
of MSW per person per day (0.68 billion tonnes per year). This report provides consolidated data
on MSW generation, collection, composition, and disposal by country and by region. Despite its
importance, reliable global MSW information is not typically available. Data is often
inconsistent, incomparable and incomplete. (Worldwide Waste Treatment & Disposal Industry-
Industry & Market report 2013).

According to World Health Organization (2011), 2013, 98,000 Nigerian women die annually
from smokes inhaled during cooking with firewoods. The death from this sector contributes to 10
per cent of global annual death and it is bigger than tuberculosis, HIV and AIDS and malaria
combined, and it is only killing women. It is very risky when cooking using firewood, it may
affect the health of the person or may cause from fire. Especially when it is in reach by the
children, it may cause to the child to burn when not monitor by the parents..

According to Sphere Project 2013, Almost 40,000 people in the U.S. have been reported
with West Nile virus disease since 1999, and of those over 17,000 have been seriously ill and more
than 1600 have died. Many more cases of illness are not reported to CDC. The death from this
sector contributes to 10 per cent of global annual death and it is bigger than tuberculosis, HIV
and AIDS and malaria combined, and it is only killing women .

Household hazardous waste is any waste, produced in the home, which is
flammable, toxic, corrosive, or reactive. These products pose many dangers. First, you may be
exposed to toxic substances during use. Second, the chemicals may contaminate water supplies
when improperly discarded down the drain or into a ditch. Third, when tossed into the garbage,
the wastes may injure sanitation workers or react on the truck or in the landfill. Furthermore,
Handle household wastes carefully to avoid injury to self or damage to the environment. Store
wastes in their original containers with the labels intact. Keep them out of the reach of children
and pets, and away from heat. Save wastes for a household hazardous waste collection program
(DENR, 2013).

References:
Management Solid Waste (2013). What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management.
Retrieved on October 3, 2014, from https://one.overdrive.com/media/1382164/2013-worldwide-
waste-treatment-disposal-industry-industry-market-report.
World Health Organization (2013). Women die annually smokes inhaled cooking firewood.
Retrieved on October 3, 2014, from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2013/12/98-000-women-die-
annually-smokes-inhaled-cooking-firewood/.
Sphere handbook (2013). Excreta disposal standard and appropriate and adequate toilet facilities.
Retrieved on October 3, 2014, from http://www.spherehandbook.org/en/excreta-disposal-
standard-2-appropriate-and-adequate-toilet-facilities/.
Department of Environment Conservation (2013). Reduce Your Household Hazardous Waste
Use. Retrieved on October 3, 2014, from http://www.dec.ny.gov/chemical/8781.html.

Housing, House Ownership, House Materials, Educational Atainment, Religion
A House is the most important thing in our daily life; it's a basic need for people to have a place
to stay. There are many things that you can do when you are inside of a house, bonding with your
family, a place to have comfort and calmness. The most important thing here in the Philippines for them
is the house. They are thankful that they have a place to stay even if their houses are not very well
constructed.
In addition, selecting the material to build your house is one of the most important aspect in
building your home, so that's why we are choosing the best materials for constructing a home in order
for us to have a durable and strong structure. There are many materials that are needed to build houses
materials such as wood, metal, glass, bricks, concrete, rocks and stones. Many other requirement
materials to build a house but some comes in handy an example for that is fabric, mud, clay, plastic iron
and foam.
Furthermore, in the Philippines one of the natural resources there is wood and it used also for
construction purposes especially when cut or pressed into a lumber or timber such as planks, boards
and other materials that is similar for construction. The requirements in building houses here in the
Philippines is mostly a wood. Wood is very flexible especially on under loads, bending and keeping their
strength and is incredibly strong when compressed vertically. Type of structure in most climate that is a
tested material for constructing houses .Even on calamities such as earthquakes and typhoons wood is
very strong and durable it doesn't easily break that is the advantage when you are using wood for
building a house.
Moreover, cement that is mixed up with aggregate is a result for a concrete. After you combine the
cement and the aggregate it will hydrates and eventually hardens into a stone-like material. Modern
houses used concrete for their home. But mostly concrete has a rather low strength for constructing
houses. Steel rods and rods are usually the one who strengthens the foundation of the concrete. In
calamities, concrete is more weak to handle especially on earthquakes they are only depending on steel
rods or bars in order to have a strong built. Concrete has been the predominant building material in this
modern age due to its longevity, form-ability, and ease of transport.( Christie Samueson ,2014)

According to National Statics Office (2010), there are 69 percent of families in the country own the
house and lot they occupy. The remaining 31 percent occupy houses and lots under the following
tenure: own house, rent-free lot with consent of owner (12%), rent house/room including lot (8%), rent-
free house and lot with consent of owner (5%), own house, rent-free lot without consent of owner (4%),
own house, rent lot (2%), and rent-free house and lot without consent of owner (less than one percent).
According to Interntional Religious Freedom Report (2012), the National Statistics Offices 2010
Census of population and Housing Report released on April 4, 2012, states the population is 92.3 million.
The survey from 2000 by the National Statistics Office, approximately 93 percent of the population is
Christian. A large majority of Christian are Roman Catholics, constituting 80 85 percent of the total
population. The 2000 survey states that islam is the largest minority religion, constituting approximately
5 percent of the population.
A more recent estimate by the National Commission on Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) in 2011 states
that there are 10.3 million Muslims, or about 11 percent of the total population. Most Filipino Muslims
are members of various ethnic minority groups. Nearly 60 percent of Muslims reside in Mindanao and
nearby islands (NCMF, 2011).
Religious groups that together constitute less than 5 percent of the population include
the following international dominations: Seventh day Adventist, United Church of Christ, Methodist,
Assemblies of God, The church of Jesus Christ of Latter- day Saints (Mormons), Philippine (Southern)
Baptist, and the following domestically established churches: Iglesia Ni Cristo, Philippine Independent
Church (Aglipay), Members Church of God International and The Kingdom of Jesus Christ, the Name
Above Every Name (IFR, 2012).
According to de Dios, Angel (2013) ,parents and caregivers are children's first teachers. What
happens inside a child's home contributes to a child's education. Since parents are the children's first
teachers, it begs the question of whether a parent's educational attainment is crucial for the next
generation to succeed. Do parents need a high educational attainment in order for their children to
achieve the same.
Moreover, bear in mind that the wonderful things you learn in your schools are the work of
many generations, produced by enthusiastic effort and infinite labor in every country of the world. All
this is put into your hands as your inheritance in order that you may receive it, honor it, add to it,
and one day faithfully hand it to your children. Thus do we mortals achieve immortality in the
permanent things which we create in common." - Albert Einstein
In the Philippines, they found out that a positive link between the educational participation
varied significantly with the fathers education. Fathers education turned out to be the most dominant.(
Seltzer, Lin 1982)


Philippine education is patterned after the American system, with English as the medium of
instruction. Schools are classified into public (government) or private (non government). The general
pattern of formal education follows four stages: Pre primary level (nursery and kindergarten) offered
in most private schools; six years of primary education, followed by four years of secondary education.
College education usually takes four, sometimes five in some cases as in medical and law schools, as
long as eight years. Graduate schooling is an additional two or more years (Florido, M., 2010)
Moreover, the Asian Journal of Social Science and humanities stated that the formal education
has not achieved what it was supposed to achieve. Our schools here in the Philippines are now quandary
on how to keep children in school with increasing rate of drop outs. The functional literacy of the
Filipinos is at its minimum reflecting the sad state of education. Unemployment rate is rising every year
as more students graduate from colleges and universities, who cannot be accommodated by the labor
market. Underemployment is the name of the game since professionals are forced to accept
employment far from their areas of specialization and training because they need to work and earn for
their families (Durban, J., 2012).
The impact of educational attainment on unemployment is much greater for younger people
than it is for older adults. Across OECD countries, an average of 18.1 percent of 25 34 year olds
without secondary education were unemployed in 2011, compared with 8.8 percent of 55 64 year
olds. Among 25 34 year olds with a tertiary qualification, an average of 6.8 percent were unemployed,
compared with 4.0 percent of 55 64 year olds with a similar level of education (EAG, 2013).
Vocational education and training (VET) systems thus play a critical role in strengthening
countries capacity to deal with rapidly changing labour market conditions. Several OECD countries
have developed policies to improve and expand VET programmes at the upper secondary and post
secondary non tertiary levels in order to equip young people with the skills the labour market demands
(OECD, 2013).
References:

International Religious Freedom Report (2012); United States Department of State; Bureau of
Democracy, Human Rights & Labor; www.state.gov/documents/organizations/208472.pdf.
Retrieved on October 2, 2014.

Florido, M., (2006); Educational Profile of the Philippines and best practices in Filipino schools
and classrooms. www.unc.edu/2006-142Symp/Pres&HOS/Florido _handouts1.pdf. Retrieved on
October 2, 2014.

Durban, J., and Catalan, R. (2012); Issues and Concerns of Philippine Education through the
years, Asian Journal of Social and Humanities (Vol. 1 No. 2); Leena and Luma International,
oyama, Japan. www.ajssh.leena.luma.co.jp/AJSSHPPFS/Vol1(2)/AJSSH2012(1.2-08)pdf.
Retrieved on October 2, 2014.

Education @ a glance (2013); OECD Publishing, www.oecd.org/edu/eag2013 (eng)--final_20
_june_2013.pdf. Retrieved on October 3, 2014.