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JENIS-JENIS KERUSAKAN

DEPARTEMEN METALURGI & MATERIALS


FAKULTAS TEKNIK UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Dr. Ir. Winarto, M.Sc.
INTRODUKSI
Logam dapat patah dalam berbagai cara dan untuk penyebab
yang berbeda-beda. Sumber informasi yang paling penting
yang kaitannya dengan penyebab perpatahan adalah
permukaan patahan itu sendiri.
Permukaan Patahan merupakan rekaman detail dari rangkaian
sejarah komponen yang patah karena berisi :
- data sejarah pembebanan
- data pengaruh lingkungan
- data kualitas bahan/material
Teknik untuk menganalisa bukti (evidence) adalah SEM
FRACTOGRAPHY tujuannya : mengerti bagaimana
komponen tsb patah & bagaimana lingkungan mempengaruhinya.
CONTOH TAHAPAN - FA
Micro Structure Observation
Surface Observation
Optical Microscope
Ferrite 90X Austenite 325X Pearlite+Cementite 1000X
Macro-fractography
4 Jenis Perpatahan
Berdasarkan Jejak Perpatahannya (fracture path), maka
perpatahan dibagi menjadi 4 bagian :
1. Perpatahan Ulet (dimple rupture)
2. Perpatahan Getas (cleavage rupture)
3. Perpatahan Fatik (fatigue rupture)
4. Perpatahan dekohesif (decohesive rupture)
Tiap jenis perpatahan memiliki penampakan permukaan dan
mekanisme penjalaran retak.
Trans-crystalline Fracture
Inter-crystalline Fracture
Jejak Perpatahan
Intercrystalline failures Transcrystalline failures
Perpatahan Ulet
Apek struktur-mikro :
Dengan SEM tampak dimple
Ciri-cirinya :
1. Ada deformasi plastis
2. Permukaan kusam/buram dan berserat
3. Tegangan geser dominan
4. Bentuk patahan Cup & Cone 45 dengan t
max
5. o
nom
atau o
slip
Perpatahan Ulet & Getas
Example of Micro-void
Coalescence or Dimple Fracture
High Carbon Steel
o ts = 74,000 psi
Specimen broke in tension
AISI 10B21 Steel
o ts = 218,000 psi
Specimen broken in tension
Example of Micro-void
Coalescence or Dimple Fracture
Aluminum 2024 Alloy
o ts = 66,000 psi
Specimen broken in tension
Titanium Alloy
o ts =153,000 psi
Specimen broken in
high cycle fatigue
Perpatahan Getas
Faktor-faktor utama :
Stress konsentrasi
Tegangan tarik
Temperatur relatif rendah
Ciri-cirinya :
1. Tidak Ada deformasi plastis
2. Permukaan terang dan kristalin
3. Permukaan patahan o
utama
4. Ada chevron marks atau hearing bone marks
Apek struktur-mikro :
1. Butir kasar susunan facet pada permukaan belah atau
pola sungai (river patern)
2. Kadang-kadang antara ciri-ciri cleavageada dimple
3. Pada Polifase (perlite o + Fe
3
C) terdapat garis dan
dimple.
Chevron marks
Chevron marks
Patah Getas pada SEM (400X)
Patah Getas (TEM)
Example of Transgranular Cleavage
Stainless Steel
o ts = 195,000 psi
Specimen broke under
high cycle fatigue
TiB2 (hot pressed)
o flexural = 57,700 psi
Specimen failed in tension
Example of Transgranular Cleavage
Nickel-Base Alloy
o ts = 141,000 psi
Specimen broke under
low cycle fatigue
Silicon Carbide (SiC)
o flexural = 105,850 psi
Specimen broke in tension
Perpatahan Fatik
Tahapan perpatahan :
1. Inisiasi
2. Perambatan
3. Patahan akhir
Ciri-cirinya :
1. Deformasi plastis sedikit sekali atau hampir tidak ada
2. Perpatahannya progresif, berawal dari retak halus yang
merambat akibat beban ber-fluktuatif
3. Ada beach marks atau rachet marks
beach marks vs rachet marks :
1. Beach marks deformasi plastis di ujung retakan
2. Rachet marks permukaan patahan fatik dan
merangkai beberapa awal (initial) fatik yang berdekatan.
Striation
Low Carbon Steel (SEM 2000X) Al-alloy (SEM 4900X)
Perpatahan Fatik
Striation :
1. Karakteristik utama fatik pada tahap 2 retak
merambat dan meninggalkan tonjolan (ridge, striation)
pada permukaan
2. Aspek ukuran: kecil, hanya tampak dengan SEM/TEM
3. Aspek penyebab: kemajuan rambatan retak akibat
sekali pembebanan.
Beach marks vs striation
Beach marks:
1. Merupakan deformasi plastis di ujung retakan
2. Aspek ukuran: cukup besar & dapat diamati dengan
kasat mata
3. Aspek penyebab: lokasi posisi front retak setelah
terhenti.
Striation vs Beach Marks
Example of Fatigue Fracture
Nickel Based Alloy
o ts = 141,000 psi
Specimen broke under
low cycle fatigue
Notice the white lines followed
by dark bands. Individually they are
called fatigue striations
Example of Fatigue Fracture
Fracture of Nickel Based Alloy
and striations are more jagged
than the examples before
Titanium Alloy
o ts = 153,000 psi
Specimen broke under
high cycle fatigue
Permukan patah akibat fatigue bending
This high tensile steel bolt failed under low stress high cycle
conditions with a fatigue crack running from 9 o'clock as shown
by the beach marks. The SEM image of the fatigued surface
(shown left) is found to have no striations due to the high yield
strength and high cycle conditions.
Permukan patah akibat low stress high cycle
Torsion Fatigue
Reversed torsional fatigue failure of splined shaft from a
differential drive gear
Springs suffer a combination of bending and torsion and fatigue
cracks propagate at right angles to the principal stresses. Hence
the fracture surface is complex even at higher magnification. The
surface morphology is also influenced by any texture in the
drawn wire used in manufacture.
Torsion & Bending Fatigue
Pencegahan Fatigue Failure
The most effective method of improving fatigue
performance is improvements in design:
Eliminate or reduce stress raisers by streamlining the
part
Avoid sharp surface tears resulting from punching,
stamping, shearing, or other processes
Prevent the development of surface discontinuities
during processing.
Reduce or eliminate tensile residual stresses caused by
manufacturing.
Improve the details of fabrication and fastening
procedures
Jenis Perapuhan (embrittlement)
By temperature factors (intergranular mechanism):
1. Strain Age Embrittlement aging
2. Quench Age Embrittlement carbide precipitated
3. Blue Brittleness precipitation hardening (o|, c+, Impact+); 230 - 370C
4. Tempered Embrittlement impurities (Sb, Sn, As), T: 370 - 575C.
5. Sigma-phase Embrittlement Stainless Steel T
sevice
560 - 980 C.
6. HAZ Graphitization Carbon Steel welds at T 425 C ; waktu lama.
7. Inter-metallic Compound Embrittlement Galvanized Steel at T
420C ; waktu lama Fe-Zn intermetalic compound
By environmental factors (intergranular mechanism) :
1. Neutron Embrittlement neutron radiation at nuclear reactor
2. Hydrogen Embrittlement pickling, electroplating, welding, H
2
S
exposure
3. Stress Corrosion Embrittlement Corrosive environment
4. Liquid Metal Embrittlement salt-bath process(glass making process)
Liquid Metal Embrittlement
Liquid metal embrittlement adalah
menurunnya keuletan logam akibat adanya
kontak dengan cairan logam lain.
Penurunan keuletan akan menyebabkan
catastrophic brittle failure pada logam yang
bersifat ductile.
Very small amounts of liquid metal are
sufficient to result in embrittlement.
Liquid Metal Embrittlement
The liquid metal can not only reduce the ductility but
significantly reduce tensile strength.
Liquid metal embrittlement is an insidious type of failure
as it can occur at loads below yield stress. Thus,
catastrophic failure can occur without significant
deformation or obvious deterioration of the component.
I ntergranular or transgranular cleavage fracture are
the common fracture modes associated with liquid metal
embrittlement. However reduction in mechanical
properties due to decohesion can occur.
This results in a ductile fracture mode occurring at
reduced tensile strength. An appropriate analysis can
determine the effect of liquid metal embrittlement on
failure.
Hydrogen Embrittlement
When tensile stresses are applied to a hydrogen embrittled
component it may fail prematurely.
Hydrogen embrittlement failures are frequently
unexpected and sometimes catastrophic.
The threshold stresses to cause cracking are commonly
below the yield stress of the material.
High strength steel, such as quenched and tempered steels
or precipitation hardened steels are particularly susceptible
to hydrogen embrittlement.
Hydrogen can be introduced into the material in service or
during materials processing.
Hydrogen Embrittlement
Tensile stresses, susceptible material, and the presence of hydrogen
are necessary to cause hydrogen embrittlement.
Residual stresses or externally applied loads resulting in stresses
significantly below yield stresses can cause cracking. Thus,
catastrophic failure can occur without significant deformation or
obvious deterioration of the component.
Very small amounts of hydrogen can cause hydrogen embrittlement
in high strength steels.
Common causes of hydrogen embrittlement are pickling,
electroplating and welding, however hydrogen embrittlement is not
limited to these processes.
Hydrogen embrittlement is an insidious type of failure as it can
occur without an externally applied load or at loads significantly
below yield stress.
While high strength steels are the most common case of hydrogen
embrittlement all materials are susceptible
Permukaan patah akibat thermal
fatigue
Thermal fatigue damage on cast iron clutch
plate caused by rapid heating and cooling of
disc by friction material.
Perapuhan
Intermetalic Compound Embrittlement
Example of Decohesive Rupture
Stainless Steel
o ts =195,000 psi
fractograph show
hydrogen embrittlement
C-Mn Steel
o ts = 76,000 psi
Specimen failed due to
stress corrosion cracking
Example of Decohesive Rupture
Low Carbon Steel
o ts = 43,000 psi.
Fractograph show
a thin layer of oxide
on the above specimen
Gray Cast Iron (ASTM 247)
o ts = 33,000 psi
The white "fuzz"
are sulfate deposits
Home Work
1. Jelaskan jenis perpatahan.
2. Jelaskan perbedaan klasifikasi inter & trans-crystalline.
3. Jelaskan perbedaan ciri-ciri patah ulet dan patah getas
4. Jelaskan perbedaan dari striasi dan beach marks
5. Jelaskan mekanisme tahapan perpatahan akibat fatik berikut
gambar.
6. Jelaskan beberapa pencegahan agar terhindar dari patah fatik
7. Jelaskan mekanisme patahan akibat perapuhan
(embrittleness) & beri beberapa contoh yang saudara ketahui
8. Apakah setiap jenis perpatahan material disebabkan oleh
hanya satu jenis perpatahan. Jelaskan menurut saudara
dengan memberikan contoh.