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OUTLINE OF HISTORY, PHYSICAL EXAMINATION,

ASSESSMENT AND PLANS FOR PEDIATRIC


PATIENTS

Student Name
Pediatric H&P #1
Identifying Data
Cortez B. is a 21 day old African American male who presented to LBCMC with his mother and
grandmother Thursday afternoon, September 6. The history is obtained from both mother and
grandmother who both are considered reliable to a certain degree.

Chief Complaint
"The rash in his diaper area is getting worse."
History of Present Illness
Cortezs mother stated that her baby seemed to be quite healthy since his discharge from the
nursery until Wednesday afternoon, September 5
th
, when she noticed a raised red rash on Cortez's
abdomen. She also noticed that her baby began vomiting her breast milk after three feeds. Consequently,
she switched to bottled milk (Similac with Iron), which he handled without any problems and the
vomiting stopped. There was no evidence of rashes anywhere else on his body.
On the following morning, she noticed the rash had become fluid filled and had spread throughout
the front diaper area including the inguinal region and upper right and left thigh. No intervention was
attempted to treat the rash and nothing was noted to worsen the rash besides the passing time.
Both mother and grandmother did not note any changes in Cortez's temperature, stool or urine
quality or quantity, or appetite. In addition, there were no symptoms of increased work of breathing,
cough, or lethargy. However grandmother did say that Cortez was slightly more irritable.
This was Cortez's first medical visit following discharge after birth. Patient's family denies any
illness within their current household and visiting relatives. The patient does not attend daycare.
Past Birth History
Cortez's mother is a 16 year old G1P1Ab0 whose first prenatal visit was in the second trimester.
Her prenatal screen revealed a negative Hepatitis B antigen, negative HIV Screen and negative RPR for
syphilis according to the OB discharge papers from the hospital; however, vaginal cultures came back
positive for chlamydia. This was treated in the first trimester, with repeat test coming back negative. She
was never diagnosed with genital herpes and denies ever having symptoms of this condition. At the time
of delivery the patient was born full term at 40 weeks gestational and weighed 3.0 kg (Mom doesnt
remember length.) Patient was delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications such
as premature rupture of membranes and prolonged labor. APGARs are unknown but mom says Cortez
did breath spontaneously at birth. Both mother and baby were discharged after a two-day hospital stay.
Past Medical and Surgical History
No past medical and surgical history to date. Mother denies any accidents and injuries. Mother
has not established her pediatrician and Cortez did not receive his two-week well child check-up
Immunizations
Hepatitis B vaccine has been given in the nursery. Mother does not know the results of Cortezs
neonatal screen.
Medications
No medications
Allergies
No known allergies
Family History
Paternal Grandfather - Unknown
Paternal Grandmother - Unknown
Maternal Grandmother - Healthy with no known medical problems
Maternal Grandfather - Unknown
Mother - Healthy with no known medical problems
Father - Unknown
There is no family history of diabetes, seizures, cancer, heart disease, hypertension or sickle cell on the
maternal side. However, very little is known about the paternal side.
Social History
Patient lives with his unmarried mother and grandmother plus a maternal cousin with her 1 year
old baby in a Memphis apartment. Mother has not graduated from high school at this time. She is not
currently working outside of the home. The patient's father is uninvolved with the care. The family
subsists on SSI and AFDC. Their residence contains no carpet, no pets & no smoking. Their neighbor,
whom they visit frequently, has a dog.
Diet
Cortez was breast-fed exclusively until one day prior to admission. Since then he has received
Similac with Iron, 3-4 oz. every 3-4 hours. He receives occasional water.
Development
Mother has bonded with her son taking the main responsibility of care and feeding. Cortez is able to
hold his head up off the bed. He cannot roll over and he smiles but not socially.
ROS
Cortez has been alert, playful and easily consolable.
Eyes: Seems to have difficulty focusing at distances
Ears: non-contributory
Mouth: Mom noticed a white dot on the roof of his mouth since birth
Respiration: Negative as per HPI but mom did notice that he occasionally breathes fast then
stops for a few seconds, then starts up again.
Its most noticeable when he sleeps.
Heart: No problems
Abdomen: Mom says Cortez passes a lot of gas. When he was breast-fed, he had a soft stool
after every feed sometimes 8-10 a day.
He has only had two stools in the last 24 hours. His umbilical cord fell off three
days ago.
GU: Cortez displays a strong stream of urine when he voids.
Neurology: Cortez was very shaky after birth but thats slowly resolved.
Skin: see HPI
PHYSICAL EXAM
Vitals
Temp 37.8 rectal Pulse 156 Respiratory Rate 45 BP 86/47
Weight 3.41 kg (10-25%ile)
Height 54 cm (50%ile)
Head Circumference 37.5cm (50%ile)
See Growth Chars below:



General: Patient is a well-developed, well-nourished African American male in no apparent distress.
Patient is asleep but easily arousable. Appears well hydrated.
Head: Normocephalic, atraumatic with thick hair. Anterior fontanelle measures 1x1 cm, is soft and flat
with normal pulsations. Posterior fontanelle is fingertip. Sutures show mild molding with a remnant of a
small right parietal cephalohematoma.
Eyes: Pupils equal, round and reactive to light. Extraocular muscles appear intact but patient too young to
cooperate with exam. No discharge, conjuctivitis or scleral icterus. No ptosis. Patient focuses briefly on
face. Fundi-unable to visualize. Positive red reflexes bilaterally.
Ears: Clear external auditory canals. Pinnae normal is shape and contour. No pre-auricular pits or skin
tags.
TMs grey bilaterally. No erythema or suppuration.
Nose: Normal pink mucosa, no discharge or blood visible. Normal midline septum.
Mouth: moist mucous membranes, small 1mm white papule on posterior roof of mouth c/w Epsteins
Pearl. Mild normal retrognathia. No evidence of a cleft on palpation of roof.
Throat: Unable to visualize tonsils. Pharynx shows no erythema or ulcerations. Normal movement of
soft palate.
Neck: Grossly non-swollen. No tracheal deviation. No decrease in ROM. No lymphadenopathy, goiter
or masses detected.
Chest: Tanner II breast development palpable nodule below both areolae. Round chest cavity. No
increase of accessory muscles no evidence of increased work of breathing. Lungs are clear to
auscultation bilaterally. No stridor, wheezes, crackles, or rubs. Good air movement.
CVS: Quiet precordium, no right ventricular heave, no thrills. PMI in left mid-clavicular line in 6
th

intercostal space. Regular rate and rhythm. Normal Sl with normally split S2 on respiration. No murmurs,
gallops or rubs. 2+pulses in all extremities including strong bilateral femoral pulses. Capillary refill less
than 2 sec.
Abdomen: Soft, non-tender, non-distended. Bowel signs present. Liver edge palpable 1 cm below costal
margin but scratch test reveals normal liver size of 5 cm. No noted splenomegaly. No masses. Umbilicus
healing well no erythema, discharge or foul smell; mild diastasis recti present.
Genitalia: Circumcised; normally placed urethral meatus. Bilaterally descended testes measuring 1.5cm
bilaterally, GU Tanner I, Pubic Hair Tanner I; no hernias, no hydroceles.
Extremities: Warm, no clubbing, cyanosis or edema. No gross deformities. Good skin turgor with no
tenting. Negative Barlow and Ortolani signs no hip clunks.
Back: straight, no lordosis, no kyphosis. Symmetrical Gallant reflex present. No sacral dimple, no hair
tuft. Positve Mongolian spot about 5 cm in diameter.
Skin: Vesicular lesions filled with whitish-yellow fluid covering the lower abdomen, inguinal region and
upper thighs. The largest lesions measure 2mm by 3mm in size. Nikolsky sign -negative. Several small
pea sized nodes palpable in both inguinal regions
Neurological: No focal deficits moves all extremities symmetrically, appropriate tone.
CN I deferred
CN II can focus on face briefly
CN II, III PERRL
CN III, IV, VII unable to tell if eyes move in all directions
CN V corneal reflex intact
CN VII symmetrical facial expression, closes eyes forcefully
CN VIII startles to clap
CN VII, IX, X, XII positive gag, symmetrical soft palate movement, normal swallow and
cry
CN XI deferred
Normal symmetrical moro, gallant reflexes. Normal asymmetric tonic neck reflex. Normal stepping
reflex. Symmetrical biceps and patellar DTRs, upward going plantar reflexes, 5-6 beat clonus both feet.
Negative Brudzinski and Kernig signs.

Labs (Date and Time all labs)

Urinalysis: (Date and Time) Collected by catheterization.
Negative for bacteria, leukocyte esterase, nitrite, WBC and RBC
CXR (Date and Time)
Preliminary findings are negative. Official reading pending.
CSF (Date and Time)
Glc 49
Protein 161
WBC 3
RBC 28,565
No organisms seen on gram stain

ASSESSMENT
1. 2 week old infant with localized vesicular diaper rash.
2. 2 week old infant with irritability.
3. Normal variations: Epstein pearl, Mongolian spot, periodic breathing, normal focal distance for
infant, normal Babinskis in newborn, normal bowel pattern with breast and bottled milk,
normal breast development in newborn secondary to maternal hormones.
4. High protein and RBC count on CSF probably traumatic. No evidence of meningitis.
Differential:
Generalized Rash
Herpes Simplex
Erythema toxicum
Transient neonatal pustular melanosis
Epidermolysis bullosa
Incontinentia pigmenti
Congenital erosive and vesicular dermatitis
Congenital varicella
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
Neonatal scabies
Localized Rash
Miliaria
Bullous impetigo
Herpes simplex
Discussion:
Although this rash is presenting in a localized area, we should at least consider other
causes of generalized rashes since this may simply be the initial presentation that has yet to
spread. When prioritizing our differential we should first consider those diseases that are most
common as well as those diseases that are most likely to cause serious harm or possibly death.
The most common cause of localized vesicles in an otherwise healthy infant would be
miliaria. This is a transient disorder of immature eccrine (sweat) glands that typically results in
tiny vesicles filled with clear fluid. These are most often seen in areas that are moist and hot
(like the diaper area) and tend to come and go. The vesicles that Cortez has are too big for the
usual vesicles of crystalline miliaria. Other common neonatal rashes are erythema toxicum and
Pustular melanosis. Erythema toxicum had a flea bitten appearance of tiny papules on a large
red flare. Pustular melanosis had larger thick walled vesicles filled with turbid fluid all over the
body. When these rupture they leave a collarette and a hyperpigmented macule. This is not seen
in Cortez.
The most dangerous causes to consider are infectious. Herpes and staph scalded skin
syndrome should both be considered early.
Neonatal Herpes can be devastating even if caught early. Typically there will be
positive maternal history for herpes but a negative history does not rule it out. Lesions tend to be
small vesicles on a red base that occur in clusters but can occur singly. The infant may have no
systemic symptoms or may present in a toxic condition. Because this disease can be fatal,
treatment is started when the condition is suspected, not held until a diagnosis is confirmed.
Both enterovirus and adenovirus may present with the same lesions. Patient should be treated as
if they have herpes until the definitive diagnosis is made.
Staph infections can also be deadly. It is an exfoliative dermatitis characterized by
diffuse, tender erythema (toxin mediated), flaccid bullae, sheets of desquamating skin and a
positive Nikolsky sign. The face, groin and axillae are most commonly affected. Less serious
staph bullous impetigo is frequently seen in the diaper area, but again presents with larger, fluid
filled bullae than we see in Cortez.
Congenital varicella should be suspected if a history of late gestation maternal
exposure is obtained. This is not the case in this patient.
Neonatal scabies can present with vesicles but these are usually found all over the body
including scalp, palms and soles.
Epidermolysis bullosa, Incontinentia pigmenti, Congenital erosive and vesicular
dermatitis are in the differential diagnosis. However, all are much more rare, have larger, thick
walled bullae or are seen mostly in females. They should be kept for consideration if other more
common causes are ruled-out.
Plan
Because the differential diagnosis contains life-threatening diseases, the patient should be covered for
these possibilities pending final diagnosis.
Because this is an infant and because we are considering a bacterial infection, we should perform a
full septic workup which includes:
CBC with differential
Blood Cultures
Urinalysis and urine culture by catheterization
CXR
Complete Metabolic Profile (check baseline renal function. Look at liver
enzymes that may be high in herpetic infections)
CSF analysis with bacterial and viral culture, PCR for herpes (Caution: do not
perform lumbar puncture through active herpes lesions.
May induce herpes encephalitis that might otherwise not have
occurred.)
Vesicle fluid gram stain, Herpes DFA or PCR and aerobic, anaerobic and viral
culture
After obtaining all cultures the patient should be started on appropriate antibiotics to cover potential
organisms. If there had been any evidence for meningitis on physical or the CSF, I would start ampicillin
to cover Listeria monocytogenes, cefotaxime to cover Group B strept, coliform bacteria, and more rarely
pneumococcus: and vancomycin to cover staph. The most likely cause of the elevated protein and RBC
count in the CSF is a traumatic tap. Since the tap showed no increased WBCs and listeria does not cause
a bullous or vesicular rash, we can hold the ampicillin. However, if the patient deteriorates or diagnosis
becomes more consistent with a bacterial cause, I would consider re-tapping the infant to get a better
picture of what is going on the in the CSF. Because of the potential for herpes simplex, I would start
acyclovir as well.
Acyclovir 20mg/kg/dose q8hrs IV
Cefotaxime 150 mg/kg/day divided q8hrs IV
Vancomycin 15 mg/kg/dose q12hrs IV
Since patient is well hydrated and feeding well, there is no need to start IV fluids. Patient
may receive a hep well for med administration. However, his intake must be monitored
accurately to assure adequate hydration to protect the kidney during acyclovir administration.
Monitor renal function if med will be continued for prolonged duration.
We will order Similac with Iron ad lib for the patient but will consult the lactation
consultant to help mother re-establish breast feeding.
Daily weights and accurate Is & Os
Vital signs q 4hrs
Contact isolation restrictions for herpes and staphylococcus.
Help mother to establish a pediatrician for follow-up.
Obtain results of neonatal screen.
Consult social service to help with Tenncare insurance issues and discharge planning.