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ROLL NO.- 520950361
Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1
MB0027 – HRM

(Book ID: B0909)

Assignment Set-2

1. Write and briefly explain different sources of recruitment?

The sources of recruitment can be broadly classified into two categories such as:-

Internal Sources,
External Sources
Sources of recruitment

External Sources
Internal Sources
Traditional Sources Modern Sources

1. Existing Employees 1. Advertisement 1. Campus Interview

2. Present-Temporary 2. Employment 2. Walk-in-Interviews
employees Exchanges 3. Personal Consultation
3. Retrenched Employees 3. Personnel 4. Hunting the Head
4. Retired Employees Consultants 5. Leasing
5. Dependants of Deceased, 4. College, Universities 6. E-Recruitment
Disabled, Retired and and Institutions 7. Outsourcing
Present Employees 5. Recommendations
6. Labour Contractors
7.Casual and

Internal Sources:-

Internal sources are the most obvious sources of recruitment. The various internal sources are
as follows:-

Personnel already on the Pay Roll of an Organization:-

Personnel already on the pay roll of an organization are its present working force. Majority of
the organizations all over the world prefer only this source. Even Courts also prefer this source
and considers this as a matter of legal right and order for selection from within whenever write
applications are filed by aggrieved employees.

Present Temporary Employees:-

Employees who are already employed on temporary basis may be taken for work on
permanent basis if they found to be sincere, efficient, honest, hard-working, devoted etc.

Retrenched Employees:-

Due to lack of work, company may retrench the employees. When the jobs are created
additionally employees who were retrenched in the past may be taken back again if it feels it
is reasonable to do so. It may also happen due to the pressure of trade union etc.

Retired Employees:-

Some companies take back the employees who retired from service by recognizing the loyalty
of such people towards the organization.

Dependants of Deceased, Disabled, Retired and Present Employees:-

It is a normal practice to give employment to the dependants of deceased, disabled, retired

and present employees. It is considered as an effective source of recruitment internally.

External Sources:-

In contrast to the internal recruitment, the term external sources indicate the sources outside
the enterprise. The persons recruited from outside sources are, thus, unknown to the
enterprise so far. Some organizations, which consider originality, initiative and drive etc. are of
paramount important, prefer this source. Particularly in a competitive economy, fresh blood
should be injected into the organization so as to make it more dynamic. The outside sources
usually include the following:
New entrants to the labour force i.e. young mostly inexperienced potential employees-the
college students.

The unemployed with a wide range of skills and abilities.

Retired experienced persons.

All others not in the labour force.

Methods of Recruiting from External Sources:-

This can be discussed under two heads namely,

Traditional Sources, and

Modern Sources.

Traditional External Sources of Recruitment:-

The most popular methods of recruiting people from traditional external sources are the

This is a very common and effective method of bringing in candidates from outside. The
employer puts up an advertisement in the newspaper either in the classified advertisement
column or in the form of display advertisement. The name of the post, educational
qualifications, experience in the relevant field of activity, salary etc. are given in the
advertisement. This method is generally suitable for finding out skilled personnel.

Employment Exchanges:-
In our country, the Government runs employment exchanges. In Western countries,
employment counsels and private employment exchanges are very popular. The employment
exchange can help the employers to find out suitable personnel. Besides, it can also help job
seekers to get appointments. In particular in our country these exchanges are very helpful to
procure unskilled and semi-skilled workers. In our country, the Employment Exchange
(compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959 provides for compulsory notification of
vacancies to the employment exchange before filling the vacancies by the employers both in
public and private sectors. But unfortunately our employment exchanges have been found to
be an unpopular source of recruitment by private sector undertakings in India.

Personnel Consultants:-
Some specialized agencies in the form of personnel consultancy services have developed in
recent times. They undertake the work of recruiting personnel on behalf of the employers. The
consultants are very helpful in procuring top and middle level executives. This method is a
costly affair. Although this method is very popular in Western countries, it is not so popular in
our country.

Colleges, Universities and Institutions:-

Some progressive employers maintain a close contact with the universities, colleges,
vocational institutes and management institutes for recruitment to various jobs. It is easier to
mould the fresh graduates and hence they follow the well-known principle “Catch the Young”.
This practice has several points to its credit. This method, however, is in its infancy in our
Introduction of applicants by friends and relatives is yet another source for recruitment. Many
employers also prefer this method because something about the background of the candidate
is known. This method is widely practiced in our country. However, this method has the
inherent defect of favoritism and nepotism.

Labor Contractors:-
This method is very popular in our country for hiring skilled and semi-skilled workers. The
contractors keep themselves in touch with a large army of workers and bring the workers at
the places where they are required. Recently this system has been in operation for supplying
unskilled and semi-skilled labourers to the Gulf and Middle East countries where large-scale
contraction work are going on.

Casual and Unsolicited Applicants:-

Sometimes, job seekers may visit the factory, officer or worksite with the hope that jobs would
be available. They may be considered for employment. Similarly, job seekers may also put up
their applications. If suitable jobs are available, they are interviewed. Even if there is no
vacancy, their applications are preserved and called for interview whenever vacancies arise in
future. This is the most economical method of recruitment and is popular all over the world.

Modern External Sources of Recruitment:-

The various modern external sources of recruitment are as follows:-

Campus interview:-
Campus interview is another important modern external recruitment sources. It is the latest
technique to recruit educated but inexperienced candidates form educational institutions. It is
commonly found in Engineering Colleges, Medical Colleges, Agricultural Institutes, and
Management Studies etc. It is also called as “Campus Recruiting”.
Campus recruiting is widely used by large and medium sized firms that need highly educated
entry-level employees. Campus recruiting can be very productive for an organization, since
many good candidates can be interviewed in a short period of time and at a single location.
Furthermore, it is convenient because the university recruitment center provides both space
and administrative support. Campus recruiting is moderate in cost. It is more expensive than
word-of-mouth recruiting, gate hiring, or limited advertising, but it can be less expensive than
using employment agencies (when the company pays the fee).

One disadvantage of campus recruiting is that candidates are available to start work only at
certain times of the year. Other disadvantages include the lack of experience and the inflated
expectations often held by new graduates, the high cost of hiring graduates for positions that
may not really require a college degree, and the difficulty of evaluating candidates who do not
possess much relevant work history.

The campus recruiting cycle can mean that candidates are in interviewed and given job offers
up to nine months before they are expected to begin work.

In planning a firm’s university recruiting programmer, the recruiter must first decide how many
institutions to visit. Experts advise that more intensive recruiting at a smaller number of
appropriately selected institutions tends to be more effective than brief visits to a larger
number of institutions. Recruiters usually choose universities on the basis of the company’s
past experience with their graduates, the degrees offered, the reputation of the institutions,
the demography of the student body e.g. sex, age and minority composition, the geographic
location and the quality of the college placement office.
After targeting a subset of institutions / colleges the recruiter makes an effort to build up the
company’s reputation with students and disseminates detailed information on the types of
careers available before making the interview visit. A key role in attracting students may be
played by the recruiting brochure distributed prior to the interview visit.

Making other company literature widely available on campus, awarding scholarships and
prizes, employing students in internship and work/study programmers, and sending executives
into the classroom as guest speakers are additional ways to increase a company’s visibility on
campus. By visiting the same colleges year after year, the firm can develop visibility and
maintain an ongoing relationship with placement center officials. Recent research also
suggests that a top-class company website is important in attracting university students to
events both on and off campus.

Campus interviews are usually followed by site-visit or plant-grip invitations to the best
candidates. The firm should plan these visits carefully to make a good impression.

Besides those cited above, there are various other methods like notice at the factory gage,
inviting applications through labour union etc. Computer Data Banks constitute a very popular
source of recruitment in the Untied States.

Walk-in-interview is one of the important modern sources of recruitment. Companies with
large scale operations and subject to rapid changes normally resort to this source. This is
because do not find time to arrange for interviews. In such cases, candidates are advised to
attend for an interview directly without any prior appointment. They just walk in and meet the
human resource manager and attend the interview. They will be subject to various tests and
interviews and if they are suitable, they will be selected for appointment.

Personal Consultation:-
The companies that are busy and subject to rapid changes may encourage the candidates who
seek for jobs to approach them personally. They consult the companies regarding the jobs. If
they are found suitable for jobs, companies select them for appointment.

Hunting the Head:-

This source in normally resorted to employ senior executives having rich knowledge and
experience. It is very difficult to get such people. So companies normally approach the
professional organizations to search for such candidates, which is called as hunting the head.

Leased employees are individuals who are hired by one firm and sent to work in another for a
specific duration of time. Leased employees typically remain with an organization for longer
periods of time. Under a leasing arrangement, individuals work for the leasing firm. When an
organization has a need for specific employee skills, it contracts with the leasing firm to
provide a certain number of trained employees.

The acquiring organizations pay a flat fee for the employees. The company is not responsible
for benefits or other costs like social security payments, which it would incur for a full-time
employee. This is because leased employees are, in fact, employees of the leasing firm.
Furthermore, when the project is over, employees are returned to the leasing company, thus
eliminating any cost associated with layoffs or discharge.

Leased employees are also well-trained individuals. They are screened by the leasing firm,
trained appropriately, and often go to organizations with an unconditional guarantee. Thus, if
one of these individuals doesn’t work out, the company can get a new employee, or make
arrangements to have its fee returned. There are also benefits from the employee’s point of
view. Some of today’s workers prefer more flexibility in their lives. Working with al easing
company and being sent out at various times allow these workers to work when they want, for
the length of time they desire etc.

E-Recruitment i.e. electronic recruitment is another modern source of recruitment made by
Internet. Organizations advertise about the job vacancies though their Websites. As most of
the organizations create their own web site, these become natural extensions for finding new
employees. Organizations planning to do a lot of Internet recruiting often develop dedicated
sites specifically designed for recruitment. They have the typical information you might find in
an employment advertisement-qualifications sought, experience desired, benefits provided
etc. But they also allow the organization to showcase its products, services and corporate
philosophy and mission statement. This information increases the quality of applicants, as
those whose values don’t mesh with the organization tend to select themselves out. The best
designed of those websites include an online response form, so applicants don’t need to send
a separate resume by mail, e-mail, or fax. They have to simply fill in a resume page and hit the
“submit” button. This is called “Cyberspace Recruiting”.

Internet recruiting provides a low-cost means for most businesses to gain unprecedented
access to potential employees worldwide.

Internet recruiting won’t be merely the choice of those looking to fill high-tech jobs. As
computer prices fall, access costs to the Internet decrease and the majority of working people
become comfortable with the Internet, online recruiting will be used for all kinds of non-
technical jobs.

It involves minimum cost only. Its scope is wide. It can reach any number of people at the
same time.

Outsourcing is an arrangement whereby human resources are drawn from the pool of human
resources developed by the organizations, which are meant for it instead of having this own
human resource department. It is of a recent development that some organizations create
human resource pool not for their own use but for supplying candidates for other
organizations, which are in need of candidates for a commission.
2. Write a note on Guided and Unguided Interview?

The Guided Interview:-

The guided interview is based on the hypothesis that employees answer to certain equations
will reveal their attitudes. The questions selected are presumed to be the ones that will call
forth a true picture of how the employees feel.

This series of questions is usually rather large, the interview seeks to direct the interview in
such a manner as to secure the answer that will reveal the desired information.

The guided interview is a useful method of investigating the moral of supervisors or other
groups that are small in comparison with the employees as a whole.

The Unguided Interview:-

This technique for measuring moral is predicated upon the theory that is employees are placed
in a position freely. They will reveal a true situation not so much by the exult thing complained
of or discussed as by the interviewers, ability to relate what is said to basic causes.

It is also assumed that if the employee himself is permitted to take through a given problem o
wok situation with out special prompting or questioning by the interviewer, he usually will
become aware of the logic or lack of logic in the situation and chose for himself the
appropriate line of action.

A combination of the Guided and Unguided Interview: -

To combines the two methods, the interviewer may start with the guided interview, which
should not be too long or cover too much territory; the interviewer is then invited to discuss
any subject that he may like to talk about.

During the guided interview some persons tend to bring in material that has no special
significance in the relation to the information sought.

The interviewer should observe such instances and encourage the interviewee to follow up
these leads during the unguided position of the interview. As a matter of fact few guided
interviews are strictly kept on the detailed subjects laid out in the formal put forth to get the
most out of the unguided phases of the interview.
3. Discuss the techniques to motivate employees?

Following Michael Jucius, let us see how management may proceed to motivate employees.
This activity may be divided into two parts.

what is to be done
how, why and what is done

The former are steps in motivation and the latter are rules governing the steps. Both are
performed simultaneously. The steps of motivation are listed below:-

Size up situation requiring motivation:-

The first stage of motivation is to make sure of motivational needs. Every employee needs
motivation. However, all people do not react in exactly the same way to the same stimuli.
Keeping this in mind the executive shall size up how much and what kind of motivation is
needed and when by which individuals.

Prepare a set of motivating tools:-

Having determined the motivational needs of a particular person or group an executive must
have a list from which he should select and apply specific tools of motivation. And executive
from his personal experience should prepare a list of what devices are likely to work with type
of people and under what circumstances.

Selecting and applying the appropriate motivator:-

Proper application of Motivational plan is very important. This involves selection of the
appropriate technique, the method of application and the timing and location of applications.
Having appropriate techniques, thought must be given to its application.

Follow up the results of the application:-

The last stage of motivations to Follow up the results of the application of the plan. The
primary objective is to ascertain if an employee has been motivated or not. If not, some other
technique should be tried. A secondary purpose of follow up is to evaluate motivation plans for
future guidance.

Rules of motivating:-
In the following steps of motivation a manager should be guided by some fundamental rules
which should be based upon the following principles.
Self interest and motivation:-
Undoubtedly, motivation is mainly built on Selfishness. Psychologically speaking, selfishness is
a part and parcel of life. To deny this is to build the theory on unrealistic foundation. To seek
some other basis of motivation would be to ignore the real nature of man. The aim should be
to learn more about selfishness.
Motivation must establish attainable goals. What is prescribed for a
Particular person must be attainable by him. This does not mean that the goal is realized at
once. Such goals as promotion or desirable transfer may take years to attain. But it must be
with in reach.

4. Explain in detail the disciplinary – Action penalties?

There are varying penalties for first, second, and third offences of the same rule. Among the
penalties available in business are:-

• Oral reprimand
• Written reprimand
• Loss of privileges
• Fines
• Lay off
• Demotion
• Discharge
The penalties are listed in the general order of severity, from mild to severe.
For most cases, an oral reprimand is sufficient to achieve the desired results. The supervisor
must know his or her personnel in determining how to give a reprimand. For one person a
severe “Chewing out” may be necessary in order to get attention and co – operation, another
person may require only a casual motion of a deficiency is more serious, the reprimand may
be put in written form.

Since a written reprimand is more permanent than an oral one, it is considered a more severe

For such offences as tardiness or leaving work permission, fines or loss of various privileges
can be used. The fins usually have some relationship to the work time actually lost. The loss of
privileges includes such items as good job assignments, right to select machine or other
equipment, and freedom of movement about the workplace or company.
The more severe penalties of lay off, demotion, and discharge are usually outside the grant of
authority to the immediate supervisor. Disciplinary layoff can very in severity from one to
several days loss of work without pay. The use of demotions as a penalty is highly
questionable. If the employee is properly qualified for the present assignment, he or she will
be improperly placed on a lower job. Discharges are the most severe penalty that a business
organization can give and constitutes “industrial capital punishment”.
1. Explain the importance of Grievance handling?

At one or other stage of the grievance procedure, the dispute must be handled by some
member of management. In the solutions of a problem, the grater burden rests on
management. The clearest opportunity for settlement is found at the first stage, before the
grievance has left the jurisdiction of the supervisors as to how to handle a grievance or
complaint properly. The dispute or grievance constitutes in arriving at a satisfactory solutions.
The following directions help in handling a grievance.

Receive and define the nature of the dissatisfaction:-

The manner and attitude with which the supervisor receives the complaint of grievance is
important. As a principle applicable to this step, the supervisor should assume that the
employee is fair in presenting the complaint or grievance. Statements should not be prejudged
the basis of past experience with this or other employees. The supervisor should not be too
busy to listen and should not give an impression of condescension in doing so. Thus supervisor
who were nearly task – oriented, as contrasted with people – oriented, tended to experience a
significantly greater number of grievance being filed in their units.

Get the facts:-

In gathering facts, one quickly becomes aware of the importance of keeping proper records
such as performance ratings, job ratings, attending records and suggestions. In addition, with
the increasingly legalistic bent that is characteristic of modern labour management relations,
the supervisor is wise to keep records on each particular grievance. It is also important that
the supervisor possesses and exercise some skill in interview conference, and discussion.

Analyze and Divide:-

With the problem defined and the facts in hand, the manager must
now analyze and evaluate them, and them come to some decision. There is usually more than
one possible solution. The manager must also be aware that the decision may constitute a
precedent with in the department as well as the company.

Apply the answer:-

Though the solution decided upon by the superior is adverse to the employee, some answer is
better than none. Employees dislike supervisors who will take no stand, good or bad. In the
event of an appeal beyond this stage of the procedure, the manager must have the decision
and the reasons for his decisions should be properly recorded.

Follow up:-

The objective of the grievance procedure is to resolve a disagreement between an employee

and the organization. Discussion and conference are important to this process. The purpose of
its follow up phase is to determine whether the clash of interest has been resolved. If follow up
reveals that the case has been handled unsatisfactorily or that the wrong grievance has been
processed, then redefinition of the problem, further fact – finding, analysis, solutions and
follow up are required.

2. Explain Managerial Grid in detail?

Robert Blake, an eminent behavioral scientist deferential the leaders on the basic of their
concern to people and concern to task. He along with Jane mouton conducted study on 5000
managers. He puts it on a grid called managerial grid as follows.


C 9
o 8 1,9 9, 9
nc 7
er 6
5 5, 5
r 4
P 3
e 2
e 1 1, 1 9, 1
Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 High
Concern for Results

The managerial grid model (1964) is a behavioral leadership model developed by Robert Blake
and Jane mouton. This model identifies five different leadership styles based on the concern
for people and the concern for production. The optimal leadership style in this model is based
on theory Y

As shown in the figure, the model is represented as a grid with concern for production as the
A- axis and concern for people as the Y – axis, each axis ranges from 1 (low) to 9(High). The
five resulting leadership styles are as follows:

The impoverished style (1, 1) the different leader ( evade and elude):- .
In this style, managers have low concern for both people and production. Managers use this
style to avoid getting into trouble. The main concern for the manager is not to be held
responsible for any mistakes, which results in less innovative decisions.


Does only enough to preserve job and job seniority

Gives little and enjoys little.
Protects himself by not being noticed by others


“I distance myself from taking active responsibility for results to avoid getting entangled in

The county club Style (1, 9) the accommodating leader (yield and Comply):-

This style has a high concern for people and a low concern for production. Managers using this
style pay much attention to the security and comport of the employees, in hopes that this
would increase performance. The resulting atmosphere is usually friendly, but not necessarily
that productive.


“I support results that establish and reinforce harmony”,

“I generate enthusiasm by focusing on pleasing aspects of work”.

The produce or perish style (9,1) the controlling leader (direct and Dominate):-

People who get this rating are very much task – oriented and are hard on their workers
(autocratic) there is little or no allowance for co –operation or collaboration. Heavily task -
oriented people display these characteristics.


“I expect results and take control by clearly stating a course of action”

“I enforce rules that sustain high results and do not permit deviation”,

The middle of the road style(5,5) the status – Quo leader ( Balance and
compromise ):-

Managers using this style try to balance between companies

Goals and workers needs. By giving some concern to both acceptable performances


“I endorse results that are popular but caution against taking unnecessary risk”,

“I test my opinions with others involved to assure ongoing acceptability”.

The term style(9,9) the sound / team leader (contribute and commit):-

In this style, high concern is paid both to people and production.

As suggested by the propositions of theory Y, managers choosing to sue this style encourage
teamwork and commitment among employees. This method relies heavily on making
employees feel as a constructive part of the company


“I Initiate team action in a way that invites involvement and commitment”,

“I explore all facts and alternative views to reach a shared understanding of the best solution”.