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SMU

ASSIGNMENT
SEMESTER – 1
MBO025

FINANCE AND MANAGEMENT


ACCOUNTING

SUBMITTED BY:
MUSHTAQ AHMAD PARA
MBA
ROLL NO.- 520950361
MBA- I semester
MB0025- Financial & Management Accounting
Book ID- ( B0907 )
Assignment Set 2

Q1.Budgetary Control is a technique of managerial control through budgets. Elaborate.

Ans. Modern business world is full of competition, uncertainty and exposed to different types
of risks. The complexity of managerial problems has led to development of various managerial
tools, techniques and procedures useful for the management in managing the business
successfully. In this direction, planning and control plays an important role. Budgeting is the
most common and powerful standard device of palling and control.

Budgetary control is a technique of managerial control through budgets. A budget is a


quantitative expression of plan of action. . It is a pre-determined detailed plan of action developed as
a guide for future operation. According to Wheldon “Budgetary control is the planning in advance of
the various functions of business so that the business as a whole can be controlled”. Budgetary
controls deals with planning, coordination, recording appraisal and follow-up of actions.
The procedure for preparing plan in respect of future financial and physical requirements is generally
called “Budgeting”. It is a forward planning exercise. It involves the preparation in advance of the
quantitative as well as the financial statements to indicate the intention of the management in respect
of the various aspects of the business.
Budgetary control is applied to a system of management accounting control by which all operations
and output are forecasted far ahead as possible and actual results when known are compared with the
budget estimates.
Budgeting is a forward planning. It basically serves as a tool for management control. The objectives
of budgeting may be taken as:

• To forecast and plan for future to avoid losses and to maximize profits.
• To help the concern in planning the activities both physical and financial.
• To bring about coordination between different functions of the enterprise.
• To control; actual actions by ensuring that actual are in tune with targets

Budgetary control: When one relates control function to budget, we find a system what is generally
termed as budgetary control. Control signifies such systematic efforts which help the management to
know whether actual performance is in line with predetermined goal, policy and plans. It is basically a
measurement tool. Yardsticks should be laid down. Standards must be set up.

Therefore, the objectives can be summarized as follows:

• To conform with good business practice by planning for the future.


• To coordinate the various divisions of a business.
• To establish divisional and departmental responsibilities.
• To forecast operating activities and financial position.
• To operate most efficiently the divisions, departments and cost center.
• To avoid waste, to reduce expenses and to obtain the income desired.
• To obtain more economical use of capital available for the efficient operation.
• To provide more definite assurance of earning the proper return on capital employed.
• To centralize management control.
• To show the management where action is needed to remedy a situation.
• To help in controlling cash.
• To help in obtaining better inventory control and turnover.

Steps In Budgetary Control

The procedure to be followed in the preparation and control of budget may differ from business to
business. But, a general pattern of outline of budget preparation and control may go a long way to
achieve the end results. The steps are as follows:

Formulation of policies: The business policies are the foundation stone of budget construction.
Function policies should be formulated in advance. Long-range policies with short term projections
should be made for the functional areas such as sales, production, inventory, cash management,
capital expenditure.
Preparation of forecasts:

Based on the formulated policies, forecast should be made in respect of each function. Activity based
concepts should be introduced at the micro level for each function Forecasts should not be considered
as a mere estimates. Scientific methods should be adopted for forecasting. Analysis of various factors
based on past, and present, future forecast should be made.

Preparation of budgets:

Forecasts are converted into written codified document. Such written documents can be used for
coordination purposes. Function budgets will act as guidelines for implementation.

Forecast combinations:

While developing the budgets, through a Master Budget various permutations and combination
processes are considered and developed. Based on this, establishment of the most preferred one
which will yield optimum benefits should be considered. All the factor components should be identified
which are likely to cause disturbances while implementing the budgets

Q2. a. Given: Current ratio = 2.6

Liquid ratio = 1.4


Working Capital = Rs.1,10,000
Calculate (1) Current assets (2) current liabilities (3) Liquid Asset (4) Stock
b. Calculate Gross Profit Ratio from the following figures:
Sales Rs.5,00,000
Sales return Rs.50,000
Closing stock Rs.35,000
Opening stock Rs.70,000
Purchases Rs.3,50,000

Ans. Given data is working capital, hence:

Working capital = Current assets - current liabilities ----- [1]

Current Ratio = CA / CL = 2.6

In the absence of any value, the current liability is always taken as 1 unit

2.6 = CA / 1 and cross multiplying , CA is 2.6

Substituting CA in [1],

Working capital = 2.6 - 1 = 1.6

For 1.6 WCR = Working capital value is Rs1,10,000

For 2.6 CAR, the current asset is Rs.1,10,000 x 2.6 / 1.6 = Rs.1,78,750

For 1 CLR, the current liability is 1,10,000 x 1 / 1.6 = Rs.68,750

Liquid Ratio =Liquid asset / current liabilities

1.4 = Liquid asset / 2,86,000

Liquid asset = 1.4 X 68,750

= 96,250

Liquid asset = Current asset – Stock

Therefore,

Stock = Current Asset – Liquid Asset

= 1,78,750 – 96250

= Rs. 82,500

b. Calculate Gross Profit Ratio from the following figures:


Sales Rs.5,00,000
Sales return Rs.50,000
Closing stock Rs.35,000
Opening stock Rs.70,000
Purchases Rs.3,50,000

Gross profit ratio (GP ratio) is the ratio of gross profit to net sales expressed as a percentage. It
expresses the relationship between gross profit and sales.
[Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross profit / Net sales) × 100]
Cost Of Goods Sold [COGS] = Opening stock + Purchases – closing stock

= 70000 + 350000-35000

COGS = 385000 Rs.

Gross Profit = (Sales – Sales returns) - COGS

= (500000 – 50000) – 385000

= 450000 – 385000

Gross Profit = 65000 Rs.

Net Sales = Sales – Sales returns

= 500000 – 50000

= 450000 Rs.

Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross profit / Net sales) × 100]

= (65000/450000) X 100

= 14.4%

Q3. From the following Balance Sheet of William & Co Ltd., you are required to prepare a Schedule of
Changes in Working capital & Statement of Sources and Application of funds.

Balance Sheet

Liabilities 2002 2003 Assets 2002 2003


Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs.
Capital 80,000 85,000 Cash in Hand 4,000 9,000
P&L a/c 14,500 24,500 Sundry Debtors 16,500 19,500
Sundry Creditors 9,000 5,000 Stock 9,000 7,000
Long-term Loans - 5,000 Machinery 24,000 34,000
Building 50,000 50,000
Total 1,03,500 1,19,500 Total 1,03,500 1,19,500

Ans.

Schedule of changes in working capital

Balance as on Effect on Working Capital


Details
2002 2003 Increase Decrease
Liabilities
Sundry Creditors 9,000 5,000 - 4,000
Long term loans 0 5,000 5000
P&La/c 14500 24500 10000
Total liabilities [B] 23,500 34,500 10,000 9,000
Assets
Cash in Hand 4000 9000 5000
Sundry Debtors 16500 19500 3000
Stock 9000 7000 2000
Machinery 24000 34000 10000
Total Assets (A) 53500 69500 10000 2000

Working Capital A-B 30,000 35,000


Net increase in Working capital 5000 9000

35,000 35,000 20,000 20,000

Q4. Bring out the difference between cash flow and funds flow statement

Ans. Difference Between Cash Flow And Funds Flow Statement

The major differences between the two are :


1. FFS is related with accrual basis whereas CFS is on cash basis. For this
the, it is necessary to convert the accrual to cash basis.
2. In FFS, a Schedule of changes in working capital de-linking the current
assets and current liabilities are made. But in CFS, no schedule is
prepared.
3. FFS shows the causes of the changes in net working capital. CFS
shows the causes for the change in cash
4. In FFS, no opening or closing balances are recorded. But in CFS both
are incorporated
5. FFS is not based on the Ledger mode. But CFS is prepared on the
basis of Ledger principles.
6. In FFS, “To” and “By” are indicated. In CFS, these are not indicated.
7. In FFS, net effect of receipts and disbursements are recorded. In CFS
only cash receipts and payments are recorded.
8. FFS is concerned with the total provision of funds. CFS is concerned
with only cash.
9. FFS is flexible but CFS is rigid
10.FFS is more relevant for long range financial strategy. CFS
concentrates on short term aspects mostly affecting the liquidity of the
business.

Q5. a. DELL computers sell 100 PCs at Rs.42,000. The variable expenses amount to Rs.28,000 per PC.
The total fixed expenses is Rs.14,00,000. Prepare an income statement.

b. Calculate BEP and MOS


Sales at present are 55,000 units per annum. Selling price is Rs.6 per unit. Prime cost Rs.3 per unit.
Variable overheads is Re.1 per unit. Fixed cost Rs.80,000 per annum.

Ans.
Income Statement
No. Of computers produced 100
No. Of computers sold 100
Unit selling price per computer 42000
unit variable cost per computer 28000

4200000
Sales revenue =No. Of computers sold X
unit selling price
Less variable cost (100 X 28000) -2800000
Less Fixed expenses -1400000
Profit or loss 0

b. Calculate BEP and MOS


Sales at present are 55,000 units per annum. Selling price is Rs.6 per unit. Prime cost Rs.3
per unit. Variable overheads is Re.1 per unit. Fixed cost Rs.80,000 per annum.

Sales at present 50,000 units per annum. Selling price Rs.6 per unit, Prime cost Rs.3 per unit.
Variable overheads Re.1 per unit. Fixed cost Rs.75, 000 per annum.
Solution:
BEP = Fixed cost / (SP – VC) per unit
= 80,000 / (6 – 4)
= 80,000 / 2
BEP = 40,000 units.
BEP in rupees = BEP in units x selling price per unit
= 40,000 x Rs.6
= Rs.2, 40,000
MOS = Actual Sales – BEP Sales
= (55,000 x 6) – 2,40,000
MOS = Rs.90,000
Q6. What is cost variable analysis?

Ans. A variable cost changes in total in direct proportion to a change in the level of activity or cost
driver. If activity increases, say by 20%, total variable cost also increases by 20 %. The total variable
cost increases proportionately with activity. Variable cost fixed per unit but varies in total.

Cost Variable Analysis:

Break Even Chart is used in Cost variable analysis.

It is a graphic or visual presentation of the relationship between costs, volume and profit. It indicates
the point of production at which there is neither profit nor loss. It also indicates the estimated profit or
loss at different levels of production. While constructing the chart, the following assumption is
normally considered.

a) Costs are classified into fixed and variable costs

b) Fixed costs shall remain fixed during the relevant volume range of graph.

c) Variable cost per unit will remain constant during the relevant volume range of graph

d) Selling price per unit will remain constant

e) Sales mix remains constant.


f) Production and sales volume are equal

g) There exists a linear relationship between costs and revenue.

h) Linear relationship is indicated by way of straight line.

Break Even Analysis

It is an extension of or even part of marginal costing. It is a technique of studying cost volume profit
relationship. Basically, the break even analysis is aimed at measuring the variations of cost
with volume. It is a simple method of presenting the effect of changes in volume on profits. It is also
known as CVP analysis. The various assumptions are:

a) All costs can be classified into fixed and variable

b) Sales mix will remain constant.

c) There will be no change in general price level

d) The state of technology, Methods of production and efficiency remain unchanged.

e) Costs and revenues are influenced only by volume

f) Cost and revenues are linear.

g) Stocks are valued at marginal cost

h) Unit produced and sold are same.