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- Heat transfer lectures 1 (conduction)
- ME3122E - Tutorial Solution 5
- 34449024 Sample Heat Transfer Problems With Solutions
- Heat transfer lectures 2 (convection)
- A Long, Circular Aluminium Rod Attached at One End To
- heat transger
- HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER NOTES
- Radiation- R.K.Rajput
- MODULE 6: Worked-Out Problems
- Heat and Mass Transfer notes
- Module 4: Worked Out Problems
- solved problems in heat transfer
- HT3eChap2_1_69
- Module 1: Worked Out Problems
- [Solutions Manual] Fundamental Os Heat and Mass Transfer [Frank p. Incropera - David p.dewitt]
- Machine Design Problems
- Module 5: Worked Out Problems
- Sheet(4)_sol
- Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer-Incropera-6th-Book
- FIN SHEET

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Problem 1:

The steady-state temperature distribution in a one–dimensional wall of thermal conductivity

50W/m.K and thickness 50 mm is observed to be T(0C)= a+bx2, where a=2000C, B=-20000c/

m2, and x in meters.

(a) What is the heat generation rate in the wall?

(b) Determine the heat fluxes at the two wall faces. In what manner are these heat fluxes

related to the heat generation rate?

Known: Temperature distribution in a one dimensional wall with prescribed thickness and

thermal conductivity.

Find: (a) the heat generation rate, q in the wall, (b) heat fluxes at the wall faces and relation

to q.

Schematic:

Assumptions: (1) steady-state conditions, (2) one –dimensional heat flow, (3) constant

properties.

Analysis: (a) the appropriate form of heat equation for steady state, one dimensional

condition with constant properties is

. d ⎡ dT ⎤

q = −K

dx ⎢⎣ dx ⎥⎦

. d ⎡ d ⎤ d

q = −k ⎢ 2 ⎥

= −k [2bx ] = −2bk

dx ⎣ dx (a + bx ) ⎦ dx

.

q = −2(−2000 0 CC / m 2 ) × 50W / m.K = 2.0 × 10 5 W / m 3

(b) The heat fluxes at the wall faces can be evaluated from Fourier’s law,

dT

q 'x' ( x ) = − k

dx x

d

q x '' ( x ) = − k

[a+bx2]= -2kbx.

dx

The flux at the face, is then x=0

q '' x (0) = 0

atX = L, q 'x' (l) = −2kbL = −2 × 50 W / m.K (−2000 0 C / m 2 ) × 0.050m

q '' x (L) = 10,000 W / m 2

. . . .

E in − E out + E g = 0 q 'x' (0) − q '' x (L) + q L = 0

q= = = 2.0 × 10 5 W / m 3

L 0.050m

Problem 2:

A salt gradient solar pond is a shallow body of water that consists of three distinct fluid layers

and is used to collect solar energy. The upper- and lower most layers are well mixed and

serve to maintain the upper and lower surfaces of the central layer at uniform temperature T1

and T2, where T1>T2. Although there is bulk fluid motion in the mixed layers, there is no such

motion in the central layer. Consider conditions for which solar radiation absorption in the

central layer provides non uniform heat generation of the form q=Ae-ax, and the temperature

distribution in the central layer is

A −ax

T( x ) = − e + bx + c

ka 2

The quantities A (W/m3), a (1/m), B (K/m) and C(K) are known constants having the

prescribed units, and k is the thermal conductivity, which is also constant.

(a) Obtain expressions for the rate at which heat is transferred per unit area from the

lower mixed layer to the central layer and from central layer to the upper mixed layer.

(b) Determine whether conditions are steady or transient.

(c) Obtain an expression for the rate at which thermal energy is generated in the entire

central layer, per unit surface area.

a solar pond.

Find: (a) heat fluxes at lower and upper surfaces of the central layer, (b) whether

conditions are steady or transient (c) rate of thermal energy generation for the entire

central layer.

Schematic:

properties.

Analysis (1) the desired fluxes correspond to conduction fluxes in the central layer at the

lower and upper surfaces. A general form for the conduction flux is

⎡ A ⎤

q "cond = ⎢− k e −ax + B⎥

⎣ ka ⎦

Hence

⎡ A ⎤ ⎡A ⎤

q "l = q "cond ( x =L 0 = ⎢− k e −al + B⎥ q "u = q "cond ( x =0) = − k ⎢ + B⎥

⎣ ka ⎦ ⎣ ka ⎦

(b) Conditions are steady if ∂T/∂t=0. Applying the heat equation,

.

∂ 2 T q 1 ∂T A −ax A −ax 1 ∂Τ

+ = − e + e =

∂ 2 t k α ∂t k k α ∂t

∂T

=0 (for all 0<=x<=L)

∂t

. "

E g = ∫ 0L qdx = A ∫ 0L e − axdx

. A −ax L A −aL A

Eg = − e =− (e − 1) = (1 − e −aL )

a 0 a a

. ."

q "2 − q1" + E g =0 E g = q1" - q"2 = (-q”cond(x=0))-(q”cond(x=L))

. A A A

Eg = k + B − K e −aL + B = (1 − e −aL )

ka ka a

Comments: Conduction is the negative x-direction, necessitating use of minus signs in the

above energy balance.

Problem 3:

The steady state temperatures distribution in a one-dimensional wall of thermal conductivity

and thickness L is of the form T=ax3+bx2+cx+d. derive expressions for the heat generation

rate per unit volume in the wall and heat fluxes at the two wall faces(x=0, L).

conductivity, T(x)=Ax3+Bx2+CX+d.

Find: expressions for the heat generation rate in the wall and the heat fluxes at the two wall

faces(x=0, L).

Assumptions: (1) steady state conditions, (2) one-dimensional heat flow, (3) homogeneous

medium.

Analysis: the appropriate form of the heat diffusion equation for these conditions is

.

d 2T q . d 2T

+ =0 Or q = −k 2

dx 2 k dx

. d ⎡ dT ⎤ d

q=− ⎢ ⎥ = − k [3Ax 2 + 2Bx + C + 0]

dx ⎣ dx ⎦ dx

.

q = − k[6Ax + 2B]

which is linear with the coordinate x. The heat fluxes at the wall faces can be evaluated from

Fourier’s law,

dT

q "x = − k = −k[3Ax 2 + 2Bx + C]

dx

Using the expression for the temperature gradient derived above. Hence, the heat fluxes are:

Surface x=0; q"x (0)=-kC

Surface x=L;

q"x (L) = -K [3AL2+2BL+C]

COMMENTS: (1) from an over all energy balance on the wall, find

. . .

E in − E out + E g = 0

.

q " x (0) − q " x (L) = ( −kC) − ( − K )[3AL2 + 2BL + C] + E g = 0

. ''

E g = −3AkL2 − 2BkL

. '' . L

E g = ∫ 0L q ( x )dx = ∫ − k[6Ax + 2B]dx = − k[3Ax 2 + 2Bx ]0L

0

. ''

E g = −3AkL2 − 2BkL

Problem 4:

The one dimensional system of mass M with constant properties and no internal heat

generation shown in fig are initially at a uniform temperature Ti. The electrical heater is

suddenly energized providing a uniform heat flux q”o at the surface x=0. the boundaries at

x=L and else where are perfectly insulated.

(a) Write the differential equation and identify the boundary and initial conditions that

could be used to determine the temperature as a function of position and time in the

system.

(b) On T-x coordinates, sketch the temperature distributions for the initial condition

(t<=0) and for several times after the heater is energized. Will a steady-state

temperature distribution ever be reached?

(c) On q”x-t coordinates, sketch the heat flux q”x(x,t) at the planes x=0, x=L/2, and x=L

as a function of time.

(d) After a period of time te has elapsed, the heater power is switched off. Assuming that

the insulation is perfect, the system will eventually reach final uniform temperature Tf.

Derive an expression that can be used to determine Tf a function of the parameters

q”o,te,Ti, and the system characteristics M,cp, and A(the heater surface area).

Known: one dimensional system, initially at a uniform temperature Ti, is suddenly exposed

to a uniform heat flux at one boundary while the other boundary is insulated.

Find: (a) proper form of heat diffusion equation; identify boundary and initial conditions, (b)

sketch temperature distributions for following conditions: initial condition (t<=0), several

times after heater is energized ;will a steady-state condition be reached?, (c) sketch heat flux

for x=0, L/2, L as a function of time, (d) expression for uniform temperature, Tf, reached

after heater has been switched off the following an elapsed time , te, with the heater on.]

Schematic:

Assumptions: (1) one dimensional conduction, (2) no internal heat generation, (3) constant

properties.

Analysis: (a) the appropriate form of the heat equation follows. Also the appropriate

boundary and initial conditions are:

∂ 2 T 1 ∂T

= Initial condition: T(x, 0) =Ti uniform temperature

∂x 2 α ∂t

Boundary conditions: x=0 q "o = − k∂T / ∂x ) 0 t > 0

x=L ∂T / ∂x ) L = 0 Insulated

. . .

No steady-state condition will be reached since E in − E out and E in is constant.

(c) The heat flux as a function of time for positions x=0, L/2 and L appears as:

( d) If the heater is energized until t=to and then switched off, the system will eventually reach

a uniform temperature , Tf. Perform an energy balance on the system, for an interval of time

Δt=te,

. .

E in = E st E in = Q in = ∫ 0t e q "0 A s dt = q "o A s t e E st = Mc(Tf − Ti )

q "o A s t e

It follows that q "o A s t e = Mc (Tf − Ti ) OR Tf = Ti +

Mc

Problem 5:

A 1–m-long steel plate (k=50W/m.K) is well insulated on its sides, while the

top surface is at 1000C and the bottom surface is convectively cooled by a fluid

at 200C. Under steady state conditions with no generation, a thermocouple at the

midpoint of the plate reveals a temperature of 850C. What is the value of the

convection heat transfer coefficient at the bottom surface?

Plate. Plate midpoint temperature.

Schematic:

Constant properties

T1− T2 15 0 C

q "cond = = = 1500 W / m 2

L / 2 0.5m / 50 W / m.k

T1 − T∞ 30 0 C

q" = = = 1500 W / m 2

(L / k ) + (1 / h ) (0.02 + 1 / h )m 2 .K / W

h = 30 W / m 2 .K

resistance are

L

R " t ,cond = = 0.02m 2 .K / W

K

1

R " t ,cond = = 0.033m 2 .K / W

h

Problem 6:

The wall of a building is a composite consisting of a 100-mm layer of common

brick, a 100-mm layer of glass fiber(paper faced. 28kg/m2), a 10-mm layer of

gypsum plaster (vermiculite), and a 6-mm layer of pine panel. If the inside

convection coefficient is 10W/m2.K and the outside convection coefficient is

70W/m2.K, what are the total resistance and the overall coefficient for heat

transfer?

and vermiculite and pine panel. Inner and outer convection coefficients.

Schematic:

Pine panel,Kp

h0=70W/m2.K

Kb Kgl hi=10W/m2.K

1 Lg l Lp 1

Lb L gy

h0 Kb k gl Kp hi

k gy

negligible contact resistance.

0.038W/m.K: gypsum, kgy=0.17W/m.K: pine panel, kp=0.12W/m.K.

1 L L g1 L gy L p 1

R "tot = + B + + + +

h 0 K B k g1 k gy K p h i

⎡ 1 0.1 0.1 0.01 0.006 1 ⎤ m 2 .K

R "tot =⎢ + + + + +

⎣ 70 1.3 0.038 0.17 0.12 10 ⎥⎦ W

R "tot = (0.0143 + 0.0769 + 2.6316 + 0.0588 + 0.0500 + 0.1)m 2 .K / W

R "tot = 2.93m 2 ..K / W

1 1

U= = "

= (2.93m 2 .K / W ) −1

R tot A R tot

2

U = 0.341W / m .K.

made by the insulation.

Problem 7:

The composite wall of an oven consists of three materials, two of which are

known thermal conductivity, kA=20W/m.K and kC=50W/m.K, and known

thickness, LA=0.30m and LC=0.15m. The third material, B, which is sandwiched

between materials A and C, is of known thickness, LB=0.15m, but unknown

B

reveal an outer surface temperature of Ts,0=200C, an inner surface temperature

of Ts,i=6000C and an oven air temperature of T =8000C. The inside convection

coefficient h is known to be 25W/m2.K. What is the value of kB? B

Known: Thickness of three material which form a composite wall and thermal

conductivities of two of the materials. Inner and outer surface temperatures of

the composites; also, temperature and convection coefficient associated with

adjoining gas.

Schematic:

Ts,0=200C

LA=0.3m

Ts,i=6000C KA KB KC LB=LC=0.15m

kA=20W/m.K

kC=50W/m.K

T∞=8000C

h= 25W/m2.K

LA LB LC

constant properties, (4) negligible contact resistance, (5) negligible radiation

effects.

Analysis: Referring to the thermal circuit, the heat flux may be expressed as

Ts,i −T s,0 (600 − 20) 0 C

q" = =

LA LB LC 0.3m 0.15m 0.15m

+ + + +

KA KB KC 0.018 KB 50W / m.K

580

= W / m2

0.018 + 0.15 / K B

q '' = 5000 W / m 2

= " − 0.018 = − 0.018 = 0.098

KB q 5000

K B = 1.53W / m.K.

net heat flux at the inner surface of the oven.

Problem 8:

A steam pipe of 0.12 m outside diameter is insulated with a 20-mm-thick layer

of calcium silicate. If the inner and outer surfaces of the insulation are at

temperatures of Ts,1=800K and Ts,2=490 K, respectively, what is the heat loss

per unit length of the pipe?

a steam pipe.

Schematic:

Ts,1=800K

D2=0.16m

Steam

Ts,2=490K

D1=0.12m

Calcium silicate insulation

constant properties.

q r 2πK (Ts,1 −T s, 2 )

q 'r = =

qL ln(D 2 / D1 )

2π(0.089W / m.K )(800 − 490)K

q 'r =

ln(0.16m / 0.12m)

q 'r = 603W / m

Comments: heat transferred to the outer surface is dissipated to the surroundings

by convection and radiation.

Problem 9:

A long cylindrical rod of 10 cm consists of a nuclear reacting material

(k=0.0W/m.K) generating 24,000W/m3 uniformly throughout its volume. This

rod is encapsulated within another cylinder having an outer radius of 20 cm and

a thermal conductivity of 4W/m.K. the outer surface is surrounded by a fluid at

1000C, and the convection coefficient between the surface and the fluid is

20W/m2.K. Find the temperatures at the interface between the two cylinders and

at the outer surface.

Known: A cylindrical rod with heat generation is cladded with another cylinder

whose outer surface is subjected to a convection process.

Find: the temperature at the inner surfaces, T1, and at the outer surface, Tc.

Schematic:

conduction, (3), negligible contact resistance between the cylinders.

Analysis: The thermal circuit for the outer cylinder subjected to the

convection process is

ln ro / r1

R 1' =

2πk 2

1

R '2 =

h 2πro

. .

E out = E g

Find that

.

q ' = q1 × πr12

.

The heat rate equation has the form q = ΔT / R ' , hence

Numerical values: R '2 = 1 / 20 W / m 2 .K × 2π × 0.20m = 0.0398K.m / W

q ' = 24,000 W / m 3 × π × (0.1) 2 m 2 = 754.0 W / m

Hence

Ti = 100 0 C + 754.0 W / m × (0.0276 + cccc)K.m / W = 100 + 50.8 = 150.8 0 C

TC = 100 0 C + 754.0 W / m × 0.0398K.m / W = 100 + 30 = 130 0 C

needed.

Problem 10:

An electrical current of 700 A flows through a stainless steel cable having a

diameter of 5mm and an electrical resistance of 6*10-4 /m (i.e. perimeter of

cable length). The cable is in an environment having temperature of 300C, and

the total coefficient associated with convection and radiation between the cable

and the environment is approximately 25W/m2.K.

(b) If a very thin coating of electrical insulation is applied to the cable, with a

contact resistance of 0.02m2K/W, what are the insulation and cable surface

temperatures?

(c) There is some concern about the ability of the insulation to withstand

elevated temperatures. What thickness of this insulation (k=0.5W/m.K) will

yields the lowest value of the maximum insulation temperature? What is the

value of the maximum temperature when the thickness is used?

conditions associated with a cable.

Find: (a) surface temperature of bare cable, (b) cable surface and insulation

temperatures for a thin coating of insulation, (c) insulation thickness which

provides the lowest value of the maximum insulation temperature.

Corresponding value of this temperature.

Schematic:

Ts

T∞

q

Eg

(3) constant properties.

Analysis: (a) the rate at which heat is transferred to the surroundings is fixed by

the rate of heat generation in the cable. Performing an energy balance for a

.

control surface about the cable, it follows that E g = q or, for the bare cable,

I 2 R 'e L = h (πD i L)(Ts − T∞ ).withq ' = I 2 R 'e = (700A ) 2 (6 × 10 −4 Ω / m) = 294 W / m.

It follows that

q' 294 W / m

Ts = T∞ + = 30 0 C +

hπD i (25W / m 2 .K )π(0.005m)

Ts = 778.7 0 C

(b) With thin coating of insulation, there exists contact and convection

resistances to heat transfer from the cable. The heat transfer rate is

determined by heating within the cable, however, and therefore remains the

same,

Ts − T∞ Ts − T∞

q= =

1 R t ,c 1

R t ,c + +

hπD i L πD i L hπD i L

πD i (Ts − T∞ )

q' =

1

R t ,c +

h

And solving for the surface temperature, find

q' ⎛ 1⎞ 294 W / m ⎛ m 2 .K m 2 .K ⎞

Ts = ⎜ t ,c

R + ⎟ + T = ⎜ 0 . 02 + 0 . 04 ⎟ + 30 0 C

πD i ⎝ h⎠

∞ ⎜

π(0.005m) ⎝ W W ⎟⎠

Ts = 1153 0 C

Ts − T∞

q=

R t ,e

Or

W m 2 .K

" 294 × 0.02

R t ,c m W

Ti = Ts − qR t ,c = 11530 C − q = 11530 C −

πD i L π(0.005m)

Ti = 778.7 0 C

resistance to heat transfer from the outer surface of the insulation. Such a

reduction is possible Di<Dcr.

k 0.5W / m.K

rcr = = = 0.02m

h 25W / m 2 .K

exists at the inner surface of the insulation, add insulation in the amount.

t= = =

2 2 2

t = 0.0175m

Ts − T∞ Ts − 30 0 C

q =

'`

=

R "t,c ln(D c,r /D i ) 1 0.02m 2 .K/W ln(0.04/0.005) 1

+ + + +

πD i 2ππ hππ c,r π(0.005m) 2ππ(0.5W/. ) W

25 π(0.04m)

m 2 .K

hence,

W Ts − 30 0 C T − 30 0 C

294 = = s

m (1.27 + 0.66 + 0.32)m.K/W 2.25m.K/W

Ts = 692.5 0 C

recognizing that , q = (Ts − Ti )/R t,c,

W m 2 .K

R " 294 × 0.02

Ti = Ts − qR t,c, = Ts − q

t,c

= 692.5 0 C − m W

πD i L π(0.005m)

Ti = 318.2 C 0

Comments: use of the critical insulation in lieu of a thin coating has the

effect of reducing the maximum insulation temperature from 778.70C to

318.20C. Use of the critical insulation thickness also reduces the cable

surface temperatures to 692.50C from 778.70C with no insulation or fro

11530C with a thin coating.

Problem 11:

The steady state temperature distribution in a complete plane wall of three

different methods, each of constant thermal conductivity, is shown below.

(a) On the relative magnitudes of q "2 andq"3 and of q "3 andq "4 .

(b) Comment on the relative magnitudes of kA and kB and ok kB and kC.

B B

Find: (a) relative magnitudes of interfacial heat fluxes, (b) relative magnitudes

of thermal conductivities, and (c) heat fluxes as a function of distance x.

Schematic:

1 2 3 4

A B C

constant properties.

constant k), the parabolic temperature distribution in C implies the existence of

heat generation. Hence, since dT/dx increases with decreasing x, the heat flux in

C increases with decreasing. Hence,

generation, in which case

q 2" = q3"

(b) Since conservation of energy requires that q3", B = q3",C and dT/dx/B <dT/dx) C,

it follows from Fourier’s law that

K A > KC

Similarly, since q "2,A = q "2,B and dT/dx) A > dT/dx) B , it follows that

K A < KB.

q "x

x2 x3

O x

q 2"

Problem 12:

When passing an electrical current I, a copper bus bar of rectangular cross

section (6mm*150mm) experiences uniform heat generation at a rate

.

2

q = al , whereα = 0.015W / m 2 .A 2 . If the bar is in ambient air with h=5W/m . K and

2

its maximum temperature must not exceed that of the air by more than 300C,

what is the allowable current capacity for the bar?

Schematic:

constant properties, (4) negligible radiation effects.

.

qL2

T0 = + Ts

2K

.

⎛ L 1 ⎞ ⎛ L 1 ⎞

To − T∞ = q L⎜ + ⎟ = 0 . 015 I L ⎜

2

+ ⎟.

⎝ 2k h ⎠ ⎝ 2k h ⎠

hence ,

.

Ts = T∞ + q L / h, 1

⎛ To − T∞ ⎞ 2

I = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ 0 . 015 L ( L / 2 k + 1 / h ) ⎠

1

⎛ ⎞2

⎜ ⎟

30 0 C

I max = ⎜ ⎟

⎜ 0 . 003 m 1 ⎟

3 2

⎜ 0 . 015 (W / m . A ) 0 . 003 m + ⎟

⎝ 800 W / m . K 5W / m 2 . K ⎠

I max = 1826 A

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