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Atomic Mass of Mg by Using the Ideal Gas Law

INTRODUCTION
Magnesium, like many metals, reacts with acid to produce hydrogen gas. In this eperiment we
will measure the amount o! hydrogen gas produced !rom the reaction o! Mg and "Cl #a$%. &ith
data collected !rom this eperiment and the ideal gas law, we will !ind the num'er o! moles o!
hydrogen gas that are generated. The 'alanced chemical e$uation !or the reaction will show how
moles o! hydrogen gas correlates to moles o! magnesium. &ith grams o! Mg #recorded 'e!ore
starting the eperiment% and moles o! Mg, we can then calculate the atomic mass o! Mg.
"()(RD*
"ydrochloric (cid #+M "Cl% is toic and caustic
Magnesium Metal is a !lamma'le solid. Its dust poses an inhalation ha,ard.
"ydrogen -as is !lamma'le. It can !orm an eplosi.e miture with air
/0UI1M/NT (ND C"/MIC(2*
Ring *tand, Utility Clamp, 344 m2 5eaker, -as Tu'e, Dou'le "oled Ru''er *topper, Copper
&ire, Ruler, Thermometer
+ M "ydrochloric (cid, Deioni,ed &ater, small piece o! Magnesium Ri''on
1ROC/DUR/
6. 7ill a 344 m2 'eaker a'out 89+ !ull o! tap water.
8. *et up a ring stand, utility clamp, 'eaker o! water, and a gas tu'e as demonstrated 'y
instructor.
+. 1lace the copper wire through the holes in the ru''er stopper and secure as instructed.
3. Determine the mass o! the magnesium strip and record on data sheet #(%.
:. Roll the magnesium into a coil and wrap the copper wire that is attached to the stopper,
around the coil. NOT/; I! the coil is too tight, it will take a 2ON- time !or the Mg to react.
<. (dd approimately 6: m2 o! + M "Cl to the empty gas tu'e. #Use the markings on the tu'e
to measure .olume.%
=. Care!ully !ill the rest o! the tu'e with deioni,ed water so that there will 'e no air space when
the stopper is added.
>. Use the ru''er stopper #with the magnesium coil attached% to stopper the gas tu'e. Co.er the
holes in the stopper with your !inger, in.ert the tu'e and place it in the 'eaker so that the stopper
is resting on the 'ottom o! the 'eaker.
?. O'ser.e the reaction. (!ter the reaction ends, allow the tu'e to cool !or : minutes.
64. Read the .olume o! the gas !rom the tu'e and record on Data *heet #5%.
66. Then use a ruler to measure the height o! the water column inside the tu'e #this is the
di!!erence 'etween the water le.el in the tu'e and the water le.el in the 'eaker%. Record this on
the data sheet #C%.
68. "old a thermometer near the top o! the gas tu'e. Record the temperature on the data sheet
#D%.
6+. Read the atmospheric pressure o! the classroom !rom the 'arometer at the !ront o! the room,
or use the num'er pro.ided 'y your instructor. Record this on your data sheet #7%.
63. 7inish the calculations.
6:. I! your atomic mass is not close to the epected .alue, repeat the procedure.
C(2CU2(TION*
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&atch units and signi!icant !igures.
/. @apor 1ressure o! &aterAA(t room temperature, some o! the li$uid water that we poured into
the 'eaker 'ecomes water .apor. The amount o! .apor depends on the temperature. Round your
measured temperature !rom part D. to the nearest whole num'er. Use the ta'le o! .apor
pressures to !ind the .apor pressure corresponding to that temperature on the data sheet #/%.
-. The water le.el in the tu'e will 'e higher than the water le.el o! the 'eaker i! the pressure in
the tu'e is lower than the pressure in the room. This di!!erence in pressure was measured in mm
"
8
O in 1art C. &e will now con.ert it to mm "g using the ratio o! the density o! water #d B 6.4
g9m2% .ersus the density o! "g #d B 6+.: g9m2%. Multiply height o! water !rom C 'y 6mm "g,
then di.ide 'y 6+.: mm "8O.
". Total 1ressure inside the gas tu'e is actually less than that in the room. &e can su'tract our
measurement in 1art - !rom the (tmospheric 1ressure in 1art 7 to gi.e us the total pressure
inside the tu'e.
I. The pressure inside the tu'e includes the amount o! water .apor #part /.% that is mied with the
hydrogen gas. &e ha.e to su'tract /. !rom I. to !ind how much hydrogen we ha.e.
C. Con.ert the pressure in 1art I. into atmospheres #atm%, the units necessary !or the ideal gas law
calculation.
D. *ol.e !or n in the ideal gas law. 5e sure that all measurements ha.e the proper units to cancel
with units in the ideal gas constant, R B 4.4>84:= 2Eatm9molED
2. &rite the 'alanced chemical e$uation !or the reaction o! magnesium metal with hydrochloric
acid.
M. Calculate the atomic mass #aka molar mass% o! magnesium. The units will 'e grams di.ided
'y moles. Compare your .alue to the num'er in the 1eriodic Ta'le. I! it is not close, repeat the
eperiment.
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D(T( *"//T Name; FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
A. Mass o! Mg #must 'e less than 4.4?4 grams% FFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFF
B. @olume o! "
8
-as -enerated FFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFF
C. "eight o! &ater Column inside tu'e #mm "
8
O% FFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFF
D. Temperature o! "
8
-as FFFFFFFFFGC FFFFFFFFFGC
FFFFFFFFFD FFFFFFFFFD
E. @apor 1ressure o! &ater FFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFF
T(52/ O7 @(1OR 1R/**UR/*
Temp 84GC 86GC 88GC 8+GC 83GC 8:GC 8<GC 8=GC 8>GC
@apor 1ressure 6=.:
mm "g
6>.=
mm "g
6?.>
mm "g
86.6
mm "g
88.3
mm "g
8+.>
mm "g
8:.8
mm "g
8<.=
mm "g
8?.+
mm "g
F. (tmospheric 1ressure #mm "g% FFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFF
G. Hline C.H 6 mm "g96+.: mm "
8
O FFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFF
H. Total 1ressure inside gas tu'e #mm "g% FFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFF
#-A"%
I. 1ressure o! hydrogen inside gas tu'e #mm "g% FFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFF
#I A /%
. 1ressure o! hydrogen in atm FFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFF
!. Moles o! "ydrogen !rom 1@ B nRT FFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFF
L. 5alanced Chemical /$uation
M. Calculated Molar Mass o! Magnesium FFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFF
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Name; FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
"#elab fo# Atomic Mass of Magnesi$m by the Ideal Gas Lab
The reaction o! 4.6?3 g o! )n with "Cl#a$% ga.e >4.+ m2 #at 8+.3GC% o! hydrogen gas collected
o.er water in a gas tu'e. The water was 6>.: mm higher in the gas tu'e than it was in the 'eaker
#step C.%. The 'arometer reading is <?>. mm "g. 7ollowing the steps on pages 6 to +, complete
this ta'le o! data.
A. Mass o! )n FFFFFFFFF
B. @olume o! "
8
-as -enerated FFFFFFFFF
C. "eight o! &ater Column inside tu'e #mm "
8
O% FFFFFFFFF
D. Temperature o! "
8
-as FFFFFFFFFGC
FFFFFFFFFD
E. @apor 1ressure o! &ater FFFFFFFFF
F. (tmospheric 1ressure #mm "g% FFFFFFFFF
G. HC.H 6 mm "g96+.: mm "
8
O FFFFFFFFF
H. Total 1ressure inside gas tu'e #mm "g% FFFFFFFFF
#-A"%
I. 1ressure o! hydrogen inside gas tu'e #mm "g% FFFFFFFFF
#I A /%
. 1ressure o! hydrogen in atm FFFFFFFFF
!. Moles o! "ydrogen !rom 1@ B nRT FFFFFFFFF
L. 5alanced Chemical /$uation
M. Calculated Molar Mass o! )inc FFFFFFFFF
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