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Assignment in BIOCHEMISTRY

Pinocytotic Vesicle: A membrane-bound vacuole formed by a specific type of
endocytosis called pinocytosis. The plasma membrane invaginates (pinches
inwardly) to form a vesicle that detaches and moves into the cytoplasm.
Macromolecular droplets and particles up to 2 micrometers in diameter enter
the cell within these pinocytotic vesicles. Larger particles (including bacteria)
enter special white blood cells (phagocytes) through a form of endocytosis
called phagocytosis. The Amoeba is a unicellular protist that ingests food
(including algal cells) by phagocytosis.
Lysosome: A membrane-bound organelle containing hydrolytic (digestive)
enzymes. Lysosomes originate as membrane-bound vesicles (called Golgi
vesicles) that bud from the Golgi apparatus. They are primarily involved with
intracellular digestion. Lysosomes fuse with vesicles (small vacuoles) formed
by endocytosis. The contents of these vesicles are digested by lysosomal
enzymes. Autodigestion by lysosomes also occurs during embryonic
development. The fingers of a human embryo are webbed initially, but are
separated from each other by lysosomal enzymes. Cells in the tail of a tadpole
are digested by lysosomal enzymes during the gradual transition into a frog.
Golgi Vesicle: A membrane-bound body that forms by "budding" from the
Golgi apparatus. It contains proteins (glycoproteins), such as digestive
enzymes, and migrates to the cell (plasma) membrane. Golgi vesicles fuse with
the cell membrane and discharge their contents into the exterior of the cell
through a process called exocytosis. Some Golgi vesicles become lysosomes
which are involved in intracellular digestion.
Endoplasmic Reticulum: A complex system of membrane-bound channels
extending throughout the cytoplasm of cells. Like the emergency room of a hospital,
the endoplasmic reticulum is often abbreviated as ER.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Does not contain attached ribosomes.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Studded (dotted) with attached ribosomes
on the side of the membrane that faces the cytoplasm.
Cell (Plasma) Membrane: The living membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm
of all cells. It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded
glycoproteins. In the "sandwich model" the two phospholipid layers are
sandwiched between two layers of protein. The membranes of organelles are
also composed of a phospholipid bilayer, including vacuoles, nuclei,
mitochondria and chloroplasts. [Riubosomes are not membrane-bound.]
Embedded glycoproteins in plasma membranes include membrane transport
"carrier molecules" and cell recognition antigens. The plasma membrane is
permeable to water molecules by osmosis, but not to other molecules and
ions by simple diffusion. Ions pass through the plasma membrane via carrier
molecules by active transport and facilitated diffusion. Active transport
requires ATP.
Mitochondrion: Membrane-bound organelle and the site of aerobic
respiration and ATP production. Energy from the step-by-step oxidation of
glucose (called the Krebs or citric acid cycle) is used to produce molecules of
adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The Krebs cycle starts when a 2-carbon acetyl
group combines with a 4-carbon group to form a 6-carbon citrate. Including
glycolysis (which occurs outside the mitochondria), a total of 38 ATP molecules
are generated from one molecule of glucose.
Golgi Apparatus: - tube like structures that have tiny sacs at their ends.
- they help package protein.
- is found in the nucleus.
- contains more genetic information (RNA)
- Large Oval body near the centre of the cell.
- The control centre for all activity.
- Surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
Centrioles Nonmembrane-bound organelles that occur in pairs just outside
the nucleus of animal cells. Each centriole is composed of a cylinder or ring of
9 sets of microtubule triplets with none in the middle (9 + 0 pattern). During
cell division a pair of centrioles moves to each end of the cell, forming the
poles of the mitotic spindle. Centrioles also give rise to basal bodies that
control the origin of cilia and flagella in motile cells of protists. In cross section,
flagella and cilia have 9 sets of microtubule doublets surrounding a pair of
single microtubules in the center (9 + 2 pattern). This characteristic pattern
also occurs in motile cells of higher organisms, such as human sperm.
Cyto Plasm
- cell material outside the nucleus but within the cell membrane.
- clear thick fluid.
- contains structures called organelles.
- tiny spherical bodies that help make proteins.
- found in the cyto plasm or attached to the endo plasmic reticulum.


CELL WALL is a rigid structure outside the cell membrane that supports and protects the cell (for plants,
fungi, and some protists and bacteria). The cell wall is made of tough cellulose fibers and other materials
made by the cell.
The cell membrane is a structure that forms the outer boundary of the cell and allows only certain
materials to move into and out of the cell. Food, oxygen and water move into the cell through the
membrane. Waste products also leave through the membrane.
In cells, structures called Golgi Bodies are stacks of membrane-covered sacs that package and move
proteins to the outside of the cell. Golgi bodies are the packaging and secreting organelles of the cell.
Vacoule Membrane- This is the thin layer that separates the vacuole from the cytoplasm. This thin
membrane allows materials to move in and out of the vacuole.
Vacoule-Within a cell, a vacuole fills a role similar to a suitcase; as a temporary storage space for the
cell. Vacuoles store water, food, pigments, waste or other materials.
Nucleus- The largest organelle in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell is usually the nucleus, a structure
that directs all the activities of the cell. The nucleus is like a manager who directs everyday business for
a company and passes on information to new cells. The nucleus contains genetic blueprints for the
operations of the cell.
The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a folded membrane that moves materials around in the cell. The
ER extends from the nucleus to the cell membrane and takes up quite a bit of space in some cells.The
ER is like a system of conveyor belts in a business. They act as tunnels in which materials move from one
place to another within the cell.
Chloroplasts contain a green pigment called chlorophyll. This is what makes plants green.Chloroplasts
take in sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to make oxygen and sugar (a form of food). This process is
called photosynthesis.
Cytoplasm is the gel-like material inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus. Cytoplasm contains
a large amount of water and many chemicals and structures that carry out the life processes in the cell.
These structures that the cytoplasm contains are called organelles.