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Science Journal of Public Health

2014; 2(4): 275-283


Published online June 30, 2014 (http://wwws!ien!epublishin""#oup!o$/%/s%ph)
doi: 1011&48/%s%ph2014020415


Appraisal of social and health impact of a cement plant at
host communities in Yandev, Nigeria
Fanan Ujoh
1, *
, Frederick Terkuma Ujoh
2

1
'ep(#t$ent o) *#b(n (nd +e"ion(l Pl(nnin", ,enue -t(te *ni.e#sit/, 0(1u#di, 2i"e#i(
2
3(!ult/ o) 4"#i!ultu#e, *ni.e#sit/ o) Po#t-5(#!ou#t, 6hob(, 2i"e#i(
Email address:
)(n(nu%oh7"$(il!o$ (3 *%oh), te#1u$(u%oh7"$(il!o$ (3 8 *%oh)
To cite this article:
3(n(n *%oh, 3#ede#i!1 8e#1u$( *%oh 4pp#(is(l o) -o!i(l (nd 5e(lth 9$p(!t o) ( 6e$ent Pl(nt (t 5ost 6o$$unities in :(nde., 2i"e#i(
Science Journal of Public Health. ;ol 2, 2o 4, 2014, pp 275-283 doi: 1011&48/%s%ph2014020415

Abstract: 2i"e#i( h(s e<tensi.e $ine#(l (nd n(tu#(l #esou#!es hen!e, de.elop$ent(l p#o%e!ts (#e bein" p#oposed (nd
e<e!uted on ( d(il/ b(sis, $(n/ o) whi!h in.ol.e l(#"e-s!(le (lte#(tion o) hu$(n, (ni$(l (nd pl(nt e!os/ste$s =i$estone
$inin" (nd !e$ent p#odu!tion !o$$en!ed in 1>80 (t the stud/ (#e(, :(nde., without (n en.i#on$ent(l i$p(!t (ssess$ent
to (s!e#t(in the e<tent o) i$p(!t these (!ti.ities !ould b#in" to be(# on the ph/si!(l (nd li.in" !onditions o) the host
en.i#on$ent 8his stud/ w(s !(##ied out to (pp#(ise the so!i(l (nd he(lth i$p(!t th(t $inin" o) li$estone (nd p#odu!tion o)
!e$ent h(s in)li!ted on the host !o$$unities 'es!#ipti.e st(tisti!s (nd ?ol$o"o#o.--$i#no. test we#e used to (n(l/se the
p#i$(#/ d(t( obt(ined 4 tot(l o) 218 #esponses )#o$ 3 s($pled (2 host (nd 1 !ont#ol) !o$$unities, in (ddition to hospit(l
#e!o#ds )#o$ 3 p#i$(#/ he(lth !ent#es, !on)i#$ se.e#e he(lth-#el(ted i$p(!ts o) li$estone $inin" (nd !e$ent p#odu!tion
on hu$(n popul(tions (t the host !o$$unities 8he stud/ !on!ludes th(t the en.i#on$ent(l !o$pli(n!e st(tus o) '(n"ote
6e$ent Pl!, :(nde. tow(#ds (tt(inin" sust(in(bilit/ )o# the host !o$$unities (s spelt b/ the 4"end( 21 (6h(pte# 10,
@b%e!ti.es ( A !) is )(# )#o$ $eetin" the t(#"et #eBui#e$ent 8he stud/ #e!o$$ends ($elio#(ti.e $e(su#es in!ludin"
!onst(nt )u$i"(tion to !ont#ol the p#oli)e#(tion o) .e!to#-b(sed (nd Coonosis dise(ses; (doption o) i$p#o.ed (nd !le(ne#
p#odu!tion te!hnolo"ies, (nd #elo!(tion o) !o$$unities (w(/ )#o$ the i$$edi(te .i!init/ o) the )(!to#/
Keywords: -o!i(l (nd 5e(lth 9$p(!t, =i$estone 0inin" (nd 6e$ent P#odu!tion, +(pid -o!i(l 4pp#(is(ls,
-ust(in(bilit/

1 !ntroduction
8he 4)#i!(n !ontinent h(s e<tensi.e $ine#(l (nd n(tu#(l
#esou#!es hen!e, de.elop$ent(l p#o%e!ts (#e bein"
p#oposed (nd e<e!uted on ( d(il/ b(sis, $(n/ o) whi!h
in.ol.e l(#"e-s!(le (lte#(tion o) hu$(n, (ni$(l (nd pl(nt
e!os/ste$s 3o# $(n/ o) these p#o%e!ts, the#e (#e h(#dl/
(n/ "enuine D94 studies !(##ied out E1F 8he e<ploit(tion o)
these #esou#!es o.e# the p(st )ew de!(des h(s le)t ( .(st
w(stel(nd o) en.i#on$ent(l p#oble$s ,e!(use the so!io-
e!ono$i! de.elop$ent o) (n/ n(tion depends on the
e<ploit(tion o) he# n(tu#(l #esou#!es, both #enew(ble (nd
non-#enew(ble E2F, $(n/ the#e)o#e belie.e th(t these
#esou#!es should be Bui!1l/ e<ploited in o#de# to de.elop
(nd i$p#o.e the unde#-nou#ished e!ono$/ 9n the )(!e o)
(!!ele#(ted de.elop$ent, $(n/ p#o%e!ts (#e !(##ied out to
e<tensi.e s!(les (nd )o# e<tended pe#iods, with little o# no
!on!e#n )o# the en.i#on$ent 8he need to #e)o#$ #esou#!es
de.elop$ent p#(!ti!es wo#ldwide h(s #e!entl/ be!o$e (
1e/ en.i#on$ent(l issue in the e))o#ts to est(blish ( $o#e
Gh(#$onious #el(tionship between people (nd n(tu#eH E3F
9n the p(st, inte#n(tion(l sust(in(bilit/ poli!ies (su!h (s
4"end( 21) !l($ou#ed )o# the (doption o) inte"#(ted
(pp#o(!hes to pl(nnin" (nd $(n("e$ent o) l(nd (nd
#el(ted n(tu#(l #esou#!es -pe!i)i!(ll/, so$e o) the #ele.(nt
ob%e!ti.es we#e to G#e.iew (nd de.elop poli!ies to suppo#t
the best possible use o) l(nd (nd the sust(in(ble
$(n("e$ent o) l(nd #esou#!es, b/ not l(te# th(n 1>>&H, (nd
to G!#e(te $e!h(nis$s to )(!ilit(te the (!ti.e in.ol.e$ent
(nd p(#ti!ip(tion o) (ll !on!e#ned, p(#ti!ul(#l/ !o$$unities
(nd people (t the lo!(l le.el, in de!ision-$(1in" on l(nd
use (nd $(n("e$entH
9n sust(in(bilit/ (ssess$ent (-4), inte"#(ted i$p(!ts
(pp#(is(ls (#e desi"ned to !onside# en.i#on$ent(l, so!i(l
(nd e!ono$i! i$pli!(tions o) p#o%e!ts, (nd to (lso e<($ine
the inte##el(tions between these th#ee pill(#s E4F 9t is
the#e)o#e, i$po#t(nt to indi!(te th(t this stud/ )o!uses on
so!i(l ((nd he(lth) pill(# o) -4 9t is hoped th(t the
27& 3(n(n *%oh (nd 3#ede#i!1 8e#1u$( *%oh: 4pp#(is(l o) -o!i(l (nd 5e(lth 9$p(!t o) ( 6e$ent Pl(nt (t
5ost 6o$$unities in :(nde., 2i"e#i(
dis(""#e"(tion o) these pill(#s ((s e<e$pli)ied in this stud/)
would be $o#e help)ul in o))e#in" det(iled insi"ht into the
i$p(!ts o) e<istin" #esou#!e utiliC(tion s/ste$s 8he
#ele.(n!e o) this stud/ is inst#u!ti.e (s the#e is in!#e(sin"
need to !#e(te b(seline d(t( )o# so!i(l (nd he(lth i$p(!t
st(tus o) the host !o$$unities o) the '(n"ote 6e$ent P=6,
$o#eso (s the#e w(s no en.i#on$ent(l i$p(!t (ssess$ent
(D94) !ondu!ted o.e# 30 /e(#s ("o when the )(!to#/ w(s
est(blished (s ,enue 6e$ent 6o$p(n/ =i$ited
2 "tudy Area
8he !ent#(l lo!(tion o) '(n"ote 6e$ent Pl!, :(nde. is (t
7I 24J 4245K2 (nd 8I 58J 3128KD, with (n ele.(tion o) 532
)eet (bo.e $e(n se( le.el (3i" 1) 8he (#e( is "ene#(ll/
lo!(ted within ( sub-hu$id t#opi!(l #e"ion with $e(n
(nnu(l te$pe#(tu#e #(n"in" )#o$ 23I6 to 34I6, (nd is
!h(#(!te#iCed b/ the d#/ (nd wet se(sons 8he $e(n (nnu(l
p#e!ipit(tion is (bout 1,370$$, with (n (.e#("e wind
speed o) (bout 150 $/s, (nd (.e#("e ($bient (i#
te$pe#(tu#e o) (bout 30I6 E5F 8he li$estone #ese#.es (t
the stud/ (#e( (#e o) 6#et(!eous )o#$(tion (nd in e<!ess o)
70 $illion tonnes E&F

Fig. 1. Location of host and control communities
Lithin the stud/ (#e(, the $ost si"ni)i!(nt w(te# bodies
(#e two st#e($s M N4hun"w(O (nd N@#(tso#O 8he 4hun"w(
st#e($ is i$pounded to !#e(te ( d($ )o# use b/ the .(#ious
p#odu!tion p#o!esses (t the !e$ent )(!to#/ 8he $(%o#
1ind#eds within the 5-1ilo$et#e #(dius (!o$p#isin" the (#e(
o) inte#est to this stud/) in!lude Mbaiwan, Mbatyula,
Mbausu, Mbagar, Mbaataiwa (nd Mbawav, (ll o) Mbatyu
in Mbayion, Pbo1o =P4 5owe.e#, the spe!i)i!
!o$$unities o) inte#est to this stud/ (#e the host
!o$$unities, Tse-ucha (nd Tse-!mua, (nd 8(#he$be, the
!ont#ol !o$$unit/ (3i" 1) 8he inh(bit(nts (#e l(#"el/ p#e-
o!!upied in t#(dition(l subsisten!e ("#i!ultu#e (nd wildli)e
huntin" +e!entl/ howe.e#, the#e h(s been ( #ise in s$(ll
s!(le se#.i!es su!h (s #est(u#(nts, b(#s, be(ut/ s(lons,
$e!h(ni!s, #et(ile#s o) !onsu$(bles, et!
# $aterials and $ethods
3.1. General Research Framework
8he +(pid 4ssess$ent P#o!edu#e (+4P) )o#$s the !o#e
#ese(#!h desi"n (dopted )o# the so!i(l i$p(!t (pp#(is(l o)
this stud/ 8he +4P e$plo/s both Bu(lit(ti.e (nd
Bu(ntit(ti.e d(t( "(the#in" te!hniBues (s both $ethods (#e
#eBui#ed )o# +4P whe#e ti$e, )unds (nd (!!essibilit/ (#e
issues to !ontend with

Fig. 2. "road-based research a##roach $Model calibrated by authors
using the #rovision in !genda %& document of '()*+,
8he so!i(l (nd he(lth b(sed i$p(!t (pp#(is(l (3i" 2) is
!(##ied out to e<t#(!t in)o#$(tion )#o$ 1e/ in)o#$(nts
within stud/ (#e(s spe!i)i!(ll/ on the he(lth st(tus o)
hu$(n, (ni$(l (nd pl(nt popul(tions (t !o$$unities
(#ound de.elop$ent )(!ilities Lhile the e!ono$i! (spe!t
o) the host !o$$unities $(/ o# $(/ not be !onside#ed, it is
b/ no $e(ns #e"(#ded (s less i$po#t(nt 8he )o!us on
he(lth-b(sed e))e!ts is bo#ne out o) the !o##el(tion usu(ll/
obse#.ed between the p#e.(len!e o) (i#-bo#ne dise(ses (nd
indust#ies with e$issions su!h (s the p(#ti!ul(te $(tte#s
)ound (t $ost !e$ent pl(nts E7; 8; >F
3.2. Data Sources
4 Buestionn(i#e w(s (d$iniste#ed to $e$be#s o) two
$(%o# host !o$$unities (Tse-ucha (nd Tse-!mua, with
p#o<i$it/ o) less th(n 4 1ilo$ete#s to the )(!to#/ site) (nd
one !ont#ol !o$$unit/ (Tarhembe lo!(ted 12 1ilo$ete#s
(w(/ )#o$ )(!to#/ site) to obt(in thei# pe#!eption on the
o.e#(ll he(lth i$p(!t o) li$estone $inin" (nd !e$ent
p#odu!tion on hu$(n, (ni$(l (nd pl(nt popul(tions (t thei#
!o$$unities 0edi!(l #e!o#ds we#e (lso obt(ined )#o$
he(lth !ente#s (t the host (nd !ont#ol !o$$unities to
in.esti"(te p(tte#n o) (il$ents within the (#e( o) inte#est
-!ien!e Jou#n(l o) Publi! 5e(lth 2014; 2(4): 275-283 277

3.3. Sample Frame Determination
8he stud/ d#ew ( s($ple siCe )#o$ the 200& popul(tion
)i"u#es o) Pbo1o (nd 8(#1( =P4s (sin!e !o$$unitiesO
popul(tion )i"u#es )#o$ the 200& !ensus (#e /et (.(il(ble)
8he s($ple siCe w(s dete#$ined usin" ( 005Q o) the tot(l
popul(tion o) Pbo1o =P4 whi!h t#(nsl(tes to ( s($ple siCe
o) 17> pe#sons )o# 8se-?u!h( (nd 8se-4$u( !o$$unities
8his )i"u#e w(s di.ided )(i#l/ eBu(ll/ (>0 )o# 8se-?u!h(
(nd 8> )o# 8se-4$u() between the two host !o$$unities
8he !hoi!e o) these !o$$unities w(s b(sed on the )(!t th(t
the/ (#e the two $ost p#o$inent settle$ents lo!(ted ne(#
the )(!to#/ site 8he #(ndo$ s($plin" te!hniBue w(s
(dopted to identi)/ households within the !o$$unities )o#
Buestionn(i#e (d$inist#(tion 8(#he$be, the !ont#ol
!o$$unit/, is lo!(ted in 8(#1( =P4 *sin" 005Q o) the
tot(l popul(tion o) 8(#1( =P4 (7>,4>4 (!!o#din" to the
200& Popul(tion 6ensus), ( s($ple siCe o) 3> #espondents
w(s dete#$ined while Buestionn(i#e (d$inist#(tion w(s
done b/ the (ppli!(tion o) the #(ndo$ s($plin" $ethod
within the !o$$unit/
3.4. Questionnaire Design and Administration
8he Buestionn(i#e w(s desi"ned to !olle!t d(t( (nd
p#o.ide (deBu(te in)o#$(tion to stud/ the so!i(l i$p(!t
ob%e!ti.e o) the #ese(#!h 8he (i$ is to p#o.ide $e(nin")ul
(nswe#s to the spe!i)i! #ese(#!h Buestion )o!usin" on
he(lth-b(sed i$p(!t o) li$estone $inin" (nd !e$ent
p#odu!tion on host !o$$unities (t :(nde. 8he
Buestionn(i#e !ont(ins $ostl/ =i1e#t-)o#$(t Buestions in
o#de# to est(blish the e<tent o# de"#ee o) ("#ee$ent o#
othe#wise to )(!to#s o) inte#est to the stud/ 8he
Buestionn(i#e w(s (lso desi"ned usin" si$ple l(n"u("e to
(.oid ($bi"uit/ (nd $is-!on!eptions 8his w(s !onside#ed
ne!ess(#/ (s the si$pli!it/ (nd )le<ibilit/ o) the
Buestionn(i#e (llowed )o# ( h(ssle-)#ee su#.e/ e<e#!ise
whe#e the t(#"et popul(tion is #u#(l in n(tu#e (nd $ostl/
less lite#(te
4 Buestionn(i#e w(s thus, (d$iniste#ed to ( tot(l o) 218
#espondents on ( None-on-oneO b(sis 8he essen!e w(s to
e<pl(in (n/ se!tion in the Buestionn(i#e th(t (ppe(#ed
!on)usin" to #espondents (nd (lso to ensu#e th(t the
e<pe!ted #(te o) dul/ )illed (nd #etu#ned Buestionn(i#e w(s
(!hie.ed 4lso, (ll Buestionn(i#e (d$inist#(tion w(s done
onl/ to n(ti.es o) the two stud/ !o$$unities 8his w(s
done unde# the (ssu$ption th(t est(blished (nd olde#
$e$be#s o) the !o$$unities would possess $o#e .(lu(ble
in)o#$(tion (bout the p#oble$s o) inte#est to the stud/ th(n
t#(nsient pe#sons 'u#in" the initi(l )ield su#.e/, it w(s
obse#.ed th(t the st#u!tu#e o) de.elop$ent within the
!o$$unities w(s not o#de#l/, thus it w(s di))i!ult to p#esent
( !onsistentl/ o#de#l/, #(ndo$ p(tte#n o) su#.e/ 5owe.e#,
delibe#(te e))o#ts we#e $(de du#in" Buestionn(i#e
(d$inist#(tion to ensu#e #(ndo$ness while eBu(ll/
ensu#in" th(t the t(#"et popul(tion w(s $(int(ined (nd
#e(!hed
Lith the (id o) 2 )ield (ssist(nts o.e# ( pe#iod o) 13 d(/s,
the Buestionn(i#e (d$inist#(tion p#o!ess w(s !o$pleted
with ( 100Q #etu#n #(te (t (ll 3 !o$$unities 3u#the#
in)o#$(tion w(s "(the#ed th#ou"h in)o#$(l inte#(!tions
with the !o$$unitiesO $e$be#s du#in" the su#.e/ pe#iod
3.. Data Anal!ses
8he ?ol$o"o#o.--$i#no. (?--) test w(s (dopted )o#
this stud/ 9t is ( non-p(#($et#i! test )o# eBu(lit/ o)
!ontinuous, one-di$ension(l p#ob(bilit/ dist#ibutions th(t
!(n be used to !o$p(#e ( s($ple with ( #e)e#en!e
p#ob(bilit/ dist#ibution 8he !hoi!e o) the test is b(sed on
its (bilit/ to be $odi)ied to se#.e (s ( "oodness o) )it test
'es!#ipti.e st(tisti!s we#e "ene#(ted (nd ( one-s($ple ?--
test (n(l/sis w(s (lso !(##ied out 8he unde#l/in" p#in!iple
behind this te!hniBue is d#i.en b/ the )(!t th(t besides
(tte$ptin" to p#edi!t popul(tionsO pe#!eptions, it is suit(ble
)o# !ondu!tin" (n(l/sis on #el(ti.el/ s$(ll s($ple siCes
E10F 9n (ddition, it )(!ilit(tes ( si$ult(neous (n(l/sis o)
whethe# the h/pothesiCed #el(tionships (t the theo#eti!(l
le.el (#e e$pi#i!(ll/ !on)i#$ed 8he#e)o#e, the ?-- is
p#e)e##ed )o# (n(l/ses o) e<plo#(to#/ $odels whe#e
e<pl(n(tion o) the !onst#u!t inte#-#el(tionship is desi#ed
8he test is b(sed on the e$pi#i!(l !u$ul(ti.e dist#ibution
)un!tion (D6'3)
Pi.en 2 o#de#ed d(t( points :1, :2, RR, :2, the
D6'3 is de)ined (s:
D2 S n(i)/2
Lhe#e;
n(i) S nu$be# o) points less th(n :i (:i (#e o#de#ed )#o$
s$(llest to l(#"est .(lues)
8he des!#ipti.e (nd ?-- test te!hniBues to"ethe# p#o.ide
( des!#iption o) the b(si! )e(tu#es (nd si$ple su$$(#ies
(bout the s($ple (nd the $e(su#es 5en!e, !olle!ti.el/,
these te!hniBues p#o.ide ( "ood des!#iption (nd !le(#
unde#st(ndin" o) wh(t the Bu(ntit(ti.e d(t( )o# this stud/
shows
% &esults and 'iscussions
4.1. Demographic and Socio"economic #omposition o$
Respondents
9n (ll, the stud/ popul(tion !onsisted o) $o#e $(les
(725Q) th(n )e$(les (275), (!#oss (ll ("e !(te"o#ies in (ll
3 s($pled !o$$unities (3i" 3) 8he onl/ pl(usible
e<pl(n(tion is the e(se with whi!h (!!ess to holdin" (
dis!ussion with ( $(le !(n be obt(ined (s ("(inst ( )e$(le,
p(#ti!ul(#l/ in the #u#(l (#e(s o) 8i.l(nd whe#e !ultu#e
#e(dil/ pe#$its the $en to $eet with st#(n"e#s e<!ept in
!(ses whe#e $en (#e un(.(il(ble
8he edu!(tion(l st(tus o) #espondents (3i" 4) #e.e(l th(t
(bout 133Q o) the #espondents did not (ttend (n/ )o#$(l
edu!(tion(l institution, while p#i$(#/ (nd se!ond(#/
edu!(tion(l (tt(in$ent is (bout 225Q (nd 4>1Q,
#espe!ti.el/ 3o# te#ti(#/ edu!(tion, the (tt(in$ent le.el is
151Q Ddu!(tion (lite#(!/) is (n inde< th(t is o)ten
in!o#po#(ted in $e(su#in" the well-bein" (nd le.el o)
278 3(n(n *%oh (nd 3#ede#i!1 8e#1u$( *%oh: 4pp#(is(l o) -o!i(l (nd 5e(lth 9$p(!t o) ( 6e$ent Pl(nt (t
5ost 6o$$unities in :(nde., 2i"e#i(
de.elop$ent o) ( popul(tion 8hus, the popul(tion o) stud/
!(n be #(ted (s "ene#(ll/ (.e#("e in its e))o#t tow(#d
#enewin" (nd i$p#o.in" its )utu#e #ese#.oi# o) s1ills (nd
"ene#(l (bilities E11; 12; 13; 14F 8he #e(son is not )(#-
)et!hed (s the stud/ !o$$unities (#e lo!(ted !lose to
Pbo1o town whi!h, (!!o#din" to *%oh et (l, E14F, h(s the
hi"hest nu$be# o) se!ond(#/ (nd te#ti(#/ edu!(tion(l
)(!ilities within ,enue -t(te
8he o!!up(tion(l $i< o) the #espondents (3i" 5) shows
th(t the#e (#e $o#e )(#$e#s (32Q) within the s($pled
!o$$unities th(n (n/ othe# li.elihood (!ti.it/ with w("e
e(#ne#s (o# p(id e$plo/$ent in!ludin" those wo#1in" (t the
)(!to#/ (nd =o!(l Po.e#n$ent est(blish$ents whi!h
($ounts to 7Q) bein" the le(st sou#!e o) li.elihood )o#
!o$$unit/ $e$be#s 8he N@the#sO !(te"o#/ is de)ined to
in!lude students, the une$plo/ed (nd othe# se#.i!e-#el(ted
%obs su!h (s b(#be#s, b(# tende#s (nd #est(u#(nt stew(#ds,
et! 3u#the# inBui#ies #e.e(led th(t the#e h(s been .e#/
$ini$(l in!#e$ent in %ob oppo#tunities )#o$ the !e$ent
)(!to#/ e.en to the 2 host !o$$unities 5owe.e#,
#esponses indi!(te (n in!#e(se in non-)o#$(l, se#.i!es wo#1
oppo#tunities su!h (s (#tis(ns, b(#s (nd #est(u#(nts stew(#ds,
et!, espe!i(ll/ (t 8se-?u!h( !o$$unit/ whi!h is !losest to
the )(!to#/

Fig. 3. Se--!ge +istribution of res#ondents

Fig. 4. *ducational level of res#ondents

Fig. . .ccu#ational status of res#ondents
4.2. Social and %ealth &mpact Appraisals
8he stud/ identi)ied se.e#(l 1e/ s($plin" p(#($ete#s on
the li1el/ i$p(!ts o) li$estone $inin" (nd !e$ent
p#odu!tion (t :(nde. (8(ble 1) usin" the Li/ert-)o#$(t o)
inBui#/ 8he s($ple popul(tion (t the host !o$$unities,
8se-?u!h( (nd 8se-4$u(, (nd (t 8(#he$be, the !ont#ol
!o$$unit/, #esponded to the li1elihood o) these listed
i$p(!ts 3i"u#e & #e.e(l th(t #esponses (#e opposin"
between the host (nd !ont#ol !o$$unities Lhile the
#espondents (t 8se-?u!h( (nd 8se-4$u( ())i#$ed to se.e#e
i$p(!ts o) li$estone $inin" (nd !e$ent p#odu!tion, those
(t 8(#he$be we#e di))e#in" in thei# #esponses 9n (ll, o.e#
>0Q o) #esponses )#o$ the 2 host !o$$unities ())i#$ed to
the (!ti.ities o) the !e$ent pl(ntOs i$p(!t on hu$(n,
(ni$(l (nd pl(nt popul(tion within thei# !o$$unities,
whe#e(s o.e# &&Q o) the #espondents (t the !ont#ol
!o$$unit/ !on)i#$ed the#e (#e no i$p(!ts o) the )(!to#/Os
(!ti.ities (t thei# !o$$unit/
9t w(s (lso unde#stood th(t hi"h in!iden!e o) (i#-bo#ne
dise(ses (#e #e!o#ded within the stud/ (#e( 8(ble 2 shows
#e!o#ds o) $edi!(l !(ses (t th#ee P#i$(#/ 5e(lth 6ent#es,
one e(!h )#o$ the 3 stud/ !o$$unities 0edi!(l #e!o#ds
!ould onl/ be obt(ined )o# > /e(#s (between 2004 (nd 2012)
)#o$ the host !o$$unities, (nd )o# onl/ 5 /e(#s )#o$ the
5e(lth 6ent#e (t the 6ont#ol !o$$unit/ 0edi!(l #e!o#ds (t
the 6ont#ol !o$$unit/ we#e not (s upd(ted (s those )#o$
the host !o$$unities 5owe.e#, the $edi!(l !(ses #e!o#ded
(t the host !o$$unities (#e hi"he# in p#opo#tion th(n those
#e!o#ded (t the 6ont#ol !o$$unit/

Fig. '. 0m#act of #lume on communities
-!ien!e Jou#n(l o) Publi! 5e(lth 2014; 2(4): 275-283 27>

4lthou"h the t#end o) o!!u##en!e o) $edi!(l !(ses
(ppe(#s #(the# )lu!tu(tin" (#isin" in so$e /e(#s (nd
de!linin" in othe#s), these (il$ents #e!o#ded (#e l(#"el/ (i#-
bo#ne (nd h(.e been lin1ed to pollut(nts possibl/ (#isin"
)#o$ (!ti.ities (#ound pl(nts (s p#o.en in othe# studies b/
E8; 15; 1&; 17; 18F -o$e o) these (il$ents h(.e been listed
in 8(ble 3
'ue to poo# $edi!(l )(!ilities (t the p#i$(#/ he(lth
!ent#es, $ost o) the illnesses listed (bo.e !ould not be
!le(#l/ di("nosed 8he $edi!(l st()) in)o#$ed th(t thei#
!l(ssi)i!(tion o) these illnesses w(s b(sed on the s/$pto$s
obse#.ed )#o$ p(tients 9n so$e !(ses, !o$$unit/
$e$be#s with se.e#e he(lth !(ses we#e t(1en to .(#ious
$o#e eBuipped hospit(ls (w(/ )#o$ these !o$$unities
sin!e it is !o$$on 1nowled"e th(t these he(lth !ent#es (#e
poo#l/ eBuipped 8he#e)o#e, it is possible th(t nu$be# o)
!(ses )o# !o$pli!(ted illnesses !ould h(.e been $o#e th(n
#e!o#ded b/ the !lini!s
4.3. Statistical Anal!ses o$ Social and %ealth &mpacts
8(ble 4 p#esents the su$$(#/ o) #(w d(t( !olle!ted )#o$
the )ield su#.e/ 9t (ppe(#s the onl/ point o) !on.e#"en!e
between (ll !o$$unities is in the issue o) 6o$$unit/
-o!i(l +esponsibilit/ (6-+) (!ti.ities, whi!h is #e!o#ded in
the ne"(ti.e 8he #(w d(t( on 8(ble 4 is )u#the# sub%e!ted to
the ?ol$o"o#o.--$i#no. (?--) p#ob(bilit/ dist#ibutions
test 8he #esults show .(#i(tion between the $e(ns (nd
st(nd(#d de.i(tion o) (ll #esponses (8(ble 5), with the
Nst#on"l/ dis("#eeO (nd Nst#on"l/ ("#eeO options e<hibitin"
the hi"hest .(lues )o# $e(n (nd st(nd(#d de.i(tion 8his
#e.e(ls the e<t#e$e #esponses (#isin" )#o$ di))e#in" he(lth
!onditions between the host (nd !ont#ol !o$$unities
Lhe#e(s #esponses )#o$ the host !o$$unities st#on"l/
("#ee with $ost o) the he(lth i$p(!t !he!1lists, #e.e#se is
the !(se with $(%o#it/ o) the #esponses )#o$ the !ont#ol
!o$$unit/
9n st(tisti!(l te#$s, 8(ble 5 (lso shows th(t test #esults o)
(ll 5 #esponses o) the !(l!ul(ted (s/$ptoti! si"ni)i!(n!e
.(lues e<!eed 005, i$pl/in" th(t the test #esult is not
si"ni)i!(nt 3o# the ?-- test, the #esults indi!(te th(t the
#ese(#!h d(t( tested is no#$(ll/ dist#ibuted 9t the#e)o#e,
i$plies th(t the#e is ( si"ni)i!(nt di))e#en!e in the hu$(n,
(ni$(l (nd pl(nt he(lth i$p(!t between host !o$$unities
(8se-?u!h( (nd 8se-4$u() (nd the !ont#ol !o$$unit/
(8(#he$be) 8he )o#$e# is (d.e#sel/ i$p(!ted while the
l(tte# is not (d.e#sel/ i$p(!ted
0ost o) the #esponses #e.e(led hi"h le.el o) (w(#eness
o) the he(lth i$p(!ts o) !e$ent dust on hu$(n, pl(nt (nd
(ni$(l popul(tions within the stud/ !o$$unities (see
3i"u#e &) 'u#in" dis!ussions, it w(s !le(#l/ st(ted th(t (
p(tte#n o) de(th o!!u##en!es in.ol.in" ( si"ni)i!(nt nu$be#
o) those who h(d p#e.iousl/ wo#1ed in the )(!to#/Os
$(nu(l lo(din" b(/ (be)o#e it be!($e (uto$(ted upon
(!Buisition b/ '(n"ote 6e$ent Pl!) 8his is !onsistent
with )indin"s )#o$ si$il(# #ese(#!h wo#1s on e))e!ts o)
!e$ent dust on hu$(n he(lth (see (lso 8(ble 3) 8hese
in!lude (il$ents su!h (s lun" $(l)un!tion/i$p(i#$ent;
!h#oni! obst#u!ti.e (nd #est#i!ti.e lun" dise(ses;
pneu$o!oniosis (nd !(#!ino$( o) the lun"s, sto$(!h (nd
!olon; in (ddition to the )(!t th(t !e$ent dust is !(p(ble o)
#e(!hin" (ll o#"(ns o) bod/ the#eb/ ())e!tin" the di))e#ent
tissues su!h (s he(#t, li.e#, spleen, bone, $us!les (nd h(i#s
(nd ulti$(tel/ ())e!tin" thei# $i!#o-st#u!tu#e (nd
ph/siolo"i!(l pe#)o#$(n!e E15; 1&; 1>; 20; 21F

(late 1. Plume emission at study area $1231&3%1&& at dawn,

(late 2. Plume emission at study area $%43143%1&% at dus/,

280 3(n(n *%oh (nd 3#ede#i!1 8e#1u$( *%oh: 4pp#(is(l o) -o!i(l (nd 5e(lth 9$p(!t o) ( 6e$ent Pl(nt (t
5ost 6o$$unities in :(nde., 2i"e#i(

(late 3 )a * +,. Land degradation at limestone mine site

(late 4. ! bird found dead $arrowed, in its habitat less than a /ilometer
from factory site
-a+le 1. )ases of +iseases 5ecorded at Host and )ontrol )ommunities
(ear
Ailments
&es)iratory: *un+s,
,ral ca-ity, *i-er, etc
.astro/intestinal
*0entral ner-ous
system
$alaria
$iscellaneous: Eyes,
skin, bones, etc
1ost 0ommunities
2004 81 >10 24 1,>45 2,&10
2005 107 87& 24 2,0>7 2,378
200& 72 >42 24 1,8&0 2,>74
2007 >> 1,1>0 24 3,103 24
2008 180 1,115 24 3,1>8 24
200> 172 1,400 24 2,8>7 4,007
2010 8> 1,3>0 24 4,07> 4,12&
2011 11> 1,&08 24 4,21> 24
2012 188 1,&>> 24 4,37& 7,172
0ontrol 0ommunity
2007 24 8> 24 313 1>
2008 24 24 24 24 24
200> 2> 127 24 38& &4
2010 41 11> 24 &7> >1
2011 3> 1>& 24 437 82
TT2012 28 >2 24 3>& 73
24 M 2ot (.(il(ble TT +e!o#ds (.(il(ble )o# onl/ > $onths
-ou#!e: 0edi!(l +e!o#ds, 5e(lth 6ent#es (t 8se-?u!h(, 8se-4$u( (nd 8(#he$be
-a+le 2. +iseases )aused by )ement +ust
"23o "ystem ,r+an E44ect
1 +espi#(to#/ =un"s
6ou"h (nd phle"$ p#odu!tion, !hest ti"htness, i$p(i#$ent o) lun" )un!tion, obst#u!ti.e
(nd #est#i!ti.e lun" dise(se, Pleu#(l thi!1enin", )ib#osis, e$ph/se$(, lun" nodul(tion,
pneu$o!oniosis (nd !(#!ino$( o) lun"
2
P(st#o-9ntestin(l
@#(l 6(.it/
0e!h(ni!(l t#(u$(, $u!os(l in)l($$(tion, loss o) tooth su#)(!e, pe#iodont(l dise(se,
dent(l (b#(sion (nd dent(l !(#ies
3 =i.e#
'i))use swellin" (nd p#oli)e#(tion o) sinusoid(l (hep(ti!) linin" !ells, s(#!oid t/pe
"#(nulo$(s, pe#isinusoid(l (nd po#t(l )ib#osis (nd hep(ti! lesions
4 -to$(!h -to$(!h (!he (nd !(n!e# o) sto$(!h
5 6ent#(l 2e#.ous ,#(in 5e(d(!hes (nd )(ti"ue
& =/$ph(ti! -pleen 'i$inished l/$ph(ti! tissues (nd spleni! lesions
7 0is!ell(neous D/e, -1in (nd ,one
9##it(tion o) e/es, #unn/ e/es (nd !on%un!ti.itis, s1in i##it(tion, it!hin", s1in boil (nd bu#n,
osteone!#osis, lesion o) the hu$e#us, thinnin" o) the !o#te< (nd #edu!tion o) epiph/se(l
!(#til("e
-!ien!e Jou#n(l o) Publi! 5e(lth 2014; 2(4): 275-283 281

-a+le 3. Tested Parameters for Health 0m#act at Host and )ontrol )ommunities
!denti4ied !m)acts
"tron+ly
A+ree
5"A6
A+ree
5A6
"li+htly
'isa+ree
5"'6
'isa+ree
5'6
"tron+ly
'isa+ree
5"6
&ow Total
'ust e$ission )#o$ !e$ent p#odu!tion 127 33 1> 13 2& 218
+e$o.(l o) .e"et(l !o.e# due to li$estone $inin" &0 58 20 2> 51 218
5i"h noise le.els du#in" li$estone bl(stin" (nd !e$ent
p#odu!tion ope#(tions
71 37 15 57 38 218
9$p(!ts (sso!i(ted with bl(stin" >8 57 13 11 3> 218
9$p(!ts (sso!i(ted with $ine w(te# dis!h(#"e, liBuid
e))luents (nd !h(n"e o) w(te# Bu(lit/
80 3> 2> 18 52 218
-o!i(l tension due to in!#e(sed popul(tion )lu< 20 80 48 12 58 218
9n!#e(sed .e!to#-de#i.ed dise(ses (e" $(l(#i() 3> &7 4& 31 35 218
9$p(!t o) plu$e deposition on pl(nts (nd (ni$(ls 3> 103 30 1> 27 218
9$p(!t o) plu$e on hu$(n he(lth / in!#e(se in !(ses o)
#espi#(to#/ (nd o# (i#bo#ne dise(ses
2> 7> 55 33 22 218
9n!#e(sed #o(d t#())i! h(C(#ds due to t#u!1/.ehi!le
$o.e$ent
140 &1 7 & 4 218
6on)li!ts due to loss o) ("#i!ultu#(l l(nd (nd p#odu!es 25 18 1 3> 135 218
6o$pens(tion #e"ul(#l/ p(id 13 15 48 32 110 218
4!ti.e 6-+ (t !o$$unities 0 0 4 50 1&4 218
6olu$n 8ot(l 741 &47 335 350 7&1 2,834
-a+le 4. +escri#tive Statistics
*ikert/ty)e &es)onses 3 $ean "td 'e-iation $inimum $a7imum
-t#on"l/ 4"#ee 13 57000 43>82>5 00 14000
4"#ee 13 4>7&>2 2>43>&4 00 10300
-li"htl/ 'is("#ee 13 257&>2 184352& 100 5500
'is("#ee 13 2&>231 155>0>2 &00 5700
-t#on"l/ 'is("#ee 13 585385 4781&&> 400 1&400
-a+le . .ne-Sam#le olmogorov-Smirnov Test
"A A "' ' "
2 13 13 13 13 13
2o#$(l P(#($ete#s((,b) 0e(n 570000 4>7&>2 257&>2 2&>231 585385
-td 'e.i(tion 43>82>5 2>43>&4 184352& 155>0>2 4781&&>
0ost D<t#e$e 'i))e#en!es 4bsolute 1>7 135 171 15& 274
Positi.e 1>7 104 1&1 15& 274
2e"(ti.e -0>8 -135 -171 -0>1 -145
?ol$o"o#o.--$i#no. U 711 488 &18 5&2 >87
4s/$p -i" (2-t(iled) &>2 >71 83> >10 284
0onte 6(#lo -i" (2-t(iled) -i" &24(!) >47(!) 780(!) 8&3(!) 237(!)

>>Q 6on)iden!e
9nte#.(l
=owe# ,ound &12 >42 7&> 854 22&
*ppe# ,ound &37 >53 7>0 872 248
() 8est dist#ibution is 2o#$(l b) 6(l!ul(ted )#o$ d(t( !) ,(sed on 13 s($pled t(bles
8 0onclusion
6h(n"es (t the $i!#o-!li$(ti! le.els end(n"e# hu$(n
he(lth, ())e!tin" (ll se!to#s o) so!iet/ 8he en.i#on$ent(l
!onseBuen!es o) !li$(te !h(n"e (both those (l#e(d/
obse#.ed (nd those th(t (#e (nti!ip(ted in!ludin" he(t
w(.es (nd w(#$e# te$pe#(tu#es (nd de"#(ded (i# Bu(lit/)
will ())e!t hu$(n he(lth di#e!tl/ (nd/o# indi#e!tl/ E22F (t
lo!(l (nd #e"ion(l le.els 4dd#essin" the e))e!ts o) !li$(te
!h(n"e on hu$(n he(lth is espe!i(ll/ !h(llen"in" be!(use
both the su##oundin" en.i#on$ent (nd the de!isions th(t
people $(1e in)luen!e he(lth E23F
282 3(n(n *%oh (nd 3#ede#i!1 8e#1u$( *%oh: 4pp#(is(l o) -o!i(l (nd 5e(lth 9$p(!t o) ( 6e$ent Pl(nt (t
5ost 6o$$unities in :(nde., 2i"e#i(
8he in!#e(sin"l/ w(#$ en.i#on$ent (nd p#esen!e o)
st("n(nt w(te# )#o$ the l(#"e $inin" ponds (t the stud/
(#e( E>F (s !le(#l/ shown in Pl(tes 1-4 i$plies th(t the
hu$(n popul(tion o) the host !o$$unities is di#e!tl/
sus!eptible (nd .ulne#(ble to .e!to# bo#ne (nd Coonoti!
dise(ses (;,U') 4lthou"h .(lid p#o%e!tions on li1el/
i$p(!ts o) w(#$e# !onditions $(/ be l(!1in" due to non-
e$e#"en!e o) ( s!ienti)i! !onsensus, it h(s been #e(son(bl/
(#"ued th(t $(l(#i( (( $(%o# ;,U') th#i.es uni$peded (t
lo!(tions with si$il(# dete#io#(tin" ph/si!(l (nd
en.i#on$ent(l !onditions E24F 4l#e(d/, ( si"ni)i!(nt
p#opo#tion o) the s($pled popul(tion (nd !lini! #e!o#ds
#e.e(l in!#e(sin" !(ses o) $(l(#i( within the stud/ (#e(
4ddition(ll/, the#e (#e he(lth #el(ted p#oble$s (t the host
!o$$unities th(t (#e /et p#ope#l/ do!u$ented, let (lone
(tte$ptin" ( #esolution p#o!ess
9n 2i"e#i(, the le"(l (nd #e"ul(to#/ )#($ewo#1 )o#
$ine#(l e<plo#(tion (nd en.i#on$ent(l $(n("e$ent is
hi"hl/ !ent#(liCed with the 3ede#(l (nd -t(te "o.e#n$ents
p#i$(#il/ #esponsible )o# de.elopin" (nd (ppl/in" the
le"isl(ti.e )#($ewo#1, in!ludin" the p#o.ision o)
supe#.iso#/ (nd #e"ul(to#/ )un!tions ,/ i$pli!(tion, the
=o!(l Po.e#n$ent 4#e(s (=P4s) (#e not e$powe#ed to
en(!t, #epe(l o# othe#wise #e.ise (n/ le"isl(tion (p(#t )#o$
lo!(l b/-l(ws 5owe.e#, it is be!o$in" (pp(#ent th(t the
p#oble$s !#e(ted (t the lo!(l le.els (th#ou"h the n(tion(l-
b(sed le"(l (nd #e"ul(to#/ )#($ewo#1s) !(n bette# be
#esol.ed b/ the (!ti.e in!lusion o) lo!(ll/-de#i.ed
p#(!ti!(ble solutions b(sed on (!tion-pl(nnin" 8he
p#e.(ilin" en.i#on$ent(l !onditions (t the stud/ (#e(
would, (s ( $(tte# o) p#(!ti!(lit/, #eBui#e the (ttention (nd
willed inte#.ention o) the 3ede#(l (nd -t(te tie#s o)
"o.e#n$ent, with the =P4 !h($pionin" the p#o!ess 8his
!ould #eBui#e #e)o#$(tion b(!1ed b/ le"isl(tion, ( p#o!ess
th(t !ould li1el/ be del(/ed be/ond ( sho#t te#$ ti$e)#($e
9n the $e(nti$e, sho#t te#$ $e(su#es !ould be instituted
to #elo!(te !o$$unities (w(/ )#o$ the i$$edi(te .i!init/
o) the )(!to#/; to !ondu!t )u$i"(tion o) the (#e( ("(inst
;,U'; (nd to (lso #edu!e d#(sti!(ll/ plu$e e$issions
th#ou"h i$p#o.ed (nd !le(ne# !e$ent p#odu!tion p#o!esses
3in(ll/, it is indeed (pp(#ent th(t ( st(nd(#diCed )o#$ o)
pe#iodi! but !onsistent in.esti"(tion into the so!io-
en.i#on$ent(l st(tus o) the host !o$$unities be instituted
Acknowled+ements
8he (utho#s (#e "#(te)ul to 6o$#(de 9o#t/e# P/en1we
(nd 0# -olo$on *1o# )o# thei# (ssist(n!e du#in"
)ieldwo#1

&e4erences
E1F 4@ 4#i$o#o, 04 3("be%( (nd L Ded/: G8he 2eed (nd
*se o) Peo"#(phi! 9n)o#$(tion -/ste$s )o# Dn.i#on$ent(l
9$p(!t 4ssess$ent in 4)#i!(: Lith D<($ples )#o$ 8en
:e(#sO D<pe#ien!e in 2i"e#i( 4JD40/+4PDD, ;ol 4, 2o
2 pp 1&-27, 2002
E2F 2(tion(l Dn.i#on$ent(l 0(n("e$ent 4utho#it/,
GDn.i#on$ent(l 0(n("e$ent 8ools- *"(nd(H 4)#i!(n
9$p(!t 4ssess$ent, 2001
E3F +3 2oss (nd 4: 6oope##ide#, G-(.in" 2(tu#eJs =e"(!/
P#ote!tin" (nd +esto#in" ,iodi.e#sit/H 9sl(nd P#ess,
L(shin"ton '6, 1>>4
E4F J Pope, 4 ,ond, 4 0o##ison--(unde#s (nd 3 +etie)
G4d.(n!in" the 8heo#/ (nd P#(!ti!e o) 9$p(!t 4ssess$ent:
-ettin" the +ese(#!h 4"end(H Dn.i#on$ent(l 9$p(!t
4ssess$ent +e.iew, ;ol 41, pp 1->, 2013
E5F 2(tion(l 0eteo#olo"i!(l 4"en!/ 290D8 G6li$(ti! '(t(H
+et#ie.ed )#o$ 290D8 @))i!e, 0(1u#di, 2i"e#i(; 2012
E&F + =(l G-oil e#osion (nd its #el(tion to p#odu!ti.it/ in
t#opi!(l soilsH 0(l$( 4in( 6on) 5onolulu, 5(w(ii, 1&-22
J(nu(#/ 1>83
E7F 0' 4d(1, - 4d(1 (nd ?0 Pu#ohit K4$bient (i# Bu(lit/
(nd he(lth h(C(#ds ne(# $ini !e$ent pl(ntsK Pollution
+ese(#!h, ;ol 2&, 2o 3, pp 3&1-3&4, 2007
E8F ,4 91/o, 44 41o$bo# (nd 8 9"b(wu(, G'ete#$in(tion
o) P#ound =e.el 6on!ent#(tion o) Pollut(nts )#o$ the
,enue 6e$ent 6o$p(n/ (,66) Pl!, Pbo1o, 2i"e#i(: 4
0(the$(ti!(l 4pp#o(!hH Jou#n(l o) +ese(#!h in Ph/si!(l
-!ien!es, ;ol 3, 2o 4, pp 35-42, 2007
E>F 3 *%oh G4n 4ssess$ent o) the Dn.i#on$ent(l 9$p(!t o)
=i$estone 0inin" (nd 6e$ent P#odu!tion (t :(nde.,
2i"e#i(H Ph' 8hesis, 'ep(#t$ent o) Peo"#(ph/ (nd
Dn.i#on$ent(l 0(n("e$ent, *ni.e#sit/ o) 4bu%(, 2i"e#i(,
2014
E10F 6 6(ssel, P 5(!1l (nd 45 Lestlun", G+obustness o)
P(#ti(l =e(st -Bu(#es 0ethod )o# Dsti$(tin" =(tent ;(#i(ble
Vu(lit/ -t#u!tu#es,H Jou#n(l o) 4pplied -t(tisti!s, ;ol 2&,
2o 4, pp 435-44&, 1>>>
E11F PD =lo/d (nd P 'i!1en, G=o!(tion in -p(!e: 4 8heo#eti!(l
4pp#o(!h to D!ono$i! Peo"#(ph/H 5(#pe# (nd +ow, 2ew
:o#1, 1>72
E12F 4@ @Ci"i (nd = @!ho, GDdu!(tion in 2o#the#n 2i"e#i(H
Peo#"e 4llen (nd *nwin, =ondon; 1>81
E13F @ ,(lo"un, G'i))usion o) Post p#i$(#/ -!hools in ?w(#(
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