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Simple Sentence
A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it
expresses a complete thought. In the following simple sentences, subjects are in yellow, and
verbs are in green.
1. Some students like to study in the mornings.
2. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon.
3. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day.
Compound Sentence
A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The
coordinators are as follows for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. !xcept for very short sentences,
coordinators are always preceded by a comma. In the following compound sentences,
subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the coordinators and the commas that
precede them are in red.
1. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak nglish.
2. Ale!andro played football, so "aria #ent shopping.
3. Ale!andro played football, for "aria #ent shopping.
Complex Sentence
A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A
complex sentence always has a subordinator such asbecause, since, after, although,
or when "and many others# or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. In the
following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the
subordinators and their commas "when re$uired# are in red.
1. $hen he handed in his home#ork, he forgot to give the teacher the last page.
2. %he teacher returned the home#ork after she noticed the error.
3. %he students are studying because they have a test tomorro#.
&. After they finished studying, Juan and "aria #ent to the movies
'. Juan and "aria #ent to the movies after they finished studying.
Complex Sentences % Adjective Clauses
&inally, sentences containing adjective clauses "or dependent clauses# are also complex
because they contain an independent clause and a dependent clause. The subjects, verbs,
and subordinators are mar'ed the same as in the previous sentences, and in these
sentences, the independent clauses are also underlined.
1. %he #oman #ho called my mom sells cosmetics.
2. %he book that Jonathan read is on the shelf.
3. %he house #hich Abraham (incoln #as born in is still standing.
&. %he to#n #here I gre# up is in the )nited States.
Verb Phrases
Verbs are words that demonstrate an action, like sing, dance, smell, talk, and eat.
They serve as a link between the subject of the verb and information about that
subject. The information is usually descriptive.
In order to show activities that can be done, active verbs are used, while linking verbs
describe conditions.
She smells the pizza. (active) The wet dog smells awful. (linking)
He appears on screen as an actor. (active) Tony appears angry. (linking)
Phrase Functions as an Adverb or Adjective
Some verb phrases have a single function which means it can act like an adverb or
an adjective. The phrase would include the verb and any modifers, complements, or
Texting on his phone, the man swerved into a ditch.
As the cat watched, the two puppies fought over a bone.
The small dog was reluctant to learn new things.
When he arrives, we can try to build a fort.
Finally, we can aford to buy a new house.
Walking on the ice, she slipped and fell.
Open the door to let the fresh air in.
To make lemonade, you frst need some lemons.
It takes two people to tango.
Phrase Is the Predicate of the Sentence
Following are some verb phrase examples where the verb phrase is the predicate of
a sentence. In this case, the verb phrase consists of the main verb plus any auxiliary,
or helping, verbs.
She was walking quickly to the mall.
He should wait before going swimming.
Those girls are not trying very hard.
Ted might eat the cake.
You must go right now.
You cant eat that!
My mother is fxing us some dinner.
Words were spoken.
These cards may be worth hundreds of dollars!
The teacher is writing a report.
You have woken up everyone in the neighborhood.
T(A)SITI*! *!(+S "verbe tran,itive#
%ransitive verbs are action verbs that have an ob!ect to receive that action. In the first sentence above,
the direct ob!ect ball received the action of the verb hit. All of the verbs in the above sentences are
transitive because an ob!ect is receiving the action of the verb.
*ere are some more e+amples of transitive verbs,
I baked some cookies.
I rode the bicycle.
I moved the chair.
I stitched a quilt.
INTRANSITIVE VERBS(verbe intranzitive)
Intransitive verbs are action verbs but unlike transitive verbs, the do not have an ob!ect receiving the
action. -otice there are no #ords after the verb sang. In all of the above cases the sub!ect is
performing the action of the verb and nothing is receiving the action.
"ore e+amples of intransitive verbs,
I laughed.
I cried.
The book fell.
The horse galloped.
The sun set.
A preposition is a part of speech, !ust like a noun or a verb. It connects a noun or pronoun to another
#ord in the sentence, sho#ing us the relationship bet#een them. .repositions usually ans#er the
/uestions #here0 or #hen0, telling us about a person or ob!ect1s location in either time or space. %his
information often needs to be given using a group of #ords rather than a single #ord. $e call that
group of #ords a prepositional phrase.
Coordination and Subordination (coordonare si
Coordination and Subordination are ways of combining words,
phrases, and clauses into more complex forms. The discussion below
examines coordination and subordination of clauses.
COORDINATION uses coordinating conjunctions, conjunctive adverbs
(with appropriate punctuation), or punctuation to combine short
independent clauses into a single sentence. Coordination implies the
balance of elements that are of eual semantic value in the sentence.
The football game has been postponed. !e"ll have to do something else.
(# simple sentences with no coordination or subordination, but note how
coordination occurs below).

SUORDINATION uses subordinating conjunctions or relative
pronouns to transform independent clauses (main clauses or ideas) into
dependent clauses (subordinate clauses or ideas). $ubordinate clauses are
subordinate to (and thus hold less semantic value than) the independent
clause(s) to which they are lin%ed.
The football game has been postponed. !e"ll have to do something else.
(# simple sentences with no coordination or subordination but note how
subordination occurs below)

The lab results confirm our diagnosis. They have been sent to the
attending physician. (# simple sentences with no coordination or
subordination but note how subordination occurs below)
Line breaks: substi|tute
Pronunciation: /sbsttjut

1A person or thing acting or serving in place of another,soya milk is used
as a substitute for dairy milk
"23 4A".( S-%-5SS6-2-6"S
1.1A person or thing that becomes the ob!ect of love or another emotion #hich
is deprived of its natural outlet,a father substitute
"23 4A".( S-%-5S
2A sports player nominated as eligible to replace another after a match has
Stewart was the Rovers substitute
"23 4A".( S-%-5S
3Scots Law A deputy,a sherif substitute
"23 4A".( S-%-5S
7$I%* 28J5%9Back to top
1)se or add in place of,dried rosemary can be substituted for the
fresh herb
"23 4A".( S-%-5SS6-2-6"S
1.17-2 28J5%9 Act or serve as a substitute,I found someone
to substitute for me
"23 4A".( S-%-5S
1.23eplace :someone or something; #ith another,customs
ofcers substituted the drugs with another substancethis was
substituted by a new clause
"23 4A".( S-%-5S
1.3Chemistry 3eplace :an atom or group in a molecule, especially a hydrogen
atom; #ith another,three of the hydrogen atoms of the methane
molecule have been substituted by chlorine, bromine or iodine
"23 4A".( S-%-5S
1.&:as ad!ective substituted; Chemistry :2f a compound; in #hich one or more
hydrogen atoms have been replaced by other atoms or groups,a substituted
"23 4A".( S-%-5S
23eplace :a sports player; #ith a substitute during a match,he was
substituted eleven minutes from time
"23 4A".( S-%-5S
"An example of substitution:
I bet you get married [ A] before I get married [ A]. - repetition
I bet you get married [ A] before I do [ B]. - substitution, using do as a
substitute for get married"
LINKING VERBS (verbe co!"ative) cite#ti tot
If it makes sense, it is linking.
If it isn't logical with the substitution, it's an action verb.
For example, take these two sentences:
"The fowers looked wilted."
"She looked for wildfowers"
Substitute the copular verb "are" for the or! "looke!" in both sentences"
#n the $rst sentence% it &akes sense: "'he (oers are ilte!"" #n the
secon! sentence% hoever% it !oesn)t &ake sense: "She are for
"The spaghetti sauce tasted delicious."
"She tasted the delicious spaghetti sauce."
'he sentence: "'he spa*hetti sauce is !elicious" orks% but "She is the
!elicious spa*hetti sauce" is illo*ical" 'he verb in the $rst sentence is
copular% an! in the secon! sentence it is not"