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By PenchalaRaju.Yanamala

1. What are mapping parameters and mapping variables?

ANS: Mapping parameter represents a constant value that you can define before
running a session. A mapping parameter retains the same value throughout the
entire session. When you use the mapping parameter, you declare and use the
parameter in a mapping. Then define the value of parameter in a parameter file
for the session. Unlike a mapping parameter, a mapping variable represents a
value that can change throughout the session. The informatica server saves the
value of mapping variable to the repository at the end of session run and uses
that value next time you run the session.

2. How to create mapping parameters?

Ans: we can create mapping parameters in informatica designer.

3. What is use of mapping parameters? Mapping variable?

Ans: See the answer given in the above 1st question.

4. What is use of session parameters?

Ans: Session parameters are like mapping parameters represents values u might
want to change between sessions such as database connections or source files.
Server manager also allows u to create user defined session parameters.
Following are user defined session parameters.
Database connections: You can give database connections here.
Location of Source file names: Use this parameter when u wants to change the
name or session source file between session runs.
Location of Target file name: Use this parameter when u wants to change the
name or session target file between session runs.
Location of Reject file name: Use this parameter when u wants to change the
name or session rejects files between session runs.

5. What do you know about debugging?

Ans: If a session fails or expected data does not come in target table then we use
debugger. By using debugger we can know where the exact fault will be.

: In real time scenario where can we use mapping parameters and


Before using mapping parameters and mapping variables we

should declare these things in mapping tab of mapping

A mapping parameter cannot change untill the session has

completed unless a mapping variable can be changed in
between the session.

if we declare mapping parameter we can use that parameter
untill completing the session,but if we declare mapping
variable we can change in between sessions.Use mapping
variable in Transcation Control Transformation......

If mapping parameters and variables are not given we cannot call values n
different mappings. We define mapping parameters and variables in mapping

Thanks Deepak. But does it take any null values or any default values to run the

What is the difference between mapping parameter & mapping variable in

data warehousing?What are the types of variable available in data

Mapping Parameter: Define the constant value it can't change the value through
the session.
Mapping Variables: Define the value It can be change throughout the session

Mapping parameter is a dynamic normally pass the value to this parameter

through the prarameter file(.par file).we can pass the parameter dynamically at
every time the session runs.This can be set to the relevent variable called by
using the $$ sign.

Mapping variable is static.we can't change the value of this variable during

mapping parameter is a static value that you define before running the session
and it retains the same value till the end of the session. Define a parameter in
paramaeter file (.par) and use it in mapping or maplet and when PowerCenter
server the runs the session it evaluates the value from the parameter and retains
the same value throughout the session. When the session run again it reads from
the file for its value.

A mapping variable is dynamic or changes anytime during the session.

PowerCenter reads the intial value of the variable before the start of the session
and changes its value by using variable functions and before ending the session
its saves the current value (last value held by the variable). Next time when the
session runs the variable value is the last saved value in the previous session.
For example if you have a count variable that it gets incremented every time a
session is run the variable will have a value of 3 on its 4th run. The variable value
will not be saved by the session when it fails or when it is configured for a test
load or when it runs on a debug mode. There is also another option not save the
variable value at the end of the session by discarding session output so it that
everytime it starts it will take the intial value not the last saved value.

What r the session parameters?

Session parameters r like maping parameters,represent values U might want to

change between
sessions such as database connections or source files.
Server manager also allows U to create userdefined session
parameters.Following r user defined
session parameters.
Database connections
Source file names: use this parameter when u want to change the name or
location of
session source file between session runs
Target file name : Use this parameter when u want to change the name or
location of
session target file between session runs.
Reject file name : Use this parameter when u want to change the name or
location of
session reject files between session runs.

1. Explain your complex mapping.

Ans: In one of my mappings I felt complexity. I used unconnected
lookups, stored procedure, expression transformations, router transformations,
Joiner transformation using conditions. The main complexity I felt is to maintain
SCD 2 type in my mapping and I used to maintain the history of data.
I used unconnected lookup to see whether the data exist in the target table or
not. Similarly I want to call the lookup transformation in different expressions so I
used unconnected lookup. I used stored procedure transformation because I
want to calculate expressions for the records coming from the database itself. I
used router transformation because I am having multiple conditions based on the
flag value which I set, so for that purpose I used router. I used update strategy
transformation to make inserts and updates for the data coming from the source.
I also used Joiner transformation because I used more than one source
according to the logic and I need to join them and so I used joiner.

2. Current mapping.

Ans: Raju in complex mapping you remove some transformations and tell them
that this is my current mapping.

3. Master detail tables which u will load first and why?

Ans: First we will load data into Master table. Because with reference to master
table we will load data into detail table. As here primary key and foreign key
relation ship acts.

4.Session partitions.

Ans: Partitioning we will use to increase performance. In session properties

we will use partitioning. Types of partitioning are round robin, hash key, pass
through, and key range. According to the need we will partition data. By default
source qualifier and target table will have partition points.
Round robin partitioning will equally divide data passing through the partitions.
For example if there are 150 records and we divide into 3 partitions then each
partition will get 50 records.
Pass through partition will simply pass data from source to target. It does not
contain any partition point.
Key range partition will divide the data into our required numbers when sending
data through partition lines. For example if there are 1000 records and we are
having 3 partition lines then we can divide data such that 1 to 180 records pass
through 1st partition and 181 to 460 records through 2nd partition and rest all
records through 3rd partition.
Hash key will be used at rank, sorter and unsorted aggregator transformations to
group the data.

4.Daily activities.

Ans: After I go to office I will connect to client machine and I will develop
mappings according to the business logic by referring to the business
documents. If I am having any doubt regarding the logic I will ask my team lead
else the business analyst. At the end of the day I will report to my team lead
regarding today’s work which I completed.

5.How will you delete duplicate rows in a flat file?

Ans: By using ‘Distinct’ option in sorter transformation.

6.How will you get duplicate records of flat files?

Ans: source -> source qualifier -> expression transformation -> filter
transformation -> target. In expression transformation we will generate a variable
port and also an output port.
Old_Value (variable) New_Value is assigned.
New_value (variable) EMPNO.
Flag (output) IIF(Old_Value=New_Value, 1, 0).
Now in filter transformation we will give condition as Flag=1.

7.How will you get particular records in flat file?

Ans: source -> source qualifier -> expression -> filter -> target. In expression we
will create a variable and output port.
Exp_Var (variable) Exp_Var+1
Exp_out (output) Exp_var.
In filter we will give condition of what records we want. For example we want 2nd,
7th, 13th records we will give condition as Exp_Out=2 or Exp_Out=7 or

8.How will u do scheduling?

Ans: we will not do scheduling. Tivoli is the tool to schedule workflows.

Q. What is the difference between PowerCenter and PowerMart?

With PowerCenter, you receive all product functionality, including the ability to
register multiple servers, share metadata across repositories, and partition data.

A PowerCenter license lets you create a single repository that you can configure
as a global repository, the core component of a data warehouse.
PowerMart includes all features except distributed metadata, multiple registered
servers, and data partitioning. Also, the various options available with
PowerCenter (such as PowerCenter Integration Server for BW, PowerConnect
for IBM DB2, PowerConnect for IBM MQSeries, PowerConnect for SAP R/3,
PowerConnect for Siebel, and PowerConnect for PeopleSoft) are not available
with PowerMart.

Q. What is a repository?

The Informatica repository is a relational database that stores information, or

metadata, used by the Informatica Server and Client tools. The repository also
stores administrative information such as usernames and passwords,
permissions and privileges, and product version.

We create and maintain the repository with the Repository Manager client tool.
With the Repository Manager, we can also create folders to organize metadata
and groups to organize users.

Q. What are different kinds of repository objects? And what it will contain?

Repository objects displayed in the Navigator can include sources, targets,

transformations, mappings, mapplets, shortcuts, sessions, batches, and session

Q. What is a metadata?

Designing a data mart involves writing and storing a complex set of instructions.
You need to know where to get data (sources), how to change it, and where to
write the information (targets). PowerMart and PowerCenter call this set of
instructions metadata. Each piece of metadata (for example, the description of a
source table in an operational database) can contain comments about it.

In summary, Metadata can include information such as mappings describing how

to transform source data, sessions indicating when you want the Informatica
Server to perform the transformations, and connect strings for sources and

Q. What are folders?

Folders let you organize your work in the repository, providing a way to separate
different types of metadata or different projects into easily identifiable areas.

Q. What is a Shared Folder?

A shared folder is one, whose contents are available to all other folders in the
same repository. If we plan on using the same piece of metadata in several
projects (for example, a description of the CUSTOMERS table that provides data
for a variety of purposes), you might put that metadata in the shared folder.

Q. What are mappings?

A mapping specifies how to move and transform data from sources to targets.
Mappings include source and target definitions and transformations.
Transformations describe how the Informatica Server transforms data. Mappings
can also include shortcuts, reusable transformations, and mapplets. Use the
Mapping Designer tool in the Designer to create mappings.

Q. What are mapplets?

You can design a mapplet to contain sets of transformation logic to be reused in

multiple mappings within a folder, a repository, or a domain. Rather than recreate
the same set of transformations each time, you can create a mapplet containing
the transformations, then add instances of the mapplet to individual mappings.
Use the Mapplet Designer tool in the Designer to create mapplets.

Q. What are Transformations?

A transformation generates, modifies, or passes data through ports that you

connect in a mapping or mapplet. When you build a mapping, you add
transformations and configure them to handle data according to your business
purpose. Use the Transformation Developer tool in the Designer to create

Q. What are Reusable transformations?

You can design a transformation to be reused in multiple mappings within a

folder, a repository, or a domain. Rather than recreate the same transformation
each time, you can make the transformation reusable, then add instances of the
transformation to individual mappings. Use the Transformation Developer tool in
the Designer to create reusable transformations.

Q. What are Sessions and Batches?

Sessions and batches store information about how and when the Informatica
Server moves data through mappings. You create a session for each mapping
you want to run. You can group several sessions together in a batch. Use the
Server Manager to create sessions and batches.

Q. What are Shortcuts?

We can create shortcuts to objects in shared folders. Shortcuts provide the

easiest way to reuse objects. We use a shortcut as if it were the actual object,
and when we make a change to the original object, all shortcuts inherit the

Shortcuts to folders in the same repository are known as local shortcuts.

Shortcuts to the global repository are called global shortcuts.

We use the Designer to create shortcuts.

Q. What are Source definitions?

Detailed descriptions of database objects (tables, views, synonyms), flat files,

XML files, or Cobol files that provide source data. For example, a source
definition might be the complete structure of the EMPLOYEES table, including
the table name, column names and datatypes, and any constraints applied to
these columns, such as NOT NULL or PRIMARY KEY. Use the Source Analyzer
tool in the Designer to import and create source definitions.
Q. What are Target definitions?

Detailed descriptions for database objects, flat files, Cobol files, or XML files to
receive transformed data. During a session, the Informatica Server writes the
resulting data to session targets. Use the Warehouse Designer tool in the
Designer to import or create target definitions.

Q. What is Dynamic Data Store?

The need to share data is just as pressing as the need to share metadata. Often,
several data marts in the same organization need the same information. For
example, several data marts may need to read the same product data from
operational sources, perform the same profitability calculations, and format this
information to make it easy to review.

If each data mart reads, transforms, and writes this product data separately, the
throughput for the entire organization is lower than it could be. A more efficient
approach would be to read, transform, and write the data to one central data
store shared by all data marts. Transformation is a processing-intensive task, so
performing the profitability calculations once saves time.

Therefore, this kind of dynamic data store (DDS) improves throughput at the level
of the entire organization, including all data marts. To improve performance
further, you might want to capture incremental changes to sources. For example,
rather than reading all the product data each time you update the DDS, you can
improve performance by capturing only the inserts, deletes, and updates that
have occurred in the PRODUCTS table since the last time you updated the DDS.

The DDS has one additional advantage beyond performance: when you move
data into the DDS, you can format it in a standard fashion. For example, you can
prune sensitive employee data that should not be stored in any data mart. Or you
can display date and time values in a standard format. You can perform these
and other data cleansing tasks when you move data into the DDS instead of
performing them repeatedly in separate data marts.

Q. What is a Global repository?

The centralized repository in a domain, a group of connected repositories. Each

domain can contain one global repository. The global repository can contain
common objects to be shared throughout the domain through global shortcuts.
Once created, you cannot change a global repository to a local repository. You
can promote an existing local repository to a global repository.

Q. What is Local Repository?

Each local repository in the domain can connect to the global repository and use
objects in its shared folders. A folder in a local repository can be copied to other
local repositories while keeping all local and global shortcuts intact.

Q. What are the different types of locks?

There are five kinds of locks on repository objects:

Read lock. Created when you open a repository object in a folder for which you
do not have write permission. Also created when you open an object with an
existing write lock.

Write lock. Created when you create or edit a repository object in a folder for
which you have write permission.

Execute lock. Created when you start a session or batch, or when the
Informatica Server starts a scheduled session or batch.

Fetch lock. Created when the repository reads information about repository
objects from the database.

Save lock. Created when you save information to the repository.

Q. After creating users and user groups, and granting different sets of
privileges, I find that none of the repository users can perform certain
tasks, even the Administrator.

Repository privileges are limited by the database privileges granted to the

database user who created the repository. If the database user (one of the
default users created in the Administrators group) does not have full database
privileges in the repository database, you need to edit the database user to allow
all privileges in the database.

Q. I created a new group and removed the Browse Repository privilege

from the group. Why does every user in the group still have that privilege?

Privileges granted to individual users take precedence over any group

restrictions. Browse Repository is a default privilege granted to all new users and
groups. Therefore, to remove the privilege from users in a group, you must
remove the privilege from the group, and every user in the group.

Q. I do not want a user group to create or edit sessions and batches, but I
need them to access the Server Manager to stop the Informatica Server.

To permit a user to access the Server Manager to stop the Informatica Server,
you must grant them both the Create Sessions and Batches, and Administer
Server privileges. To restrict the user from creating or editing sessions and
batches, you must restrict the user's write permissions on a folder level.

Alternatively, the user can use pmcmd to stop the Informatica Server with the
Administer Server privilege alone.

Q. How does read permission affect the use of the command line program,

To use pmcmd, you do not need to view a folder before starting a session or
batch within the folder. Therefore, you do not need read permission to start
sessions or batches with pmcmd. You must, however, know the exact name of
the session or batch and the folder in which it exists.

With pmcmd, you can start any session or batch in the repository if you have the
Session Operator privilege or execute permission on the folder.
Q. My privileges indicate I should be able to edit objects in the repository,
but I cannot edit any metadata.

You may be working in a folder with restrictive permissions. Check the folder
permissions to see if you belong to a group whose privileges are restricted by the
folder owner.

Q. What is Event-Based Scheduling?

When you use event-based scheduling, the Informatica Server starts a session
when it locates the specified indicator file. To use event-based scheduling, you
need a shell command, script, or batch file to create an indicator file when all
sources are available. The file must be created or sent to a directory local to the
Informatica Server. The file can be of any format recognized by the Informatica
Server operating system. The Informatica Server deletes the indicator file once
the session starts.

Use the following syntax to ping the Informatica Server on a UNIX system:

pmcmd ping [{user_name | %user_env_var} {password | %password_env_var}]


Use the following syntax to start a session or batch on a UNIX system:

pmcmd start {user_name | %user_env_var} {password | %password_env_var}

[hostname:]portno [folder_name:]{session_name | batch_name} [:pf=param_file]
session_flag wait_flag

Use the following syntax to stop a session or batch on a UNIX system:

pmcmd stop {user_name | %user_env_var} {password | %password_env_var}

[hostname:]portno[folder_name:]{session_name | batch_name} session_flag

Use the following syntax to stop the Informatica Server on a UNIX system:

pmcmd stopserver {user_name | %user_env_var} {password |

%password_env_var} [hostname:]portno

Q. What are the different types of Commit intervals?

The different commit intervals are:

Target-based commit. The Informatica Server commits data based on the

number of target rows and the key constraints on the target table. The commit
point also depends on the buffer block size and the commit interval.

Source-based commit. The Informatica Server commits data based on the

number of source rows. The commit point is the commit interval you configure in
the session properties.

Q. What are the tools provided by Designer?

The Designer provides the following tools:

Source Analyzer. Use to import or create source definitions for flat file, XML,
Cobol, ERP, and relational sources.

Warehouse Designer. Use to import or create target definitions.

Transformation Developer. Use to create reusable transformations.

Mapplet Designer. Use to create mapplets.

Mapping Designer. Use to create mappings.

Q. What is a transformation?

A transformation is a repository object that generates, modifies, or passes data.

You configure logic in a transformation that the Informatica Server uses to
transform data. The Designer provides a set of transformations that perform
specific functions. For example, an Aggregator transformation performs
calculations on groups of data.

Each transformation has rules for configuring and connecting in a mapping. For
more information about working with a specific transformation, refer to the
chapter in this book that discusses that particular transformation.

You can create transformations to use once in a mapping, or you can create
reusable transformations to use in multiple mappings.

Q. What are the different types of Transformations? (Mascot)

a) Aggregator transformation: The Aggregator transformation allows you to

perform aggregate calculations, such as averages and sums. The Aggregator
transformation is unlike the Expression transformation, in that you can use the
Aggregator transformation to perform calculations on groups. The Expression
transformation permits you to perform calculations on a row-by-row basis only.

b) Expression transformation: You can use the Expression transformations to

calculate values in a single row before you write to the target. For example, you
might need to adjust employee salaries, concatenate first and last names, or
convert strings to numbers. You can use the Expression transformation to
perform any non-aggregate calculations. You can also use the Expression
transformation to test conditional statements before you output the results to
target tables or other transformations.

c) Filter transformation: The Filter transformation provides the means for

filtering rows in a mapping. You pass all the rows from a source transformation
through the Filter transformation, and then enter a filter condition for the
transformation. All ports in a Filter transformation are input/output, and only rows
that meet the condition pass through the Filter transformation.

d) Joiner transformation: While a Source Qualifier transformation can join data

originating from a common source database, the Joiner transformation joins two
related heterogeneous sources residing in different locations or file systems.
e) Lookup transformation: Use a Lookup transformation in your mapping to
look up data in a relational table, view, or synonym. Import a lookup definition
from any relational database to which both the Informatica Client and Server can
connect. You can use multiple Lookup transformations in a mapping.

The Informatica Server queries the lookup table based on the lookup ports in the
transformation. It compares Lookup transformation port values to lookup table
column values based on the lookup condition. Use the result of the lookup to
pass to other transformations and the target.

Q. What is the difference between Aggregate and Expression

Transformation? (Mascot)

Q. What is Update Strategy?

When we design our data warehouse, we need to decide what type of

information to store in targets. As part of our target table design, we need to
determine whether to maintain all the historic data or just the most recent
The model we choose constitutes our update strategy, how to handle changes to
existing records.

Update strategy flags a record for update, insert, delete, or reject. We use this
transformation when we want to exert fine control over updates to a target, based
on some condition we apply. For example, we might use the Update Strategy
transformation to flag all customer records for update when the mailing address
has changed, or flag all employee records for reject for people no longer working
for the company.

Q. Where do you define update strategy?

We can set the Update strategy at two different levels:

Within a session. When you configure a session, you can instruct the
Informatica Server to either treat all records in the same way (for example, treat
all records as inserts), or use instructions coded into the session mapping to flag
records for different database operations.

Within a mapping. Within a mapping, you use the Update Strategy

transformation to flag records for insert, delete, update, or reject.

Q. What are the advantages of having the Update strategy at Session


Q. What is a lookup table? (KPIT Infotech, Pune)

The lookup table can be a single table, or we can join multiple tables in the same
database using a lookup query override. The Informatica Server queries the
lookup table or an in-memory cache of the table for all incoming rows into the
Lookup transformation.

If your mapping includes heterogeneous joins, we can use any of the mapping
sources or mapping targets as the lookup table.
Q. What is a Lookup transformation and what are its uses?

We use a Lookup transformation in our mapping to look up data in a relational

table, view or synonym.

We can use the Lookup transformation for the following purposes:

Get a related value. For example, if our source table includes employee ID, but
we want to include the employee name in our target table to make our summary
data easier to read.
Perform a calculation. Many normalized tables include values used in a
calculation, such as gross sales per invoice or sales tax, but not the calculated
value (such as net sales).
Update slowly changing dimension tables. We can use a Lookup transformation
to determine whether records already exist in the target.

Q. What are connected and unconnected Lookup transformations?

We can configure a connected Lookup transformation to receive input directly

from the mapping pipeline, or we can configure an unconnected Lookup
transformation to receive input from the result of an expression in another

An unconnected Lookup transformation exists separate from the pipeline in the

mapping. We write an expression using the :LKP reference qualifier to call the
lookup within another transformation.

A common use for unconnected Lookup transformations is to update slowly

changing dimension tables.

Q. What is the difference between connected lookup and unconnected


Differences between Connected and Unconnected Lookups:

Connected Lookup Unconnected Lookup

Receives input values directly Receives input values from the
from the pipeline. result of a :LKP expression in
another transformation.
We can use a dynamic or static We can use a static cache
Supports user-defined default Does not support user-defined
values default values

Q. What is Sequence Generator Transformation? (Mascot)

The Sequence Generator transformation generates numeric values. We can use

the Sequence Generator to create unique primary key values, replace missing
primary keys, or cycle through a sequential range of numbers.
The Sequence Generation transformation is a connected transformation. It
contains two output ports that we can connect to one or more transformations.

Q. What are the uses of a Sequence Generator transformation?

We can perform the following tasks with a Sequence Generator transformation:

Create keys
Replace missing values
Cycle through a sequential range of numbers

Q. What are the advantages of Sequence generator? Is it necessary, if so


We can make a Sequence Generator reusable, and use it in multiple mappings.

We might reuse a Sequence Generator when we perform multiple loads to a
single target.

For example, if we have a large input file that we separate into three sessions
running in parallel, we can use a Sequence Generator to generate primary key
values. If we use different Sequence Generators, the Informatica Server might
accidentally generate duplicate key values. Instead, we can use the same
reusable Sequence Generator for all three sessions to provide a unique value for
each target row.

Q. How is the Sequence Generator transformation different from other


The Sequence Generator is unique among all transformations because we

cannot add, edit, or delete its default ports (NEXTVAL and CURRVAL).

Unlike other transformations we cannot override the Sequence Generator

transformation properties at the session level. This protecxts the integrity of the
sequence values generated.

(1).Joiner Transformation 

A:-*joiner.T can be used to join two sources, coming from two

Different locations or from the same locations.

*In order to join two sources, there must be at least one matching
Port while joining two sources.

*It is must to specify one source as master and other source as


*When the data comes from homogeneous databases, in that time

We must use Joiner condition in SQT.

*When the data comes from Heterogeneous databases, in that

Time we must go to joiner.T.

*It is an active Transformation and connected Transformation.

EG:-If for example to join a flat file, and a relational sources or to
Join two flat files or to join a relational sources & XML sources.

Joiner Transformation types

1. Normal join 2.Master outer join 3.Detail outer join 4.Full outer join

1. Normal join:-Normal join discards all the rows of the data from both master
Detail Sources that don’t match based on the condition.
2. Master outer join:-

3. Detail outer join:-

4. Full outer join:-

Note :-(1).joiner .T will decrease the performance.

(2). Normal, master are faster than detail, full outer join.

(3).Normal join is default join in joiner.T.

(4). Non equi join is not supported by joiner.T.

(5).To improve source performance using less no. of records as


Q) We have 10 sources. Using joiner T/R how many joins you should use to
join them?

ANS: - A fundamental formula is n-1. So 10-1=9.

Q) We have an oracle source; from this source we drag two tables EMP,
DEPT and there is no common column for these two tables and how
Could you join them?
ANS: No we cannot join without having atleast one common port.

Q) Which join gives more performance and why?

ANS: Normal join. Because normal join gives records which match the condition.
Where as in case of detail join it gives records which match the condition plus
master table records, so performance decreases. Similarly for master join it gives
Records which match the condition plus detail table records, so performance

Q) Is normal join = equi join or not?

ANS: Yes.

Q) What is the use of sorted input option? In which T/R can you use it?

ANS: Joiner, Aggregator and Source qualifier.

Q) If you use a joiner T/R, what rules you should follow?


Q) In joiner T/R how can you improve the performance?

ANS: By using sorted input, normal join condition we will us

2. Source Qualifier Transformation:-

We can use to join from relational or flat file sources to a mapping. And it
represents the records the power center server reads when it’s run a session.
It perform various tasks such as

Overriding the default SQL query,

Filtering the records,
Joining data from two or more tables,
We can sort the ports,
We can select the distinct values,
We can create the indexes and drop the indexes by using pre SQL and post
We can create custom records and
We can use mapping parameters & variables

Note:-1. It is a default Transformation.


4. Expression Transformation:-

5. Stored Procedure Transformation 

A:-*It is Passive Transformation, because does not change the no. of rows
And pass it from source to target.

*It is an important tool for populating and maintaining databases.

*It is a precompiled collection of Transact-SQL, PL-SQL or other database

Procedural statements and similar to an executable script.

*Stored procedures are stored and run within the database.

*Stored procedures allow user-defined variables, conditional statements,

And other powerful programming features. And it perform varies task
Such as

• Check the status of a target database before loading data into it.
• Determine if enough space exists in a database.
• Perform a specialized calculation.
• Drop and recreate indexes
*It is both connected and unconnected Transformation.
Connected Transformation means connected to other transformations
Which are in the data flow. where as unconnected Transformation means is
Not connected to other transformations and will not be the data flow.

*Run a stored procedure every time a row passes through the Connected or
Unconnected in Stored Procedure transformation.

*Pass parameters to the stored procedure and receive a single output

Parameter by using Connected or Unconnected in S.P.T.

*Pass parameters to the stored procedure and receive multiple output

Parameters by using Connected or Unconnected in S.P.T.

*Run a stored procedure before or after our session. By using Unconnected

In S.P.T.

*Run a stored procedure once during our mapping, such as pre- or post-
Session by using Unconnected in S.P.T.

*Call multiple times within a mapping by using Unconnected in S.P.T.

# Properties in Stored Procedure transformation:-

1. Stored Procedure Name:-

2. Connection Information:-
3. Call Text:-
4. Stored Procedure Type:-
5. Execution Order:-

Using Type 2 Slowly Changing Dimensions

With Type 2 SCD, you always create another version of dimension record and
mark the existing version as history. To accommodate this, you need to create
extra metadata for your dimension table, including an effective date column and
an expiration date column. These columns are used to differentiate a current
version from a historical version as follows:

Effective date column stores the effective date of the version; also known as start

Expiration date column stores the expiration date of the version; also known as
end date

Expiration date value of the current version is always set to NULL or a default
date value

You also need to decide which columns you want to store historic data for when
the values are to be changed. These columns are defined as trigger columns and
should be described as part of your metadata.
Once you define your dimension GEO_DIM_TYPE2, you can use it in your
mapping to load data into it. GEO_SRC is the sample source table here from
which data are to be loaded into GEO_DIM_TYPE2.

To load Type 2 slowly changing dimension, you need to transform data extracted
from the source properly before you load them into the target. You achieve this
by creating a mapping, such as the one displayed in Figure A-6. In this mapping,
data is first extracted from GEO_SRC, transformed by a series of operators, and
finally loaded into GEO_DIM_TYPE2.

Or Type2: Flag: The old data will be denoted as false and the
new data will be denoted as true.

Version: The changes made will be numbered as 0,1, on.

Date: The changes along with the date in which they are made
are clearly mentioned.

(1).How do we call shell scripts from informatica?

You can use a Command task to call the shell scripts, in the following ways:

1. Standalone Command task. You can use a Command task anywhere in the
workflow or worklet to run shell commands.

2. Pre- and post-session shell command. You can call a Command task as the
pre- or post-session shell command for a Session task. For more information
about specifying pre-session and post-session shell commands

(2)In What scenario ETL coding is preferred than Database level SQL,
PL/SQL coding?
We should go for an ETL tool when we have to extract the data from multiple
source systems like flat file, oracle, COBOL etc at one instance. Where PL/SQL
or SQL can not fit.

(3) What is the methodology and process followed for ETL

Testing in Data warehouse environment?

(4)Develop a mapping to extract the employee drawing maximum salary where

deptno = department drawing...

(5) If LKP on target table is taken, can we update the rows without update
strategy transformation?

We can update the target with out using update strategy by setting the session
parameters..If the source is a database.

(6)How you capture changes in data if the source system does not have option of
storing date/time field...
(7)What is the effect of the OPTIONS statement ERRORS=1

Stop on errors=1 (if you set this option to 1 the session will be stopped after
occurance of 1 error row. if it is 0 the session will not be stopped even u got n
number of errors.

(8)What are push and pull ETL strategies?

(9)How do you tell aggregator stage that input data is already sorted
Can anyone please explain why and where do we exactly use the lookup

Lookups can be used for validation purpose.

(10)What is a three tier data warehouse?

Three tier data warehouse contains three tier such as bottom tier,middle tier and
top tier.
Bottom tier deals with retrieving related datas or information from various
information repositories by using SQL.
Middle tier contains two types of servers.
1. ROLAP server
2.MOLAP server
Top tier deals with presentation or visualization of the results

(11)What are the various methods of getting incremental records or

Delta records from the source systems?

getting incremental records from source systems to target can be done

by using incremental aggregation transformation or

We can use control table update and ipf files for capturing incremental data or
delta data from a source. Control table will maintain the details like from which
timestamp (previous) to which timestamp (current) we have taken the data.

If the session is taking data everyday (daily run) then the delta will be of one day.
Previous timestamp will be of yesterday's date (P1) and current timestamp will be
the time (C1)of run of the job. So in today’s run we will get one day data.

Next day when job runs C1 will become P2 and today’s run time will become C2,
so we will not miss any records incremented i the source systems. This will go
Incase on weekly runs the delta will be of one week.

(12) What are the different Lookup methods used in Informatica?

In the lookup transormation mainly 2 types

1)connected 2)unconnected lookup

Connected lookup: 1)It recive the value directly from pipeline

2)it iwill use both dynamic and static

3)it return multiple value

4)it support userdefined value

(2)Unconnected lookup:it recives the value :lkp expression

2)it will be use only dynamic

3)it return only single value

4)it does not support user defined values

(19) where do we use connected and un connected lookups

If return port only one then we can go for unconnected.

More than one return port is not possible with Unconnected. If more than one
return port then go for Connected.

Connected transformation is connected to other transformations or

directly to target table in the mapping. An unconnected
transformation is not connected to other transformations in the
mapping. It is called within another transformation, and returns
a value to that transformation. Connected lookup receives input
values directly from mapping pipeline whereas un connected lookup
receives values from: LKP expression from another
transformation. Connected lookup returns multiple columns from
the same row whereas UnConnected lookup has one return port and
returns one column from each row. Connected lookup supports
user-defined default values whereas UnConnected lookup does not
support user defined values.

(13) What is a mapping, session, worklet, workflow, mapplet?

A mapping represents dataflow from sources to targets.

A mapplet creates or configures a set of transformations.

A workflow is a set of instruction sthat tell the Informatica server how to execute
the tasks.

A worklet is an object that represents a set of tasks.

A session is a set of instructions to move data from sources to targets.

(14)How can we use mapping variables in Informatica? Where do we

Use them?

After creating a variable, we can use it in any expression in a mapping or a

mapplet. Als they can be used in source qualifier filter, user defined joins or
extract overrides and in expression editor of reusable transformations.
Their values can change automatically between sessions.

(15) What is Global and Local shortcut? Explain with advantages?

Global shortcuts are across multiple repositories,

Local shortcuts are across multiple folders in the same repository.

*(16) In real time scenario where update strategy transformation is used? If

we dml operations in session properties then what is the use of update
strategy transforamtion?

1. Mapping level.

2.session level.

Importence of Update strategy transformation in both cases as follows.

In real time if we want to update the existing record with the same source
data you can go for session level update logic.

If you want to applay different set of rules for updating or inserting a record, even
that record is existed in the warehouse table .you can go for mapping level
Update strategy transformation.

It means that if you are using Router transformation for performaning different

EX: If the employee 'X1234 ' is getting Bonus then updating the Allowance with
10% less.If not, inserting the record with new Bonus in the Warehouse table.

(17).Lets suppose we have some 10,000 odd records in source system and
when load them into target how do we ensure that all 10,000 records that
are loaded to target doesn't contain any garbage values.

How do we test it. We can't check every record as numbers of records are

You should have proper tesing conditions in your ETL jobs for validating all the
important columns before they are loaded into the target. Always have proper
rejects to capture records containing garbage values.

Go into workflow monitor after showing the status succeed click right button go
into the property and you can see there no of source row and success target
rows and rejected rows

(18) What is Entity relation?? How is works with Datawarehousing ETL


Ans:Entity is nothing but an Object, it has characteristics.We call entity in terms

of Logical view.The entity is called as a table in terms of Physical view.
The Entity relationship is nothing but maintaining a primary key,foreign key
relation between the tables for keeping the data and satisfying the Normal form.

There are 4 types of Entity Relationships.





In the Datawarehouse modeling Entity Relationship is nothing but,a Relationship

between dimension and facts tables(ie:Primary,foreign key relations between
these tables).

The fact table getting data from dimensions tables because it containing primary
keys of dimension tables as a foreign keys for getting summarized data for each
record. or

Entity is nothing but an object usually it is table containing the

attributes(columns)ETL is a tool not a modeling .. it's useful for transfrering the
data from the sources (hetogeniuos) to the target (warehouse) modeling is much
useful for forming the fact's and dimension's which are used for decision making
process using OLAP tools after forming the warehouse.

(20) What are the various test procedures used to check whether the data
is loaded in the backend, performance of the mapping, and quality of the
data loaded in INFORMATICA.

The best procedure to take a help of debugger where we monitor each and every
process of mappings and how data is loading based on conditions breaks.

Hi, u can check out the session logfiles for the total number of records added
number of records udated and number of rejected records and errors related to
that so this is the answer the interviewer is expecting from usk

(21) what is the metadata extension?

Informatica Client applications can contain the following types of metadata


• Vendor-defined. Third-party application vendors create vendor-defined

metadata extensions. You can view and change the values of vendor-

defined metadata extensions, but you cannot create, delete, or redefine

• User-defined. You create user-defined metadata extensions using

PowerCenter/PowerMart. You can create, edit, delete, and view user-

defined metadata extensions. You can also change the values of user-

defined extensions

(22)can we lookup a table from source qualifier transformation. ie. unconnected


I think we cannot lookup through a source qualifier as we use the souce to look
up the tables so it is not possible i think or

You cannot lookup from a source qualifier directly. However, you can override
the SQL in the source qualifier to join with the lookup table to perform the lookup.

(22)Can Informatica load heterogeneous targets from heterogeneous


Informatica can load Hetrogeneuous Targets from hetrogeneuous Sources

Or yes, But it supports only in 7.1

What are parameter files ? Where do we use them?

Parameter files are used for static variable exectuion of a task. this file can b
modifies/updated for later change in the parameter. say for ex, xyz="RAJAT" is
defined in the parameter file and now whererever XYZ is used in the mapping the
data is automatically taken as RAJAT. is we wann achange that we can change
that to any other varchar or int in the file.

this file can be called upon in the session properties and shown the physical
path in the server to read upon.

(24) What are the modules in Power Mart?

1. PowerMart Designer
2. Server
3. Server Manager
4. Repository
5. Repository Manager

How can we use mapping variables in Informatica? Where do we use them?

After creating a variable, we can use it in any expression in a mapping or a

mapplet. Als they can be used in source qualifier filter, user defined joins or
extract overrides and in expression editor of reusable transformations.
Their values can change automatically between sessions
Techniques of Error Handling - Ignore , Rejecting bad records to a flat file ,
loading the records and reviewing them (default values)

Rejection of records either at the database due to constraint key violation or

the informatica server when writing data into target table.These rejected
records we can find in the badfiles folder where a reject file will be created for
a session.we can check why a record has been rejected.And this bad file
contains first column a row indicator and second column a column indicator.
These row indicators or of four types
D-valid data,
O-overflowed data,
N-null data,
T- Truncated data,
And depending on these indicators we can changes to load data successfully
to target

111Cached Lookup and an Uncached Lookup

(A) For a cached lookup the entire rows (lookup table) will be put in the buffer,
and compare these rows with the incomming rows.

where as uncached lookup, for every input row the lookup will query the
lookup table and get the rows.

12 What is Assignment task in informatica? In what situation this task will be

executed? Where this task exits?

The Assignment task allows you to assign a value to a user-defined workflow

variable. To use an Assignment task in the workflow, first create and add the
Assignment task to the workflow. Then configure the Assignment task to
assign values or expressions to user-defined variables. After you assign a
value to a variable using the Assignment task, the PowerCenter Server uses
the assigned value for the variable during the remainder of the workflow.

parameter file
how to create parameter file and how to use it in a mapping explain with example

Please place your parameter file in the server "srcfiles" with data in it.In
mapping designer window of powercenter designer,click on "Mapping" and
then "Parameter and variable".Add all the parameter here one by one.

Now you can able to see the variable with "$$" added in the above will be
available in your mapping.This variable inturn picks value from the parameter
file.Donot forget to give "parameter filename" in the "property" tab of task in
workflow manager.

What is Target Update Override? What is the Use ?

target update override it is also like souce qualifier override,target update
override is use ful to update the target with out using the update strategy

What are tracing levels in transformation?

Tracing level in the case of informatica specifies the level of detail of information
that can be recorded in the session log file while executing the workflow.

4 types of tracing levels supported

1.Normal: It specifies the initialization and status information and summerization

of the success rows and target tows and the information about the skipped rows
due to transformation errors.

2.Terse specifies Normal + Notification of data

3. Verbose Initialisation : In addition to the Normal tracing, specifies the

location of the data cache files and index cache files that are treated and detailed
transformation statistics for each and every transformation within the mapping.

4. Verbose data: Along with verbose initialisation records each and every record
processed by the informatica server

For better performance of mapping execution the tracing level should be

specified as TERSE
Verbose initialisation and verbose data are used for debugging purpose.

why do we need lookup sql override? Do we write sql override in lookup

with special aim?
Lookup override can be used to get some specific records(using filters in
where clause) from the lookup table. Adavantages are that the whole table
need not be looked up..

What is pre-session and post-session?

Pre-session:Before executing session, this pre-session command executesPost-
session:After the completion of execution of this session, the script in the post-
session runs.

What is a Shortcut and What is the difference between a Shortcut and a

Reusable Transformation?
A Reusable Transformation can only be used with in the folder. but a shortcut
can be used anywhere in the Repository and will point to actual Transformation..

14.What are the locks with respect to mappings?

How do you manually lock or unlock the mappings for chages?

If your PowerCenter repository is version-enabled, then you need to check-out

/check-in in order to modify any objects (incl.. mappings). This is how you do the
version control and locking on objects...!

16. PMCMD performs following tasks

1)start and stop batches and sessions
2)recovery sessions
3)stops the informatica
4)schedule the sessions by shell scripting
5)schedule the sessions by using operating system schedule tools like CRON

Explain Session Recovery Process?
You have 3 steps in session recovery

If Informatica server performs no commit, run the session again

At least one commit, perform recovery
perform recovery is not possible, truncate the target table and run the session

What are the Commit & Commit Intervals?

Commit interval is a interval in which the Informatica server loads the data into
the target.

18.How to run a workflow without using GUI i.e, Worlflow Manager, Workflow
Monitor and pmcmd?

pmcmd is not GUI. It is a command you can use within unix script to run the

Unless the job is scheduled, you cannot manually run a workflow without using a