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The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens.

The pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many different shapes and sizes from and
before the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the end of the Middle Kingdom.
There are about eighty pyramids known today from ancient Egypt. The three largest
and best-presered of these were built at !iza at the beginning of the Old Kingdom.
The most well-known of these pyramids was built for the pharaoh Khufu. "t is known
as the #!reat $yramid#.
The word #pyramid# actually comes from the !reek word #pyramis# which means #wheat
cake#. The word #pyramis# was used to describe the ancient Egyptian buildings because
they reminded the !reeks of pointy-topped wheat cakes.
The ancient Egyptian word for the pyramids was #Mer#.
By Natasha Tucker
Amun was one of the
most powerful gods in
ancient Egypt.
't the height of Egyptian
ciilization he was called
the #King of the !ods#.
'mun was important
throughout the history of
ancient Egypt. (oweer)
when 'mun was combined
with the sun god *a he
was een more powerful.
(e was then called
' large and important
temple was built
at Thebes to honor 'mun.
Man with a +ackal
' +ackal
Anubis was the god
of embalming and the
,ince +ackals were often
seen in cemeteries) the
ancient Egyptians belieed
that 'nubis watched oer
the dead.
'nubis was the god who
helped to embalm Osiris
after he was killed by ,eth.
Thus) 'nubis was the god
who watched oer the
process of mummifying
people when they died.
$riests often wore a mask
of 'nubis during
There where many gods
and goddesses in Egyptian
times all known to help do
different things these are
some of the things they
helped to do&
'tum - belieed that
he rose from waters of
chaos and created all
.es - belieed that
.es protected them
against snake and
scorpion bites.
!eb - belieed that
earthquakes were
!ebs laughter.
(apy - was especially
important because he
brought the flood
eery year which
deposited rich silt on
the banks allowing
them to grow crops.

Man wearing a skirt/kilt
0oman wearing a dress
1hildren naked

Egyptian clothing was ery thin to keep them cool and coered most of their
1hildren mostly went around naked when they where si3 years old they began to
wear clothes to protect them from the intense dry heat.
0omen wore straight dresses with either one or two shoulder straps.
Men that worked wore a loincloth or short kilt and sometimes a type of shirt.
The Egyptian climate with its hot summers and mild winters faored light clothing
made from plant fibers) predominantly linen and in *oman times occasionally
cotton) an import from "ndia. 0ool was used to a lesser e3tent) and seldom by
Egyptians proper.
,mall amounts of silk were traded to the eastern Mediterranean possibly as early
as the second half of the second millennium .1E and traces of silk hae been
found in Egyptian tombs.
'nimal skins) aboe all leopard skins) were sometimes worn by priests and by
pharaohs in their role as first serants of the god. ,uch outfits were found in
Tutankhamen#s tomb and were depicted quite frequently on the walls of tombs. 't
times kings and queens wore decoratie ceremonial clothing adorned
with feathers.
%eath and funerals
The Egyptians saw death as a transitional stage in the progress to a better
life in the ne3t world. They belieed they could only reach their full potential
after death. Each person was thought to hae three souls) the 4ka)4 the
4ba)4 and the 4akh.4 5or these to function properly) it was considered
essential for the body to surie intact. The entire ciilization of 'ncient
Egypt was based on religion) and their beliefs were important to them.
Their belief in the rebirth after death became their driing force behind their
funeral practices.
They are placed in their sarcophagus with things that are important in the
afterlife like 5urniture) cared statues) games) food) and other useful items.
.ecause there religion stressed an afterlife) Egyptians deoted much time
and wealth to preparing for surial in the ne3t world.
The Egyptians had many tales about how the world began. 'ccording to
one legend) it started with an ocean in darkness. Then a mound of dry land
rose up and the sun god *e appeared. (e created light and all things.
'nother ersion has the sun !od emerging from a sacred blue lotus that
grew out of the mud) while a third ersion has him appearing as a scarab
beetle on the eastern horizon.
"msety the
god looks after
The lier.
(apy the
god looks
after the lungs
The earliest ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the
desert. The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies
quickly) creating lifelike and natural #mummies#. 6ater) the ancient
Egyptians began burying their dead in coffins to protect them from
wild animals in the desert. (oweer) they realized that bodies
placed in coffins decayed when they were not e3posed to the hot)
dry sand of the desert.
Oer many centuries) the ancient Egyptians deeloped a method of
presering bodies so they would remain lifelike. The process
included embalming the bodies and wrapping them in strips of linen.
Today we call this process mummification.
Mummification process&
5irst) his body is taken to the tent known as #ibu# or the #place of
purification#. There the embalmers wash his body with good-smelling
palm wine and rinse it with water from the 7ile.
They make a cut in the left side of the body and remoe many of the
internal organs) it is important to remoe these because they are the
first part to decompose. The lier) lungs) stomach and intestines are
washed and packed in natron which will dry them out. The heart is
not taken out of the body because it is the centre of intelligence and
feeling and the man will need it in the afterlife. ' long hook is then
used to smash the brain and pull it out through the nose. The body is
then coered and stuffed with natron which will dry it out. 'll of the
fluids and rags from the embalming process will be saed and buried
along with the body.
'fter forty days the body is washed again with water from the 7ile.
Then it is coered with oils to help the skin stay elastic.
The dehydrated internal organs are wrapped in linen and returned
to the body. The body is stuffed with dry materials such as sawdust)
leaes and linen so that it looks lifelike. 5inally the body is coered
again with good-smelling oils. "t is now ready to be wrapped in linen.
Oer many years the embalming practices changed and embalmers
began returning internal organs to bodies after the organs had been
dried in natron. (oweer) solid wood or stone canopic +ars were still
buried with the mummy to symbolically protect the internal organs.
%uamutef the
god looks after
the stomach
The falcon-
headed god looks
The intestines.
%aily life in ancient Egypt reoled around the 7ile and the fertile land along its banks. The
yearly flooding of the 7ile enriched the soil and brought good harests and wealth to the
The people of ancient Egypt built mud brick homes in illages and in the country. They grew
some of their own food and traded in the illages for the food and goods they could not
Most ancient Egyptians worked as field hands) farmers) craftsmen and scribes. ' small
group of people were nobles. Together) these different groups of people made up the
population of ancient Egypt.
' 7obleman2s day.
One bright morning in ancient Egypt) a nobleman woke up in a bed coered in
fine linen sheets. One bright morning in ancient Egypt) a nobleman woke up in a bed
coered in fine linen sheets. (e saw the cabinet where his clothes were kept) his
wife#s cosmetic bo3) and a lamp for lighting the room in the eening. (is thoughts were
disturbed by the serant who entered the room. The serant helped him to wash and
shae. Then) the nobleman dressed in a kilt made of fine linen and sandals made of
leather. Meanwhile) the nobleman#s wife got up. ,he washed and dressed with the help
of another serant. The nobleman#s wife wore a dress made of fine linen and +ewellery
made of glass. ,he applied some kohl to her eyelids and went downstairs. The
nobleman and his wife had a small meal of bread and fruit. They sat on cushions and
ate from a low table. Then) the nobleman left the house for an appointment with the
oerseer of his lands. The nobleman#s wife superised the preparations for the
banquet they were hosting that eening. (er children were dressed and fed) then
brought to her by a serant. The oerseer of the nobleman#s fields told the nobleman
what the harest would be like for the year. (e also told the nobleman how many cattle
and geese had been counted in the fields the day before. The nobleman was pleased.
They shared a meal of bread) meat and beer. "n the early afternoon the nobleman#s
wife went out into the garden to escape the heat of the day. ,he en+oyed the shade of
the trees while she watched her children play with their toys. 6ater in the afternoon the
nobleman#s wife began preparing for the eening banquet. (er serant brushed and
curled her faorite wig. ,he took out her most beautiful clothing and her +ewellery made
of gold and semi-precious stones. The nobleman returned to the house and got ready
for the banquet. Then he and his wife began greeting their guests as they arried. Their
guests were offered cones of perfumed wa3 and lotus flowers by serant girls. They ate
the finest meats) breads) cakes) wine) figs and dates. They were entertained by
musicians and dancing girls. 't the end of the eening) they said goodnight to their
guests and went to bed.
The kings of Egypt were not called pharaohs by the ancient Egyptians. This
word was used by the !reek2s and (ebrews) and today is commonly used for
the ancient kings of Egypt. 0e really do not know how many kings ruled in
Egypt) for at times in its ancient past the country was split up) and there where at
least seeral kings at the same time. There were also probably kings who ruled
regions of Egypt before recorded history) and in fact) seeral ancient historians
record legendary pharaohs who became Egyptian gods. $haraohs were the king
or 8ueen of Egypt. Most pharaohs were men but some well-known pharaohs)
such as 7efertiti and 1leopatra) were women. ' $haraoh was the most important
and powerful person in the kingdom. (e was the head of the goernment and
high priest of eery temple. The people of Egypt considered the pharaoh to be a
half-man) half-god. The $haraoh owned all of Egypt. Many pharaohs went to war
when their land was threatened or when they wanted to control foreign lands. "f
the pharaoh won the battle) the conquered people had to recognize the Egyptian
pharaoh as their ruler and offer him the finest and most aluable goods from
their land.
The most famous Egyptian pharaoh today is) without doubt)
Tutankhamen. (oweer) before the spectacular discoery of
his almost intact tomb in the 9alley of the Kings in
7oember :;<<) Tutankhamen was only a little known figure
of the late :=th %ynasty. (e became pharaoh at the tender
age of nine in :>>? .1 and reigned during the :=th %ynasty
when the Egyptian Empire was at its height. (e reigned
from about :>>? to :><= .1. (is tomb was discoered by a
team of .ritish archaeologists in :;<<) nearly >@@@ years
after his death.

9alley of the Kings
.orn& :>A: .1) 'ncient Egypt
%ied& :><> .1) 'ncient Egypt
5ull name& Tutankhaten
,pouse& 'nkhesenamun Bm. :>>> .1-:><> .1C
$arents& The Dounger 6ady) 'khenaten
,iblings& 'nkhesenamun