motion of the N individual spacecraft can be concate- in FA. Note that when a different reference frame
nated t o form the motion equations of the entire for- FB is chosen, the same underlying geometric object
mation. Moreover, it is shown that the equations of will admit a different column matrix representation
motion at the formation-level have the same structure QB = [Q:,Qh,&SlT E !X3'l.
as the equations of motion of a single rigid spacecraft.
The final form of the absolute equations of motion pro- Physically, a reference frame can be identified with an
vide the first step toward a complete description of the observer who is rigidly mounted along the three mutu-
dynamics of formations and can be tailored to applica- ally orthogonal axes of FA. In this paper, all observers
tions in various dynamic environments. are assumed to measure the same absolute time irre-
spective of their state of motion.
physical quantity (e.g. velocity, force, angular momen- @ Qla'l+ Q&2 + Q&, + Q&&.
and Q= Q',& +Q$2
tum, etc.) of interest. Here we are making the impor- A, B,
tant distinction between geometric or Gibbsian vectors The term Q (resp. Q ) can be interpreted physically as
and column matGces or 3-tuples of real numbers. A ge- the rate of change of 0
as seen by an observer rigidly
ometric vector Q is a quantity possessing magnitude, mounted to the axes of FA (resp. F B ) . As a conse-
direction, and obeying the parallelogram law of addi- quence, if
B
s
is a vector fixed in FA (resp. F B ) then
tion in three dimensional Euclidean point space, de-
noted E3. A geometric vector should be thought of as
A,
Q= 0' (resp. s=
8).
an arrow or directed line segment in E3. In particular,
In the sequel we will also consider tensors of second
a vector 0 is a geometric object that exists indepen-
rank, called dyadics. In complete analogy with a vec-
dently of any particular basis chosen for E3 while a t)
.i.
column matrix of numbers Q = [QI,Q 2 , Q3] E !R3'l tor, a dyadic T is a geometric object that is indepen-
is the representation of a geometric vector in a partic- dent of any observer. For our purposes, we regard a
+-+
ular basis. It follows that a column matrix Q depends dyadic as a linear operator T:E3 H E3;i.e., a dyadic
on both the underlying vector and the particular frame is a linear mapping on the space of geometric vec-
of reference. tors. However, once a reference frame FA has been
introduced, a dyadic can be represented uniquely as
In rigid body kinematics we limit our attention t o a ?= ETA~ A the elements of the 3 x 3 matrix
where
special class of basis vectors for E3 called reference TA are called the components (or matrix representa-
frames. A reference frame consists of a right-handed *
tion) of T relative t o FA. In short, TA is the 3 x 3
set of three mutually orthonormal vectors located a t t)
an arbitrary point (called the origin of the frame) in matrix whose entries Tij are the representation of T
E 3 . The basis vectors associated with a reference frame in FA,Note that when a different reference frame *
3 B
can be easily accounted by defining a vectrix as fol- is chosen, the same underlying geometric object T will
admit a different matrix representation, given by a dif-
Although this notational device apparently goes back to the ferent 3 x 3 matrix TB E !R3x3with entries Tlj.
1960's, the phrase vectrix (i.e., part vector, part matrix) was
popularized by Hughes in [4].Specifically, a vectrix is a matrix whose elements are geometric vectors.
a single rigid body3:
Table 1: Four Forms of the Dynamic Equations
I Form 11 Reference Point I Vector Derivatives I 5
Inertial
h, = 7', (3)
5 f
Pc = (4)
where fiC is the absolute linear momentum of the body,
zc is the absolute angular momentum about the mass
center of the system, f i s the resultant external force
acting on the body, ?,, is the resultant torque about
The following generalization of the Transport Theorem N
for dyadics will also be used in the sequel: the system center-of-mass, and ( 0 ) denotes the rate-of-
change relative to an inertial frame (i.e., an inertially
A B k e d observer). Equation (3) is called the balance of
angular momentum and (4) is called the balance of lin-
ear momentum. We now define the spatial momentum
A and spatial force vectors4 as follows:
* *A
Here T denotes an arbitrary second rank tensor, T=
TijiiiZj,
B
-A
T= Tlj&6j and the notation (resp. bibj)
&S;j
-.-. (5)
P. 3
..
Substituting the expression for the spatial momentum G, (;c + p]E)+El vc= Pc (19)
(8) into the momentum balance (7) and performing the
inertial derivative we find Rearranging we find
where
N
t i
B
p]&[
t+
O
[GI
] [ 0 m l '+I [ ] [
V C
+ Im
'[ [w']
' c v',
' ]
u
= [ 71 (23)
t + *
Noting that Mc=O for a rigid body of constant mass, Third Form of the Equations of Motion
we find that the equations of motion are In this section we derive the equations of motion of a
single rigid body about an arbitrary point fixed on the
body in terms of inertial rates-of-change.
gc = T
t-+
v, (26)
TT Pc
4
F, = (27)
where
Equation (17) (resp. (14)) will be called the fundamen- 1
tal form of the equations of motion for a single rigid (28)
body.
and = -[FC/,]. +Note that have used the fact
Second Form of the Equations of Motion that 3, = 3, = L3 and f, = f7, = f i n (26)-(27).
In this section we develop the equations of motion
about the center-of-mass in terms of body rates-of- The absolute derivative of (26) is given by
change.
Y! N N
Applying the transport formula (1) to the vectors L3
N B N B
Vc=T vo+
* 4
?v7, (29)
and v', we find 3=3 and Gc=v', +[L3]GC. Note that in Substituting (29) and (26) into (11) and pre-
t+T
terms of spatial velocities the above equations can be multiplying by T we find
-2 u
M,V, + Cs Vo= Z', (30)
P. 4
N
u T - u * UT*++ uT Fourth Form of the Equations of Motion
where M,=T
UT
+-+
M c T , C3=T M,T + u tt
T CIT, and
U
In this section we derive two useful representations of
r', =T 2c. Expanding out the expression for M , the equations of motion of a rigid body about an ar-
we find bitrary point fixed to the body in terms of body-fixed
rates of change.
(39)
We immediately find It follows that
The following fact will be used to simplify (34): Applying Proposition 1 to the term m[FCc/,][GI [W] ?,,I:
in (40), we find that the equations of motion about an
arbitrary point on a rigid body in terms of body-fixed
Proposition 1 If a' and
[Z][b7[qZ
= -[b][Z][a']G.
- b' are arbitrary vectors then rates-of-change are
result follows.
Applying Proposition 1 to (34L Note that (41) can be also be derived by applying the
We find m[Fc/,][GI [GI ?,/ = -m [GI [F,~,,][Fc~,]G. As transport formula directly to (36).
a result,
Second Representation: An alternate repre-
sentation of (41) results from applying the Jacobi iden-
tity a' x (6x + +
b' x (Z x a') c' x (a' x b') = 0' to the
term m[F,/,] [GIG,:
U H
Note that J,=Jc -m [FC/,] [F,..,] by the parallel axis m[Fc/o][G]Go = -[3][50]Fc/0- [50][Fc/o]3 (42)
theorem. = [w'l[Fc/o]Go
- [50][Fc/o]w' (43)
Collecting together (31) and (35), the equations of mo- We immediately find
tion of a rigid body about an arbitrary point fixed on
the body in terms of inertial rates of change is
P* 5
* * u * c ) H
Adding the zero vector in the form of m[i70]i70to (44) where Ml=M2=Mc and M3=M4=Mo. Although the
yields * tt * tt
-2 Ci is skew-symmetric.
The Spatial Coriolis Dyadic
N
In the last section we developed the following four al- Proof: Recalling Gi= [d] Gi - Gi p] it fol-
ternate forms of the equations of motion of a single N N
* *T
rigid body: lows immediately that Mi= - M i. Observing that
the difference of two skew-symmetric tensors is skew-
svmmetric establishes the result.
'It is important to note that if s = q , then qT(k - 2C)q = 0
irrespective of the skew-symmetry of A4 - 2C. This statement is
a property of finite-dimensional natural systems; see [9] for addi-
tional details and references. As a result, it is only in situations
where (M - 2C) is pre- and post-multiplied by a column vector
different from q (the typical case in control design) that C should
be carefully defined.
We now discuss some specific choices of the spatial
N
u u
Coriolis dyadic that render M i -2 Ci skew-symmetric. To simplify (57) the following result is required:
Beginning with the fundamental form of the equations
of motion (14) we find from expanding (16) that
Proposition 3 If Z, 6 and c' are arbitrary vectors then
[Z][[b7c'= -[6x dc'+ [Zx 216
(57)
1
- - -p = ~.
7Strictlv
MV+CV=T (64)
p ; because the equations of motion of each bodv
can be expressed with respect to different reference points.
P. 7
._
is also skew-symmetric.
[I] T.E. Carter, “State transition matrices for termi-
nal rendezvous studies: brief survey and new example,”
Proof: The proof follows from applying Proposition J. Guidance, Control, and Dynamics. Vol. 21, No. 1,
u et