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INSTITUTE FOR SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

AND INFORMATICS
Support activities for the Directorate-General for Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection
on the implementation of trie Council Directive
on the major accident hazards of certain industrial activities
COMMUNITY DOCUMENTATION CENTRE
ON INDUSTRIAI RISK
Comparison of selected LPG related codes and standards
EUR 14636 EN
JOINT
RESEARCH
CENTRE
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
1992
INSTITUTE FOR SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
AND INFORMATICS
Support activities for the Directorate-General for Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection
on the implementation of the Council Directive
on the major accident hazards of certain industrial activities
COMMUNITY DOCUMENTATION CENTRE
ON INDUSTRIAL RISK
Comparison of selected LPG related codes and standards
S. Ha r r i s , P. Ke m p , D. Ta i t , H. W. Ce r da
Four Elements Industrial Safety Consultants
Greencoat House, Francis Street
L ondon SW1 P 1 DH - United Kingdom
Contract No.: 4019-90-06 ED ISP GB
CDCIR reference No.: 935-EAb-50-lll. 1.7 PARL EUROP. B ib lioth.
N . C . t f V^/ / ^
EUR 14636 EN
JOINT
RESEARCH
CENTRE
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
CI.
1992
Pub lished b y the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Directorate-General
Information Technologies and Industries, and Telecommunications
L-2920 Luxemb ourg
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person
acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might
be made of the following information.
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
L uxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1992
ISBN 92-8264737-4
ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels L uxembourg, 1992
Printed in Italy
Preface
With this publication the Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risk (CDCIR) is setting
forth the production of comparative review publications. In an earlier report (EUR 13699 EN) LPG
related regulations in the Community Member Countries and the U.S.A. have been compared. The
comparison is herewith extended to LPG related codes and standards.
This study has been performed by FOUR ELEMENTS in 1991. The first report reviewed the coverage
of LPG specific regulations and codes of practice, while the current study compares in greater depth
certain key aspects of LPG plant design (pressure vessels, piping, pressure relief valves, hazardous
area classification and water spray systems). It examines in more detail the LPG regulations and codes
themselves as well as the more general codes and standards applicable also to LPG installations.
Existing European codes and standards are compared to each other and to U.S. ones. The results of
this comparison indicate that:
Judgment on the overall level of installation safety or adequacy of design is hardly possible by com-
paring individual aspects of standards. The overall design philosophy imposed by the applicable
codes, standards and regulations both general and LPG specific as well as the safety managemant
systems have to be simultaneously considered for such a judgement. However, any significant dif-
ferences in the engineering basis of the standards, or the results achieved, or lack of guidance in cer-
tain areas of prescriptive codes need to be identified so that implications for plant safety may be
assessed.
There are fully developed sets of codes covering the design of pressure vessels and piping and haz-
ardous area classification. On the contrary specification and design of pressure relief systems and
water spray/deluge systems are not adequately covered in all details by existing codes and standards.
European standards for pressure vessel design give almost identical results and are less conservative
than the respective ANSI codes. This, however, does not necessarily imply that application of Euro-
pean standards will result in a lower level of safety. Safety is an integral part of the whole life of any
installation (from early conceptual design to plant decommissioning). Consequently enhanced safety
can be only achieved by the application of proper design, inspection, testing, operation and mainte-
nance standards and procedures.
Large discrepancies have been identified in comparing standards for specifying pressure relief
requirements, though almost all codes and standards are using the empirical formulas developed by
the API. This reflects the lack of comprehensive description of all phenomena involved during
emergency pressure relief and underlines the need for further research and development work in
continuation to the more recent developments (e.g. DIERS) in this area.
In view of the wish within the Community to an enhanced harmonization, CEN has already initiated
among others the CEN/TC 286 programme aiming to the unified European standardization of all pres-
sure equipment and transport pressure equipment for LPG, including associated accessories. This
comparative study clearly identifies priorities for action and is hoped that it will be a useful tool for
authorities, industry and all other bodies and persons working for the safety in handling hazardous
substances.
G. Drogaris
Executive Summary
1. Following the earlier, broader study "Comparison of LPG-Related Regulations in the
European Community Countries and the USA," this work compares and contrasts in
detail the codes and standards for certain countries relating to the following aspects
of design for installations where LPG is stored and handled under pressure:-
Pressure Vessels
Pressure Piping
Pressure Relief Valves
Hazardous Area Classification
Water Spray Systems
2. There is no definitive best solution to design problems relating to LPG installations.
For purposes of design, reference should be made to a range of standards, including
internal company standards (which have not been addressed in this study), which are
likely to include particular company experience.
3. Pressure Vessels
All the codes examined have detailed provisions for materials selection, construction,
wall thicknesses, welding and testing.
Vessels whose design is restricted to Division 1 of the ASME Code Section VIII (as
is the case for US LPG vessels) will have a significantly greater thickness than vessels
designed to the French, British or German codes. The latter have the design
controlled by the yield properties of the material of construction, whereas in the US
code the nominal design stress is one quarter of the specified minimum ultimate
tensile strength.
On the basis of the above it may appear that the ASME Division I design is more
conservative, but it is also the case that, within limits, the thinner the vessel, the better
the quality of the material, the welds, and the non-destructive examination. However,
design to the European codes (or to Division II of the ASME code) needs to be
complemented by stringent inspection and testing. The French CODAP code
explicitly categorises the requirements for design, materials, welding, testing and
inspection based on the risk (likelihood and consequence) of failure.
4. Pressure Piping
The UK and USA have specific guidance on piping and associated fittings for LPG
service. The French and German design relies on interpretation of general pressure
piping codes.
US/UK bolted pipe joint flanges designed to ANSI standards are around 20% thicker
than comparable DIN 2635 flanges.
5. Pressure Relief Valves
There are large discrepancies between French, Italian, UK and USA standards in terms
of effective relief areas derived. The French standard is the most conservative, and
the Italian the least. The Dutch is more conservative than the French if the relief area
is derived using the US API RP 520 formula; the Dutch code though contains no
provisions on this derivation.
6. Hazardous Area Classification
The UK, US and French LPG-specific codes specify distances for the zones for
electrical equipment selection around specific items of equipment. These distances
are broadly the same in the UK and US LPG codes. The French LPG code is
similarly prescriptive, but lacks recommendations in some areas. The UK and US
general industry codes and the German codes give distances for hazardous areas
around certain types of release point, and general guidance on the effects of ventilation
and the assignation of the hazardous area to the different zones. Apart from the near
identity of the US and UK LPG codes, there is little consistency in the comparison for
specific plant items.
A comparison was made of the four countries for the two cases (100 m
3
and 1000 m
3
)
of a vessel with a single pressure relief valve, using the general codes for the US and
UK rather than the LPG specific ones. The US and French codes gave similar
distances, with the US code more conservative for larger vessels/releases, with the
German the next, and the British the least conservative. Only the French code stated
explicitly how the space was to be divided between zone 1 and 2.
7. Water Spray Systems
The US standards give detailed engineering requirements, with cross referencing
among various NFPA standards. The Dutch LPG code CPR 8-3, whilst giving
reasonably comprehensive engineering requirements, retains an integrated view of the
waterspray system as an overall part of the plant safety system. The German
Niedersachsen document, though prescriptive, is not very detailed. In Germany the
preferred method of vessel protection is by burial or earth covering.
Table of Contents
Introduction 9
1.1 Scope and Objectives 9
1.2 Pressure Vessels 9
1.3 Pressure Piping 10
1.4 Pressure Relief Valves 10
1.5 Hazardous Area Classification 10
1.6 Water Spray Systems 11
Pressure Vessels 13
2.1 Engineering Standards 13
2.2 Materials of Construction 19
2.3 Mechanical Properties 21
2.4 Elements of Construction 24
2.5 Welding 25
2.6 Wall Thickness 28
2.7 Testing 34
2.8 Typical LPG Vessel with Connections 37
, Pressure Piping 39
3.1 Engineering Standards 39
3.2 Design Philosophy 44
3.3 Service Category 46
3.4 Design Conditions 47
3.5 Dimensions 48
3.6 Materials Selection 49
3.7 Piping Class 51
3.8 Joints and Flanges 52
3.9 Branches and Connections 54
3.10 Valves and Fittings 55
3.11 Expansion Arrangements 57
3.12 Flexible Piping 58
3.13 Insulation and External Protection 59
3.14 Routeing/Layout 60
3.15 Supports 62
3.16 Installation 63
3.17 Inspection and Testing 64
. Pressure Relief Valves 65
4.1 Engineering Standards 65
4.2 Terminology and Definitions 66
4.3 Design Philosophy 67
4.4 Design Pressure 68
4.5 Set Pressure 68
4.6 Maximum Relief Pressure 69
4.7 Heat Transfer Area 69
4.8 Environment Factor 69
4.9 Heat Input Range 69
4.10 Relief Capacity 70
4.11 DIERS 71
5. Hazardous Area Classification 73
5.1 Engineering Standards 73
5.2 Terminology and Definitions 74
5.3 Area Classification Philosophy 76
5.4 Pressure Vessels 82
5.5 Relief Valve Discharge Points 83
5.6 Loading/Unloading Areas 83
5.7 Pumps and Compressors 84
5.8 Piping 85
5.9 Pits and Trenches 85
6. Water Spray Systems 87
6.1 Engineering Standards 87
6.2 Spray Heads 87
6.3 Pipework and Distribution Systems 89
6.4 Water Reserves 93
6.5 Detection and Actuation Systems 96
7. Summary 99
7.1 Pressure Vessies 99
7.2 Pressure Piping 100
7.3 Pressure Relief Valves 102
7.4 Hazardous Area Classification 103
7.5 Water Spray Systems 106
References 109
Appendices 113
A - BS 5500 Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels 115
B - ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 121
C-CODAP 123
D-DRUCKBEHV 127
E - References Relating to Pressure Piping Systems Design 135
F - Equivalent Steel Grades for Piping 145
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Scope and Objectives
This study follows an earlier, broader study "Comparison of LPG-Related Regulations
in the European Community Countries and the USA", which concentrated on LPG-
specific codes. The present study reviews some aspects of these codes in more depth,
and examines general engineering codes and standards for equipment (e.g. pressure
vessels, piping) which is used in LPG plants. The objectives are to compare and
contrast in some detail the requirements of the engineering standards of particular
countries with regard to the following specific areas of design for fixed industrial or
commercial scale installations where LPG is stored and handled under pressure:-
Pressure Vessels
Pressure Piping
Pressure Relief Valves
Hazardous Area Classification
Water Spray Systems
Significant differences or omissions in the level and in the detail of definition of
specific engineering features are to be identified. Any important differences in
approach, philosophy or results are to be highlighted.
For purposes of assessment, a 1000 m
3
sphere and a 100 m
3
cylinder have been
considered. Where appropriate, design comparisons have been carried out for these
two reference cases according to each of the national standards under consideration.
1.2 Pressure Vessels
The objective of this part of the study is to compare and contrast British, American,
French and German standards relating to the design of pressure vessels for above
ground LPG storage. Specific aspects of underground, mounded, semi-buried or
below ambient temperature storage are excluded.
It is to be noted that the standards which have been compared are not LPG specific
and may relate to boilers, heat exchangers or other pressurised equipment as well as
pressurised storage vessels.
This part of the study presents an introductory guide to the scope, contents and
applicability of the codes, focusing as far as possible on safety issues within the LPG
industry, without pretending to develop a document that may used in PV design. Wall
thicknesses for three typical vessels are calculated according to the four pressure
vessel codes.
1.3 Pressure Piping
The objective of this part of the study is to compare and contrast British, American,
French and German standards relating to the design of piping systems for LPG
installations. The design of piping systems associated with pressurised LPG storage
installations is a specialised sub-category of the design of piping systems in general.
The following aspects of piping system design have been covered:
Service Category
Design Conditions and Limitations
Dimensions
Materials Selection
Piping Class
Joints and Ranges
Branches and Connections
Valves and Fittings
Expansion Arrangements (to prevent over-stressing)
Insulation and External Protection
Routeing/Layout
Supports
Installation
Inspection and Testing
1.4 Pressure Relief Valves
The objective of this part of the study is to compare and contrast the requirements of
French, German, Italian, Dutch, British and American engineering standards relating
to the capacity and sizing of pressure relief valves for pressurised LPG storage.
Above ground installation without external insulation/fire protection has been assumed
and no credit has been taken for drainage or firefighting/water deluge in the mitigation
of the effects of a pool fire under the vessel. It has been assumed, as is usually the
case, that the fire relief duty will exceed the operational relief duty and will be the
worst case for purposes of relief valve sizing. A pool fire is assumed to occur
underneath the storage vessel, engulfing it fully or partially in flame. The heat input
will cause an increased evaporation rate for the stored liquid and the gas evolved will
be released via the pressure relief valve (or valves) provided.
The characteristics of different types of pressure relief valves and the use of bursting
discs instead of or in addition to pressure relief valves have not been considered.
Details of multiple relief valve configurations and interlocking requirements have
likewise not been considered.
1.5 Hazardous Area Classification
The objective of this part of the study is to compare and contrast British, American,
German and French standards relating to classification and dimensions of hazardous
areas, with special reference to installations where LPG is stored and handled under
10
pressure. Attention has been directed to the following areas where releases of LPG
may occur: -
Pressure vessels (PV)
Relief valve discharge points
Loading/unloading areas
Pumps and compressors
Piping
Other specific items
LPG released as a liquid is highly volatile and has a low boiling temperature, so that
large volumes of gas are readily created, of density up to twice that of air. This gas
should be treated very conservatively when considering the extent of the hazardous
area produced, especially when released near ground level when it is likely to travel
long distances if air movement does not assist diffusion.
Hazardous area classification for other than open locations has not been covered.
Construction requirements for electrical equipment to be installed or used inside
hazardous areas have also not been covered.
1.6 Water Spray Systems
The objective of this part of the study is to compare and contrast American, Dutch and
German standards for the design of waterspray systems with special reference to LPG
installations. The following aspects of design have been covered:
Spray heads
Pipework and distribution systems
Water reserves
Automatic detection and activation system
Water supply rates for vessel cooling, and the place of water spray in the overall
philosophy of fire protection for LPG plants were covered in the earlier study and
have not been repeated here.
Terminology: American usage refers to "deluge" as the provision of a continuous
stream of water which is applied to the top of the object and allowed to run down;
and "water spray" as the provision of water by spray heads directly to all parts of the
object surface. The US code API 2510 discusses the relative merits of the methods
of water application for cooling for different cases and there is no definite requirement
that the necessary volume of cooling water be applied by spray exclusively. The
Netherlands and German codes refer exclusively, however, to water spray. It is water
spray that has been addressed in this study.
11
2.0 PRESSURE VESSELS
2.1 Engineering Standards
The following have been identified as the principal standards relating to pressure
vessels (PVs) for LPG storage. Appendices A, B, C and D give contents listings
together with information on further standards referenced where appropriate:
i
British Standard BS 5500, 1990
Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VUL 1989.
COD AP (Code Franais de Construction des Appareils Pression non Soumis
l'Action de la Flamme), 1990.
DrMdfce/iV7(Pressure Vessel Order). Verordnung ber Druckbehlter und
Fllanlagen (Order on Pressure Vessels, Gas Pressure Vessels and Filling
Plants), 1980, amended 1989.
2.1.1 United Kingdom (BS 5500)
General Aspects, Code Structure and Documentation
See also Appendix A.
Issuing organization:
BS 5500 is issued by the British Standards Institution under the direction of the
Pressure Vessel Standards Policy Committee. It was first issued in 1976.
Contents:
Contents are given in Appendix A. There is a detailed table of contents at the start
of the Code. It lacks a detailed cross reference index at the end of the standard. It has
a detailed list of enquiry cases. The Code is updated periodically with pages issued
to add to the binder.
Documentation:
Form 1.5 Purchaser Options and Features Requiring Approval by the Purchaser
The British pressure vessel standard puts a great deal of emphasis on individual
responsibility on the part of the purchaser, the manufacturer and the inspecting
authority. The purchaser must specify clearly and in detail the type of vessel that is
to be manufactured. The manufacturer should discuss, comprehend and agree the
13
purchaser requirements. Inspector involvement is encouraged from early stages
without being a definite requirement.
This approach is reflected in Form 1.5. This form is designed as a 5 page checklist
of questions, directed to ensure that all the design parameters and specifications for
the vessel are understood by both the purchaser and the manufacturer before starting
fabrication. The PV category of construction is also agreed at this stage.
Before commencing manufacture, the manufacturer will submit for approval by the
purchaser a fully dimensioned drawing and detailed information on materials, other
standards and specifications to comply with, welding, tests, heat treatment and
manufacture procedures, design and tests pressures and temperature.
Once the design is agreed, no modifications can take place without prior agreement
of the purchaser and manufacturer.
Form X Certificate of Compliance
This is a detailed 2 page form, issued by the manufacturer on completion, certifying
that the PV has been designed, constructed and tested in accordance with the agreed
requirements. It should be signed by the Inspection Authority.
Remarks:
The requirements of BS 5500 vary considerably depending on the thickness and type
of material to be used. When this combination is such as will permit satisfactory
fabrication by a relatively straightforward process, spot Non Destructive Testing
(NDT) is permitted without any penalty in design thickness; in certain cases visual
inspection only is permitted with an appropriate penalty on design thickness.
The Standard is satisfied when inspection is carried out by competent personnel of a
separate engineering inspection department maintained by the purchaser of the PV.
The Standard identifies three categories of PV depending mainly on type of NDT tests
to be carried out:
Table 2.1.1 BS 5500 Construction Categories
CATEGORY
1
2
3
MATERIAL
All
Austenitic Steel
C & C-Mn steel
NDT
100%
Random
Visual only
14
2.1.2 United States of America (ASME code)
General Aspects, Code Structure and Documentation
See also Appendix B.
Issuing organization:
The ASME Code is issued by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and is
accepted as a national standard by the American National Standards Institute. The
present Code has been issued by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee,
Subcommittee on Pressure Vessels. There will be a new edition in July 1992. In the
meantime there are yearly updates of coloured pages.
Contents:
Contents are given in Appendix B. The subsection designation has an embedded
meaning (i.e Subsection B Part UW refers to construction U of Pressure Vessels
fabricated by Welding). At the end there is a comprehensive cross reference index.
It has a detailed list of enquiry cases and interpretations.
Documentation:
There are several types of ASME reports and instructions. Relevant examples include:
Form U-l Manufacturer Data Report for U Vessels
Form U-l or Form Ul-A, constituting the Manufacturer's Data Report, is to be issued
on completion of PV manufacture and shall be signed by the Manufacturer and
Inspector for any Code U symbol vessel. A copy of the Manufacturer's Data Report
should be supplied to the purchaser, and upon request to the inspector. A copy should
either be kept for 5 years by the manufacturer or registered with the National Board
of PV Inspectors.
Form U-2 Partial Data Report for Parts
Form U-2 or form U2-A are to be supplied by parts manufacturers and are also signed
by the Inspectors in accordance with the requirements of the standard and are issued
to the manufacturer.
Form U-3 Manufacturer Certificate of Compliance for UM Vessels
Form U-3 is to be completed and signed by the manufacturer for each vessel with the
UM symbol. A copy should be kept for 5 years by the manufacturer and a copy made
available on request.
15
Remarks:
The overall ASME Boiler and PV Code covers fired as well as unfired vessels.
Section Vm "Pressure Vessels" has two divisions. Division I is applied up to a
pressure of 3000 psig, above which additional design considerations are recommended.
Division n is an alternative which allows thinner walls at the expense of additional
analysis, material inspection and testing. American LPG codes (NFPA 58 and NFPA
59) limit design to Division I. Subsequent references in this report to the ASME code
mean Section VIII Division I unless otherwise specified.
This Code does not approve, recommend or endorse any proprietary design nor allow
in any way a manufacturer's freedom to choose any method of design or construction
which does not conform to the Code rules.
The ASME vessels have a system of PV "markings" stamped directly on the vessel.
These markings include manufacturers name and serial number, maximum and
minimum design temperature and pressure (in US customary units and metric if
required) and year of construction.
2.1.3 France (CODAP)
General aspects, code structure and documentation
See also Appendix C
Issuing organization:
CODAP is issued by the SNCT - Syndicat National de la Chaudronnerie, de la Tlerie
et de la Tuyauterie Industrielle (French National Association for Boiler Making and
the Industrial Pipe and Tube Trade) and the AFIAP French Institution of Pressure
Vessel Engineers, Issue 1, March 1991. During the execution of this work extensive
use was made of the BSI English translation of the 1985 edition with all its updates
to September 1989, as well as the 1990 French edition.
Contents:
Contents are given in Appendix C. This code contains 6 main sections: G: General
rules, M: Materials, C: Calculation Rules, F: Fabrication Rules, I: Inspection and
Testing and S: Pressure Relief Protective Devices. Each of these sections has its own
Annexes. It lacks a detailed cross reference index at the end. It does not include a
list of enquiry cases. The code is updated yearly with pages issued to add to the
binder.
Documentation:
Table 1.18.1 - Dossiers tablir (Files to be established)
Subsection 1.18 of CODAP gives details on how the manufacturer should establish a
16
complete file on the PV. The files are to be in French with a translation if required
by the purchaser, the French version is the authoritative one. The files cover three
aspects: F for manufacture, CR documents to be issued to the purchaser and M for the
Regulatory or Inspection Authority.
Remarks:
CODAP defines four categories of PV's: A, B, C and D. These categories are based
on a risk concept with A being the vessel with the highest potential risk of failure and
therefore requiring the most strict design standards, the others have decreasing
potential risk, D being the least exposed vessel. The risk is derived from its expected
operating conditions, volume and shape, fluid, expected life, operation and
maintenance regimes.
The concept of risk appears several times in this Code, as it aims to design out
catastrophic events such as BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosions),
and prevent risk of material failure by corrosion or by brittle fracture.
Table 2.1.2 CODAP Construction Category
Potential risk of failure
Consequence
of any failure
Considerable
Average
Slight
High
A
B
C
Average
B
C
D
Low
C
D
D
2.1.4 Germany (DruckbehV and ensuing technical rules and data sheets) /&
General Aspects, Code Structure and Documentation
See also Appendix D.
Issuing organization:
DruckbehV is issued by the Bundesminister fur Arbeit und Sozialordnung (BMA)
(Federal Ministry of Labour), and is published in the Federal Labour Gazette. The
Technische Regeln Druckbehlter TRB (Technical Regulations for Pressure Vessels)
and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Druckbehlter-Merkbltter or AD-Merkbltter (Pressure
Vessels Users Association Data Sheets) are compiled and published by the
Vereinigung der Technischen berwachungs-Vereine e.V. VdTV (Association of
Technical Inspectorates). Extensive use is also made of DIN Standards issued by the
Deutsches Institut fr Normung (German Standards Institute).
17
List of Contents:
Contents are given in Appendix B. The DruckbehV covers not only pressure vessels,
but also other types of pressurised plant and equipment, including piping.
In the context of this study only Parts I, II and VI of the DruckbehV are relevant; they
can be considered as basic guidance to the overall principles of PV design. The TRBs
are specific PV regulations, that although containing very little explanatory detail,
constitute the technical guide to the AD-Merkbltter and the relevant DIN Standards.
The German PV design approach and philosophy is embodied in the AD-Merkbltter
specifications, design calculations, and procedures. It should be noted that the AD-
Merkbltter rely strongly on a number of specific DIN Standards, in particular DIN
4680 Ortsfeste Druckbehlter aus Stahl fr Propan, Butan, und deren Gemische fr
oberirdische Aufstellung (Stationary Pressure Vessels of Steel for Propane, Butane and
Mixtures for Above Ground Installation; Dimensions, Equipment).
Documentation:
These are prepared by the Technical Inspectors or Experts as defined in the
DruckbehV and TRB 500 series. TRB 521,522 and their appendices contain a Draft
Manufacturer's Certification Form. Inspections are to be carried out at various stages
of the design process.
Remarks:
The DruckbehV document is a 26 page Ordinance containing the very basic overall
regulations for a number of different types of vessels that can hold any type of
contents, and also covers filling plants, pipelines and other general regulations. In
order to follow German Pressure Vessel design standards it is necessary to proceed
through two further levels of documentation, namely the TRBs (Technical Regulations
for Pressure Vessels) and from there into the AD-Merkbltter and DIN standards.
The very specific structure of the German codes, without an overall philosophy
document, makes it a much less approachable set of documents than the British,
American and French Codes. The concept that emerges from the German PV Codes
is of embodied principles. Subsequent references in this section to "DruckbehV 1989
etc." means the ordinance and its ensuring technical rules and data sheets (TRBs and
AD-Merkbltter)
The TRB's are safety regulations aiming to fulfil Article 4, paragraph 1 of the
DruckbehV. They are split into 9 groups:
000
100
200
300
400
500
General
Materials
Manufacture
Calculations
Equipment for Pressure Vessels
Inspections and Tests
18
600 Installation
700 Operation
800 Special Pressure Vessels.
Each TRB is very schematic, consisting usually one or two pages giving a very brief
description of what constitutes the rule, with a listing of the relevant AD-Merkbltter
Data Sheets to be followed and containing the specific standards or procedures to be
applied in each case.
The AD-Merkbltter Data-Sheets are split into 8 sets:
A
B
G
H
HP
N
S
W
Equipment
Design
General aspects
Manufacture
Manufacture and Testing
Non-Metallic Materials
Special Cases
Metallic Materials.
The emphasis on the German standards is very marked in safety and the use of
established materials and methods. This is ensured at all stages by the Technical
Inspectors and their tests and approval procedures, starting prior to fabrication. Any
deviation from the standards must demonstrate that safety standards embodied in the
regulations have been observed by alternative approaches (i.e. tests, experience).
DIN 4680 (draft issue of February 1991, Parts 1 and 2) gives details for LPG
cylindrical vessel design including dimensions (diameter, lengths, height, wall
thickness, surface protection etc.) for different PV capacities and materials of
construction.
The DruckbehV gives a classification of 7 PV categories according to test
requirements, material contained and the product of working pressure and volume.
2.2 Materials of Construction
BS 5500: 1991
The standard allows the use of materials specified in British standards, or other
materials provided these latter meet the specifications stipulated in the code and are
tested according to the approved methods. (BS 5500 Appendix G). Tests includes
carbon content and deoxidation practices, tensile, yield, creep and impact strength
properties, and heat treatment.
Material nominal design strengths for Category 1 and 2 vessels are specified in BS
5500 Appendix K. Categories are to be agreed for each section of the PV. Categories
imply different levels of testing. Category 1 vessels will require full NDT testing of
the main weld seams. Categories 2 and 3 will only require spot NDT tests and visual
examination.
19
Carbon, carbon manganese and alloy steels that comply with the BS's referred to in
BS 5500 Table 2.3 do not require heat tests.
Materials are separated into :
Materials for pressure parts, including: welding materials, castings and bolts
and nuts.
Materials for non pressure parts, includes: supports, skirts, baffles.
Materials for low temperature applications, includes: ferritic steels and special
and bolts and nuts.
The first material group includes carbon, carbon manganese and alloy steels.
Materials that are not covered by British Standards should have the following
maximum contents of phosphorus and sulphur in the ladle analysis:
Phosphorus 0.05%
Sulphur 0.05%
Carbon in ferritic steels intended for welding should not exceed 0.25% except if
agreed otherwise by the Manufacturer/Purchaser/Inspector.
ASME: 1989
Selection of materials is only partly covered in Section VIH of the ASME Code.
Material specifications are covered in greater detail in Section II of the overall ASME
PV and boiler code. This covers material specifications, Part A for Ferrous materials,
Part B for Non-ferrous materials and Part C for welding rods, electrodes and filler
materials. This was not examined in the current study.
Materials in Section VIE Subsection UG (general requirements) are divided into:
Materials for pressure parts and
Materials for non pressure parts, including skirts, supports, baffles, lugs and
clips.
Use of plates is covered in UG-4, UG-10, UG-11, UG-15.
Use of welding materials is covered in UG-9.
Carbon steels not covered by the standard cannot be used if heat analysis shows a
carbon content greater than 0.35%.
CODAP: 1990
Materials are covered in Part M. Four types of acceptable materials are covered: non
austenitic non-stainless steel, austenitic stainless steels, austenitic ferritic stainless steel
and cladded steel. It also specifies materials for steel screws, bolts and nuts.
The code goes into the details of selecting a material, compiling an order, procurement
20
of supplies, the test that should be performed and how these should be documented.
It also specifies acceptable loads and marking of the products.
The relevant material appendices cover material ageing, prevention of brittle fracture,
and prevention of the risk of corrosion.
DruckbehV: 1989 etc.
Materials are specified in the TRB 100 series and 16 of the AD-Merkbltter. In the
LPG design context the following AD-Merkbltter have been studied:
WO General rules of acceptability
Wl Carbon and alloy steels
These give guidance on the suitable materials for steels manufactured at DIN
17100 standard up to 12 mm and DIN 17155 for up to 150 mm wall thickness
respectively for operating temperatures from -10C to 300C, presented in
tabular form for yield points over a range of temperatures and wall thickness.
W2 Austenitic steels: as Wl but referring to DIN 17400 Section 8.
W13 Unalloyed and alloyed steels for rolled and forged components of PV.
W13 covers suitability of materials for temperatures less than 300 C, also
rules for testing certification and marking. Materials tests required include
yield point, proof stress or creep strength or yield limit. Toughness tests
include elongation at break and energy absorbed during notch impact test
2.3 Mechanical Properties
BS 5500: 1991.
Mechanical properties of materials shall be specified for acceptance tests according
to BS 18 covering P^ and R
e
and minimum elongation at fracture. For vessels that
are specified to operate at temperatures higher than 50C the yield point should also
be established. For materials operating within the creep range, rupture stress should
be established according to BS 3228, Part 2.
A vital factor in the properties of materials covered in this standard is that the
manufacturer should establish that the material provided for tests should be equivalent
to the material used in construction.
21
Table 2.3.1 BS 5500 Design Strengths (From BS 5500 Appendix K)
MATERIAL
Carbon, Carbon manganese
and low alloy steels
Austenitic steels
All materials
Temp, range
C
< 50
> 150
< 50
>150
Time dependent
strength
Design strength
Lowest value of:
i e . o r !
1.5 2.35
JL(D>
o r
_Em
1.5 2.35
_B*, or X,
1.5 2.5
JL(D>
OT
_Em
1.35 2.5
1.3
For values between 50 and 150 C tbe values may be interpolated.
R,,, = Minimum tensile strength
Rer = Minimum yield strength at temperature T
Re = Minimum yield strength
S
rt
= Rupture stress in time t
ASME: 1989
This code refers to the use of materials with existing mechanical specifications issued
by the ASTM American Society of Testing and Materials. The following parameters
should be specified for a range of temperatures:
Ultimate strength
Yield strength
Reduction of area
Elongation
Creep strength
Stress-rupture strength
ASME Appendix B gives guidance on the approval of new materials.
Tables UCS-23 give specific values for the Maximum Allowable Stress for carbon and
low alloy steels. These tables specify for a range of ASTM Code steels the Maximum
Allowable Stress, for a given
R,,, = Minimum tensile strength and
Re = Minimum yield strength,
22
for a range of temperatures from 650 to 1200 F. This table also specifies the use of
the material (i.e. plates, bolts etc).
Table UHA-23 is a similar table with values for Maximum Allowable Stress for high
alloy steels for a range of temperatures from -10F to 100F and in steps up to 1500F.
CODAP: 1990
Part C: Design Rules covers design of cylindrical and spherical PV's under external
and internal pressure, also bolted flanges under internal pressure.
Subsection C. 1.6.2 details values required for minimum tensile strength at room and
at any temperature, also minimum value at 0.2% and 1% proof stress for a range of
materials.
Table C. 1.7.2 gives the nominal stress for a normal service state without creep of the
material.
Table 2.3.2 CODAP Design stress (From Table C.l.7.2)
MATERIAL
Carbon, carbon manganese
and low alloy steels
Austenitic steels
Lowest value of:
/ i
Lo.002 **
1.5 2.4
R'
3
A.001
1.5
U
iLo.002 R
1.6 2.7
R'
3.25
p '
1.6
3
RJO.002 J i
1.6 3
R'
3.5
JL0.001
1.66
R'
K
K
/ i
h
/
3
0.002
0.001
Minimum tensile strength at temperature t.
Minimum tensile strength (0.2% proof stress) at temperature t.
Minimum tensile strength (0.1% proof stress) at temperature t.
Nominal design stress for material reception 1
Nominal design stress for material reception 2
Nominal design stress for material reception 3
DruckbehV: 1989 etc.
TRB 300 (March 1991, issue 7) and the series B and S of the AD-Merkbltter deal
with design rules for pressure vessel components. They assume compliance with the
series W (metallic materials) and HP (manufacturing and testing) rules as well as the
general rules of the G series. The series B and S3 apply to static loads and SI and
S2 to alternating loads.
23
DIN 4680 gives a value for the yield point R,. > 355 N/mm
2
for a PV with working
pressure of 15.6 bar.
AD-Merkblatt BO (March 1990), gives the basic principles for PV design. Design
calculations depend on: temperature of operation, strength characteristics of the
material that result from established material tests and a safety factor.
Strength parameters are calculated for all types of steel according to AD-Merkbltter
Series W for the design temperature, including tensile strength and minimum yield
strength 0.2% and 0.1% proof stress.
2.4 Elements of Construction
BS 5500: 1991.
These are dealt with in Subsection 3.7 covering types of loads and design for supports,
attachments and internal structures.
Supports
Vertical vessels can be supported by means of brackets, columns or skirt.
Horizontal vessels should be supported at two points. The type may be saddle, legs
or rings.
Internal structures
Should be arranged to avoid imposing loads on the walls of the PV.
Bolted Flange Connections
Are classified as raised or full faced flanges.
Also covered are materials for non pressure parts, including supports, skirts, baffles,
and materials for low temperature applications, including ferrule steels (Appendix X>)
and special nuts and bolts (refers to BS 1506).
ASME: 1989
These are covered in parts of subsection UG and Appendices D and G, covering types
of loads and design for: supports UG-54, attachments UG-82, bolted connections UG-
44, with appendix D covering internal structures and appendix G giving good practice
for supports and attachments.
Supports
Vessels can be supported by means of brackets, columns or skirt. The type may be
saddle, legs or rings. Attachments should be formed to the curvature of the shell they
are attached to.
24
Internal Structures
Can be trays or baffles. They should be arranged to avoid imposing loads on the
walls of the PV.
Bolted Flange Connections
Subsection UG-44 lists the relevant American (ANSI) Standards for all types of flange
faces and materials.
CODAP: 1990
Section F - Fabrication Rules of the Code, Section F 1.4.7 - covers:
Attachments
Supports
Stiffeners
These are also covered by separate French Standards.
DruckbehV: 1989 etc.
TRB 404 of February 1989 gives specifications for PV components and equipment.
DIN 4680 of November 1978, and the new draft version February 1991, contain a
detailed list of LPG PV parts with their design dimensions including :
Supports
Connections
Cradle
The AD-Merkbltter Series S3 details the additional stress conditions for stands, saddle
and bracket supports over PV walls.
2.5 Welding
BS 5500: 1991.
The subject of welding is of key importance to LPG PV design as welds may be the
most common point of origin for leaks, fractures and ruptures. Welding is covered
in several sections throughout this standard.
Section 3.10 covers the design of welds. This section is supplemented by Appendix
E Recommendations for welded connections of PVs. It covers general rules, principal
welded seams, other seams and time-dependent aspects of welds.
The good practice principles of welding are that seams should be kept to a minimum,
should be visible for inspection, away from supports, and post weld heat treatment of
25
welds should be carried out at points where seams meet or are very close to each
other.
Section 4.2 covers welded joints from a good manufacture and workmanship point of
view.
Section 5.2 covers the inspection, approval and testing aspects of welder and operator.
Sections 5.6.3, 5.6.4 and 5.6.5 cover weld preparation, NDT testing of welded joints,
and choice of NDT testing methods for welded joints respectively.
Section 5.7 covers the criteria for acceptability of weld defects revealed by visual
examination and NDT.
Appendix E gives general guidance on typical details of principal seams, with
graphical examples of commonly accepted good welding practice. However this
should not be regarded as mandatory or restrictive in the development of new welding
techniques.
ASME: 1989
Welding is mainly covered in Subsection B - Methods of Fabrication - in the ASME
Code. Following an introduction it covers welding materials, design of seams,
fabrication, markings and reports. This part of the code should be used in conjunction
with Subsection A (General requirements: construction and materials), and also the
parts of Subsection C for materials: UCS (carbon and alloy steels), UNF (non ferrous)
and UHA (high alloy steels). Four categories of welds are defined according to
location rather than type of weld:
Category A for longitudinal seams or transitions in diameter.
Category B for circumferential joints within the main shell.
Category C for flange and other connections.
Category D for communication chamber or other connections to the main shell.
Rules for construction of pressure vessels are covered in ASME, Section VIH,
Division 1. UW-35 specifies rules for fabrication of finished longitudinal and
circumferential joints. UW-40 specifies procedures for post weld heat treatment. Post
weld heat treatment is specified depending on the thickness and the presence of
preheat during welding if the thickness exceeds 1.25 inch without preheat and 1.5 inch
with preheat. Table UCS-56 states that this is mandatory for carbon and low alloy
steels.
CODAP: 1990
Welding is covered in subsection F: Fabrication rules.
The general rules for all materials are given in Fl. They include the general
principles that choice of joints should depend on ease of manufacture and accessibility
for NDT.
26
Control and Inspection are covered in Subsection I. The rules for checking of heat
treatments are given in 1.11.
The rules for the design of joints are given in F1.3 and CODAP Appendix FA.l for
selecting type of joints.
Another noteworthy aspect of the French welding standards is a points scoring system
for weld approval, given as good, average and poor quality. Also control test plates
are required for each procedure and welder or equipment group.
Table F2.6.2C lists the weld preheat treatment requirements depending on thickness.
Table F2.7.2.5 lists the requirements for post welding heat treatment depending on the
mechanical properties of the material and the thickness of the components.
DruckbehV: 1989 etc.
Welding is covered in TRB 200 (July 1980) edition and the AD-Merkbltter series HP
for design and construction. These include initial procedures for the testing of joints,
rules for welder approval, NDT of test plates, welding practice and other tests of
welds. In particular, heat treatment of welds is covered in HP7/1, 2, 3 & 4, July
1989.
Double welded butt joints are covered in HP511 and DIN 8562
Other types of accepted welds include:
Lapped welds (both sides) circumferential to a wall thickness of 8 mm.
Projection welds to a wall thickness of 8 mm.
DIN 8560 requires the preheat and postheat treatment temperatures to be certified.
27
2.6 Wall Thickness
BS 5500: 1991.
The minimum wall thickness to ensure vessel integrity against deformation is
determined according to the material used and the following calculations (BS 5500
section 3).
Table 2.6.1 BS 5500 Minimum wall thickness
Pressure Loading
Cylinder
_PDj
2/-P
PD
2/+P
Sphere
PD,
4/-1.2P
PD
4/+0.8P
D = Inside diameter
D
0
= Outside diameter
= Nominal design stress
P = Design pressure
BS 5500 also gives details of the minimum wall thickness methods of calculation for
internal pressure for the following PV parts:
domed ends
conical ends and truncated cones
openings and branch connections
flat ends and flat plates
spherical domed and bolted ends
Supports, attachments and internal structures
These should be designed to withstand all loadings likely to be imposed in service,
such as pressure weight, wind, earthquake, etc. They shall enable maintenance and
inspection to be carried out during the life of the PV. Appendix G (recommendations
for methods of calculation of stresses from local loads, thermal gradients, etc.) gives
guidance on the effects on the shell of local forces and moments which may come
from typical attachments and supports.
ASME: 1989
UG-27 specifies the minimum wall thickness under internal pressure. The joint
efficiencies are given in Table UW-12 for welded joints. The limits of applicability
28
of the following equations for cylindrical PV's are that the wall thickness should not
exceed one half of the inside radius. The pressure should not exceed 0.385/E for
longitudinal joints and 1.25/E for circumferential joints. For sphere walls thickness
should not exceed 0.356R and pressure should not exceed 0.665/E.
Joint efficiency depends only on weld category and radiographic examination, and
ranges from 1.00 to 0.45. For pressures beyond those established in the previous
paragraph equations from Appendix 1-1 to 1-3 should be used.
Table 2.6.2 ASME Minimum wall thickness
Pressure Loading
Cylinder
PRi
E/-0.6P
PRi
E/-0.2P
Sphere
PRi
2E/-0.2P
R = Inside radius
= Nominal design stress
P = Design pressure
E = Joint efficiency
CODAP : 1990
Wall thickness is specified graphically in subsection C.1.9 of CODAP with an
effective thickness of:
fiu = <L - c - c, - c
2
c , =
c
2
=
c =
*u =
negative allowance
fabrication tolerance
corrosion allowance
nominal thickness
effective thickness
Table 2.6.3 CODAP Minimum wall thickness
Cylinder
PRi
E/-0.5P
Sphere
PDi
4E/-P
29
DruckbehV: 1989 etc.
AD-Merkblatt B1 gives the following equations for the determination of wall thickness
for pressure vessels with a ratio between external to internal diameter D^Dj =1. 2
Table 2.6.4 DruckbehV Minimum wall thickness
Cylinder
PD. + c, + c.
20 i V + P
S
Sphere
PD. + c, + c
40 i V + P
S
P = Operating pressure
D
e
= External diameter
Dj = Internal diameter
V = Joint quality factor
S = Safety factor
= Stress value at design temperature
c
x
= Manufacturing allowance thickness factor
c
2
= Corrosion factor
Values of the factors referred to in this equation depend on the choice of
material and/or their strength factors, and they are found in AD-Merkblatt BO.
Comparison of wall thickness
Shell thicknesses have been calculated according to the four codes for the following
cases:
CASE
Gross capacity (m
3
)
Outside diameter (m)
Length over ends (m)
A
100
3.8
11.4
B
100
2.9
15.9
C
12
1.6
6.4
Results are presented in Tables 2.6.5 to 2.6.7.
The cases were selected as follows. Case A has the same overall dimensions as the
100 m
3
vessel dimensions described in section 4.11 for relief valve calculations.
Cases B and C have the same overall dimensions as those described in DIN 4680, to
provide a comparison for typical modern designs.
A material was selected with mechanical properties acceptable to the four codes. The
design pressure and corrosion allowance is the same in each case.
Design pressure
Minimum tensile Rm
Minimum yield strength Rg
15.6 bar gauge
530 N/mm
2
355 N/mm
2
30
Table 2.6.5: Pressure Vessels for LPG - Wall Thicknesses
CASE A
COUNTRY
MATERIALS
Carbon steel plates for pressure vessels for
moderate and lower temperature service
Minimum tensile [NAnm
2
] Rm
Minimum yield [N/mm
2
] Re
CONDITIONS
Basis for Design Stress
Design Stress f
Di
Do
Design pressure pi
Static pressure h
p = pi + h
P
cCA
cl neg
c2 fabrication
Cylinder thickness
Code
Category
NDT
Joint Eff. E
Table
[lbs/sqin]
[N/mm
2
]
[mm]
[mm]
[bars gauge]
[bar]
[bar]
[N/mm
2
]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
USA
ASTM
No. Grade
A516 70
530
355
ASMEVin
Div. 1
100%
1
UCS-23
17500
Rm/4
121
3747
3800
15.6
0.37
15.97
1.6
1
0
0
26.02
Do = 3800 mm
UK
BS
No. Grade
(1) (2)
530
355
BS5500:1991
1
100%
Rm/2.35
226
3772
3800
15.6
0.37
15.97
1.6
1
0
0
14.41
GERMANY
DIN DIN Material
Type No. No.
ASt52 17135 10843
530
355
Drackbeh V
100%
0.85
(3)
K/S
237
3768
3800
15.6
0.38
15.98
1.6
1
0.2
0.1
1633
FRANCE
AFNOR NF
Type No.
A 52-AP A36-205
(3) (4)
R 530
R002 355
CODAP
100%
1
R/2.4
221
3769
3800
15.6
0.38
15.98
1.6
1
0.2
0.1
15.45(E=1)/17.95(E=0.85)
Table 2.6.6: Pressure Vessels for LPG - Wall Thicknesses
CASE B
COUNTRY
MATERIALS
Carbon steel plates for pressure vessels for
moderate and lower temperature service
Minimum tensile [NAnm
1
] Rm
Minimum yield [N^nm
2
] Re
CONDITIONS
Basis for Design Stress
Design Stress f
Di
Do
Design pressure pi
Static pressure h
p = pi + h
P
cCA
cl neg
c2 fabrication
Cylinder thickness
Code
Category
NDT
Joint Eff. E
Table
[lbs/sqin]
( N/ W]
[mm]
[mm]
[bars gauge]
[bar]
[bar]
[N/mm
2
]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm] '
[mm]
USA
ASTM
No. Grade
A516 70
530
355
ASMEVm
Div. 1
100%
1
UCS-23
17500
Rm/4
121
2859
2900
15.6
0.29
15.89
1.59
1
0
0
19.98
Do = 2900 mm
UK
BS
No. Grade
(1) (2)
530
355
BS5500:1991
1
100%
Rm/2.35
226
2878
2900
15.6
0.29
15.89
1.59
1
0
0
11.18
GERMANY
DIN DIN Material
Type No. No.
ASt52 17135 10843
530
355
Druckbeh V
100%
0.85
K/S
237
2874
2900
15.6
0.29
15.89
1.59
1
0.2
0.1
12.71
FRANCE
AFNOR NF
Type No.
A 52-AP A36-205
(3) (4)
R 530
R002 355
CODAP
100%
1
R/2.4
221
2876
2900
15.6
0.29
15.89
1.59
1
0.2
0.1
12.03(E=1)/13.8(E=0.85)
Table 2.6.7: Pressure Vessels for LPG - Wall Thicknesses
u>
CASE C
COUNTRY
MATERIALS
Carbon steel plates for pressure vessels for
moderate and lower temperature service
Minimum tensile [N/mm
2
] Rm
Minimum yield [N/mm
2
] Re
CONDITIONS
Basis for Design Stress
Design Stress f
Di
Do
Design pressure pi
Static pressure h
p = pl + h
P
c CA
cl neg
c2 fabrication
Cylinder thickness
Code
Category
NDT
Joint Eff. E
Table
[lbs/sqin]
{NAnm
2
]
[mm]
[mm]
[bars gauge]
[bar]
[bar]
[N/mm
1
]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
USA
ASTM
No. Grade
A516 70
530
355
ASMEVm
Div. 1
100%
1
UCS-23
17500
Rm/4
121
1576
1600
15.6
0.16
15.76
1.58
1
0
0
11.38
Do = 1600 mm
UK
BS
No. Grade
(1) (2)
530
355
BS5500:1991
1
100%
Rm/2.35
226
1587
1600
15.6
0.16
15.76
1.58
1
0
0
6.57
GERMANY
DIN DIN Material
Type No. No.
ASt52 17135 10843
530
355
Druckbeh V
100%
0.85
K/S
237
1584
1600
15.6
0.16
15.76
1.58
1
0.2
0.1
7.54
FRANCE
AFNOR NF
Type No.
A 52-AP A36-205
(3) (4)
R 530
R002 355
CODAP
100%
1
R/2.4
221
1585
1600
15.6
0.16
15.76
1.58
1
0.2
0.1
7.17(E=1)/8.13(E=0.85)
Notes to Tables 2.6.5 to 2.6.7
1. BS 5500:1992 lists BS 1501-224,490 grades A & B, ^ 490, R. 325 as an acceptable material. It tabulates a design
stress, f, of 208 N/mm
2
at 50C for thicknesses < 40mm. However BS 500 1991 permits the use of materials not
covered by the British standards, e.g. semi-killed steel with an upper limit of 640 N/mm
2
and thickness < 100mm
provided C < 0.25%, P < 0.05 % and S < 0.05 % ladle analysis.
2. Material that meets the ASTM A 516 grade 70 is normally available.
3. K = 355 N/mm
2
strength at design temperature
S = 15 safety factor at design temperature
v = 0.85 joint quality factor per AD-Merkblatt Bl
c = corrosion allowance
cl = allowance for minus thickness tolerance
c2 = fabrication tolerance
4. Specify silicon content of 0.15 to 0.4%
Discussion on calculated thicknesses
The vessels designed to ASME VIII Division 1 are much thicker than the others because the nominal
design stress is one quarter of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the material of construction.
The similarity of the calculated thicknesses for the vessels having the design controlled by the yield
properties of the materials of construction is immediately apparent, e.g. BS 5500, DruckbehV/AD
Merkbltter and CODAP. These vessels have the nominal design stress checked against the specified
minimum ultimate tensile strength divided by the factors 2.35 or 2.4, depending on the code.
The thinnest vessels in this series are to BS 5500, which are calculated to a formula which requires
a high level of inspection during construction in that a weld joint strength factor of 1.0 is implied.
The next thinnest in the series are the CODAP designed vessels also justifying a weld joint factor
of 1.0. However, as shown in the calculations, if the weld joint factor is 0.85 the required thickness
exceeds that of similar DruckbehV/AD Merkbltter vessels.
The DruckbehV/AD Merkbltter vessels for this service are designed with a joint factor of 0.85,
which makes them thicker than the BS 5500 vessels, but thinner than the CODAP vessels using the
same joint factor of 0.85. This is because the DruckbehV/AD Merkbltter design stress is 1/3 of the
yield strength of the material whereas the CODAP design stress is controlled by the specified
minimum ultimate tensile strength divided by a factor of 2.4.
2.7 Testing
BS 5500: 1991.
Several types of tests are described in BS 5500:
Non Destructive Tests (NDT)
These are covered in subsection 5.6 of the code. NDT is required for all welded joints for Category
1 PV's, to be carried out after completion of any post-weld heat treatment, surface flaws internal and
on the surface. Category 2 requires partial NDT during fabrication. Category 3 requires only visual
inspection.
34
Pressure tests
Pneumatic tests are used when hydraulic tests are not required or applicable.
Hydraulic testing for the various construction categories is also covered. Leak testing is usually
recommended prior to hydraulic testing.
Table 2.7.1 BS 5500 Standard test pressure
Category
1 and 2
3
Test Pressure
1.25PL x _jQ
1 , tTc!
1.25P. x t i
1 , t -ci
1.5 P
.
.
t
c
P
nominal design strength
nominal time dependent strength
section thickness
corrosion allowance
design pressure
Charpy Impact Tests
Subsection 5.4 gives guidance on when plates need to be tested. Appendix Q indicates the
preparation and test procedures. Satisfactory levels are average and individual results from one
production test plate exceeds 90% of the minimum average and individual specified values for
procedures tests and average of all production test results from the vessel or group of vessels exceeds
110% of the minimum average value and individual specified values for the procedure tests.
Welding and welder approval tests are covered in the welding section.
ASME: 1989
Several types of tests are described in the ASME Code:
Pressure tests
Leak tests are usually recommended prior to hydraulic testing,
hydraulic tests are not required or applicable.
Pneumatic tests are used when
Hydraulic tests are covered in section UG 99. Every point in the PV is to be tested to at least 1.5
times the maximum allowable working pressure marked on the vessel multiplied by the lowest ratio
of the stress value for the test temperature to the stress value f
t
for the design temperature.
Charpy Impact Tests
They are described in UG-84 and the relevant section in the materials parts of Subsection C. They
cover all procedures and type of specimens, referring to the SA specifications for particular products
and their forms.
35
CODAP: 1990
Section I and its Appendices give details of all the French requirement for tests and inspection.
NDT test of welds is given in the Inspection Appendix I-10 and specifies that it is the manufacturer's
responsibility that all welds are visually inspected. The inspection methods to be used include:
Surface finish
Visual examination VS
Liquid penetrant examination RS
Magnetic particle inspection MG
Radiographic inspection RI
Ultrasonic examination US
Leak tests
Pressure Test (Strength Tests)
CODAP also requires strength tests the conditions for which are given in Appendix 1-13; They
require a full hydraulic test to the following pressure:
P,> 1.3 Vf/f
t
where = stress at test temperature; , = design stress at design temperature;
P = maximum allowable working pressure; P
t
= hydrotest pressure.
DruckbehV: 1989 etc.
TRB 531 December 83 gives guidance on acceptance tests, including Manufacturer's test TRB 521,
Acceptance Tests and Marking of PV to comply with DruckbehV Article 16.
The tests are very comprehensive, covering pre-conditions, selection and approval of qualified
personnel (to comply with DruckbehV Article 9 Paragraph 2 No. 1), workshop, design and
dimensions, processing and certification.
LPG PV specific testing is referred to in Codes of Practice VBG 17 and VBG 61.
Charpy Impact Tests
TRB 100 Materials cover notch impact test conditions.
Pressure Tests
AD-Merkblatt HP 30 details the requirements for a full hydraulic test to the following test pressure:
P
t
= 1.3 P
(P = operating pressure)
36
2.8 Typical LPG vessel (cylinder 100 m
3
) showing vessel connections and sizes
14400
NOT TO SCALE
270"
VIEW ON ARROW
SKETCH OF TYPICAL LPG VESSEL
NOZZLE SCHEDULE FOR 100 M3 VESSEL
REF.
NI
N2
N3
N4
N5
N6
MH
Note
SIZE
3/4'
3/4'
3/4'
3/4'
18'
RATING
Bars
40
40
200
200
200
200
40
STD
ASA 300
ASA 300
NPT
NPT
NPT
NPT
ASA 300
DIMENSIONS END
ORIENT.
180'
SERVICE
Fill & Empty
Relief
Pres. Gauge
Level Gauge
Level Gauge
Temp. Gauge
Manhole
All top nozzles can be mounted in the cover of the manhole MH.
37
3.0 PRESSURE PIPING
3.1 Engineering Standards
The following have been identified as the principal standards relating to LPG piping
applicable in each of the four countries to be considered. These standards generally
refer onward to further standards for specific areas of detail design, and these are
summarised in Appendix E.
A comparison of US (ANSI) and German (DIN) pipe flange thickness for LPG service
is given in section 3.8.4.
3.1.1 United Kingdom
LPGITA 22
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Industry Technical Association
LPG Piping Systems - Design and Installation. (LPGITA Code of Practice 22.)
The scope of LPGITA 22 includes pipework in carbon steel, copper or polyethylene
(PE) but not stainless steel. Carbon steel piping over 150 mm nominal size (NS) and
PE piping over 63 mm NS are not covered. Transmission piping, i.e. piping outside
the premises of the owner, is not covered. Piping outside buildings (above ground and
below ground), inside buildings and in mobile installations is covered. This is the
most specific and comprehensive design standard for LPG piping systems available
in the UK.
LPGITA 1
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Industry Technical Association
Installation and Maintenance of Bulk LPG Storage at Consumers' Premises. (LPGITA
Code of Practice 1.) Note: Partly superseded and under revision
The scope of LPGITA 1 is wider than LPGITA 22 in that it covers storage as well as
piping and distribution. In respect of piping its coverage is similar to LPGITA 28
except that the 150 mm NS upper limit is not given, PE piping is not identified and
compressed asbestos gaskets would not now be recommended.
HSE HS(G)34
Health and Safety Executive
The Storage of LPG at Fixed Installations. (Health and Safety Series Booklet
HS(G)34).
The scope of HSE HS(G)34 includes pipework associated with pressurised, ambient
temperature LPG storage installations of greater than 150 litres capacity. It refers to
LPGITA 22 and the US code ASME/ANSI B31.3 for detailed aspects of piping
design.
39
IPpt.9
Institute of Petroleum
Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Vol. 1: Large Bulk Pressure Storage and Refrigerated LPG.
(IP Model Code of Safe Practice, Part 9).
The scope of IP pt.9 includes pipework associated with pressurised, partially
refrigerated and refrigerated LPG storage installations of total capacity greater than
450 m
3
or individual vessels of capacity greater than 135 m
3
. It does not refer to UK
28 but does refer to ASME/ANSI B31.3 for detailed aspects of piping design.
EEMUA 153
Engineering Equipment Manufacturers and Users Association
Supplement to ASME/ANSI B31.3. EEMUA publication number 153.
EEMUA 153 is to be read with ASME/ANSI B31.3 (refer to section 3.2.4 below) and
supersedes BS 3351 (Piping Systems for Petroleum Refineries and Petrochemical
Plants). It makes certain modifications to the ASME/ANSI B31.3 to permit the use
of British Standards and to cover differences in national practice. Polyethylene piping
is not covered by EEMUA 153 and the "category M" (toxic/hazardous service) of the
US code is not recognised.
British Standards
Detailed specifications issued by the British Standards Institution (BSI) are listed in
Appendix E. The topics covered include general design in industrial and domestic
installations, pressure gauges, fittings, fastenings, flanges and gaskets, seals, welding
pressure testing, installation, electrical continuity, flexible hose, pipe wall thickness,
safety valves, bursting disks and expansion joints.
3.1.2 United States of America
API 2510
American Petroleum Institute
Design and Construction of Liquefied Petroleum Gas Installations. API Standard 2510.
6th ed.
The scope includes pipework associated with all types and sizes of LPG storage
installations with no specific capacity figures. Reference is made to ASME/ANSI
B 31.8 for detailed aspects of piping design.
NFPA59
National Fire Protection Association
Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gas at Utility Gas
Plants. NFPA 59. 1989 ed.
The scope of includes pipework associated with utility gas plants with non-refrigerated
and refrigerated storage of LPG.
40
NFPA 58
National Fire Protection Association
Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases. NFPA 58.
1989 ed.
The scope of NFPA 58 excludes that of NFPA 59 and includes small-scale storage and
handling installations.
ASME/ANSI B31.3
American Society for Mechanical Engineers/American National Standards Institute
Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping. ASME/ANSI code for pressure
piping, ASME/ANSI B31.3 - 1987 ed. (Inel. addenda B31.3-a-1988, B31.3-b-1988).
The scope of is essentially the materials, design, fabrication, assembly, erection,
examination and testing of piping systems handling all fluids within the site boundary
of chemical process plants of all types. There are no specific references to LPG
applications. It is understood to be the most widely used general piping design
standard encompassing LPG piping currently available. The concept of "safeguarding"
against potential hazards through specific engineering features, plant layout features
or operating practices is included.
American Standards
Detailed piping standards issued by US industry bodies (ASME, ASTM etc) are listed
in Appendix E (note: the American National Standards Institute does not issue its own
standard but endorses other bodies'; these will have an ANSI designation - e.g
ASME/ANSI B31.3 is an ANSI-endorsed ASME standard). The topics covered by
these are: general design of chemical plant and petroleum refinery pipework; steel,
cast iron and copper pipe fittings; steel pipe flange for the petroleum industry; pipe
wall thickness; pipelines; ball valves; storage and handling; material specification;
corrosion protection and welding and cutting.
3.1.3 France
Arrt 15 Jan 1962
Arrt of 15th January 1962 (Amended by Arrts of 19th February 1979,
Corrigendum, 30th September 1981 and 24th November 1982) Concerning the
Regulations on Factory Pipelines
The scope covers piping systems inside the site boundary and also outside it if
compression or other processing is carried out There is comprehensive coverage at
the level of general guidance for the most part There are no specific references to
LPG applications.
Arrt 9 Nov. 1972
Arrt of 9th November 1972, Dpts d'Hydrocarbures Liqufis, Rgles
d'Amnagement et d'Exploitation (Rules for Planning and Operation of Liquefied
Hydrocarbon Storage Installations). Note: Understood to be under revision.
41
The scope covers piping systems associated with liquefied hydrocarbon storage
installations including LPG applications. There is comprehensive coverage at the level
of general guidance for the most part.
SNCT 1986
SNCT Industrial Piping Code (1986): Design, Manufacture, Assembly, Inspection and
Testing
This Code is issued and updated by the Syndicat National de la Chaudronnerie de la
Tlerie et de la Tuyauterie Industrielle (SNCT). A 1990 issue is in preparation.
SNCT 1986 is divided into five sections as follows:-
Division Tl - Provisions to common to all Divisions
Division T2 - Piping for service at or above 30 bar or 350C
Division T3 - Piping for service below 30 bar and 350C
Division T4 - Cryogenic piping (in preparation)
Division T5 - Transmission piping (in preparation)
Its scope is essentially equivalent to ASME/ANSI B31.3 (section 3.2.4) and includes
materials, design, fabrication, assembly, inspection and testing. There are no specific
references to LPG applications. It is written with a similar level of detail to the US
code but with a markedly more rigorous analytical approach. It includes a section
defining and explaining in some detail the different types of drawings and documents
associated with piping systems. Materials other than non-alloy (carbon) steel, low-
alloy and austenitic (stainless) steels are not covered. There is no equivalent to the
"category M" (toxic/hazardous) of ASME/ANSI B31.3 which, it should be noted, is
true also of its UK supplement, EEMUA 153 (section 3.1.5). There is a lengthy
section on permissible forces and moments at flange connection to horizontal axis
pumps to which there is no equivalent in ASME/ANSI B31.8. It makes reference to
French NF standards (section 3.3.4) and gives equivalences with USA, German and
UK standards for different grades of steel (reproduced in Appendix F). The concept
of "safeguarding" as in ASME/ANSI B31.3 is not included (see section 3.2.4).
NF Standards
No detailed specifications issued by the French Standards Institute, Association
Franaise de Normalisation (AFNOR) have been identified which are specific to LPG
piping systems design.
3.1.4 Germany
DruckbehV.
Verordnung ber Druckbehlter, Druckgasbehlter und Fllanlagen (Order on
Pressure Vessels, Gas Pressure Vessels and Filling Plants). 1980, amended 1989.
42
This is an implementing regulation and includes a section on Pipelines at the level of
general technical guidance, focusing on inspection requirements for tests. Pre-
commissioning tests, recurrent tests and tests following modifications, repairs or
damage are covered.
Pipelines outside the site boundary (i.e. transmission pipelines) are covered as well as
within the site boundary.
TRB
Technische Regeln Druckbehlter (TRB), Technical Rules for Pressure Vessels.
These are issued by Vereinigung der Technischen berwachungs-Vereine (VdTV),
the Association of Technical Inspectors, in support of the DruckbehV. They make
reference to the AD-Merkbltter (refer to section 3.4.3) and also to DIN standards
(refer to section 3.4.4) for detailed aspects of design. No TRBs are, in fact, directly
relevant to the design of LPG piping systems, although various of the D-Merkbltter
and DIN standards referenced by them are. TRBs list the AD-Merkblttex, DIN and
other standards to be followed and do not generally contain detailed guidance. They
do not cover LPG-specific applications.
AD-Merkbltter
These are detailed datasheets issued by Arbeitsgemeinschaft Druckbehlter (AD), the
Pressure Vessel Users Association under the auspices of VdTV. They are based on
DIN standards (refer to section 3.4.4.) and other information and are divided into
series as follows:-
Series G -
Series W -
Series H -
Series HP -
Series N -
Series B -
Series S -
Series A -
Fundamentals
Metallic Materials
Manufacture
Manufacture and Testing
Non-Metallic Materials
Design
Special Cases
Equipment
AD-Merkbltter are understood not to cover LPG-specific applications.
DIN Standards
Detailed specifications are issued by Deutsches Institut fr Normung (DIN), the
German Standards Institute. The standards relevant to LPG piping system design are
listed in Appendix E, and are those referenced in the Niedersachsen LPG document.
They include testing, identification, valve leakage, welding (including QA and
consumables), wall thickness, flanges and nuts, piping (including long distance steel
transmission, seamless, welded smallbore precision, austenitic and copper).
43
Verordnung ber Gashochdruckleitungen (Order on High-Pressure Gas Pipelines)
1974.
This is an implementing regulation and is understood to be at the level of general
guidance, comparable in status and level to the DruckbehV. It is not specific to LPG
applications.
TRGI
Technische Regeln fr Gashochdruckleitungen (TRGI), Technical Rules for High-
Pressure Gas Pipelines.
These are issued by VdTV in support of the Verordnung. They are make reference
to other Merkbltter (datasheets) and DIN standards in a similar manner to TRBs
(refer to section 3.4.2) and likewise are not specific to LPG applications.
Niedersachsen document
Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen an Flssiggasanlagen (Safety Requirements for
Liquefied Gas Installations), Lower Saxony Ministry for Social Affairs, 1989.
This is a study written at the level of detailed technical guidance with references to
DIN and other standards and AD-Merkbltter for specific areas of detailed design
associated with LPG storage and handling installations, including piping systems.
It is based on a considerable body of earlier work and is understood to be the basis
of a new technical rule which is in preparation, directed at improving the safety of
LPG installations. It distinguishes between installations in four categories by storage
volume:-
Group A
Group B
Group C
Group D
over 3 te
3 te to 30 te
30 te to 300 te
over 300 te
gas discharge only
liquid
liquid
liquid
Requirements for welding QA, acceptance tests for materials and components and
completed installation are particularly detailed in nature.
3.2 Design Philosophy
In designing any piping system, attention should be given to each of the following
areas:-
Service Category
Design Conditions and Limitations
Dimensions
Materials Selection
Piping Class
Joints and Flanges
Branches and Connections
Valves and Fittings
44
Expansion Arrangements (to prevent over-stressing)
Insulation and External Protection
Routeing/Layout
Supports
Installation
Inspection and Testing
Within each area, there will usually be a number of specific detail design
considerations to be taken into account. It will be the responsibility of the piping
designer to ensure that the final design satisfies in all respects the requirements (both
general and detail) of the standards to which he is working as well as to exercise good
engineering judgement. Commissioning and operation are outside the scope of this
study.
In sections 3.3 to 3.17, the treatments for LPG piping applications by each of the
standards likely to be used by the designer are compared in qualitative terms, in
tabular form, for each area of design. A detailed comparison between the many
British (BS series), American, French (NF series) and German (DIN series) standards
referenced for specific areas of detail design has not been attempted, but the Appendix
lists for each of the LPG-specific design standards the various national standards
referred to by the main piping codes.
45
3.3 Service Category
Table 3.3.1 Service Category - UK Standards
Area of Design
Liquid
Vapour
Above ground
Below ground
LPG1TA22
Liquid and vapour
service are clearly
distinguished, as
are above and
below ground
service.
HSE HS(G)34
As for LPGITA 22
IP Part 9
Specific categories
of service are not
distinguished.
Table 3.3.2 Service Category - USA Standards
Area of
Design
Liquid
Vapour
Above ground
Below ground
API 2510
Specific categories
of service are not
distinguished
NFPA59
As API 2510
NFPA58
Liquid and vapour
service, outside
and inside
buildings are
clearly
distinguished
ASME/ANSI
B31.3
Covers all
categories of fluid
service
Table 3.33 Service Category - French and German Standards
Area of
Design
Liquid
Vapour
Above ground
Below ground
Arrt of 9/11/72
No specific requirements
SNCT Piping Code
Covers all categories of
fluid service
Niedersachsen document
Specific categories of
service are not
distinguished.
46
3.4 Design Conditions
Table 3.4.1 Design Conditions - UK Standards
Area of
Design
Pressure
Temperature
LPGITA 22
Specific
requirements for
liquid and vapour
systems with
respect to
associated
equipment (storage,
compressors,
pumps and safety
valves)
40CmaxforPE
pipe
HSE HS(G)34
General guidance
IP part 9
Minimum service
temperatures are
given for specific
piping class, size
and material
combinations
Table 3.4.2 Design Conditions - USA Standards
Area of
Design
Pressure
Temperature
API 2510
No specific
requirements
NFPA59
Service
temperatures for
specific materials
are defined
NFPA58
Service
temperatures and
pressures for
specific materials
and applications
are defined
ASME/ANSI
B31.3
Detailed
requirements for
pressure-
temperature
ratings without
specific reference
to LPG
applications
Table 3.4.3 Design Conditions - French and German Standards
Area of
Design
Pressure
Temperature
Arrt of 9/11/72
No specific requirements
SNCT Piping Code
Service at or over 30 bar
or 350C is treated
separately from service
below 30 bar or below
350C.
Niedersachsen document
No specific
requirements
47
3.5 Dimensions
Table 3.5.1 Dimensions - UK Standards
Area of
Design
Diameter
Wall Thickness
LPGITA22
Above SO mm at
storage pressure
specifies design
and stress analysis
to "a recognised
code."
Carbon steel over
150 mm and PE
over 63 mm are
not covered.
Required schedules
(wall thickness) are
specified for
carbon steel piping.
British Standards
for copper and PE
piping are
specified.
HSE HS(G)34
No specific
requirements
IP part 9
Required
schedules (wall
thickness) are
specified for all
piping.
Table 3.5.2 Dimensions - USA Standards
Area of
Design
Diameter
Wall Thickness
API 2510
Required schedules
(wall thickness) are
specified separately
for carbon steel
(notch sensitive)
and stainless steel
(non-notch
sensitive)
NFPA59
No specific
requirements
NFPA58
No specific
requirements
ASME/ANSI
B31.3
Formulae are
quoted for
determination of
minimum wall
thickness for pipe,
fittings and
connections.
48
Table 3.5.3 Dimensions - French and German Standards
Area of
Design
Diameter
Wall thickness
Arrt of 9/11/72
No specific requirements
SNCT Piping Code
Formulae are quoted for
determination of
minimum wall thickness
for pipe, fittings and
connections.
Niedersachsen document
No specific
requirements
3.6 Materials Selection
Table 3.6.1 Materials Selection - UK Standards
Area of
Design
Piping
Fittings
Flanges
Gaskets
Valve Bodies
Valve Seals
LPGITA 22
Acceptability of
carbon steel,
copper and PE is
given for a
comprehensive
range of service
conditions.
Stainless steel is
not covered. Cast
ironis
unacceptable.
Natural rubber not
to be used.
Otherwise no
specific
requirements.
No specific
requirements.
HSE HS(G)34
General guidance.
No distinction
between carbon
steel and stainless
steel. Cast iron is
unacceptable.
No specific
requirements.
No specific
requirements.
IP part 9
As for LPGITA
22 except that PE
is not specifically
covered.
No specific
requirements.
General guidance.
49
Table 3.6.2 Materials Selection - USA Standards
Area of
Design
Piping
Fittings
Ranges
Gaskets
Valve Bodies
Valve Seals
API 2510
Carbon and
stainless steel are
distinguished in
terms of notch
sensitivity.
Specific
requirements and
prohibition of
materials for
certain fittings
including
requirements for
stainless steel in
corrosive
atmospheres. No
reference to
copper, cast iron or
PE.
No specific
requirements.
Steel is specified
for valve bodies in
certain applications
NFPA59
Cast iron is
acceptable except
for strainers or
flow indicators.
Otherwise no
specific
requirements. PE
piping is limited to
vapour service not
exceeding 30 psig.
General guidance
No specific
requirements.
NFPA58
Cast iron is
acceptable except
for strainers or
flow indicators.
General guidance.
No distinction
between carbon
and stainless steel.
General guidance
No specific
requirements.
ASME/ANSI
B31.3
Detailed coverage
of all materials
without reference
to LPG
applications. Cast
iron is
unacceptable. PE
is unacceptable for
vapour service
above ground.
No specific
requirements.
Valves not
explicitly covered.
Table 3.6.3 Materials Selection - French and German Standards
Area of
Design
Piping
Fittings
Flanges
Gaskets
Valve Bodies
Valve Seals
Arrt of 9/11/72
Cast iron prohibited for
fittings. Galvanised
iron, aluminium and its
alloys and thermo-
plastics prohibited for
fittings located
underneath tanks.
No specific requirements
Cast iron prohibited for
cocks. Galvanised iron,
aluminium and its alloys
and thermo-plastics
prohibited for cocks
located underneath tanks.
SNCT Piping Code
Non alloy (carbon)
steels, low-alloy and
austenitic (stainless)
steels only are covered.
Cast iron is prohibited
except for below 10 bar
g, below 220C and
biologically harmless
service
No specific requirements
Valves not explicitly
covered.
Niedersachsen document
Carbon steel, stainless
steel and copper in _
conformity with
particular DIN
specifications and AD-
Merkbltter. Detailed
requirements for flanges
To withstand up to
620C
To conform to AD-
Merkbltter Series W
specifications.
50
3.7 Piping Class
Table 3.7.1 Piping Class - UK Standards
Area of
Design
Seamless
Welded seam
LPGITA22
Acceptability is
given for a
comprehensive
range of service
conditions
HSE HS(G)34
No specific
requirements
IP part 9
Acceptability is
given for specific
size, material and
service
temperature
combinations
Table 3.7.2 Piping Class - USA Standards
Area of
Design
Seamless
Welded seam
API 2510
Specific
requirements and
prohibitions
including for
particular methods
of welding.
NFPA59
No specific
requirements.
NFPA58
No specific
requirements.
ASME/ANSI
B31.3
Detailed coverage
of all classes
without specific
reference to LPG
applications.
Table 3.7.3 Piping Class - French and German Standards
Area of
Design
Seamless
Welded
Arrt of 9/11/72
No specific requirements
SNCT Industrial Piping
Code
Detailed coverage of all
classes without specific
reference to LPG
applications.
Niedersachsen document
To conform to particular
AD-Merkbltter and
DIN standards.
51
3.8 Joints and Flanges
Table 3.8.1 Joints and Flanges - UK Standards
Area of
Design
LPGITA 22
HSE HS(G)34 IP part 9
Welded
Flanged
Screwed
Soldered
Brazed
Compression
Fusion (PE)
Swaged (PE)
Acceptability and
detailed guidance
on special
requirements for
specific service
conditions
General guidance General guidance
52
Table 3.8.2 Joints and Flanges - USA Standards
Area of
Design
Welded
Ranged
Screwed
Soldered
Brazed
Compression
Fusion (PE)
Swaged (PE)
API 2510
General guidance
NFPA59
No specific
requirements
NFPA58
General guidance
ASME/ANSI
B31.3
Detailed coverage
of all joints and
flanges without
spcifie reference
to LPG
applications
Table 3.8.3 Joints and Flanges - French and German Standards
Area of
Design
Welded
Flanged
Screwed
Soldered
Brazed
Compression
Fusion (PE)
Swaged (PE)
Arrt of 9/11/72
Screwed joints over 50
mm NS within bunded
areas prohibited unless
seal welded.
Otherwise no specific
requirements.
SNCT Piping Code
General guidance for
joints other than welded
(detailed guidance)
without specific
reference to LPG
applications.
Niedersachsen document
General guidance for
flanged joints with
preference for welded or
hard solder joints over
flanged joints.
53
Table 3.8.4: LPG Pipe Joint Weidneck Flanges Comparison of Flange Thickness
CLASS
ALLOWABLE
PRESSURE
psig
bars gauge
ANSI
300
600
41
Flange Thickness
NOMINAL
PIPE SIZE
Inch
A
1
1.5
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
16
18
minus RF
(-1.5875mm)
mm
B
15.8125
19.0125
20.4125
27.0125
30.1625
34.9125
39.7125
46.0125
49.2125
57.15
60.325
DIN 2635
NP40
580
40
Flange Thickness
OD PIPE
SEE
mm
C
33.7
48.3
60.3
88.9
114.3
168.3
219.1
273
323.9
419
508
minus RF -
(3>4mm)
mm
D
16
16
17
21
21
25
31
35
38
46
48
Flange Thickness Differences
mm
B-D
-0.2
3
3.4
5
9
9.9
8.7
11
11.21
11.15
12.325
CB-DlxlOO
B
%
E
-1.26
15.8
16.7
18.5
29.8
28.3
21.9
29.3
22.8
19.5
20.3
NOMINAL
PIPE SIZE
mm
F
25
40
50
80
100
150
200
250
300
400
500
The ANSI flanges are almost all thicker than DIN for the same pressure rating
3.9 Branches and Connections
Table 3.9.1 Branches and Connections - UK Standards
Area of
Design
-
LPGITA22
No specific
requirements
HSE HS(G)34
No specific
requirements
IP part 9
General guidance
Table 3.9.2 Branches and Connections - USA Standards
Area of
Design

API 2510
No specific
requirements
NFPA59
No specific
requirements
NFPA58
No specific
requirements
ASME/ANSI
B31.3
Detailed coverage
of all aspects of
branches and
connections
without specific
reference to LPG
applications.
54
Table 3.9.3 Branches and Connections - French and German Standards
Area of
Design
Arrt of 9/11/72
No specific requirements
SNCT Piping Code
Detailed coverage of all
aspects of branches and
connections without
specific reference to
LPG applications.
Niedersachsen document
General guidance for
drain and sampling
connections.
3.10 Valves and Fittings
Table 3.10.1 Valves and Fittings - UK Standards
Area of
Design
Emergency
isolation valves
(ETVs)
Hydrostatic relief
valves (HRVs)
Non-return valves
(NRVs)
Excess flow valves
(EFVs)
Elbows
Bends
Tees
Reducers
Transition (steel to
PE)
LPGITA22
General guidance
on provision of
EIVs, EFVs, NRVs
and HRVs. No
specific
requirements for
fittings.
HSE HS(G)34
As for LPGITA 22
with additional
requirement for
HRVs that they not
be located under
vessels or oriented
to endanger access
points.
IPpart 9
As for LPGITA
22
55
Table 3.10.2 Valves and Fittings - USA Standards
Area of
Design
Emergency
isolation valves
(EIVs)
Hydrostatic relief
valves (HRVs)
Non-retum valves
(NRVs)
Excess flow valves
(EFVs)
Elbows
Bends
Tees
Reducers
Transition (steel to
PE)
API 2510
General guidance
on provision of
valves and detailed
guidance on
fittings.
NFPA59
Detailed guidance
for provision of
EIVs, EFVs, NRVs
and HRVs. No
specific
requirements for
fittings.
NFPA58
Detailed specific
requirements for
provision of EIVs,
EFVs, NRVs and
HRVs.
No specific
requirements for
fittings
ASME/ANSI
B31.3
Detailed coverage
of fittings without
specific reference
to LPG
applications.
Valves not
explicitly covered.
Table 3.10.3 Valves and Fittings - French and German Standards
Area of
Design
Emergency isolation
valves (EIVs)
Hydrostatic relief valves
(HRVs)
Non-return valves.
(NRVs)
Excess flow valves
(EFVs)
Elbows
Bends
Tees
Reducers
Transition
(steel to PE)
Arrt of 9/11/72
General guidance on
provision of isolation
valves for flexible hoses.
SNCT Piping Code
Detailed coverage of
fittings without specific
reference to LPG
applications. Valves not
explicitly covered.
Niedersachsen document
Specific requirement for
two remote operated
quick-acting EIVs with
position indication and
manual actuation facility
for one valve for liquid
lines and vapour lines
over 50 mm NS. Also
specific requirement for
isolation valves and
flow restrictions in drain
lines and automatic
isolation/ disconnects in
tanker loading lines.
56
3.11 Expansion Arrangements
Table 3.11.1 Expansion Arrangements - UK Standards
Area of
Design
~
LPGUA 22
General guidance
HSE HS(G)34
No specific
requirements
IP part 9
General guidance
Table 3.11.2 Expansion Arrangements - USA Standards
Area of
Design
API 2510
Detailed guidance
NFPA59
No specific
requirements
NFPA58
No specific
requirements
ASME/ANSI
B31.3
Detailed coverage
of all aspects of
stress calculation,
expansion
flexibility and
support without
specific reference
to LPG
applications.
Table 3.11.3 Expansion Arrangements - French and German Standards
Area of
Design

Arrt of 9/11/72
General guidance
SNCT Piping Code
Detailed coverage of all
aspects of stress
calculation, expansion,
flexibility and support
without specific
reference to LPG
applications.
Niedersachsen document
General guidance for
piping under storage
pressure.
57
3.12 Flexible Piping
Table 3.12.1 Flexible Piping - UK Standards
Area of
Design
-
LPGITA 22
No specific
requirements
HSE HS(G)34
Detailed guidance
IP part 9
Detailed guidance
Table 3.12.2 Flexible Piping - USA Standards
Area of
Design

API 2510
Not covered
NFPA59
Detailed guidance
NFPA58
Detailed specific
requirements
ASME/ANSI
B31.3
Not covered
Table 3.12.3 Flexible Piping - French and German Standards
Area of
Design
-
Arrt of 9/11/72
General guidance
SNCT Piping Code
Not covered
Niedersachsen document
No specific
requirements
58
3.13 Insulation and External Protection
Table 3.13.1 Insulation and External Protection - UK Standards
Area of
Design
Galvanising
Painting
Corrosion
protection
wrapping
Lagging
Fire protection
Backfilling
Cathodic
protection
Annular piping
LPGITA 22
General guidance
on requirements for
specific
applications.
Detailed guidance
on use of corrosion
protection
wrapping.
No specific
requirements on
fire protection.
HSE HS(G)34
General guidance
IP part 9
General guidance
Table 3.13.2 Insulation and External Protection - USA Standards
Area of
Design
Galvanising
Painting
Corrosion
protection
wrapping
Lagging
Fire protection
Backfilling
Cathodic
protection
Annular piping
API 2510
No specific
requirements
NFPA59
No specific
requirements
NFPA58
No specific
requirements
ASMFVANSI
B31.3
Not covered
59
Table 3.133 Insulation and External Protection - French and German Standards
Area of
Design
Galvanising
Painting
Corrosion protection
wrapping
Lagging
Fire protection

Backfilling
Cathodic protection
Annular piping
Arrt of 9/11/72
No specific requirements
SNCT Piping Code
Not covered
Niedersachsen document
Requirement for
fireproofing of non-
fireproof valves and
fittings in line with
TRB 610.
General guidance on
insulation/ heat tracing.
Detailed guidance on
protection of
underground piping to
TRB 600 or TRB 601
specifications.
Otherwise general
guidance.
3.14 Routeing/Layout
Table 3.14.1 Routeing/Layout - UK Standards
Area of
Design
Above ground
Below ground
Wall penetrations
Trenches
Bend radii
Pipebridges
Crossing points
Conduits
LPG1TA22
Detailed guidance
in most areas
HSE HS(G)34
General guidance
IP part 9
General guidance
60
Table 3.14.2 Routeing/Layout - USA Standards
Area of
Design
Above ground
Below ground
Wall penetrations
Trenches
Bend radii
Pipebridges
Crossing points
Conduits
API 2510
General guidance
NFPA59
No specific
requirements
NFPA58
General guidance
ASMWANSI
B31.3
Not covered
_
Table 3.14.3 Routeing and Layout - French and German Standards
Area of
Design
Above ground
Below ground
Wall penetrations
Trenches
Bend radii
Pipebridges
Crossing points
Conduits
Arrt of 9/11/72
General guidance on
subdivision of ducts for
containment of leaks.
General guidance on
pipe crossings and pipe
bridges.
Detailed guidance on
routeing across bunded
areas.
SNCT Piping Code
Not covered.
Niedersachsen document
No specific
requirements.
61
3.15 Supports
Table 3.15.1 Supports - UK Standards
Area of
Design
Self weight
Dynamic forces
Predictable
movement
Unavoidable
movement
Superimposed
loads
LPGUA 22
Figures specified
for maximum
unsupported span
(BS 3974).
General guidance
on provision of
anchors and
supports to avoid
overstressing.
HSE HS(G)34
No specific
requirements.
IP part 9
No specific
requirements.
Table 3.15.2 Supports - USA Standards
Area of
Design
Self weight
Dynamic forces
Predictable
movement
Unavoidable
movement
Superimposed
loads
API 2510
No specific
requirements
NFPA59
No specific
requirements
NFPA58
No specific
requirements
ASMWANSI
B31.3
Detailed coverage
of all aspects of
pipe supporting
without specific
reference to LPG
applications
Table 3.15.3 Supports - French and German Standards
Area of
Design
Self weight
Dynamic forces
Predictable movement
Unavoidable movement
Superimposed loads
Arrt of 9/11/72
General guidance
SNCT Piping Code
Detailed coverage of all
aspects of pipe
supporting without
specific reference to
LPG applications.
Niedersachsen document
No specific
requirements
62
3.16 Installation
Table 3.16.1 Installation - UK Standards
Area of
Design
~
LPGITA22
Detailed guidance
in all aspects of
installations
HSE HS(G)34
General guidance
IP part 9
General guidance
Table 3.16.2 Installation - USA Standards
Area of
Design

API 2510
General guidance
NFPA59
No specific
requirements
NFPA58
Detailed guidance
in most aspects of
installation
ASMS/ANSI
B31.3
Detailed coverage
of all aspects of
installation and
welding without
specific reference
to LPG
applications
Table 3.16.3 Installation - French and German Standards
Area of
Design

Arrt of 9/11/72
No specific
requirements.
SNCT Piping Code
Detailed coverage of all
aspects of installations
and welding without
specific reference to
LPG applications.
Niedersachsen document
No specific
requirements.
63
3.17 Inspection and Testing
Table 3.17.1 Inspection and Testing - UK Standards
Area of
Design
Weld testing
Pressure testing
Leak testing
LPGITA22
References to
relevant British
standards
Specific
requirements
Detailed guidance
HSE HS(G)34
No specific
requirements
IP part 9
No specific
requirements
Table 3.17.2 Inspection and Testing - USA Standards
Area of
Design
Weld testing
Pressure testing
Leak testing
API 2510
No specific
requirements
NFPA59
No specific
requirements
NFPA58
No specific
requirements
ASME/ANSI
B31.3
Detailed coverage
of most aspects of
examination,
inspection and
testing without
specific reference
to LPG
applications
Table 3.17.3 Inspection and Testing - French and German Standards
Area of
Design
Weld testing
Pressure testing
Leak testing
Arrt of 9/11/72
No specific
requirements.
SNCT Piping Code
Detailed coverage of
most aspects of
inspection and testing
without specific
reference to LPG
applications.
Niedersachsen document
Detailed test
requirements are
specified.
64
4.0 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES
4.1 Engineering Standards
The following have been reviewed for pressure relief valve design guidance for LPG
service:-
4.1.1 France
Arrt 9/11/1972
Dpts d'Hydrocarbures Liqufis, Arrt du 9 Novembre 1972, Rgles
d'Amnagement et d'Exploitation.
4.1.2 Germany
Niedersachsen document.
Lower Saxony Ministry for Social Affairs (November 1989) Safety Requirements for
Liquefied Gas Installations.
Note: This is a technical report which is understood to form the basis of a detailed
LPG standard which is currently in preparation. It contains few requirements relating
to pressure relief valves.
4.1.3 Italy
ANCCE
Associazione Nazionale per il Controllo della Combustione (ANCC) "E Collection"
Technical Specifications for the Operation of Pressure Vessels.
Note: Not specific to LPG applications
4.1.4 Netherlands
CPR 8-3
Commissie Preventie van Rampen Gevaarlijke Stojfen 1991 Distributie depots voor
LPG (Butaan, propaan en hun mengsels).
Note: Specific to LPG applications
Regels...
Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk. 19th ed. A1301, July 1991.
4.1.5 United Kingdom
BS 5500
BS 5500 (1991) Specification for Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels
Note: Not specific to LPG applications
65
4.1.6 United States of America
API RP 520
API Recommendation Practice RP 520 (July 1990) Sizing, Selection and Installation
of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries.
Note: Not specific to LPG applications
4.2 Terminology and Definitions
TITLE
Pressure relief valve
Set pressure
Maximum allowable working
pressure (MAWP)
Vessel design pressure
Pressure accumulation
(overpressure)
Accumulated pressure
(maximum relief pressure)
Heat transfer area (fire relief
case)
Environment factor
SYMBOL
Heat input rate (fire relief case)
Latent heat of evaporation
Relief capacity (fire relief case)
PRV
AP
NOTE
M
Generic term for various types
of valves which are used to
relieve pressure
PRV set pressure above which
release will occur
Basis used in API RP-520 for
definition of P
s
and P
R
P
D
< P
M
but effectively
identical for purposes of PRV
design
Pressure increase above P
M
at
design relief condition
P
R
= P
D
+ AP
Area used as basis for
derivation of heat input rate
Factor taking into account
above/below ground location,
insulation, drainage and other
factors affecting heat input rate
Rate of heat input due to
engulfment of vessel by pool
fire
Heat required per unit mass to
boil stored liquid at relief
condition
Mass flow rate of gas due to
boiling of stored liquid
66
4.3 Design Philosophy
The following steps would generally be followed irrespective of the specific standard
in use:
(1) Determine vessel design pressure P
D
on basis of normal operating pressure
(typically 92% of P
D
)
(2) Determine PRV configuration to be used, for example single versus twin
valves, combined operational and fire relief versus separate operational and fire
relief. Bursting discs instead of or in addition to PR Vs.
Note: The French arrt of 9/11/72 has the following requirements:
above 50 m
3
volume: at least two PRVs must be installed, the
combined capacity providing pressure relief
below 50m
3
volume: a single valve is permitted.
operational and fire relief may be provided through the same pressure
relief system or else two independent systems for operational relief and
fire relief must be provided.
(3) Determine set pressure (or pressures) P
s
.
(4) Determine maximum relief pressure P
R
.
(5) Determine heat transfer area A for fire engulfment.
(6) Determine environment factor F.
(7) Derive heat input rate Q.
(8) Derive relief capacity M for fire relief.
(9) Derive effective area for fire relief.
Note: Not considered in this study because input of several parameters
relating to detail design of the system is required, including analysis of
whether critical or sub-critical flow conditions will exist.
(10) Verify fire relief is a worse case than operational relief.
(11) Specify pressure relief system:-
Maximum total relief capacity
Total effective relief area required
Number of PRVs
Set pressures (individual valves)
67
Effective relief areas (individual valves)
Maximum relief pressure
Details of inlet piping and vent/flare header system.
4.4 Design Pressure
The German Niedersachsen document specifically requires a design pressure of 15.6
bar and design temperature of 40C and does not distinguish between propane and
butane. There are otherwise no specific requirements for LPG applications in the
other national standards.
4.5 Set Pressure
The following table summarises the requirements of the different national standards
COUNTRY
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
UK
USA
NOTE
Combined fire and operational relief.
Separate fire relief.
No distinction between first and
second valves
Specific to LPG
No distinction between first and
second valves
Specific to LPG (CPR 8-3)
For > 1 valve, ratio of highest:
lowest set pressure < 1.05 (Regels..)
First valve
Second valve (l)
First valve
Second valve (l)
MAXIMUM P
s
100% P
D
110% P
D
2 bar less than P
D
100% P
D
100% P
D
100% P
D
105% P
D
(2)
100% P
M
105% P
M
(2)
(PM = PD)
Notes
1) The combined capacity of the first and second valves is intended for fire relief
duty.
2) The different set pressures provide progressive operational relief capacity.
68
4.6 Accumulated pressure (maximum relief pressure)
The following table summarises the requirements of the different national standards:
Table 4.6.1
COUNTRY
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
UK
USA
NOTE
Combined fire and
operational relief.
Separate fire relief
-
-
-
-
-
MAXIMUM P
R
110% P
D
115% P
D
No specific requirement
110% P
D
110% P
D
110% P
D
121% P
M
(PM = PD)
4.7 Heat Transfer Area
For USA and UK in API RP-520 and in the French arrt of 9/11/72, this is defined
for both spheres and cylinders as the wetted area up to the lesser of the maximum
horizontal diameter or a vertical height of nominally 8 metres.
4.8 Environmental Factor
This is defined in some detail API RP-520 and in the French arrt of 9/11/72 as a
function of insulation conductance (values less than 1.0). A value of 1.0 is otherwise
recommended. In addition, API RP-520 in effect suggests a factor of 0.6 where
prompt external firefighting efforts and/or drainage away from the area of the vessel
can be assumed. This factor is not contained in the French Arrt however.
The Italian standard ANCC E in effect stipulates 1.0 for no insulation and 0.5 for
"incombustible" insulation. The Dutch code CPR 8-3 permits 0.3 for a buried or
mounded vessel, as does the UK LPG code HSE HS(G)34.
4.9 Heat Input Rate
For USA and UK, for situations where credit for external firefighting efforts and
drainage cannot be assumed, API RP-520 gives Q in BtU/hour as a function of A in
square feet as follows:-
Q = 34500 FA'
0.82
69
The French arrt of 9/11/72 gives the equivalent expression using metric units. The
power of 0.82 for A takes account of partial engulfment due to non-uniform fire
source distribution for larger vessels.
There is no explicit derivation of Q in the Italian standard ANCC E- instead the relief
capacity is calculated directly as a function of F, A and L (refer to Section 4.10.3).
4.10 Relief Capacity
4.10.1 USA
API RP-520 derives the mass flow M as a function of heat input rate Q and latent
heat of evaporation:-
4.10.2 France
The arrt of 9/11/72 derives M, however, according to the expression M = 3Q,
2L
If there is more than one valve, one may be removed from service for maintenance,
provided that the flow capacity remaining in service is at least *7
L
; that is, equal to
the API capacity.
4.10.3 Italy
In effect, for values of the product FA of up to 50m
2
:-
M (kg/hr) = 16000 FA
L(kcal/kg)
For FA greater than 50m
2
:-
M (kg/hr) = 300.000 + 10.000 FA
L (kcal/kg)
The form of these expressions differs from those in Section 4.10.1 and 4.10.2.
4.10.4 Netherlands
The combined relief capacity of the safety valves in operation must be sized to
provide for the volumetric flow at the stated conditions which would result from an
accumulated pressure of 20% above the vessel rated pressure. In practice the
accumulated pressure will not exceed 110% of the rated pressure (see Table 4.6.1).
In the LPG-specific codes CPR 8-3 and also CPR 11-3 for vessels 5-150 m
3
a mass
flow rate is not derived. Instead an expression is given for volumetric flow rate of
LPG at 100 kPa (1.0 bar) and 288 K as a function of heat transfer area (m
2
) which
clearly has a similar basis to API RP-520 in that there is the same dependence on a
power 0.82 of heat transfer area:-
V(m
3
/min) = 10.66 A
082
70
A nominal figure for the density of LPG at the specified conditions will be 2.13 kg/m
3
so:-
M(kg/hr) = V(m
3
/min) x 60(min/hr) x 2.13 (kg/m
3
), nominal
4.10.5 Summary
The following table 4.10.1 summarises for each country the derivation of heat input
rate and relief capacity together with the resulting figures for the 1000 m
3
sphere and
100 m
3
cylinder. A nominal figure of 352 kJ/kg for the latent heat of evaporation has
been assumed and the following nominal dimensions have been assumed for the two
storage vessels:-
Sphere
Capacity 1000 m
3
Ullage 100 m
3
Diameter 14 m
Heat absorption area 308 m
2
Cylinder
Capacity
Ullage
Diameter
Length (overall)
100 m
3
10 m
3
3.8 m
11.4m
Heat absorption area 136 m
2
(total engulfment)
4.11 DIERS
Fire engulfment of LPG tanks can result in some degree of two phase flow or droplet
carryover through the relief valve. Generally, two phase flow requires a larger relief
area than all-vapour flow; relief devices sized for single phase flow may therefore be
inadequate.
The DIERS (Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems) programme of the
American Institute of Chemical Engineers was established to characterise two phase
flow and to promote the development of design methods for emergency relief systems.
Although focused largely on the prediction and venting of flow in reactive systems,
the programme also has relevance to fire engulfment or overheating of LPG vessels
(tanks, vaporisers).
The programme has provided graphical and analytical design methods, direct scaling
of experimental data and computer simulation tools for relief system sizing. It is
understood that the Joint Research Centre is verifying and extending this work.
The results of the DIERS programme have been made available in the DIERS Project
Manual, published by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers in 1991. It is
likely that now such tools are readily available, verified and useable, they will be
adopted in design; API RP 520 refers briefly to DIERS methods where consideration
of multiphase flow is necessary.
71
- J
t o
Table 4.10.1 Relief capacities, rates and discharge areas
COUNTRY
FRANCE
Note 1
GERMANY
ITALY
Note 2
NETHERLANDS
Note 3
UK
USA
Note 4
HEAT INPUT RATE
Q = 37F A
0
*
2
(thermies/hr)
Not covered
Not explicitly derived
Two cases identified:-
( l ) FA<50m
2
(2) FA > 50m
2
Not explicitly derived
As for USA
Q = 34500 FA
0
-
82
(BtU/hr) (ft
2
)
RELIEF CAPACITY
M = 32
2L
Not covered
m M = 16000 FA
(kg/hr) L (kcal/kg)
(2\ M = 300.000 + 10,000 FA
(kg/hr) L (kcal/kg)
V = 10.66 A
0J
(m
3
/tnin)
As for USA
M = Q/L
1000M
3
SPHERE
M = 120 x IO
3
kg/hr
-
M = 40.2 x IO
3
kg/hr
M = 150 x IO
3
kg/hr
As for USA
M = 79.5 x IO
3
kg/hr
OOM
3
CYLINDER
M = 61.4 x IO
3
kg/hr
-
M = 19.7 x IO
3
kg/hr
M = 77 x IO
3
kg/hr
As for USA
M = 40.9 x IO
3
kg/hr
REQUIRED DISCHARGE AREA (cm
2)
1000M
3
SPHERE
86.2
-
28.9
107.8
57.1
57.1
100M
3
CYLINDER
44.1
-
14.2
55.3
29.7
29.7
Note l: The thermie is an archaic unit. The French Arrt of 9/11/72 explicitly refers to API RP-520 as the source of the expression, however, so the USA expression will be used
in deriving the value of Q (Note 4)
N o t e 3 : No g u i d a n c e i s provided by the Dutchode for defining the heat transfer area, A. The value for A given by API RP-520 has been assumed for the purposes of calculating
relief capacity.
Note 4: 1 BtU = 1.055 kJ and 1 ft
2
= 0.0929 m
2
.
5.0 HAZARDOUS AREA CLASSIFICATION
5.1 Engineering Standards
The following have been identified as the most relevant standards for assessment and
comparison for the countries of interest.
United Kingdom
BS 5345 pt 2
British Standard BS 5345 Part 2: Selection, Installation and Maintenance of Electrical
Apparatus for use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres, 1983
IPptl5
Institute of Petroleum Model Code of Safe Practice in the Petroleum Industry, part 15:
Area Classification Code for Petroleum Installations, 1990
HSE HS(G)34
Health and Safety Executive HS/G 34 1987, Storage of LPG at Fixed Installations
For petroleum installations (inclusive of LPG installations), IP pt 15 gives a detailed
and comprehensive explanation of a point-source method for determining the extent
of hazardous areas for fluids giving a heavier than air flammable gaseous release (i.e.
LPG). HSE HS(G)34 gives fixed distances for standard LPG installations. These
have been described in the earlier report EUR 13699 "Comparison of LPG-related
regulations and are not repeated in full here.
United States of America
NFPA58
NFPA 58: Standard for the Storage and Handling of LPG, 1989
NFPA59
NFPA 59: Standard for the Storage and Handling of LPG at Utility Gas Plants, 1989
NFPA 70
NFPA 70 (ANSI): National Electrical Code
API RP 500A
API Recommended Practice RP-500A: Classification of Locations for Electrical
Installations in Petroleum Refineries, 1987
For petroleum installations (inclusive of LPG installations) API RP 500A gives a
detailed explanation of methods for determining the extent of hazardous areas for
fluids giving a heavier than air flammable release (i.e. LPG). It is less detailed and
comprehensive than the UK IP pt 15, however. NFPA 58 and NFPA 59 are specific
to LPG but their recommendations are in line with those of API RP 500A.
73
Germany
ExRL
Explosionsschutz Richlinien (ExRL) (Explosion Protection Guidelines) of the
Berufsgenossenschaft der Chemischen Industrie, 1986
ElexV
Verordnung ber elektrische Anlagen in explosionsgefhrdeten Rumen (ElexV)
(Regulations for Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas), 1980
TRB610
Technische Regeln Druckbehlter TRB 610 (Installation of Pressure Vessels for the
Storage of Gases)
TRB 851
Technische Regeln Druckbehlter TRB 851 (Equipment for filling Pressure Vessels
with Compressed Gases from Compressed Gas Containers)
TRG 401
Technische Regeln Druckgase TRG 401 (Erection of Filling Plant)
ExRL, together with Technical Rules TRB 610, TRB 851 and TRG represent the
"state of the art" for explosion protection in Germany. ExRL implements the statutory
requirements of ElexV, the regulations for equipment in hazardous areas.
France
Arrt 9/11/1972
Rgles d'amnagement et d'exploitation des dpts d'hydrocarbures liqufis;
(catgorie A2); de 1re et de 2me classe. Arrt du 9 novembre 1972
Netherlands
The Netherlands standard "Gevarenzoneindeling met betrekking tot
gasontstekingsgevaar" from the Directoraat-General van de Arbeid (Directorate-
General of Labour) 1989 could not be obtained and has therefore not been assessed.
5.2 Terminology and Definitions
Area Classification
Area classification is the assessed division of a facility into hazardous and non-
hazardous areas, and the sub-division of the hazardous areas into zones.
Flammable Atmosphere
A flammable atmosphere is a mixture of flammable gases or vapours with air in such
proportion that, without any further admixture, will burn when ignited. In the context
74
of area classification, the term "flammable" is synonymous with "explosive."
Sources and Grades of Release
The source of release is a point from which a flammable gas, vapour or liquid may
be released into the atmosphere. Three grades of release are considered, termed
continuous, primary and secondary grade.
Continuous Grade Release: A release that is continuous or nearly so or that occurs
for short periods which occur frequently. Will generally correspond to a Zone 0 area
classification.
Primary Grade Release: A release that is likely to occur periodically or occasionally
in normal operation. Will generally correspond to a Zone 1 classification.
Secondary Grade Release: A release that is unlikely to occur in normal operation and,
in any event, will do so only infrequently and for short periods. Will generally
correspond to a non-hazardous area classification.
Zone Classification
The internationally accepted definitions for the Zone classification of hazardous areas
are:
ZONE 0 A zone in which a flammable atmosphere is continuously present or
present for long periods.
ZONE 1 A zone in which a flammable atmosphere is likely to occur in normal
operation.
ZONE 2 A zone in which a flammable atmosphere is not likely to occur in
normal operation and, if it occurs, will exist only for a short period of
time.
NON-HAZARDOUS
AREA An area in which a flammable atmosphere is not expected to be present
in such quantities as to require special precautions for the construction
and use of apparatus.
Normal conditions are to be taken as real working conditions, taking into account the
precautions that would be taken in a well run plant. Abnormal conditions would not
correspond to catastrophic accidents but to events such as pump gland or pipe gasket
failures.
In the above definitions the provision of adequate ventilation is normally taken into
account. For a given rate of release, the higher the air velocity in the area the
smaller the distance to a safe dilution. However it should be recognised that there will
exist localised areas where the ventilation will be reduced, such as areas enclosed by
walls, roof spaces, pits, trenches, and the like.
75
Both the UK and German Standards accept the above definitions. The USA Standards
refer to Divisions rather than Zones and do not distinguish between Zone 0 and Zone
1. The French Standards likewise recognize only Zone 1 and Zone 2 (referred to as
Zones de types). The scope of study does not, however, cover any equipment in Zone
0, so the definitions of Zone 1 and Zone 2 can be regarded as the same for UK, USA,
Germany and France.
5.3 Area Classification Philosophy
The philosophy of area classification is the assessed division of a facility into zones
in which there may exist a flammable concentration of gas or vapour for a duration.
The zone reference shall provide the basis for the selection of suitably certified
equipment such that the likelihood of an explosion due to the simultaneous occurrence
of a source of ignition and the presence of a flammable atmosphere is negligibly low.
The purpose of hazardous area classification is to avoid ignition of those releases
which may occur from time to time during normal operation and to reduce to an
acceptable minimum the probability of coincidence of a flammable atmosphere and
source of ignition. It is not the intention of area classification to guard against the
ignition of major releases result from catastrophic plant failures; this is addressed in
the more general issues of adequate design, construction, layout and operation of
facilities.
5.3.1 UK Area Classification
The general principle used in reference IP pt 15 is to identify every possible point
source of release, then define a hazard radius (corresponding to dilution to below the
flammable limit) in the horizontal direction and various vertical distances (depending
on whether heavier or lighter than air) to define the extent of the hazardous area,
taking into account the amount of ventilation and whether in an open or a sheltered
enclosed location. The zone is then assigned on the basis of the assessed grade of
release for the hazardous area (see section5.2).
IP pt 15 also gives fixed distances for some (non-LPG) petroleum industry
installations of standardised design; for LPG distribution, marketing and user
installations of relatively invariant design it refers the user to fixed distances to be
derived in a forthcoming part of the IP Model Code (not yet available) for LPG
storage, handling and transport in the distribution sector. In the interim, users are
referred to LPGITA and HSE guidance (e.g. HSE HS(G)34) for such distances. IP
distances referred to here are those derived by the point source method.
Hazard radii (LPG)
Process vents at ambient pressure (velocity less than 150 msec'
1
)
less than 10 m
3
/hr, 3 m
10 to 100 m
3
/hr, 7.5 m
100 to 200 m
3
/hr, 15 m
76
Instrument vents
16 mm diameter, 7.5 m
12 mm diameter, 15 m
25 mm diameter, 30 m
Flanges and infrequent use valves 3 m (secondary grade release)
Frequent use valves 0.3 m (primary grade release)
Compressors (distances from periphery)
Below 30 bar
a
7.5 m
Shaft diameter 50 mm or less 7.5 m
Otherwise 15 m
Pumps (distances from periphery)
Standard 30 m
High integrity 7.5 m
Horizontal and vertical extent
For a point source of hazard radius R* located a distance h above ground, two coaxial
cylinders (the first of radius R
t
and height H the second of radius Rj, and height Hj)
are defined for a heavier than air (LPG) release in an open area as per the following
table (distances in metres):-
R*
30
15
7.5
3
1.5
0.3
Ri
30
15
7.5
3
1.5
0.3
R*
15
7.5
7.5
3
1.5
0.3
H,
7.5
7.5
3
3
1.5
0.3
H
2
3
7.5
H! +/ j
H, +h
Hi +Zt
H+
This is illustrated in Figure 5.1.
77
R* = 30m
Note: Height of source
above ground could
equal or exceed 7.5m
H = 7.5m
R* = 15m
Rj= 30m
Note: Height of source
above ground could
equal or exceed 7.5m
R* = 7.5m
*- R = 7.5m
03 < R* <3
R = 15m
R = R*
Figure 5.1 Horizontal and Vertical Extent of Hazardous Areas around Points of
Release (IP part 15)
5.3.2 USA Area Classification
The principle used in reference API RP 500A is to identify every possible point source
of release, then define in a similar way to the UK area classification the radial and
horizontal extents of hazardous area. The division (zone) is then assigned on the basis
of whether flammable gases are likely to be present under normal operating
conditions.
For a point source of a heavier than air (LPG) release located in the open at a distance
h above ground, three coaxial cylinders of radius R
lt
R
2
, R
3
and (respectively) H
l9
H
2
,
H
3
are defined as follows:-
R
x
= 7.5 m, Hj = 7.5 m + h
Ra = 15 m, Hj = 7.5 m
R3 = 30 m, H
3
= 0.6 m (large releases only)
This is illustrated in Figure 7.2.
78
Note: Cylinder R
3
/H-applies
to large releases only
Figure 5.2 Horizontal and Vertical Extent of Hazardous Area for USA Standard
API RP 500A
5.3.3 French Area Classification
The principle used in the Arrt 9/11/1972 is to identify every possible point source
of release (for instance a pressure relief valve discharge or the valve connecting an
articulated loading arm to a transportable pressure vessel), then as a function of
storage capacity define a spherical or cylindrical volume with reference to each release
point. A comprehensive set of examples is annexed to the Arrt of 9/11/1972 to give
guidance in interpretation. For quantities of LPG greater than 70m
3
(as is appropriate
to the 100m
3
cylinder and 1000m
3
sphere cases which are of interest) and for a
flammable gas which is heavier than air (covering LPG):-
Zone 1
Sphere of radius 5m about the pressure relief valve discharge point for up to and
including 200m
3
storage capacity. Sphere of radius 15m about the pressure relief
valve discharge point for over 200m
3
storage capacity. Cylinder of 10m radius and
upper surface at 10m elevation above loading valve on transportable pressure vessel,
extending down to ground level.
79
Zone 2
For up to and including 200m
3
capacity for all potential points of release two cylinders
extending down to ground level, the first of radius 7.5m and the second of radius 15m.
Upper surface of first cylinder at 7.5m elevation above point of discharge and upper
surface of second at 7.5m above ground.
For over 200m
3
capacity for all potential points of release three cylinders extending
down to ground level, the first of radius 7.5m, the second of radius 15m and the third
of radius 25m. Upper surface of first cylinder at 7.5m elevation above point of
discharge, upper surface of second at 7.5m above ground and upper surface of third
at 0.6 m elevation above ground. This is illustrated in Figure 5.3.
3
For fixed vessels of 70-200m zone 1 extends
for a sphere of 5m radius around the valves.
For fixed vessels > 200m3, zone 1 extends
for a sphere of 15m radius.
Cylinder R/H-applies
to vessels > 200m3 only
Figure 5.3 Horizontal and Vertical Extent of Zone 2 Hazardous Area for French Code
80
5.3.4 German Area Classification
The principle used in reference ExRL is essentially the same as the French approach,
in that every potential point source of release associated with a pressure vessel is
identified (effectively all valves, including pressure relief valves) then, as a function
of storage capacity, to define a horizontal radial hazard distance outward with relation
to each point of release.
For a flammable, heavier than air gas (covering LPG) the vertical extent is defined as
that of a cone with its apex at one metre above the potential point of release,
extending to the ground circle defined above. This is illustrated in Figure 5.4.
A comprehensive set of examples is attached to ExRL, giving guidance on
interpretation and zone classification. The ElexV, TRB 610, TRB 851 and TRG 401
also provide for limiting the horizontal extent by means of impervious walls to prevent
spread of gas. There appears to be little detailed guidance on zone classification of
hazardous areas in terms of grade of release and ventilation.
R (See Table 5.4.1)
Figure 5.4 Horizontal and Vertical Extent of Hazardous Area for German Standards
81
5.4 Pressure Vessels
UK
From HSE HS(G)34: Zone 1 classification within 1.5 m from the shell and all
connections, Zone 2 classification up to 1.5 m above ground level.
USA
Zone 2 (Division 2) within 4.5 m from the shell of unrefrigerated vessels together with
all connections (NFPA 58, 59, API RP 500A)
France
Hazardous areas, as distinct from separation distances, do not appear to be covered for
pressure vessels in Arrt 9/11/1972.
Germany
Horizontal extent:-
The following table summarises the horizontal radius of the hazardous area around
valves (including pressure relief valves) attached to above-ground pressure vessels as
a function of the inventory volume:-
Table 5.4.1
Volume
(m
3
)
Radius
(m)
Up to
5
5
From
5 to
100
10
From
100
to
500
15
From
500
to
1000
20
From
1000
to
3000
25
Over
3000
30
In addition, where there are no valves a distance of half the above distance applies
from the outer surface of the vessel. For underground pressure vessels the following
distances apply from valves located in the access shaft:-
Table 5.4.2
Volume
(m
3
)
Radius (m)
Up to
10
3
From
10 to
100
5
From
100 to
5000
10
Over
5000
15
82
Vertical extent:-
For both the above the vertical extent of the hazardous area is defined as that of a
cone starting from a point one metre above the valve (or ground level if higher) and
extending downwards to the horizontal extent of the hazardous area but not to within
one metre of the exposed surface of the vessel.
5.5 Relief Valve Discharge Points
UK
Prescribed distances in HSE HS(G)34 are as for the USA, except that the zone limit
for vessels smaller than 2.25 m
3
is 3m.
See also section 5.3.1.
USA
Within the direct path of discharge no electrical equipment is allowed.
1.5 m around the point is classified as zone 1 (division 1)
1.5-4.6m around the point is to be classified as zone 2 (division 2)
All the US codes have similar provisions.
FRANCE
The French definitions for the extent of Zone 1 and Zone 2 areas around pressure
relief valve discharge points are given in Section 5.3.3.
GERMANY
Hazardous areas around pressure relief valve discharge points do not appear to be
specifically covered in the ExRL, TRB 610, TRG 851, TRB 401 but would appear to
be treated in the same way as any other point of release (refer to Section 5.3.4 and
Table 5.4.1)
5.6 Loading/Unloading Areas
UK
As for the USA (except for vessels of less than 2.25 m
3
capacity), according to HSE
HS(G)34.
See also section 5.3.1.
83
USA
1.5 m radius sphere around all connecting points is classified as Zone 1
(Division 1)
Outer sphere of radius 1.5 m to 4.5 m is classified as Zone 2 (division 2),
extending vertically downwards to ground level.
All the US codes have similar provisions
FRANCE
The French definition for the extent of the Zone 1 area surrounding the valves used
for loading/unloading of transportable pressure vessels (transfer via articulated loading
arm or flexible hose) are given in Section 5.3.3, and apply to stores with a total
capacity of 70 m
3
or more.
GERMANY
The hazardous area is defined as a cone starting from a point one metre above the
highest valve, flexible coupling or other potential source of release downwards to a
circle of radius 10m (rigid transfer pipework) or 5m (flexible transfer pipework).
5.7 Pumps and Compressors
UK
As for the USA (except for vessels of capaciaty less than 2.25 m
3
. Also high
standards of pump maintenance allow the zone 1 to be zone 2.
See also section 5.3.1.
USA
For outdoors at or above gound level:
1.5 m in all directions is classified as Zone 1 (Division 1)
1.5 m to 4.5 m in all directions is classified as Zone 2 (Division 2)
FRANCE
3m in all directions is classified as Zone 2.
GERMANY
A horizontal distance of 5m and a vertical distance of lm are specified for pumps.
Zone classification is dependent on particular design features but, for example, if the
cooling airflow from the motor of a pump were directed at the pump (giving locally
intensified ventilation) then Zone 2 would be appropriate (ExRL).
84
5.8 Piping
UK
IP pt 15 considers that continuous piping systems are not sources of release, flanges
are secondary grade sources of release but are primary sources of release when broken
during normal operation (for instance spade changing). A hazard radius of 3 m is
recommended for LPG.
USA
Division 1 (Zone 1) is specified for up to 1.5m radius around potential points of
release.
France
The Arrt 9/11/1972 recommends in absence of national norms in this area the use
of ASTM or API standards.
Germany
Piping systems are not specifically covered in references ExRL, TRB 610, TRG 851,
TRB401.
5.9 Pits and Trenches
UK
Any pit or trench or depression connected to a Zone 1 or Zone 2 area should be
classified as Zone 1. Pumps should not be located in a pit or trench beneath an LPG
storage vessel.
USA
As per UK.
France
Any pit or trench connected to a Zone 1 area or containing a possible leak point
should be classified as Zone 1. A Zone 2 area is identified 3m vertically and
horizontally from the ground level boundaries of the pit or trench.
Germany
Pits and trenches do not appear to be specifically covered in ExRL, TRB 610, TRG
851, TRB 401.
85
6.0 WATER SPRAY SYSTEMS
6.1 Engineering Standards
USA
NFPA15
Water spray fixed systems for fire protection. 1985.
API 2030
Guidelines for the application of water spray systems in the petroleum industry. API
publication 2030. 1st ed. Jan. 1987.
API 2510
Design and construction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) installations. API standard
2510. 6th ed. Apr. 1989.
API 2510A
Fire protection considerations for the design and operation of liquefied petroleum gas
(LPG) storage facilities. API standard 2510A. 1st ed. Apr. 1989.
Of these, the most comprehensive is NFPA 15, and API 2030 often has similar
provisions, or refers to it. The three API codes are referred to in this section only
where they differ from, or add to, the NFPA document.
Germany
Niedersachsen document
Safety requirements for liquefied gas installations. Lower Saxony Ministry for the
Environment. Nov. 1989.
Netherlands
CPR 8-3
Distributiedepots voor LPG (propaan, butaan en hun mengsels). CPR 8-3.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, 1991.
6.2 Spray Heads
6.2.1 Type of head
USA
The general code NFPA 15 does not specify any type except that they would be
"normally open", but they should be selected with due attention to the nature of
hazard, the physical conditions, wind and fire-induced draught etc. The refinery code
87
API 2030 has the same general cautions on design for the application, and warns that
the type of head should not be changed without reconsidering the whole system
configuration. API 2510 specifies open head type for LPG installations.
Germany
The Niedersachsen document contains no specific recommendations.
Netherlands
CPR 8-3 specifies open head type.
6.2.2 Orifice size/outflow pressure
USA
NFPA 15 relates it to the overall configuration of the system. API 2030 and API
2510 specify at least 0.25" (6.2mm) for the nozzle orifice diameter, and notes that
larger nozzles reduce the tendency for clogging. None of the US codes gives an
outflow pressure or flow rate for individual nozzles per se; NFPA 15 does give
details, with sample calculations, of the hydraulic calculations required for the overall
design and rating of the system; API 2030 refers to this.
Germany
Not specified.
Netherlands
CPR 8-3 gives an orifice size of at least 6mm, a flow at the outlet of at least 15 m/s,
and an effective water pressure immediately upstream of the spray head of 150-350
kPA (1.5-3.5 bar).
6.2.3 Spray angle, configuration and height from surface
USA
NFPA 15 gives considerable latitude in the overall design of the spray head system
provided proper coverage is ensured and makes no quantitative recommendations; API
2030 similarly. Both point out that the effective range of the spray is limited by the
initial water velocity and the droplet size. API 2510/2510A do not specify these,
except the general requirement for even and sufficient coverage with allowance for
rundown.
Germany
There must be a 50% overlap between the coverage of adjacent spray cones.
88
Netherlands
The spray angle must be 60-120 and the height above the object 0.4-0.7m, the exact
combination of separation, height and spray angle to be selected to provide even
coverage.
6.2.4 Observations on recommendations for spray heads
The NFPA 15 code, which is not restricted to LPG applications, places the onus on
the designer within the overall context of the system in question and advises on
factors affecting performance which must be taken into account The Dutch code is
the most prescriptive. The German one is the only one to specify the overlap between
spray patterns. Where the codes specify head type, they all mention open type ones.
The warning against changing head type without consideration of the whole system
design is worth noting (API 2510).
6.3 Pipework and Distribution Systems
This comprises the section between the water supply and the spray head.
6.3.1 Piping materials and corrosion protection
USA
NFPA 15 provides the most complete coverage of this. Various steels (ASTM
standards) are acceptable. They are to be galvanised (with certain stated exceptions
for particular corrosion environments). Other piping may be used where tested and
inspected as suitable. Recommended wall thicknesses are given. API 2030 mentions
that where there is a danger of explosion, for piping over 2" (5cm) diameter, welding
should be considered for pipe joints. API 2030 and NFPA 15 also note that exposed
threaded ends of galvanised pipe should be protected from corrosion. NFPA 15 has
a general requirement for corrosion protection for out-of-doors or corrosive
atmosphere equipment.
Germany
The Niedersachsen document does not specify or recommend piping materials.
Netherlands
CPR 8-3 requires that steel piping to the spray heads must be hot dip galvanised
internally and externally. Steel pipe in the distribution system must be internally hot
dip galvanised and externally protected against corrosion. Fittings must also be
galvanised.
89
6.3.2 Piping dimensions and design pressure
USA
In NFPA 15, this will depend on the sizing as determined by the hydraulic
calculations given in the code, but shall not be less than 1" (25.4mm) nominal
diameter. API 2030 states that pipes and fittings should be able to withstand a
working pressure of at least 175 psi (1207 kPa). API 2510 states that main water
distribution lines should have a diameter of at least 3" (76 mm). Pipes to spray heads
should be not less than
3
/
4
" in diameter. API 2510 advises the use of oversize piping
for specific calculated flow rates, to provide for the gradual reduction by corrosion and
scaling of the effective internal diameter.
Germany
Not specified, but piping must be designed for the maximum possible application rate.
Netherlands
Diameter of the line to the spray heads should be such that the water velocity is at
least 5 m/s (to prevent clogging/scaling).
6.3.3 Pipe fittings
USA
NFPA 15 gives detailed requirements for joints, threaded and grooved fittings and
joints where permissible, and welded connections, including welder qualifications. API
2030 refers to NFPA 15; both mention that rubber-gasketted fittings may be used in
automatic systems to connect piping.
Germany
Not specified in the Niedersachsen document.
Netherlands
CPR 8-3 states that fittings should be hot-dip galvanised.
6.3.4 Strainers
Clogging in water spray systems can seriously affect system performance. It can arise
from externally-derived debris or from scale generated within the system. Regular
flushing for maintenance and the installation of strainers are used to overcome this,
as well as adequate nozzle size and water pressure. Strainers must operate without
diminution of operating pressure in the system arising either by clogging of the
strainer itself or by frictional losses induced by a small mesh.
90
USA
NFPA 15 gives general requirements for the placing and suitability of strainers. For
"pipelines" (water supply pipes), a mesh of V
8
" (3.2mm) is generally sufficient;
strainers should incorporate a flushout connection accessible during an emergency.
Strainers should also be provided for water pipes less than
3
/
8
" (9.5mm) or if the
system is otherwise likely to containing potentially obstructive material.
Strainers should also be provided at each nozzle if the water passageway is less than
7
8
"(3.2mm).
Provisions of API 2030 are essentially those of NFPA 15. It states that the strainer
is normally to be located upstream of the control valves.
API 2510 recommends a strainer in the main feeder line, with a maximum opening
of V4". A full size bypass valve is to be provided. Strainers for individual nozzles are
not stipulated; increasing nozzle orifice size to reduce clogging is mentioned.
Germany
The Niedersachsen document mentions filtering of the supply to prevent clogging.
Netherlands
There must be a strainer of nominal mesh diameter of not more than 3mm in the
distribution system. Provisions are also given for keeping debris out of the inlet to
the main water pumps.
6.3.5 Pipe stress and supports
USA
NFPA 15 states that system piping is to be supported such that integrity is maintained
under fire conditions. Hangers must be suitably corrosion protected. Precautions are
given concerning the use of existing structures or equipment as supports. Piping may
be self supporting provided its strength is adequate. API 2510A refers to the fire
protection of the piping supports themselves.
Germany
To maintain flow, pipes must not distort under fire conditions.
Netherlands
The piping must be able to withstand the maximum expected internal and external
loads, pressure, vibrations and subsidence. No specific points are made concerning
their fire resistance. The piping system for the spray heads must have a separate
91
supporting structure or can be mounted on the protected equipment. The main water
supply line(s) can form part of the supporting structure.
6.3.6 Pumps
USA
NFPA 15 considers water supply in general but does not cover pumps as such. There
is a separate standard for fire pumps: NFPA 20: Installation of centrifugal fire pumps,
to which NFPA 15 refers. Pump availability, redundancy, power supply etc are not
covered by NFPA 15. The API standards referred to generally in this section do not
cover pumps either.
NFPA 20 gives detailed requirements for water supplies, suction, discharge and
auxiliary equipment, power supplies, pump drives (electric, diesel, steam turbine)and
their accessories, and acceptance, testing, maintenance and installation.
Germany
The pumps must supply the necessary amount of water immediately from a standstill.
Full back-up (redundancy) is required if one pump fails. The electrical supply for the
pumps must remain in operation in the case of danger, and may not be connected to
the installation's emergency electrical cut-out Electrical supplies must be available
from the emergency power supply.
Netherlands
CPR 8-3 contains detailed provisions for pumps and their drives. The pump system
must be such that the required quantity of water is ensured with one pump out of
action; in suitable circumstances a reserve or mobile pump is sufficient for this.
Either diesel or electric pumps are acceptable; electric pumps must have a separate
supply from the rest of the installation, with the pump motor being connected above
the installation's main switch. There must be an emergency power supply. For diesel
pumps detailed arrangements to assure their starting are given. Pumps must be located
in "Area B" - that is more than 15m from a location where LPG is present or can
escape. Measures are specified for ensuring the pump is filled if it is located at a
higher level than its water supply.
6.3.7 Draining/frost protection
USA
NFPA 15 requires drain connectors to be fitted to low points in piping systems. There
is no explicit requirement that the system be kept empty, though when selecting piping
material the consequences of water admission to 'heated dry piping should be
considered. API 2030 indicates that piping downstream of the control valve should
normally be dry, with provisions for draining. Low points and dead ends that require
92
drains should be avoided as far as possible. API 2510 also mentions the need for low
point drain connections.
API 2510 requires "suitable protection" against freezing.
Germany
Adequacy of supply of water supply in freezing conditions must be assured.
Netherlands
Above-ground pipework and any other non-frost-free parts of the installation must be
kept dry to guard against freezing, and fitted at the lowest point with drain
connections with openings of at least 3mm. In "Area A" - within 15m of a location
in which LPG is present or may escape - there should be no dead ends which can give
rise to steam in a fire. Precautions are also given to guard against freezing of the
main water store for the installation. Water in the distribution system should be at at
least 4C.
6.3.8 Observations on recommendations for pipework and distribution systems
Only the NFP A 15 code gives detailed requirements for the engineering of pipework
and fittings (materials, thicknesses etc), as well as corrosion protection and supports.
The Netherlands has a general emphasis on the corrosion protection and integrity of
piping under operating and emergency conditions.
Concerning clogging, all the codes have a requirement for strainers to be fitted in the
system. The Dutch code requires maintenance of a fixed water velocity at the spray
head to guard against clogging. The NFPA code emphasises provisions and procedures
for flushout during maintenance. Only the US codes require bypass valves for
strainers, and require strainers for individual nozzles if they are small. An interesting
point is that NFPA 2510 suggests: provision of oversize piping initially to allow for
scaring and corrosion.
Of the LPG codes, only the Netherlands CPR 8-3 has detailed requirements for the
pumps and their reliable operation though the German code covers requirements for
pump availability. For the US, NFPA 20 has detailed provisions for firewater pumps
in general.
All the codes mention precautions against freezing - the Netherlands the most detailed
- and those other than the German, the keeping of at least the distribution part of the
system dry and drained.
6.4 Water Reserves
The codes all give requirements generally for the adequacy of supply for all the
firewater systems for cooling and fire attack, including fixed monitors, hose streams
93
etc, as integral with the supply for any water spray systems fitted. There may,
however, be certain special requirements for water spray systems. There is in all the
codes an explicit provision that the water supply and spray system shall be able to
deliver water at the full flow rate and pressure for the required duration.
6.4.1 Means of supply
USA
NFP A 15 states that supply for water spray systems may come from connection to the
"waterworks system" (a dedicated firewater supply to the installation?) ; gravity tanks,
or in special circumstances (small or remote installations) pressure tanks; or fire
pumps with an adequate supply. Provision shall be made for augmentation from fire
department connections if the water supply is marginal or other need arises. The
supply can also be supplemented from the installation's service water, or from the
public supply; in these cases hazards to operational safety or to the public supply by
contamination must be considered. Suitably designed recycle systems are acceptable,
with due regard to the hazards from the materials in the plant. For LPG this would
be the risk of vapour ingress to the system.
Germany
The Niedersachsen document mentions the public water supply or a dedicated
reservoir as examples of means for the supply of fire water for the water spray system.
A connection for the fire brigade's supply must also be provided. Recycling systems
must have precautions against gas ingress.
Netherlands
The general fire water supply for the installation may be from the installation's own
supply (with suitable pump), from mobile apparatus of the plant and/or the fire
brigade, or a combination, but the water spray must be supplied from the installation's
own supply, to ensure immediate availability. This may be a covered reservoir of
clean water, an open basin, or boreholes. More detailed requirements for the size,
design and operation are given.
6.4.2 Size and partitioning of water spray installations
USA.
NFPA 15 states that the system should be designed to cope with what is in effect a
"reasonable worst case" scenario; it is assumed that a large system will be sectioned
and that it is unlikely that all sections' systems would need to operate simultaneously.
Separate fire areas are to be covered by separate systems. The fire areas are to be
divided by fire walls, physical barriers, spatial separation. The maximum demand
would normally be based on the largest total for one separate system together with its
adjacent systems. Single systems shall be as small as practicable.
94
API 2030 divides the installation on a similar basis to NFPA 15, and in addition states
that a single system should be limited in size so that its design discharge rate at the
required minimum pressure for effective spray shall not exceed 113501/min (3000 US
gallons/min.) The initial design capacity is to be lower (no greater than 8316 1/min);
the difference allows for revision and expansion of the system.
API 2510 - the LPG-specific code - states that the capacity of the system should be
equal to that of the largest vessel, plus adjacent vessels, plus reserve capacity for
three additional cooling streams. The system may be sectioned. The grid should also
be designed such that half the rate required by the single largest incident is still
available if one section of the fire main is lost. Sufficient isolation valves should be
supplied to prevent loss of the grid due to a single break.
Germany
No specific provisions.
Netherlands
The system may be sectioned. A section must have simultaneous activation of the
water spray for above ground vessels and extend as far as the consequences of the fire
may be felt These consequence distances are defined elsewhere in the code for a fire
in neighbouring stores of flammable liquids or solids (thermal radiation criterion) and
for an LPG fire at a vessel connection, pipe, or loading/unloading points (jet flame
length criterion).
6.4.3 Reserves and duration
USA
NFPA 15 states that the duration of the flow is "a matter for engineering judgement".
API 2030, makes no specific recommendations. API 2510, for LPG requires 100% of
design capacity for at least 4 hours. Water should be provided within 60 seconds of
activation and the system should reach its rated capacity within 10 minutes.
Germany
2 hours' supply must be available. Activation must occur "immediately" and "the
protective effect" should also be available "immediately" after fire breaks out.
Netherlands
There should be sufficient water reserves for 2 hours' operation. Within that time, a
supply must be built up that provides for unlimited duration operation. Water shall
be available from the spray heads within 1 minute.
95
6.4.4 Observations on water reserves
Only the Dutch code specifies that the supply must be exclusively the installation's
own; other codes allow for the public supply or fire brigade sources to contribute.
Only the US code API 2150 explicitly provides for the maintenance of flow in the
event of failure of part of the supply grid.
The basis for sectioning the system varies. The US codes define fire areas to be
covered by a "system", i.e. section of the whole water spray installation, and base the
demand on an area plus adjacent areas; for the LPG specific code the vessel is in
effect treated as an area. The Netherlands bases the sections on the area affected by
a fire at a given location. The areas resulting in both cases are likely to be separated
by physical barriers such as fire walls, separation distances, or dikes. The German
code does not mention sectioning.
The Netherlands has the most stringent requirement for reserves, with a specification
for unlimited duration operation. Despite this requirement, the Dutch code does not
specifically mention, unlike the US and German codes, recycling of firewater.
6.5 Detection and actuation system
6.5.1 USA
NFPA 15 contains various provisions for the suitability, design and arrangement of
detection systems for water spray installations generally (and particularly for automatic
systems), together with precautions against damage, corrosion and the like. Generally,
detection systems shall be fail safe - that is, failure will result in positive notification,
or in the case of automatic systems, actuation. There are no recommendations in
NFPA 15 on the manual or automatic actuation of systems for LPG installations
specifically.
Each system shall be provided with a shutoff valve accessible during a fire or
emergency, which shall be normally locked open or otherwise ensured open.
No specific types of fire or flammable gas detector for water spray systems are
recommended, although general requirements for the arrangement of the detection
system are given. Reference is made to other NFPA standards, particularly 72E:
Standard on automatic fire detectors. NFPA 72E gives general requirements for
different types of heat, gas and smoke detectors, and their maintenance and testing,
though its provisions on arrangement of detectors refers mainly to enclosed spaces.
API 2030 states that actuation of water spray systems may be manual or automatic.
The main control valve, which allows water to enter the dry part of the system, may
be either automatic or manual. It should be located at least 12-15m from the
equipment being protected. Automatic actuation may be achieved by means of
detectors of various kinds; automatic systems should be fitted with manual tripping
96
systems and an indication of the system's actuated status is to be provided. Two
forms of manual actuation are available: with a remotely-operated separate control
valve (separate from the main shutoff valve), or, if there is no control valve, manual
operation of the main shutoff valve.
API 2510 and 2510A - specific to LPG installations - regard automatic detection and
actuation systems very much as an option only for remote facilities or those with
limited manpower; "...the need for such devices for attended facilities to be evaluated
on a case-by-case basis". Actuation should be announced by an alarm at an attended
location. Generally the system shall be manually operated from outside the spill area
and at least 50 ft (15m) from the vessel. Remotely operable valves shall have full
manual bypass. Automatic systems should be actuated by heat- or flame-detecting
devices. Hydrocarbon vapour detectors should not normally actuate the water spray
because "this may result in a large vapour cloud" in the absence of ignition. If they
do, for example at unmanned installations, this should be based on the response of
more than a single detector. No particular recommendations on type or arrangement
of the detection systems are given.
Germany
The water spray shall actuate immediately (at full rate), redundantly and automatically
when fire occurs. No recommendations are made for the types of fire or heat
detectors to be employed or on their locations or arrangement, though
recommendations are made concerning gas detectors for the plant generally. It is not
suggested that plant ESD, which should operate on receipt of main gas alarm, should
actuate the water spray system.
Netherlands
In the vicinity of loading areas, pumps, compressors and vessel connections, fire must
be detected automatically. This must actuate the whole water spray section where the
fire is located. If the water spray is not sectioned, it must also be actuated by the
ESD system. The main shutoff valve for the water spray systems must be opened
automatically by the fire detection system. Suggestions for a suitable type of heat
detecting system are given in the appendix, although any other system of suitable
safety and reliability is acceptable. This system is based on temperature sensitive
heads which control an inert gas or air pilot system. The response of one detector
should set the system into operation.
6.5.2 Observations on recommendations for detection and actuation systems
There is an apparent reluctance in the US codes to have automatically actuated water
spray systems except for remote or low-manned facilities, whereas the Dutch and
German codes require automatic actuation. Although the German and Dutch codes
refer to fire detection, the Dutch code mentions specifically heat detectors operating
at 68C and the German code does not mention any particular type. The gas
detection system (outside the scope of this study) would not normally actuate the
water spray except:
97
a) on actuation of the plant ESD by the gas detection system where the water
spray is not sectioned (Netherlands)
b) where the detection system is based on the response of more than one
hydrocarbon vapour detector - normally only at an unmanned installation (USA
API 2510A).
Both the USA (NFPA 15) and the Dutch code require explicitly that detection systems
be fail-safe.
98
7.0 SUMMARY
7.1 Pressure Vessels
7.1.1 Pressure vessel design codes for the UK, USA, France and Germany have been
reviewed and described in detail in section 2.0. Each code is directed at ensuring a
safe design, and each covers in similar level of detail the key aspects of design
relating to safety. These are documentation requirements (effectively quality assurance
requirements), materials selection, mechanical properties, details of construction,
welding, wall thickness and testing. All the codes require materials to be certified
regarding chemical composition and mechanical properties. All require pressure
strength testing to a stress below the nominal yield point of the material of
construction.
7.1.2 Approach
BS 5500, DruckbehV/D-Merkbltter and COD AP require a level of technical
sophistication in all stages of design, fabrication and inspection that is not specified
in ASME Section VIE Division 1. It is certainly required, however in Division 2 of
the ASME code, but the US LPG codes restrict design to part 1 of the code.
ASME Section Vm Division 1 is comparatively straightforward to follow, as is BS
5500 and CODAP. There is so single point reference in the German system; the
DruckbehV itself contains only basic regulations and it is necessary to proceed through
the TRBs (Technical Rules for Pressure Vessels) and from there into the AD-
Merkbltter and DIN standards.
7.1.3 Philosophy
The use of ASME Section VOI Division 1 results in significantly thicker-walled
vessels than those designed to the French, German or British codes.
It can be argued that the thinner the vessel, within limits, the better the quality of the
material, the better the welds, the bettr the non-destructive examinations of the welds
(i.e. radiographs) and the better the finished quality of the pressure vessel.
However, for a given design pressure, if the working stresses are high in a vessel
subjected to widely fluctuating internal temperature, failure may occur due to fatigue.
ASME VIU Division 1 vessels are most unlikely to fail due to fatigue since the
nominal design stress is one quarter of the ultimate tensile strength.
LPG storage vessels normally contain a liquid at a steady working pressure throughout
their service life. Consequently, fatigue is not normally a consideration in their
design. Hence LPG storage vessels designed to relatively high nominal working
stresses, such as are allowed in BS 5500, the German code and CODAP, are accepted
in industry.
99
7.1.4 Major differences
ASME Section VIU Division 1 pressure vessels are not only significantly thicker and
heavier than those of the other codes, but, as the stresses are comparatively low, the
former do not usually need to be checked against the effects of pressure cycling
causing fatigue damage or failure.
Pressure vessels designed with a factor of safety of only 2.35 or 2.4 to the ultimate
tensile strength should always be checked against the possibility of fatigue failure.
LPG storage vessels may be considered as sufficiently steady pressure service to be
regarded as acceptable.
7.2 Pressure Piping
7.2.1 The category, country and overall level of detail of the various standards relevant to
the design of piping systems for pressurised LPG installations may be summarised as
follows:
Table 7.2.1
Category
General Piping
Design Standards
for Petrochemical
Installations (not
LPG-specific)
Design Standards
for LPG
Installations
covering Piping
Country
UK
USA
France
Germany
UK
USA
France
Germany
Standard
ASME/ANSI B31.3
with EEMUA 153
supplement
ASME/ANSI B31.3
SNCT code
various
LPGITA 22
HSE HS(G)34
IPpt.9
NFPA58
NFPA59
API 2510
Arrt 9/11/1972
Niedersachsen
document
Overall Level
Detailed
Detailed
Detailed
Note 1
Detailed
General
General
Detailed
Detailed
General
General
General
Note 1: German piping design is standardised under a multiplicity of Technical Rules,
Datasheets and DIN standards.
100
7.2.2 A detailed comparison between the numerous standards referenced for detailed
aspects of design by the LPG-specific standards (refer to Appendix E) has not been
attempted.
7.2.3 As is the case for vessels, there is no single point reference to the German system.
Various categories of Technical Rules lead in to datasheets (Merkbltter) and DIN
standards.
7.2.4 LPG piping design to German and French standards appears to be markedly less
accessible than for UK or USA standards because there are no equivalents to the
LPG standards LPGITA 22, NFPA 58 and NFPA 59 to give detailed guidance to
the designer. The French arrt of 9/11/1972 and the Niedersachsen document give
some limited general guidance.
7.2.5 For general petrochemical piping design, the concept of "safeguarding" is contained
in ASME/ANSI B31.3, whereby appropriate engineering features, layout features
and operating features are to be specified to protect against specific hazards
associated with the fluid to be contained. This concept does not, however, appear
to be contained in the equivalent French SNCT code.
7.2.6 This "safeguarding" concept is applied in the UK and USA LPG standards by
specifying with varying levels of comprehensiveness and detail by such features as
Emergency Isolation Valves (EIVs), Excess Row Valves (EFVs), Hydrostatic Relief
Valves (HRVs), Non-return Valves (NRVs) and breakaway couplings.
7.2.7 Isolation requirements for drain lines are important because failure to close off such
a line (typically due to icing resulting from flashing-off of pressurised LPG)
represents a significant hazard. These are covered in considerable detail in API
2510 and HSE HS(G)34.
7.2.8 Polyethylene or other thermoplastic pipe for above-ground flammable service is
prohibited by ASME/ANSI B31.3. This is not stated explicitly, however, in the
other LPG standards.
7.2.9 Cast iron is excluded from most petrochemical piping applications.
7.2.10 DIN pipe flanges are around 20% thinner than comparable USA/UK bolted pipe
joint flanges for LPG service.
7.2.11 DIN pipe sizes are based on the dimensions of the outside diameter of the pipe,
whereas USA standard pipe sizes are based on the inside diameter up to and
including 12 inch size.
101
7.3 Pressure Relief Valves
7.3.1 The fire relief duty expressed in terms of mass flowrate M and maximum relief
pressure P
R
will be different according to the national standard used. The following
two tables summarise for the two reference cases the fire relief duties and also give
an indicative order (expressed in percentage ratio to the largest) for the effective relief
area, which will be approximately proportional to M and inversely proportional to P
R
:-
Table 7.3.11000m
3
Sphere Relief Duty
Country
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
UK
USA
Max. Relief
Pressure P
R
110% P
D
(combined)
115% P
D
(separate)

110% P
D
110% P
D
110% P
D
121% P
D
Relief Capacity
M(kg/hr)
120 x 10
3
120 x 10
3

40.2 x 10
3
150 x 10
3
79.5 x 10
3
79.5 x 10
3
Effective Relief
Area Ratio
(Indicative)
100%
96%

33%
125%
66%
60%
Table 7.3.2 100m
3
Cylinder Relief Duty
Country
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
UK
USA
Max. Relief
Pressure P*
110% P
D
(combined)
115% P
D
(separate)
--
110% P
D
110% P
D
110% P
D
121% P
D
Relief Capacity
M(kg/hr)
61.4 x 10
3
61.4 x 10
3

19.7 x 10
3
77 x10
s
40.9 x 10
3
40.9 x 10
3
Effective Relief
Area Ratio
(Indicative)
100%
96%

33%
125%
66%
60%
102
7.3.2 There are clearly large discrepancies between the various national standards in terms
of the effective relief area which would be derived. It would appear, on an indicative
basis, that the largest relief area would be given by the French standard, assuming
combined fire and operational relief duty. The UK standard would give 66% of this
area, the USA standard 60% and the Italian standard only 33%. The Dutch standard,
when combined with the API method for determining the heat transfer area, is even
more conservative than the French; however no guidance is given in the Dutch
standard as to how the heat transfer area may be derived.
7.4 Hazardous Area Classification
7.4.1 All the countries - USA, UK, Germany and France - adopt a system of protection
against ignition of operational (rather than catastrophic) releases by means of
specifying 2 or more zones (divisions in the USA) in which electrical equipment, if
allowed at all, must be specially qualified to minimise or avoid ignition. The zones
are based on the probability of the occurrence of flammable atmospheres, with
ventilation taken into account.
7.4.2 The codes examined relate either to the petroleum or other hazardous industry
installations, or specifically to LPG installations. All of them define, from the release
points, distances which give the extent of the hazardous area. The German codes, and
the UK and US petroleum industry codes (IP part 15 and API RP 500A) give latitude
to the designer in the allocation of spaces within the hazardous area to particular
zones, but give guidance on how to do so. The UK and the US LPG codes - HSE
HS(G)34, NFPA 58 and 59, and API 2510 - and the French codes, all prescribe fixed
distances for the extent of zone 1 and zone 2 for various LPG facilities. The UK HSE
code follows the US codes closely.
7.4.3 The US petroleum industry code API RP 500A and the French Arrt give similar
distances for open air release points such as vessel valves; the US code is slightly
more conservative for larger releases/vessels. The German code is next, and the US
code the least conservative and for the release rates considered assumes no
accumulation towards ground level.
7.4.4 The UK and USA LPG codes have the most comprehensive coverage of fixed zone
distances for specific equipment and give similar distances. Otherwise there is little
consistency for specific plant items.
7.4.5 Tables 7.4.1 and 7.4.2 and the corresponding figures 7.1 and 7.2 summarise the
horizontal and vertical extent of the hazardous areas defined around a 100 m
3
cylinder
and a 1000 m
3
sphere, each with a pressure relief valve at a height h above the
ground. The relief rate is assumed nominally to be in the range 10-100 m
3
/hr for the
cylinder and 100-200 m
3
/hr for the sphere.
103
Table 7.4.1 100 m
3
Cylinder
Country
UK
USA
Germany
France
First Cylinder
H = /i + 3m
R = 7.5 m
H = h + 7.5 m
R = 7.5 m
N/A
H = h + 7.5 m
R = 7.5 m
Second
Cylinder
H = 3m
R = 7.5 m
H = 7.5 m
R= 15 m
N/A
H = 7.5 m
R = 25m
Third Cylinder
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Cone
(Germany
only)
N/A
N/A
H = /i + 1 m
R= 10 m
N/A
Table 7.4.2 1000 m
3
Sphere
Country
UK
USA
Germany
France
First Cylinder
H = /z + 3m
R= 15 m
H = h + 7.5 m
R = 7.5 m
N/A
H = h + 7.5 m
R = 7.5 m
Second
Cylinder
H = 7.5 m
R = 7.5 m
H = 7.5 m
R= 15 m
N/A
H = 7.5 m
R=15m
Third Cylinder
N/A
H = 0.6 m
R = 30m
N/A
H = 0.6 m
R = 25m
Cone
(Germany
Only)
N/A
N/A
H = /i + l m
R = 20m
N/A
104
(a) UK (IP pt 15)
(b)USA
}15m
lim
7.5m
15m
lim
(c) GERMANY
(d) FRANCE
i .

15m
10m/15m
<
Figure 7.1 Hazardous Area Classification for 100 m
3
Cylinder
(a) UK (IP pt 15) (b) USA
POINT OF 1
RELEASE
3m
rrr:
^7.5m
7.5m
i L _ _
_ J- ->
15m
Jim
15m
30m
17.5m
i l
0.6m
(c) GERMANY
(d) FRANCE
1
1
I r ower
BAJUU
J
1
1
1 1 1
1 1 1
1
i _ J *
' f >
T7Ji

4
_ _ _ 7 . 5 m
"
1
1
i
' i
a
i
h
, X 0.6m
25m
7m
15m
Figure 7.2 Hazardous Area Classification for 1000 m
3
Sphere
105
7.5 Water Spray Systems
7.5.1 USA
In the USA water spray system design and operation for all kinds of facilities is
covered by NFPA 15. The petroleum industry code API 2030 echoes many of its
provisions in an abbreviated and less detailed and less explanatory format, whilst
adding some views of its own concerning petroleum industry facilities, and
occasionally diverges from NFPA 15. The two LPG codes give general fire protection
provisions for LPG facilities including water spray.
The US codes see water spray very much as one of several means, and not necessarily
the primary one, of water application for fire fighting and equipment cooling/
protection. NFPA 58 (the NFPA code for LPG installations) states that the primary
response to fire should be based on water applied by the fire brigade.
Significant features of the US codes in the areas examined include:
1. No convincing view of water spray systems as a necessary, integral and
primary means of ensuring equipment protection in case of fire, in relation to
an overall integrated approach to installation safety.
2. No specific requirements for assurance of supply - e.g. backup pumps,
reservoirs, measures to ensure system (rather than component) reliability.
3. Detailed prescriptions for engineering design and operation with explanation
of the factors to be taken account of in design, but with onus on the expert
designer for the particular application and configuration (NFPA 15).
4. Avoidance of systems with automatic actuation.
5. Emphasis on testing, inspection and maintenance to ensure satisfactory design
and operation.
7.5.2 Germany
The Niedersachsen document covers water spray systems fairly widely but lacks detail
or reference to where detail can be found; rather surprisingly in view of the
prescriptive and structured nature of the German regime for safety design codes.
In fact the place of the water spray system in the overall fire water design is not
entirely clear; it is not specified that the required water need be applied by a spray
system but it seems to be assumed that it will be. It should also be noted that the
German approach, as exemplified by the Niedersachsen document, requires that all
new vessels over 3 tonnes (approx 7.25 m
3
) should be under an earth covering; it is
also understood that there is to be a time limit on the operation of larger (> 1000 m
3
)
above ground vessels (Hazardous Cargo Bull., vol.13, no.2, Feb. 1992, p. 45-47). In
106
view of this it appears that water spray would only be an option until larger above-
ground vessels are phased out completely, or for smaller existing vessels. This is not
stated explicitly in the Niedersachsen document, however.
An integrated view of the safety systems for the plant is presented in which the water
spray figures (if ambiguously) is presented but there is a lack of depth, which
contrasts with the prescriptive treatment elsewhere in the code and more generally.
7.5.3 Netherlands
CPR 8-3 is a fairly prescriptive code, lacking the detail of NFPA 15 but much more
detailed than the German one and tailored to the "systems" approach taken by the
code as a whole. Particular emphasis is placed on the assurance of the water supply
and delivery. Perhaps surprisingly in view of this, little attention is paid, unlike the
US code, to the inspection, maintenance and testing of the system. An interesting
feature is the division of the water spray installation into sections based on the effect
distances of a fire. This integrates well with the internal plant safety distances which
are derived on the same basis; there is thus a rationally-determined basis for plant
layout which is reflected in the arrangement of the firewater system.
107
8.0 REFERENCES
Note: number in square brackets refer to the reference numbers in the original study
EUR 13699: Comparison of LPG-related regulations.
AD Merkbltter
ANCCE
Technical specifications for the operation of pressure vessels: Collection E.
Associazione Nazionale per il Controllo della Combustione.
[IT 13]
API 2030
Guidelines for the application of water spray installations in the petroleum industry,
1st ed. Jan 1987.
[US 15]
API 2510
Design and construction of liquefied petroleum gas installations. API standard 2510,
6th ed. 1989
[US 3]
API 2510A
Fire protection considerations for design and operation of liquefied petroleum gas
(LPG) facilities. API standard 2510A, 1st ed. 1989.
[US 4]
API RP-500A
Classification of locations for electrical installations in petroleum refineries. API
Recommended Practice 500A. 4th ed. 1982, reaffirmed 1987.
[US 11]
API RP-520A
Sizing, selection and installation of pressure-relieving devices in refineries: part 1,
sizing and selection. API Recommended Practice 520A. 5th ed. 1990.
[US 13]
ASME 1989
Boiler and pressure vessel code. Section VUJ, pressure vessels, 1989 edition.
ASME/ANSI B31.3
Chemical plant and petroleum refinery piping. ASME/ANSI code for pressure piping,
ASME/ANSI B31.3 1987 ed. (Inel. addenda B31.3-a-1988, B31.3-b-1988).
[US 8]
Arrt 9/11/1972
Dpts d'hydrocarbures liquefies, rgles d'amnagement et d'exploitation (arrt du
109
9 novembre 1972) Journal Officiel, no.72-289, 31 Dec. 1972.
[FR 8]
Arrt 15/1/1962
Arrt of 15 January 1962 (amended 19 February, 30 Sept. 1981 and 24 November
1982) concerning the regulations on factory pipelines. Journal Officiel brochure 1498-
I, 1987.
BS 5345 part 2
British Standard 5345 part 2. Selection, installation and maintenance of electrical
apparatus for use in potentially explosive atmospheres: classification of hazardous
areas. 1983 (1990).
BS 5500
British Standard 5500. Specification for unfired fusion welded pressure vessels. 1991.
CODAP 1990
Code Franais de Construction des Appareils Pression non Soumis l'Action de la
Ramme, 1990 edition, March 1991.
CPR 8-3
Distribuedepots voor LPG (butaan, propaan en hun mengsels). Commissie Preventie
van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen. Voorburg: Directoraat-General van de Arbeid,
1991.
[NE 8 (draft "concept" version)]
CPR 11-3
Propaan: opslag van propaan en butaan in stationaire bovengrondse-, ondergrondse-,
en terpreservoirs met een inhoud groter dan 5 m
3
en ten hoogste 150m
3
. Commissie
Preventie van Rampen door Gevarrlijke Stoffen. Voorburg: Directoraat-General van
de Arbeid, 1986.
[NE 15]
DIN 4680
Ortsfeste Druckbehlter aus Stahl fr Propan, Butan und deren Gemische fr
oberirdische Aufstellung. Nov. 1978. Also draft February 1991: Ortsfeste
Druckbehlter aus Stahl fr Flssiggas fr oberirdische Aufstellung, DIN 4680, teil
1.
[GE 28]
DruckbehV.
Verordnung ber Druckbehlter, Druckgasbehlter und Fllanlagen
(Druckbehlterverordnung) vom 27 Februar 1980 (Bundesgesetzblatt LS. 173) in der
Neufassung vom 21 April 1989.
[GE6]
EEMUA 153
EEMUA supplement to ASME/ANSI B31.3 1987 edition. London: Engineering
Equipment and Materials Users' Association, 1989. (EEMUA publication no.153/89)
110
ElexV
Verordnung ber elektrische Anlagen in explosionsgefhrdeten Rumen. 1980
[GE9]
ExRL
Explosionsschutzrichtlinien (ExRL). Berufsgenossenschaften der chemischen Industrie,
1986
GashochdruckleitungV
Verordnung ber Gashochdruckleitungen 1974.
HSE HS(G)34
The storage of LPG at fixed installations. Health and Safety Executive. London:
HMSO, 1987. (Health and Safety Series Booklets, HS(G)34).
[UK 14]
IP part 9
Liquefied petroleum gas, vol.1: large bulk pressure storage and refrigerated LPG.
(Institute of Petroleum Model Code of Safe Practice, part 9). Chichester: John Wiley,
Feb. 1987.
[UK 17]
IP part 15
Area classification code for petroleum installations. (Institute of Petroleum Model
Code of Safe Practice, part 15). Chichester: John Wiley, 1990.
LPGITA 1
Installation and maintenance of bulk LPG storage at consumers' premises. Liquefied
Petroleum Gas Industry Technical Association Code of Practice 1. London: LPGITA.
1978. (partly superseded).
[UK 23]
LPGITA 22
LPG piping systems - design and installation. Liquefied Petroleum Gas Indusrty
Technical Association Code of Practice 22. Reigate, Surrey: LPGITA 1990.
[UK 28]
NFPA 15
Water spray fixed systems for fire protection. NFPA 15. 1985 ed.
NFPA 58
Standard for the storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases. NFPA 58. 1989
ed.
[US 2]
NFPA 59
Standard for the storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gas at utility gas plants.
NFPA 59. 1989 ed.
[US 7]
i n
NFPA/ANSI 70
National electrical code. NFPA 70. 1990 ed.
[US 10]
Niedersachsen document
Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen an Flssiggasanlagen. Niederschsiches Sozial-
und Umweltministerium, Nov. 1989. (also CDCIR English translation)
[GE 39]
Regels...
Regels voor toestellen onder druk. Dienst voor het Stoomwezen, 19th ed. 1991
SNCT 1986
Industrial piping code. Syndicat National de la Chaudronnerie, de la Tlerie et de la
Tuyauterie, 1986 d.
TRB
Technische Regeln Druckbehlter. Ausgabe Januar 1988.
TRB 610
Technische Regeln Druckbehlter: Aufstellung von Druckbehltern zum Lagern von
Gasen. Jan 1984 edition, Feb. 1989 version.
TRB 851
Technische Regeln Druckbehlter: Einrichtungen zum Abfllen von Druckgasen und
Druckgasbehltern in Druckbehlter. Errichten. Jan. 1984 edition, Feb 1989 version
TRGl
Technische Regeln fr Gashochdruckleitungen (TRGl)
[GE 15]
TRG401
Technische Regeln Druckgase TRG 401: Fllanlagen: Errichten von Fllanlagen.
Sept. 1990
112
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
BS 5500 : 1991
UNFIRED FUSION WELDED PRESSURE VESSELS
Issue 1 January 1991
LIST OF CONTENTS
Section 1. General
1.1 Scope
1.2 Interpretation
1.3 Definitions
1.4 Responsibilities
1.4.1 Responsibilities of the purchaser
1.4.2 Responsibilities of the manufacturer
1.4.3 Responsibilities of the Inspecting Authority
1.4.4 Certificate of compliance
1.5 Information and requirements to be agreed and to be documented
1.5.1 Information to be supplied by the purchaser
1.5.1 Information to be supplied by the manufacturer
Section 2. Materials
2.1 Selection of materials
2.2 Materials for low temperature applications
2.3 Carbon, carbon manganese and alloy steels
Section 3. Design
3.1 General
3.2 Application
3.3 Corrosion, erosion and protection
3.4 Construction categories and design stresses
3.5 Vessels under internal pressure
3.6 Vessels under external pressure
3.7 Supports, attachments and internal structures
3.8 Bolted flanged connections
3.9 Flat heat exchanger tubesheets
3.10 Design of welds
3.11 Jacket construction
3.12 Manholes and inspection openings
3.13 Protective devices for excessive pressure or vacuum
115
Section 4. Manufacture and workmanship
4.1 General aspects of construction
4.2 Cutting, forming and tolerances
4.3 Welded joints
4.4 Heat treatment
4.5 Surface finish
Section 5. Inspection and Testing
5.1 General ^
5.2 Approval testing of fusion welding procedures
5.3 Welder and operator approval
5.4 Production control test plates
5.5 Destructive testing
5.6 Non-Destructive testing
5.6.1 General
5.6.2 Parent materials
5.6.3 Components prepared for welding
5.6.4 Non-Destructive testing of welded joints
5.6.5 Choice of non destructive test methods for welds
5.7 Acceptance criteria for weld defects revealed by visual examination and non-
destructive testing
5.7.1 General
5.7.2 Assessment of defects
5.7.3 Repair of welds
5.8 Pressure tests
5.8.1 General
5.8.2 Basic requirements
5.8.3 Hydraulic testing
5.8.4 Pneumatic tests
5.8.5 'Standard' test pressure
5.8.6 Proof hydraulic test
5.8.7 Combined hydraulic/pneumatic tests
5.8.8 Leak testing
5.8.9 Vessel nameplates
5.8.10 Final Inspection
116
APPENDICES
A Recommendations for design where loadings and components are not covered by
Section 3.
B Recommendations for cylindrical, spherical and conical shells under combined
loadings, including wind and earthquakes.
C Recommendations for the assessment of vessels subject to fatigue.
D Requirements for ferritic steels in bands MO to M4 inclusive for vessels required to
operate bellow 0C.
E Recommendations for welded connections of PV.
F Recommendations for an alternative design method for compensation using area
replacement.
G Recommendations for methods of calculation of stresses from local loads, thermal
gradients, etc.
H Recommendations for post-weld heat treatment of dissimilar ferritic steel joints
J Recommendations for pressure relief protective devices
K Requirements for the derivation of material nominal design strength for construction
category 1 and 2 vessels
L Guidance on the basis of the design charts for opening and branches
M Guidance on safe external working pressure for cylindrical sections outside the
circularity limits specified in 3.6
N Not Allocated
P Recommendations for stainless steel components with higher design stresses
Q Recommendations for preparation and testing of production control tests plates
R Guidance on additional information for flat ends and flat plates
S Guidance on optional documentation for supply with vessel
T Recommendations for arc welded tube to tubeplate joints
U Guidance on the use of fracture mechanics analyses
V Requirements for testing and inspections of serially produced pressure vessels
117
Standards Referred to in BS 5500
BS 18 Methods for tensile testing of metals (including aerospace materials)
BS 499 Welding terms and symbols
Part 1 Glossary for welding, brazing and thermal cutting
Part 2 Specification for symbols for welding
BS 1473 Specification for wrought aluminium and aluminium alloys for general
engineering purposes rivet, bolt and screw stock
BS 1501 Steels for pressure purposes: plates
Part 1 Specification for carbon and carbon-manganese steels
Part 2 Specification for alloy steels
Part 3 Corrosion- and heat-resisting steels
BS 1502 Specification for steels for fired and unfired pressure vessels: sections and bars
BS 1503 Specification for steel forgings (including semi-finished forged products) for
pressure purposes
BS 1504 Specification for steel castings for pressure purposes
BS 1506 Specification for carbon, low alloy and stainless steel bars and billets for
bolting material to be used in pressure retaining applications
BS 3500 Methods for creep and rupture testing of metals
BS 3601 Specification for carbon steel pipes and tubes with specified room temperature
properties for pressure purposes
BS 3602 Specification for steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes: carbon and
carbon manganese steel with specified elevated temperature properties
Part 1 Specification for seamless and electric resistance welded including
induction welded tubes
Part 2 Submerged arc welded tubes
BS 3603 Specification for steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes: carbon and alloys
steel with specified low temperature properties
BS 3604 Steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes: ferritic alloy steel with specified
elevated temperature properties
BS 3605 Specification for seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel pipes and tubes
for pressure purposes
BS 3606 Specification for steel tubes for heat exchangers
118
BS 3636 Methods for proving gas tightness vacuum or pressurized plant
BS 3688 Methods for mechanical testing of metals at elevated temperatures
BS 4360 Specification for weldable structural steels
BS 4870 Specification for approval testing of welding procedures
Part 1 Fusion welding of steel
Part 2 TIG or MIG welding of aluminium and its alloys
Part 3 Arc welding of tube to tube-plate joints in metallic materials
BS 4871 Specification for approval testing of welders working to approved welding
procedures
Part 1 Fusion welding of steel
Part 2 TIG or MIG welding of aluminium and its alloys
Part 3 Arc welding of tube to tube-plate joints in metallic materials
BS 4882 Specification for bolting for flanges and pressure containing purposes
BS 5135 Specification for arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels
BS 5289 Code of practice. Visual examination of fusion welded joints
119
APPENDIX B
ASME : 89
ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSELS CODE (SECTION Vffl DIVISION I)
LIST OF CONTENTS
SECTIONS
I Power Boilers
n Material Specifications
Part A Ferrous materials
Part B NonFerrous materials
Part C Welding rods, electrodes and filler materials
DJ Subsection NCA General requirements for Division 1 and 2
Division 1
Subsection NB Class 1 Components
Subsection NB Class 2 Components
Subsection NB Class 3 Components
Subsection NB Class MC Components
Subsection NB Component supports
Subsection NB Core support structures
Appendices
Division 2 Code for concrete reactor vessels and containment
IV Heating Boilers
V Nondestructive Examination
VI Recommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
VH Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
Vm DIVISION 1 Pressure Vessels
DIVISION 2 Alternative Rules
IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications
121
X Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
XI Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plants Components
ADDENDA
INTERPRETATIONS
CODE CASES
122
APPENDIX C
CODAP
CODE FRANAIS DE CONSTRUCTION DES
APPAREILS A PRESSION NON SOUMIS
A L'ACTION DE LA FLAMME
dition 1990 1er Mars 1991
* _
TABLE GENERALE DES MATIERES
PARTIE G RGLES GNRALES
PARTIE M MATRIAUX
PARTIE C RGLES DE CALCUL
PARTIE F RGLES DE FABRICATION
PARTIE I CONTRLE ET INSPECTION
PARTIE S DISPOSITIFS DE PROTECTION
CONTRE LES EXCS DE PRESSION
123
PARTIE G
RGLES GNRALES
i Pages
G.l - Objet du Code G/1
G.2 - Domaine d'application du Code G/1
G.3 - Structure du Code G/2
G.4 - Principes gnraux G/3
G.5 - Conditions pralables l'application du Code G/4
G.6 - Catgories de construction G/4
G.7 - Choix de la Catgorie de construction G/5
G. 8 - Dfinition des parties intresses par la
construction d'un appareil pression
Relations entre ces parties G/6
G.9 - Systme qualit certifi G/7
ANNEXES
GA.1 - Choix de la catgorie de construction d'un appareil GA/1
GA.2 - Donnes techniques de construction GA/5
GA.3 - Catgorie exceptionnelle Ex. Exigencies supplmentaires GA/7
PARTIE M
MATRIAUX
Pages
Ml - Rgles applicables tous les matriaux ferreux Ml/1
M2 - Rgles applicables aux aciers non austnitiques
et non inoxydables M2/1
M3 - Rgles applicables aux aciers inoxydables austnitiques M3/21
M4 - Rgles applicables aux aciers inoxydables austno-ferritiques M4/33
M5 - Rgles applicables aux tles d'acier plaques de
mtaux ferreux M5/45
M6 - Rgles applicables aux aciers inoxydables martensitiques (en prparation)
M7 - Rgles applicables aux aciers inoxydables ferritiques
et semi-ferritiques (en prparation)
M9 - Rgles applicables la boulonnerie en acier M9/49
MIO - Rgles applicables aux produits d'apport M10/55
Mi l - Rgles applicables tous les mtaux non ferreux (en prparation)
M12 - Rgles applicables aux nickel et alliages de nickel (en prparation)
M13 - Rgles applicables aux aluminium et alliages d'aluminium (en prparation)
M16 - Rgles applicables aux tles d'acier plaques de mtaux
nonferreux (en prparation)
124
PARTIE C
RGLES DE CALCUL
Pages
Cl - Notions fondamentales relatives aux rgles de calcul Cl/1
C2 - Rgles de calcul des enveloppes cylindriques, sphriques
et coniques soumises une pression intrieure C2/41
C3 - Rgles de calcul des fonds soumis une pression intrieure C3/59
C4 - Rgles de calcul des enveloppes cylindriques, sphriques,
coniques et des fonds bombs soumis une
pression extrieure C4/79
C5 - Rgles de calcul des enveloppes comportant des ouvertures C5/155
C6 - Rgles de calcul des assemblages brides boulonnes
sousmis une pression intrieure C6/187
C7 - Rgles de calcul des changeurs de chaleur
plaques tubulaires C7/243
C8 - Rgles de calcul des soufflets pour compensateurs
de dilatation C8/297
C9 - Rgles de calcul diverses C9/321
CIO - Mthodes gnrales de calcul (en prparation)
PARTIE F
RGLES DE FABRICATION
Pages
FI - Rgles applicables tous les matriaux ferreux Fl/1
F2 - Rgles applicables aux fabrications en acier
non austnitique et non inoxydable F2/19
F3 - Rgles applicables aux fabrications en acier
inoxydable austnitique F3/35
F4 - Rgles applicables aux fabrications en acier
inoxydables austno-ferritique F4/45
F5 - Rgles applicables aux fabrications en tles
d'acier plaqu de mtaux ferreux F5/55
ANNEXES
FAI - Conception des assemblages souds FAI/1
FA2 - Qualification d'un mode opratoire de soudage FA2/55
FA3 - Soufflets pour compensateurs de dilatation FA3/71
FA4 - Rgles de fabrication particulires aux changeurs de
chaleur plaques tubulaires FA4/75
125
PRTIEI
CONTROLE ET INSPECTION
1.1 - Gnralits
1.2 - Obligations des parties
1.3 - Organisation du contrle et de la surveillance de construction
1.4 - Examen des documents techniques
1.5 - Rception et identification des matriaux
1.6 - Rception des lments sous-traits
1.7 - Qualification des modes opratoires de soudage et des
soudeurs et oprateurs
1.8 - Contrle et inspection de la fabrication
1.9 - Contrle destructif des joints souds
1.10 - Contrles non destructifs
LU - Verification des traitements thermiques
1.12 - Verification des traitements de surface et des revtements
1.13 - Essais de resistance
1.14 - Essais divers
1.15 - Etalonnage
1.16 - Plaque de constructeur
1.17 - Examen final de l'appareil
1.18 - Dossiers tablir
ANNEXES
LAI - Classification des dfauts dans les soudures
IA2 - Dtermination des tats de surface
LA3 - Examen visuel
IA4 - Examen par ressuage
LA5 - Examen par magntoscopie
IA6 - Examen par radiographie
LA7 - Examen par ultrasons
LA8 - Contrle d'tanchit
126
APPENDIX D
DRUCKBEH V
ORDER ON PRESSURE VESSELS
GAS PRESSURE VESSELS AND FILLING PLANTS
and associated references
of 27 February 1980 (Federal Gazette I p. 184), amended by the First Order on the
Amendment of the Pressure Vessel Order of 21 April 1989 (Federal Gazette I p. 830)
Contents
Parti
General Regulations
1. Field of application
2. Exclusions from application
3. Definitions
4. General requirements, authorization for the issue of technical regulations
5. Further requirements
6. Exceptions
7. Federal Government pressure vessels, gas pressure vessels, filling plants and pipelines
Partn
Pressure Vessels
8. Classification in test groups
9. Testing before entry into service
10. Recurrent tests
11. Testing in specific cases
12. Testing of specific pressure vessels
13. Operation of pressure vessels
14. Test certifications and inventory of pressure vessels
Part IH
Gas Pressure Vessels
15. Filling
16. Tests
17. Modification and repair
18. Special construction
19. Gas pressure vessels not subject to testing by authorised inspectors
20. Non-application of Sections 15 to 19
127
21. Immediate emptying
22. Type approval
23. Intervals between tests
24. Notification of distribution depots
25. Orders by supervising authorities
26. Licence
27. Major Modification
28. Tests
29. Non-application of Sections 26 to
30. Operation of filling plants
Part IV
Pipelines
30a. Testing before entry into service
30b. Recurrent tests
30c. Testing in specific cases
PartV
Further General Regulations
Transitional and Definitive Regulations
31. Authorised inspectors
32. Experts
33. Notification of defects, test certificates
34. Notification of accidents and injury
35. Supervising authorities for Federal Government installations and for power plants
36. German Pressure Vessels Committee
37. Transitional regulations for pressure vessels
38. Transitional regulations for gas pressure vessels
39. Transitional regulations for filling plants
39a. Transitional regulation for pipelines
40. Contravention of regulations
41. (No longer applicable)
42. Berlin Clause
43. (Cessation of validity)
128
Section A - Technical Regulations for Pressure Vessels (TRB)
Referenced by Druckbeh V
No Edition Title
TRB 001
TRB 002
TRB 002
TRB 100
TRB 200
TRB 300
TRB 401
TRB 402
TRB 403
TRB 404
TRB 500
TRB 502
TRB 505
TRB 511
TRB 512
TRB 513
TRB 514
TRB 515
TRB 521
TRB 522
Supplement
5.83/2.89
2.84/2.89
5.85/2.89
7.80/2.89
7.80/2.89
7.80/2.89
11.83/2.89
11.83/2.89
1.84/2.89
1.84/2.89
3.84
9.83
3.84/2.89
11.83/2.89
11.83/2.89
11.83/2.89
11.83/2.89
11.83/2.89
9.83/2.89
9/83/2.89
to
TRB 521-522 9.83
TRB 531
TRB 532
TRB 533
TRB 600
TRB 601
TRB 610
TRB 700
TRB 801
12.83/2.89
12.83/2.89
12.83
1.84/2.89
12.87
1.84/2.89
11.83/2.89
2.84/2.89
TRB 851 1.84/2.89
TRB 852 1.84
General, Layout and Application of TRB
General, Explanatory notes to the terminology used in the
Pressure Vessel Order
General - Summary of the technical standards and specifications
taken into consideration in the TRB
Materials
Manufacture
Calculations
Equipment of pressure vessels, marking
Openings and closures
Pressure vessel equipment, equipment for detecting and limiting
pressure and temperature
Pressure vessel equipment, equipment components
Pressure vessels, guidelines for procedures and testing
Experts in accordance with Article 32 of the Pressure Vessel
Order
Pressure vessels, type testing procedures and registration, testing
by the manufacturer
Testing by inspectors, first test, initial test
Test by inspectors, first test, type test and pressure test
Test by inspectors, acceptance test
Test by inspectors, repeat test
Test by inspectors, test in special cases
Certification of manufacture in accordance with regulations
Testing by the manufacturer - pressure test
Example of manufacturers certification
Tests by specialists, acceptance test
Tests by specialists, repeat tests
Tests by specialists, tests in special cases
installation of pressure vessels
Cathodic corrosion protection for underground pressure vessels
Pressure Vessels, installation of pressure vessels for storage of
gas
Operation of pressure vessels
Special pressure vessels in accordance Appendix II to Section
12 of the Pressure Vessel Order
Installations for filling pressure vessels with gases from gas
pressure vessels, erection
Installations for filling pressure vessels with gases from gas
pressure vessels, operation
129
AD-MERKBLATTER Referenced by TRBs
Number Edition Title Amendment
Fundamentals
Gl 8.88 AD-Rules - Structures Application and Method Guidelines
*G2 1.90 List of all DIN standards quoted in AD-Rules
*G3 1.90 Synopsis of the AD-Rules
Materials
WO 6.86 General principles for materials
Wl 1.90 Plain carbon and alloy steel sheet and strip
W2 1.90 Austenitic steels
W3/1 11.86 Cast iron with lamellar graphite (grey case iron) -
non-alloy and low alloy
W3/2 6.85 Cast iron materials - Spheroidal graphite iron non-alloy and
low alloy
W3/3 4.70 Cast iron materials - Austenitic cast iron lamellar 1-15
graphite
W4 1.90 Tubes of unalloyed and alloyed steels for construction of
pressure vessels
Cast steel 35
Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Malleable materials
Copper and copper alloys
Bolts and nuts of ferritic steels
Clad steels 33
Steel flanges
Materials for low temperatures; ferrous materials
Seamless tubular products made of unalloyed and alloy
steel for pressure vessel shells
W13 11.87 Unalloyed and alloy steels for rolled and forged components of 35
pressure vessels
Manufacture and Testing
HPO 7.89 General principles of design manufacture and initial testing
HP1 7.89 Design and design approval
HP2/1 7.89 Procedure qualification for jointing techniques
Procedure qualification for welded joints
W5
W6/1
W6/2
W7
W8
W9
W10
W12
5.88
1.90
5.88
5.88
7.87
12.88
11.87
8.88
* Unofficial translation by THE/BSI
130
HP3 7.89
HP4 7.89
HP5/1 7.89
HP5/2 7.89
HP5/3 7.89
HP5/3 7.89
Appx 1
HP7/1 7.89
HP7/2 7.89
HP7/3 7.89
HP7/4 7.89
HP8/1 7.89
HP8/2 7.89
HP30 7.89
Welding supervisor, welders
Test supervisor and testers in non-destructive testing
Manufacturer and testing of joints. Principles of welding
practice
Manufacture and testing of joints. Production testing of welds.
Testing of the basic material following post-weld heat treatment
Manufacture and testing of joints. Non-destructive testing of welded
joints
Minimum requirements for non-destructive testing processes
Heat treatment. General principles
Heat treatment. Ferritic steels
Heat treatment. Austenitic steels
Heat treatment. Aluminium and aluminium alloys
Testing of pressings made from steel, aluminium, and aluminium alloys
Testing of shell rings
Performance of pressure tests
Non-metallic materials
Nl 7.87 Pressure vessels in glass fibre reinforced thermosetting plastics
N2 6.71 Pressure vessels made of electro-graphite and hard burned carbon
N2 11.71 Appendix 1 to AD-Merkblatter N2, June 1971 edition
Appx 1
N4 9.83 Pressure vessels made of glass
N4 6.85 Assessment of defects in walls of pressure vessels made of glass
Appx 1
Design
Design of pressure vessels
Cylindrical and spherical shells subjected to internal over pressure 34
Conical shells subject to internal or external pressure 33
Dished ends subject to internal or external pressure
Dished heads
Unstayed and stayed flat ends and plates
Cylindrical shells subject to external over pressure
Boltings
Flanges
Openings in cylindrical, conical and spherical shells subject to
internal pressure
Thick-walled cylindrical shells subject to internal pressure 34
Single wall bellows 32
BO
Bl
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
BIO
B13
3.90
6.86
10.90
10.90
6.86
3.90
6.86
6.86
3.90
6.86
6.86
6.86
131
Special Cases
SI
S2
S3/0
S3/1
S3/2
S3/3
S3/4
3.90
3.90
6.86
6.86
6.86
6.86
6.86
Equipment
Al
A2
A4
A5
A5
8.88
2.80
5.76
6.86
12.83
Appxl
A6 6.86
Amendments
1-18
31
32
33
34
35
1983
6.86
7.87
11.87
5.88
12.88
Differentiation between calculation against predominantly static
stressing by internal pressure
Design to allow for fluctuation stress
Allowing for additional forces in pressure vessel walls - General;
Special cases
- Vessels on stand frames
- Horizontal vessels on saddle supports
- Vessels with dished ends on feet
- Vessels with support brackets
34
34
34
34
Safety devices against excess pressure - Bursting safety devices
Safety devices against excess pressure - Safety valves
Valve bodies
Openings, closures and special closure elements
Directives on the arrangement of manholes and inspection ports
Safety devices against excess pressure MCR - safety devices
35
31
1-18 Amendment and Supplement to AD-Merkblatter
31 Amendment and Supplement to AD-Merkblatter
32 Amendment and Supplement to AD-Merkblatter
33 Amendment and Supplement to AD-Merkblatter
34 Amendment and Supplement to AD-Merkblatter
35 Amendment and Supplement to AD-Merkblatter
AD-Merkblatts forming Part D in this publication have been bound in order as listed above.
132
SELECTED DIN STANDARDS
DIN Edition
17182 6.85
17240 7.76
17243 1.87
17280 7.85
17440 7.85
17441 7.85
17445 11.84
17457 7.85
17458 7.85
Titles
Steel castings with improved weldability and toughness for general
purposes
Creep resisting materials for bolts and screws for service at elevated
and at high temperatures; quality specifications
Weldable heat resisting steel forgings and rolled or forged steel bars.
Technical delivery conditions
Steels for low temperature toughness. Technical delivery conditions for
plate, sheet, strip, wide flats, sections, bars and forging
Stainless steels; technical delivery conditions for plate, hot rolled strip,
wire, rods, drawn wire, bars, forgings and semi-finished products
Stainless steel; technical delivery conditions for cold rolled strip and
slit strip and for plate and sheet cut therefrom
Stainless steel castings; quality specifications
Welded circular tubes of austenitic stainless steel with special quality
requirements; technical delivery conditions
Seamless circular austenitic stainless steel tubes subject to special
requirements; technical delivery conditions
133
APPENDIX E
REFERENCES RELATING
TO LPG PIPING SYSTEMS DESIGN
This Appendix lists the numerous national standards referenced by the LPG-specific design
standards for specific aspects of detailed design. In addition, the UK EEMUA publication
153 (section 3.1.5) is covered. No piping standards are referred to in the 1972 French LPG
code.
LPGITA Code of Practice 22, LPG Piping System Design and Installation
Legal Requirements
a) Pipelines Act 1962
b) Gas Act 1986
c) Gas Quality Regulations 1987
d) Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1984
e) Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
Standards
1) ANSI/ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and
Petroleum Refinery Pipework
(supplemented by EEMUA 153/89)
General design
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
BS 5482 Code of Practice for Domestic
Butane and Propane Gas Burning
Installations
BS 1306 Copper and Copper Alloy Pressure
Piping Systems
BS 5289 Code of Practice for Visual
Inspection of Fusion Welded Joints
IGE/TD/4 (Institution of Gas Engineers)
Gas Services/Domestic Installation
BS 3974 Pipe Supports
General design
General design
General design
General design
Supports
135
7) BS 3212 Flexible Rubber Tubing and Hose
for use in LPG Vapour Phase and LPG/Air
Installations
8) BS 4089 Hose and Hose Assembes for
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Lines
9) BS 1780 Specification for Bourdon Tube -
Pressure and Vacuum Gauges
10) BS 3799/ANSI B16.il Steel Pipe Fittings,
Screwed and Socket Welding for the
Petroleum Industry
11) BS 1640/ANSI B 16.9 Steel Butt-Welding
Fittings for the Petroleum Industry
12) BS 1965 Butt-Welded Pipe Fittings for
Pressure Purposes, Part 1
13) BS 1740 Wrought Steel Pipe Fittings
14) BS 143/ANSI B16.3 Malleable Cast Iron
and Cast Copper Alloy Screwed Pipe
Fittings - Taper Male and Female Threads
15) BS 1256 Malleable Cast Iron and Cast
Copper Alloy Screwed Pipe Fittings - Taper
Male and Parallel Female Threads
16) BS 1560/ANSI B 16.5 Steel Pipe Hanges
and Flanged Fittings for the Petroleum
Industry
17) BS 4504 Hanges and bolting for Pipe,
Valves and Fittings, Metric Series
18) BS 10 Hanges and Bolting for Pipe, Valves
and Fittings (superseded)
19) BS 4882 Bolting for Hanges and Pressure
Containing Purposes
20) BS 3692 ISO Metric Precision Hexagon
Bolts, Screws and Nuts
21) BS 3410 Specification for Metal Washers
for General Engineering Purposes
(superseded)
Hexible hose
Hexible hose
Pressure gauges
Socket weld and
screwed fittings
Butt weld fittings
Butt weld fittings
Screwed fittings
Screwed fittings
Screwed fittings
Hanges and gaskets
Hanges and bolts
Hanges and bolts
Bolts
Bolts
Washers
136
22) BS 4320 Specification for Metal Washers
for General Engineering Purposes, Metric
Series
23) BS 1832 Oil Resistant Compressed
Asbestos Fibre Jointing
24) BS 3063 Dimensions of Gaskets for Pipe
Flanges (superseded)
25) BS 3381 Metallic Spiral Wound Gaskets for
use with Flanges to BS 1560
26) BS 4865 Dimensions of Gaskets for Pipe
Flanges to BS 4504
27) BS 4375 Unsuitered PTFE Tape for Thread
Sealing Applications
28) BS 5292 Specification for Jointing
Materials and Compounds for Installations
Using Water, Low Pressure Steam or 1st, 2nd
or 3rd Family Gases
29) BS 6956 Jointing Materials and Compounds
30) BS 864 Capillary and Compression Tube
Fittings of Copper and Copper Alloy
31) BS 2051 Tube and Pipe Fittings for
Engineering Purposes
32) BS 4368 Compression Couplings for Tubes
33) BS 219 Specification for Soft Solders
34) BGC/PS/PL2 Part 2 Polyethylene Pipe
35) BGC/PS/PL3 Polyethylene Pipe, LPG
Vapour
36) BS 1821 Specification for Class I Oxy-
Acetylene Welding of Ferritic Steel
Pipework for Carrying Fluids
37) BS 2633 Specification for Class I Arc
Welding of Ferritic Steel Pipework for
Carrying Fluids
Washers
Gaskets
Gaskets
Gaskets
Gaskets
Screwed joints
Screwed joints
Screwed joints
Compression fittings and
soldered fittings
Compression fittings
Soldered fittings
Soldered fittings
Fusion fittings
Compression fittings
Welding
Welding
137
38)
39)
40)
41)
42)
43)
44)
45)
46)
BS 2971 Specification for Class II Arc
Welding of Carbon Steel Pipework
BS 2640 Specification for Class II Oxy-
Acetylene Welding of Carbon Steel
Pipework
BS 4870 Approval Testing of Welding
Procedures
BS 4871 Approval Testing of Welders
Working to Approved Welding Procedures """"
BS 4872 Approval Testing of Welders when
Welding Approval is not required
BS 5289 Code of Practice for Visual
Inspection of Fusion Welded Joints
BS 3636 Methods of Proving the Gas
Tightness of Vacuum or Pressurised Plant
HSE Guidance GS4, Safety in Pressure
Testing
BS 6505 Specification for Rubber Type
Welding
Welding
Welding
Welding
Welding
Welding
Leak testing and
pressure testing
Pressure testing
Seals
Materials used for Control Components for
use with 1st, 2nd and 3rd Family Gases
47) BS 1710 Identification of Pipelines Installation
138
HS (G) 34 The Storage of LPG at Fixed Installations, Health and Safety
Executive
Legal Requirements
a) Factories Act 1961
b) Highly Flammable Liquids and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (HFL) Regulations
1972
c) Notification of Installations Handling Hazardous Substances (NIHHS)
Regulations 1982
d) Control of Industrial Major Hazards (CIMAH) Regulations 1984
e) Fire Certificates (Special Premises) Regulations 1976
f) Fire Precautions Act 1971
g) Pipelines Act 1962
Standards
1) LPGITA Code of Practice No. 22 Piping
System Design and Installation
2) ANSI/ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and
Petroleum Refinery Pipework
3) BS 5958 Code of Practice for the Control of
Undesirable Static Electricity, Part 1 1980 -
General Considerations
4) BS 4089 Rubber Hose and Hose Assemblies
for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Lines
General design
General design
Electrical continuity
Flexible hose
139
Institute of Petroleum Model Code of Safe Practice, Part 9
Gas, Volume 1
1) ANSI/ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and
Petroleum Refinery Pipework
2) BS 1600 Dimensions of Steel Pipe for the
Petroleum Industry
3) ANSI B36.10 Welded and Seamless
Wrought Steel Pipe
4) BS 2789
5) BS 1560 Steel Pipe Ranges and Flanged
Fittings for the Petroleum Industry
6) ANSI B 16.5
7) BS 1640 Steel Butt Welding Fittings for the
Petroleum Industry
8). ANSI B 16.9 Factory-Made Wrought Steel
Butt-Welding Fittings
9) BS 1965 Butt Welded Pipe Fittings for
Pressure Purposes
10) BS 3799 Steel Pipe Fittings, Screwed and
Socket Welding for the Petroleum Industry
11) ANSIB16.il
12) BS 3381 Metallic Spiral Wound Gaskets for
use with Flanges to BS 1560
13) BS 4882 Bolting for Flanges and Pressure
Containing Purposes
Liquefied Petroleum
General design
Wall thickness
Wall thickness
Valves
Flanges
Flanges
Butt welding fittings
Butt welding fittings
Butt welding fittings
Socket welding and
screwed fittings,
unions and plugs
Socket welding and
screwed fittings
Gaskets
Bolts
140
EEMUA Publication 153, Supplement to ANSI/ASME B31.3
1) ANSI/ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and
Petroleum Refinery Pipework
2) BS 5500 Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure
Vessels, Appendix D
3) BS 6759 Specification for Safety Valves for
Process Fluids
4) BS 2915
5) BS 4870 Approval Testing of Welding
Procedures
6) BS 4871 Approval Testing of Welders
Working to Approved Welding Procedures
7) BS 6129
8) ASTM A193, A194, A307, A320
Material Specifications
General design
Carbon, carbon-manganese,
low alloy steels
Safety valves
Bursting discs
Welding
Welding
Expansion joints
Bolting materials
API Standard 2510, Design and Construction of Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Installations
1) ANSI/ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and
Petroleum Refinery Pipework
2) ANSI/ASME B31.4 Liquid Petroleum
Transportation Piping Systems
3) API Standard 607, Fire Test for Soft-Sealed
Quarter Turn Valves
General design
Transmission pipelines
Ball valves
NFPA 59, Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gas at
Utility Gas Plants
1) ANSI/ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and
Petroleum Refinery Pipework
2) NFPA 58 Standards for the Storage and
Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases
General design
Small scale storage
and handling
141
3)
4)
5)
6)
ASTM A395-80, A536-80
Specifications
Material
ASTM A47-77 Material Specifications
ASTM A48-76
National Association of Corrosion Engineers
Standard RP-01-69 Control of Externai
Corrosion of Underground or Submerged
Metallic Piping Systems
Ductile iron
Malleable iron
Gray iron
Corrosion protection
NFPA 58 Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases
1) ANSI/ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and
Petroleum Refinery Pipework
2) NFPA 59 Standard for the Storage and
Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gas at
Utility Gas Plants
3) NFPA 51 Standard for the Design and
Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for
Welding, Cutting and Allied Processes
4) ANSIZ49.1 Safety in Welding and Cutting
5) NFPA 54/ANSI Z223.1 National Fuel Gas
Code, together with numerous other NFPA
Standards for specific applications
6) ASTM A53, A106, A120, A539 Material
Specifications
7) ANSI B36.10 Welded and Seamless
Wrought Steel Pipe
8) ASTM A395, A47, A536, A48 Material
Specifications
9) ASTM B43, B135 Material Specifications
10) ASTM B42, B88, B280 Material
Specifications
11) ASTMB86
12) ASTM D2513, D2683, D3261 Material
Specifications
General design
Utility gas plants
Welding and cutting
Welding and cutting
Installation
Steel
Iron
Iron
Brass
Copper
Zinc
Polyethylene
142
Niedersachsen document - Safety Requirements for Liquefied Gas Installations
General
1) TRB 600 Installation of Pressure Vessels
Installation
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
ID
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
20)
TRB 601 Cathodic Corrosion Protection for
Underground Pressure Vessels
TRB 610 Installation of Pressure Vessels
for Gas Storage
AD - Datasheet A4
AD - Datasheets Series HP
DIN 3230
BS 5146
DIN 2403
DIN 3230
DIN 8563
DIN 8560
VdTUV 1052
DIN 1913
DIN 8554
DIN 8556
DIN 8559
DIN 50-049
DIN 2413
AD - Datasheets Series B
DIN 2505
Corrosion protection
Installation
Valves
Manufacture and Testing
Testing
Fire resistance
Identification
Valve leakage
Welding QA
Welding
Welding
Welding consumables
Welding consumables
Welding consumables
Welding consumables
Testing
Wall thickness
Wall thickness
Flanges and nuts
143
Materials
AD - Datasheets Series W
DIN 17-172
DIN 17-175
DIN 17-177
DIN 17-455 to 458
DIN 1630
DIN 1628
DIN 1629
DIN 1626
DIN 2391
DIN 17-671
Materials and manufacture
Long di s t ance st eel
transmission piping
Seamless piping
Welded piping
Austenitic steel piping
Seamless piping
Welded piping
Smallbore seamless piping
Smallbore welded piping
Smallbore precision steel
piping
Seamless copper piping
144
APPENDIX F
EQUIVALENCE OF STEEL
GRADES FOR AFNOR, ASTM, DIN, BS AND ISO STANDARDS (FROM FRENCH
SNCT PD?ING CODE)
Correspondence between steel grades according to AFNOR, ISO and some foreign standards. (Taken from Appendix TIB of the SNCT piping code)
ATTENTION: The table in this appendix is intended as a guide for public information to enable a specified steel to be replaced if necessary by another which is
easier to supply. The manufacturer must however ensure that the mechanical properties, chemical composition, suitability for welding and acceptance conditions
are compatible with the proposed use and obtain the agreement of the purchaser. In particular the guaranteed carbon, sulphur and phosphorus content of certain steels
do not comply with French regulations. Such steels may only therefore be used within the scope of such regulations if they are supplied according to a particular
specification.
FRANCE
T
TJ
B
E
S
TU 37 b
TU 42 b
TU 48 b
TU 37 b
TU 42 b
TU 37 b
TU 42 b
TU 48b
TS 34 b
TS 37 b
TS 42 b
TS 47 b
TS E 24 a
TSE26b
TS E 21 b
TSE24b
TS E 29 b
TS E 32 b
TS E 36 b
TS E 36 b2
TSE41b
TSE45b
NF A 49-112
NF A 49-112
NF A 49-112
NF A 49-210
NF A 49-210
NF A 49-211
NF A 49-211
NF A 49-211
NF A 49-142
NF A 49-142
NF A 49-142
NF A 49-142
NF A 49-250
NF A 49-250
NF A 49-401
NF A 49-401
NF A 49-401
NF A 49-401
NF A 49-401
NF A 49-401
NF A 49-401
NF A 49-401
U.S.A. (ASTM)
A 53 Gr A Type S
A 53 Gr B Type S
-
-
-
-
A 106 Gr B
A 106 Gr C
_
A 53 Gr A type E
A 53 Gr B type E
-
-
-
API 5 L Gr A (welded)
API 5 L Gr B (welded)
API 5 LX Gr X 42
API 5 LX Gr X 46
API 5 LX Gr X 52
-
API 5 LX Gr X 60
API 5 LX Gr x 65
GERMANY
St 35
St 45
-
-
-
St 35-4
St 45-4
-
St 34-2
St 37-2
St 42-2
-
-
-
St E 210-7
St E 240-7
St E 290-7
St E 320-7
St E 360-7
-
St E 415-7
St E 445-7
DIN 1629-3
DIN 1629-3
DIN 1629-4
DIN 1629-4
-
DIN 1626-3
DIN 1626-3
DIN 1626-3
DIN 17 172
DIN 17 172
DIN 17 172
DIN 17 172
DIN 17 172
-
DIN 17 172
DIN 17 172 .
UNITED KINGDOM
Gr 360
Gr 410
-
-
-
-
-
-
Gr 320
Gr 360
Gr 410
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
BS 3601
BS 3601
BS 3059-1
BS 3601
BS 3601
ISO
TS 4
TS 9
TS 13
TS 4
TS 9
TS 13
TW 1
TW4
TW9
-
-
-
E 21
E24
-
-
-
-
-
2604 n
2604 n
2604 n
2604 n
2604 n
2604 n
2604m
2604 in
2604 m
3183
3183

FRANCE
T
U
B
E
S
TU 37 c
TU 42 c
TU 37 c
TU 42 c
TU 48c
TU 52 c
TU 15 D 3
TU 15 CD 2-05
TU 10 CD 5-05
TU 10 CD 9-10
TU Z 10 CD 5-05
TU Z 10 CD 9
TU Z 10 CONbV 9 2
TS 34 c
TS 37 c
TS 42 c
TS 37 c
TS 42 c
TS 48 c
TS 52 c
TS 15 D 3
TS 15 CD 2-05
TU Z 6 CN 19-10
TU Z 6 CND 17-12 B
TU Z 6 CNT 18-12B
TU Z CNNb 18-12 B
TU Z 8 CNDT 17-13 B
TU Z 10 CNWT 17-13 B
TU Z 6 CN 18-09
TU Z 2 CN 18-10
TU Z 6 CNT 18-10
TU Z 6 CNNb 18-10
TU Z 6 CND 17-11
TU Z 2 CND 17-12
NF A 49-212
NF A 49-212
NF A 49-213
NF A 49-213
NF A 49-213
NF A 49-213
NF A 49-213
NF A 49-213
NF A 49-213
NF A 49-213
NF A 49-213
NF A 49-213
NF A 49-213
NF A 49-242
NF A 49-242
NF A 49-242
NF A 49-243
NF A 49-243
NF A 49-243
NF A 49-243
NF A 49-243
NF A 49-243
NF A 49-214
NF A 49-214
NF A 49-214
NF A 49-214
NF A 49-214
NF A 49-214
NF A 49-218
NF A 49-218
NF A 49-218
NF A 49-218
NF A 49-218
NF A 49-218
U.S.A. (ASTM)
A 192
A 210
A 192
A 210
A 210
-
A 335
A 335
A 335
A 335
A 335
A 335
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A 312
A 312
A 312
A 312
-
-
A 312
A 312
A 312
-
A 312
A 312
GrAl "
GrAl
GrC
GrPl
GrP2
GrPl l
GrP22
GrP5
GrP9
Gr TP 304
Gr TP 316
Gr TP 321
Gr TP 347
Gr TP 304
Gr TP 304 L
Gr TP 321
Gr TP 316
GTTP316L
GERMANY
St 35-8
St 45-8
St 35-8
St 45-8
-
-
15 Mo 3
.
13 Cr Mo 44
10 Cr Mo 9-10

-
-
-
St 37-8
St 42-8
St 37-8
St 42-8
-
-
15 Mo 3
-
X5 a Ni 18-9
{X5 Cr Ni Mo 18-10
{X6 Cr Ni Mo 17-13
X10 Cr Ni Ti 18-9
X5 Cr Ni Nb 18-9
-
-
X5 Or Ni 18-9
X2 G Ni 18-9
X10 Cr Ni Ti 18-9
-
X5 Cr Ni Mo 18-10
X2 Cr Ni Mo 18-10
DIN 17 175
DIN 17 175
DIN 17 175
DIN 17 175
DIN 17 175
DIN 17 175
DIN 17 175
DIN 17 177
DIN 17 177
DIN 17 177
DIN 17 177
DIN 17 177
DIN 2462-2
DIN 2462-2}
DIN 2462-2}
DIN 2462-2
DIN 2462-2
DIN 2462-2
DIN 2462-2
DIN 2462-2
DIN 2462-2
DIN 2462-2
UNITED KINGDOM
360 BS 3602/1
410 BS 3602/1
360 BS 3602/1
410 BS 3602/1
460 BS 3602/1
-
HF 213 BS 3606
HF 621 BS 3604
HF 622 BS 3604
HF 625 BS 3604
HF 629 BS 3604
-
-
360 BS 3602/1
410 BS 3602/1
360 BS 3602/1
410 BS 3602/1
460 BS 3602/1
-
243 BS 3606
;
Gr 304 S 18 (59) BS 3605
Gr 316 S 18 (59) BS 3605
Gr 321 S 18 (59) BS 3605
Gr 347 S 18 (59) BS 3605
-
-
Gr 304 S 18 (59) BS 3605
Gr 304 S 14 BS 3605
Gr 321 S 18 (59) BS 3605
-
Gr 316 S 18 (59) BS 3605
Gr 316 S 14 BS 3605
ISO
TS5
TS9H
TS5
TS9H
-
-
TS 26
TS 33
TS 32
TS 34
TS 37
TS 38
-
TW2
TW5
TW9H
TW5
TW9H
TW 14
-
TW 26
-
TS 48
TS 63
TS 54
TS 56
-
-
TS 48
TS 46
TS 54
-
TS 63
TS 57
-2604-H
-2604-n
-2604-11
-2604-n
-2604-n
-2604-n
-2604-n
-2604-n
-2604-n
-2604-n
-2604-m
-2604-m
-2604-m
-2604-m
-2604-m
-2604-m
-2604-m
-2604-n
-2604-n
-2604-n
-2604-n
-2604-n
-2604-n
-2604-n
-2604-n
-2604-n
FRANCE
S
H
E
E
T
A 37 CP
A 37 AP
A 42 CP
A 42 AP
A 48 CP
A 48 AP
A 52 CP
A 52 AP
A 510
A 530
A 550
A 590
15 D 3
15 CD 2-05
18 MD 4-05
15 MDV 4-05
15 CD 4-05
10 CD 9-10
Z 10 CD 5-05
Z 5 CN 18-09
Z 6 CN 18-09
Z 2 CN 18-10
Z 6 ONT 18-10
Z 6 CNNb 18-10
Z 6 CND 17-11
Z 2 CNDT 17-12
Z 6 CND 17-12
Z 6 CNDNb 17-12
Z 2 CND 17-13
Z 6 CND 17-12
Z 2 CND 19-15
Z 2 CN 18-10 AZ
Z5CN 18-09 AZ
Z 2 CND 17-12 AZ
Z 2 CND 17-13 AZ
Z 3 CMN 18-8-7 AZ
NF A 36-205
NF A 36-205
NF A 36-205
NF A 36-205
NF A 36-205
NF A 36-205
NF A 36-205
NF A 36-205
NF A 36-207
NF A 36-207
NF A 36-207
NF A 36-207
NF A 36-206
NF A 36-206
NF A 36-206
NF A 36-206
NF A 36-206
NF A 36 206
NF A 36-206
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
NF A 36-209
U.S.A. (ASTM)
A 285 Gr C and A 515 Gr 55
A 516 Gr 55 and A 516 Gr 65
A 515 Gr 60 and A 442 Gr 60
A 516 Gr 60
A 515 Gr 70 and A 299
A 516 Gr 70
A 414 Gr C and A 612
A 612
A 204 Gr A
A 387 Gr 2
A 302 Gr A
A 387 Gr12
A 387 Gr 22
A 387 Gr 5
A 167 Gr 304
A 167 Gr 304
A 167 Gr 304 L
A 167 Gr 324
A 167 Gr 347
A 167 Gr 316
A 167 Gr 316 L
GERMANY
HI
A St 35
HE
A St 41
HIV and 17 Mn 4
A St 45
19Mn5
A St 52
15 Mo 3
13 Cr Mo 4-4
10 Cr Mo 9-10
12 G Mo 19-5
X5 Or Ni 18-10
X5 Cr Ni 18-9
X2 Cr Ni 18-9
XIO Cr Ni Ti 18-10
XIO Cr Ni Nb 18-10
X5 Cr Ni Mo 18-10
X2 Gr Ni Mo 18-10
DIN 17 155
DIN 17 135
DIN 17 155
DIN 17 135
DIN 17 155
DIN 17 135
DIN 17 155
DIN 17 135
DIN 17 155
DIN 17 155
W 1.7380
W 1.7362
W .680
DIN 17 440
DIN 17 440
W-680
W-680
DIN 17 440
DIN 17 440
UNITED KINGDOM
Gr 26-161
Gr 26-221
Gr 28-161
Gr 28-221
Gr 32-221
GT30 221
Gr 32-223
C. Mo 240
1% Cr %Mo
Gr31 A
304 S 15
304 S 15
304 S 12
321 S 12
347 S 17
316 S 16
316 S 12
304 S 62
304 S 65
BS 1501
BS 1501
BS 1501
BS 1501
BS 1501
BS 1501
BS 1501
BS 1501
BS 1501
BS 1501-622
BS 1501
BS 1501
BS 1501
BS 1501
BS 1501
BS 1501
BS 1501
\
BS 1501
BS 1501
ISO
-

European CommunitiesCommission
EUR 14636Comparison of selected LPG related codes and standards
S. Harris, P. Kemp, D. Tait, H.W. Cerda
1992 150 pp., 71 tab., 9 fig. 21.0 x 29.7 cm
Environment and quality of life series
ISBN 92-826-4737-4
Price (excluding VAT) in L uxembourg: ECU 15.00
With this publication the Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risk (CDCIR)
is setting forth the production of comparative review publications. In an earlier report
(EUR 13699 EN) L PG related regulations in the Community Member Countries and the
U.SA have been compared. The comparison is herewith extended to LPG related codes
and standards.
The first report reviewed the coverage of L PG specific regulations and codes of prac-
tice, while the current study compares in greater depth certain key aspects of L PG plant
design (pressure vessels, piping, pressure relief valves, hazardous area classification
and water spray systems). It examines in more detail the L PG regulations and codes
themselves as well as the more general codes and standards applicable also to L PG
installations. Existing European codes and standards are compared to each other and
to U.S. ones.
In view of the wish within the Community to an enhanced harmonization, CEN has already
initiated among others the CEN/TC 286 programme aiming to the unified European stan-
dardization of all pressure equipment and transport pressure equipment for L PG, in-
cluding associated accessories. This comparative study clearly identifies priorities for
action and it is hoped that it will be a useful tool for authorities, industry and all other
bodies and persons working for the safety in handling hazardous substances.
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