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The Hydroplus Fusegate System - f our years on.

S CHEVALIER - P roj ec t Engi neer - Hydroplus I nternati onal

S T CULSHAW - Area Manager - Hydropl us I nternati onal
J P .FAUQUEZ - P r si dent - Hydr opl us I nternati onal
The Hydropl us f usegates c an be ut i l i z ed for i nc reasi ng li v e storage c apac i ty
of dams w i t h ungated spi l l w ays and/ or f or i mprov i ng spi li w ay safety w i thout
sac ri fi c i ng storage c apac i ty they are designed to rotate ( ti lt) in succession
w hen th rservoir lev! reaches predetermined l v ations thereby preventing.
t h flood f rom ov ertoppi ng t h dam. This paper discusses v aryi ng
approac hes i n th use of t h System to solv e th problem of safety w orldw i de
i nc l udi nu th Dov e St one r serv oir i n th North West of Enul and.
Under normal c ondi t i ons fusegates inc rease th , ac tiv e storage area of
r serv oirs The l ab yr i nt h w ei r c onf i gur at i on allow s for increased disc harge at
low er heads t han c onv ent i onal spi llw ays The fusegate design allow s for th
fusegates to ov erturn dur i ng hi gh or extrme flood ev ents thereby allow i ng
more flow t hrough th spi l i w ay Thse Systems c an increase th ac tiv e
storage of a r serv oir and inc rease t h di sc harge c apac i ty for extrme ev ents
so t hat th design flood may pass w i t hout ov ertoppi ng th exi sti ng dam and
thus reduc ing or ei i mi nat i ng t h need for increasing th dam height
The Hydroplus system c onsi sts of one or more adj ac ent but i ndependent
fusegate uni t s resti ng on t h ov erspi ll si ll and held i n plac e solely by grav i ty
forces. The f usegates are ov ertopped by moderate floods In case of larger
floods. some l ments are ov rturned by r ot at i ng ab out lugs loc ated at th
dow nstream edge of t h si l l The numb er of uni ts ac ti v ated aw ay i s graded to
sui t th hydrogrnph of th par t i c ul ar expec ted flood and matc h th requi red
disc harge flow
Eac h uni t sits f reei y on a c onc rte slab c emented i nt o th crest and c onsists
of three parts
* The f auc k et i t o p par t ) made of steei or rei nforc ed c onc rte w i th c an
be giv en a l ab yr i nt h shnpe to i nc rease th ov erspill length so that moderate
floods c an be di sc harged w i t h a rel ati v el y small head on th l i p.
* The b ottom c hamb er base made of steel or rei nf orc ed concrte.
* The w ei l a f unnel l ed c ondui t i nto th c hamber w hi c h begi ns to f i l l
for a giv en r serv oi r lev el Wells are set at di f f rent l v ati ons.
The rservoir as an asset. Thomas Telford. London, 1996
When r serv oir level reaches a given l v ation, w ater flow s through th well
i nto th c hamber Pressure b ui lts up in th bottom chamber and w hen
suf c i ent v ertical upl i f t lias been mobiiiz ed, th fusegate rottes about th
abutment block s located at th dow nstream edge of th sill. The triggering
system is very prcise and leav es an ample safety margin until th rservoir
level reaches th predetermined l v ation ac tiv ating a given lment.
The fusegate on th spi i lw ay crest is ac ti ng in three diff rent ways depending
on headw ater level
* As part of th dam. as long as th rservoir level does not exceed
th fusegate buc k et top edge
* as a w eir, w hen hendw ater level is hi gher than th fusegate top edge
but lower than th predetermined level causing th fusegate to overturn
* As a "fuse" or a regular spiilw ay gte w hen headw ater reaches thi s
predetermined level and triggers th upli f t
Once th flood lias receded. th ov erturned f usegate is si mply li fted bac k on
th sill or replaced w ith an identic ai new uni t if seriously damaged
E.xtensiv e theoreti c al research has been c onduc ted on fusegate performanc e
when spilling and rotating and thorough model testing programs were
performed to v alidate th matli emati c al approac h
Testing of fusegates was performed at th Tennessee Vailey Authority
f ac i li ti es at Norris (Tenn ). Thse tests v ali dated very precisely th behav iour
of th Hydroplus fusegates under v arious c irc umstanc es and c ondi ti ons.
Also. Ice has been th subj ec t of sp c ifie research at th Insti tute for Mari ne
Dynami c s of th Nati onal Researc h Counc il, in St J ohn's, Canada and at th
Sc i enti f i c Research I nst i t ut e of Energy Struc tures, in Moscow, Russia
Water inlet
Drain hole
Underface Abutment block
Water is spilling overthe crest
Water inlel
Drain hole
Abutment block
The inlet stack admits water
Water inlet \
Abutment block
The fusegate tips off
The fusegate System may form a labyri nth or straight crest to th weir.
1 - Labyrinth Crest Fuseuates
A buc k et shape is used to form a labyri nth crest capable of overspilling a
nappe quivalent to 30 - 150% of th fusegate height. The buck et is open at
th upstream side An ali gnment of buc k ets forms a labyrinth crest w hich
allow s moderate floods to spill w i th a reduced head on th crest. The
developed length of th l ab yri nth is approximateiv three times that of a
concrte sill length. The buck et height is commonly 1m to 6.5m, depending
on th clients needs.
2 - Straight Crested Fuseuates
There are three types of straight-crested fusegates :
Emergenc y Fiisegntes are designed to ov erttirn before or j ust after being
overtopped. They are used as bac k -up to conv entional gtes in th event of
very large floods or gte mai f unc t i on. They may be 1m to 10m in height.
Intense Cold Env i ronment Fiisegates are designed to be very stable and
their upstream face are shaped and f i ni shed to reduce ice loading, fric tion and
Hi gh ff ends Fusegates are designed to w ithstand hi gh heads on th fusegate
crest They are c onstruc ted to obtai n th best discharge coefficient and may
be large (20m w ide) and c apable of remai ni ng stable w hen spilling under a
head of up four times thei r height
Oversptlllxg crest
D/S abutment btock
SUe abtamta bleck
Concrte stU
V/S seai stnp
Upstream view of abyrinth crest ftisegate
Drain boles
Pressure cbamber
Bottom view of labyrinh crest fusegate
Case I
Lussas Dam in th South-Central France provides irrigation water for
agric ulture on th Lussas pi ai n The dam is an earth construction 19.5m high
The spilhvay is situated on th left bank and is 36m in length.
The runo/F pattern is governed by sudden. heavy storms on th relativelv
large catchment (26.2 k m) vvhich accounts for a large design flood. The
spiTlway vvas modified and th fusegates i nstalled in two summer months of
1991 to increase th rservoir storage c apac ity. The rservoir was
successfully filled in time for crop irrigation soon after. During a flood in th
w i nter of 994 one fusegate ov erturned at th correct w ater l v ation and
w as replaced soon after for th rservoir to f i ll for th next crop season.
* - New storaue capacity 420,000 cubic mtres
* -Si l I length" " 35m
* - New spilhvay capacity 250 c ubic mtres per second
* - Fusegate number 10
* - Fusegate height 2.15 mtres
* - Fusegate w i dth , 3 5 mtres
* - Slorage increase 30%
* - Spilhvay c apac i ty increase 15%
Case 2
The Wanak bori pic k -up Weir in Guj arat State in India w as bui lt to collect
w ater to irrigate two hundred thousand hectares of agricultural land
Subs quent constructions of several dams upstream resulted in higher flood
control and so reduced by 2 mtres th \v ater head av ailable at th weir No
c onv entional method was cost effectiv e to restore th requested head on th
678 m long spilhv ay.
The Hydroplus solution consisted in th i nstallati on of thirty three straight
crested high overspill concrte fusegates tw o meter high and tw enty mtre
The first fusegate ti l t for a flood of about 20 000 cubic mtres per second
\v hic h correspond to a 6 mtres overspill over t h fusegates.
* - New storage capacity 8-4.000,000 cubic mtres
* - Sill length ~ 675 mtres
* - New spilhvay capacity 4~ .000 mtres per second
* - Fusegate number 33
* - Fusegate height 2 mtres
* - Fusegate w idth 20 mtres
* -Storage increase 100%
* - Spilhvay capacity increase nil
Case 3
Caillaouas Dam is at an alti tude of 2.170 mtres in th French Pyrnes, f t is
a masonry structure at th end of small but very deep natural Iak e. Three
straight crested fusegates hve been installed. to improve dam safety. A flap
gte lias also been installed to discharge moderate floods. The fusegates give
The extra capacity to discharge th design flood. The combination of a flap
gte and fusegates pr sents t h two-fold adv antage of good control of th
rservoir level Because of th area in \v hic h th dam is located, th fusegates
were transported and i nstalled by helic opter The op ration nianuai for th
c lient i nc ludes requirements for ic e c ondi ti ons
* - Storage c apac i ty 25,400.000 cubic mtres
* - Sill length 7 4 mtres
* - New spilhv ay capacity 29 3 cubic mtres per second
* - Fusegate nurnb er 3
* - Fusegate hei ght 1 5 mtres
* - Fusegate w i dth 1 6 mtres
* - Storage increase nil
* - Spilhvay capacity increase 1 90%
Case 4
The Shongw eni Dam i s loc ated i n Kw a Zul u i n Natal i n th Repub li c of
South Africa. The dam was ori gi nally b ui l t in th 1920's, th ungat ed
spilhv ay w as 1 26 mtres The ori gi nal design flood w as rated at 1 ,250 c ubic
mtres per second Alter inspection in 1988 th design flood was re-
evaluated at 5.000 cubic mtres per second The new safety requirements
w ere not satisficd for tw o reasons. ( a) th dam struc ture w as inad quate and
(b) th spilhv ay c ould not disc harge th re-ev aluated design flood. The c l i ent
examin e! f our alternati v es but settled on low eri ng th spilhv ay by 8 mtres
The spilhv ay w as eut bac k 7 9 mtres and ten 6 5 mtres high fusegates w ere
installed The resuit was that th rservoir level was lowered only by 1 4
mtres The first fusegate is designed to tip for a flood that occurs every 240
years Each fusegate weight was some 120 tonnes and since th cablew ay
sa te w ork i ng load w as 5 tonnes t h st r uc t ur al design had to be adapted to
meet th w eight l i mi t at i on
* - Storage c apac i ty 6,600.000 cubic mtres
* - Sill length 126 mtres
* - New, spilhv ay capacity 5.000 cubic mtres per sec
* - Fusegates number 1 0
* - Fusegate hei ght 6 5 mtres
* - Fusegate w i dth 9 73 mtres
* - Storage increase nil
* - Spilhv ay capacity increase 235%
Case 5
The Mc Clure Dam located in New Mexic o. USA is an earth struc ture w i th a
max i mum head of 38 6 mtres and a crest length of 234 mtres The dam
w as bui lt m th l^j O' s and raised
three time in 1936. 1947 and I98S In 1988 th 17 mtres spilhv ay was
rec onstmc ted Wi t h tw o other grav i ty dams, Mc Clure supplied domestic
w ater to th city of Santa Fe unti a large c rac k w as f ound in th f oundati on
of Tw o Mi le dam I n February 1995. th operator w as allow ed by th State
authori ti es to transf er th w ater ri ghts to McClure dam In April 1995, eight
steel fusegates were installed on th Ogee crested sill The Hydroplus
concept had successfully increased liv e rservoir storage capacity by 0 62
li m' and spilhvay discharge c apac i ty by 8 per cent
* - Storage c apac i ty 3.820.000 c ub i c mtres
* - Sill l enut h 17 3 mtres
* - New spiliw ay c apac ity 507 cubic mtres per sec
* - Fusegate numb er 8
* - Fusegate hei ght 2. 15 mtres
* - Fusegate w i dth 2. 13 mtres
* - Storage inc rease 500 acre-feet
* - Spi li w ay c apac i ty inc rease 8%
Case 6.
The Dove Stone Dam is an earth struc ture si tuated under Saddlew orth Moor
8 k m east of Oldham in Lanc ashi re. Calc ulati ons and 1:21 mode! tests
i ndi c ated that th exi sti ng b el l mouth in th rservoir c ould pass
approxi matel y 160 cumecs The requi red discharge for th PMF being
approxi mately 300 cumecs an aux i l i ar y spi li w ay w as required to meet safety
c ri teri a Three fusegates w ere i nstal l ed i nt o th new 9.8 mtre w ide auxi li ary
spi li w ay The fusegates are designed to ti l t off th spillv v ay 0.53, 0.58 and
0 63 mtres abov e th l i p of each fusegate respectiv ely. The fusegates are
designed to rotate in suc c ession betw een th 1 in 10,000 years flood ev ent
and th P MF thereby prev ent i ng th flood f rom ov ertopping th dam.
* - Storage c apac i ty 5,050,000 cubic mtres
* - Sill length 9 8 mtres
* - New spi li w ay c apac i ty 282 c ubic mtres per sec
* - Fusegate numb er 3
* - Fusegate Hei ght 2. 15 mtres
* - Fusegate w i dth 3 23 mtres
* - Storage increase Nil
* - Spi li w ay c apac i ty inc rease 42%
Hydroplus Fusegate Systems are being used Worl dw i de i nc ludi ng th Uni ted
Ki ngdom, Chi na. South Ameri c a. Uni t ed States of Americ a, parts of Afric a
and South East Asia and areas of Europe The System has prov ed and
establi shed ils v ersati li ty in appl i c at i on, in th use of materials. methods of
c onstruc ti on and logistics
The Hydroplus Fusegate System j s a method by w hic h dam safety and/ or
storage c apac ity c an be ac hiev ed in a cost effec ti v e manner.
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surfac e spilhv ays. Modi f i c at i on of dams to ac c omodate maj or floods
Tuei f t h Annual USCOLD Lec ture S ries, Fort Worth, Texas.
Lemp rire. F.(1992) Ov erspi ll fusegates. Water Pow er & Dam
Construc ti on..
Bessire C. (1992) Hydropl us submersi ble flisegates for surface spiliw ay.
I nt er nat i onal Symposium on Dams and Extrme Floods, Granada Spai n,
Tomo I, Topic A : Design
Lemp ri reF (1992) New solution to improv e Spillw ays of existing or
Future Arch Dams I nternati onal Symposium on arch dams, Hohai
Univ ersity, Nanj i ng, Chi na Proceedings of th Symposi um
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Conf renc e on dams, New South Wales, Australi a, R cent dev elopments in
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Falvey H T, Snell E F A , Rayssiguier J (1994) Inc reasi ng Shongw eni dam
discharge c apac ity w i th a Hydroplus fusegate System. Dam Safety
Modi f i c ati on and Rehab i l i t at i on Fourteenth Annual USCOLD Lec ture
Sries, Phoenix, Ari z ona
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Congress on Large Dams, Durban
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J ournal of Hydrauli c Engi neeri ng Vol 121, N 7, ASCE. USA.
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modific ations w i th fusegates Proceedings of 1995 Annual Conf rence of th
Association of State Dam Safety OITicials, Atlanta. Georgia, USA
Lemp rireF (1995) Cost effectiv e improv ements in fill dam safety
Hydropow er & Dams
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Hydroplus Fusegates at Mahi proj ect of Guj arat International R&D
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Delhi, Indi a, Proceedinas Water Ressources. Volume II
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technologies, Nairobi Kenya, Proceedings of th Symposium
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Poxver & Dam Construc tion
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of Huai he river basin Hydropow er & Dams
Gulati T (1995) Atigmenting c anal capacity through application of
Hydroplus Fsegates at Mahi proj ec t of Guj arat. Hydropow er & Dams