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8 tayangan9 halamanArticulo Cientifico sobre la simulacion numerica de implantes de cadera.

Oct 28, 2014

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Articulo Cientifico sobre la simulacion numerica de implantes de cadera.

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8 tayangan

Articulo Cientifico sobre la simulacion numerica de implantes de cadera.

© All Rights Reserved

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LOADING

Sandra Abegg

1

, Laura Arvalos

1

, Antonio Aquino

1

, Magna Monteiro

2

1

Laboratorio de Mecnica Computacional, Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad Nacional de Asuncin, San

Lorenzo, Paraguay.

2

Laboratorio de Computacin Cientfica y Aplicada, Facultad Politcnica, Universidad Nacional de Asuncin,

San Lorenzo, Paraguay.

E-mail: malaubt@gmail.com

Abstract. This paper presents the numerical analysis of hip prosthesis (stem) used in hip

replacement. In particular, we were modeled a commercial Charnley prosthesis, made of

stainless steel 316L. For the numerical simulation was used the commercial software Ansys,

based on the finite element method. Three-dimensional solid elements were used with

quadratic interpolation and full integration scheme. The criterion of mesh refinement was

based on the level of stress concentration. It was possible to observe the efforts and strains in

different sections of the prosthesis under cyclic loading. The results indicated the possibility

of failure at the vicinity of the restrictions, if the loads applied are much larger than the

applied loads on the present work, as well as in regions where occurs an abrupt change of

section when submitted to external loads.

Keywords: Cyclic loading, Hip prosthesis, Finite element method, Fatigue analysis.

1. INTRODUCTION

At world level, it is increasing the demand for orthopedic implants. This entails a greater

effort in the search for models and materials, as well as reducing the cost of prostheses, to

provide the desired characteristics for the function they are intended, so that a larger number

of patients access to such surgeries.

To ensure that a prosthesis, with material and model specific, perform the functions for

which it was designed, it is necessary implement some mechanical tests, which follow

established technical standards, that allow knowing the internal stress state generated in the

material under the action of the probable loads.

Among the biomaterials used in hip implants, is the AISI 316L stainless steel with low

carbon concentration (0.03% by weight). This steel is widely used because of its good

mechanical properties and mainly its low cost.

In modular hip implants, the femoral component comprises two parts, the stem and the

head. The stem is inserted into the femur and performs a structural function, which must work

satisfactorily under the physical conditions inside the human body, minimizing adverse

reactions.

The numerical simulation using finite elements has become in recent years into a

powerful tool and a strong ally in the evaluation of products in the health area. This technique

allows the prediction of the performance in service, so it can be selected the material and the

design appropriate to particular applications.

One of the critical service conditions of femoral prostheses corresponds to cyclic loading

to which they are subjected and fatigue that they produce, it is estimated that each year the

implant is subjected to 4 million cycles, approximately. During the activities of running and

jumping, when the body rests on one foot, the load on the femoral head may be worth 2.5

times the body weight [Oldani & Dominguez, 2005].

2. FINITE ELEMENTS MODEL

Of the several papers published, the authors often discuss different theories and methods to

solve problems related to performance and functionality of the femoral prosthesis. Colombi,

2002, uses the classical fatigue theory and the continuum damage mechanics to assess the

implants. There are also works [Oldani and Dominguez, 2005] that simulates static loads, in

order to observe the high levels of von Mises stresses, where probably fatigue can occur. In

this case, it should be noted that the failure mechanisms are associated with knowledge of the

internal stress state (e.g. opening, sliding, and tearing) and not only with the level of stresses

associated to its magnitude.

Using a CAD design of the prosthesis, Fig.1 we get the domain to be discretized using the

finite elements method. The loads and restrictions applied to this model are described. The

total characterization of the model is given below.

Figure 1 Simulated prosthesis.

2.1. Material characterization.

For the prosthesis simulation was use the mechanic properties of stainless steel type

316L, whose chemical composition is shown in Table 1. The stainless steel 316L have a

Youngs modulus of 196 GPa and a Poissons coefficient of 0,3. The characteristics

associated with plasticity phenomenon are given later in this paper.

Table 1. Chemical composition of material [Liu et al., 2005]

Material Content C Mn Si P S Cr Mo Ni N Fe

Stainless

Steel 316L

Min. - - - - - 16.0 2.00 10.00 - bal

Max. 0.03 2.0 0.75 0.045 0.03 18.0 3.00 14.00 0.10

To cement we considered a Young modulus of 2,7 GPa and Poisson coefficient of 0,3.

The cement was modeled like an isotropic elastic linear material.

Figure 2 Fatigue curve for stainless steel 316L [Liu et al, 2005]

2.2. System governing equations

The quasi-static equilibrium in his weak form is determined by the virtual velocities

principle, whose expression is given by the following equation:

(1)

which represent the internal and external work rates, respectively. In the last equation is the

Cauchy tensor, is the strain rate, t is the force per unit area applied and (.) represents the

variation of the magnitude applied to the system (virtual magnitude).

The material constitutive law writing in rate form is given by the following hipoelastic

relation:

(2)

where represents the variation rate of the Cauchy tensor in corotational form, is the

elastic modulus tensor y is the elastic strain rate.

Whereas the rate of deformation can be discomposed additively, we have the following

expression:

(3)

for cement we have D

p

= 0.

Considering a yield function with isotropic hardening, we have:

(4)

where is the von Mises equivalent stress and is given by the following expression

[Flores, 2007]:

(5)

are material parameters which have the values showed in Table 2.

Table 2. Parameters used for the isotropic hardening law [Blandford et al., 2007].

1031,3253 0,011 0,3428

The flow direction is given by the expression below:

(6)

being the plastic multiplier.

For this case it can be demonstrate that:

(7)

The stress evolution is obtained from Eq. (2), by the integration using Eulers retroactive

algorithm. The plasticity evolution is performed applying the return algorithm [Simo and

Ortiz, 1985] using Eq. (3) and Eq. (4).

2.3. Discretization

It was used tetrahedral elements with quadratic interpolation and complete integration

scheme. The mesh quality was verified using appropriate criteria to ensure the convergence of

the discrete model obtained. It was used 22925 elements with 37911 nodes, type Solid 187

[Ansys Inc, 2007].

In the fatigue analysis it was applied a non-proportional dynamic load with constant

amplitude, taking into account both applied load. This allows a better representation of the

performed test.

2.4. Loads and restrictions

The maximum and minimum loads applied on the upper surface of the implant were of

300N and 2300N, respectively. These values and the general layout of the prosthesis were

based on Brazilian standards NBR 14396, parts 1 and 2.

Figure 3 Finite elements mesh with loads and restrictions, according to standards used for

simulation.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Load of 300 N. It was applied a 300N load as indicated above, we obtained values of

stresses, strains and displacements that describe the levels of solicitations in the analyzed

structure.

Figure 4 Equivalent elastic strain (mm/mm).

It was verified that the structure is sufficiently robust for the applied load showing a

maximum deformation of 0.01%, approximately. The maximum deformation occurs in the

region surrounding the coupling between the stem and the holder (see box of Fig.4).

Figure 5 Von Mises Equivalent Stress (MPa).

Similar to what was observed with the strains, the maximum stresses are shown in Fig.5

enlarged region. Stress levels are below the yield stress of the material.

Figure 6 Total Displacement of the structure

In the case of displacement, as shown in Fig.6, the maximum values are given in the

upper part of the stem. These values are approximately 0.06 mm, and show both the

robustness of the structure and kinematics consistent of the results.

Load of 2300N. Applying the 2300N load, similar to that of 300N made above, we obtain

values of stresses, strains and displacements that describe the levels of solicitations in the

analyzed structure

Figure 7 Equivalent elastic strain (mm/mm).

Figure 7 shows strain values higher than those obtained with the load of 300N. This is

consistent with the value of the applied load. In this case, the maximum values of the

deformations are of the order of 0.1%. These values of deformation are obtained in the

expanded region.

Figure 8 Von Mises Equivalent Stress (MPa).

Tension values obtained in the stem are superior to those obtained with loads of 300N but

are still less than the yield stress of the material, remaining, therefore, the structure in the

region of elastic proportionality, i.e. without plastification.

Figure 9 Total Displacement of the structure

The displacements observed at the top show that the structure still bears the 2300N

strength. The observed maximum displacements occur in the top of the stem and are of the

order of 0.5 mm

Fatigue. The loads applied did not attain to the model after 10

7

cycles, so it is considered

that the structure did not fatigue for this load. However, due to the random nature of loads on

the implant, fatigue can occur in this structure, therefore the patient should be advised to

remain under a certain weight and doing activities that do not exceed the maximum load

applied in this numerical test.

The fatigue curve used is given in Fig.2, and it is an S-N type taking into account that is

in interest analyze high cycle fatigue (in the experimental test is used a maximum of 2,10

6

cycles).

As shown in the previous section, the structure was robust for static loads applied. Due

the static behavior of these loads, they do not represent properly the impact loads that can be

applied as a result of bodily activities such as jumping or rapid movements made by the

person who was received the prosthesis. Moreover, in general, the applied loads vary in

reality not only in magnitude relative to those applied in the simulation, but also in the

directions and region of application. Consequently, it is possible compare different prosthesis

and tell if one is more robust than other in relation to loads applied by standard, but it is not

possible to ensure its structural integrity. Additionally, it is necessary to analyze the behavior

of the bones where these prostheses have been inserted; there is therefore a long way to go to

adequately characterize the interaction of these prostheses with the natural structure of the

human body from a mechanical standpoint.

4. CONCLUSIONS

The structural analysis of hip prosthesis stem, according to loads and restrictions obtained

from standard NBR 14396, parts 1 and 2, has shown robust for these solicitations. Applying

the same test to different implants it can estimate the robust grade of these prosthesis,

consequently the finite elements method can be a valid tool to analyze these models. The use

of computational simulation offers flexibility to impose others solicitations to the structure, so

it is possible, at the same time, apply other standards, as well as create new scenarios for

better understanding of the mechanical interaction of the implant with the body structure.

Further, it is possible to adequately model various materials, including those one with clear

anisotropic behavior, as well as the incorporation of porosity and cracks in them [Gurson,

1977], taking into account the wide variety of constitutive laws available.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors thank to CONACyT for financial support.

REFERENCES

Ansys Inc (2007), Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench.

Blandford, R.K, Morton, D.K., Snow, S. D. and Rahl, T.E. (2007), Tensile Stress-Strain Results for 304L and

316L Stainless Steel Plate at Temperature, ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference, San

Antonio, Texas.

Colombi, P. (2002), Fatigue analysis of cemented hip prosthesis: damage accumulation scenario and sensitivity

analysis, International Journal of Fatigue, 24, 739-746

Flores, P. and Habraken, A. M. (2005), Material Identification of Dual Phase Steel DP1000, M&S Department,

University of Lige

Gurson, A. L. (1977), Continuum Theory of Ductile Rupture by Void Nucleation and Growth: Part I Yield

Criterion and Flow Rules for Porous Ductile Media, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, 1,

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Liu, F. X., Chiang, C. L., Wu, L., Hsieh, Y. Y., Yuan, W., Chu, J. P., Liaw, P. K., Brooks, C. R. and Buchanan,

R. A. (2005), Improve Fatigue Properties of 316 L Stainless Steel Using Glass-Forming Coatings, Mater.

Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 843

NBR 14396-1, Prteses parcial e total de articulao de quadril. Parte 1: Determinao de resistncia fadiga

de hastes femorais sem aplicao de toro

NBR 14396-2, Prteses parcial e total de articulao de quadril. Parte 2: Resistncia fadiga de hastes femorais

sem aplicao de toro

Oldani, C.R. y Dominguez, A.A. (2005), Simulacin del comportamiento mecnico de un implante de cadera,

XV Congreso Argentino de Bioingeniera, Paran Entre Ros

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