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ANSI/AGMA 6011- I03
(Revision of ANSI/AGMA 6011--H98)
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
Specification for High Speed Helical Gear
Units
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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ii
Specification for High Speed Helical Gear Units
ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03
[Revision of ANSI/AGMA 6011--H98]
Approval of an American National Standard requires verification by ANSI that the require-
ments for due process, consensus, and other criteria for approval have been met by the
standards developer.
Consensus is established when, in the judgment of the ANSI Board of Standards Review,
substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests.
Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority, but not necessarily una-
nimity. Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered, and that a
concerted effort be made toward their resolution.
The use of American National Standards is completely voluntary; their existence does not
in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the standards or not, from
manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not
conforming to the standards.
The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards and will in no
circumstances give an interpretation of any American National Standard. Moreover, no
person shall have the right or authority to issue an interpretation of an American National
Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute. Requests for interpre-
tation of this standard should be addressed to the American Gear Manufacturers
Association.
CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,
revision, or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA
technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available fromthe As-
sociation on the subject matter.
[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be referenced. Citations should read: See
AGMAAGMA6011--I03, Specification for High Speed Helical Gear Units, published by the
American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350,
Alexandria, Virginia 22314, http://www.agma.org.]
Approved February 12, 2004
ABSTRACT
This standard includes design, lubrication, bearings, testing and rating for single and double helical external
tooth, parallel shaft speedreducers or increasers. Units covered includethose operatingwith at least onestage
having a pitch line velocity equal to or greater than 35 meters per second or rotational speeds greater than 4500
rpm and other stages having pitch line velocities equal to or greater than 8 meters per second.
Published by
American Gear Manufacturers Association
500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Copyright 2003 by American Gear Manufacturers Association
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic
retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
ISBN: 1--55589--819--X
American
National
Standard
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
iii AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Contents
Page
Foreword iv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 Scope 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Normative references 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 Symbols, terminology and definitions 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Design considerations 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 Rating of gears 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Lubrication 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 Vibration and sound 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 Functional testing 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 Vendor and purchaser data exchange 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bibliography 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Annexes
A Service factors 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B A simplified method for verifying scuffing resistance 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C Lateral rotor dynamics 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Systems considerations for high speed gear drives 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E Illustrative example 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F Efficiency 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
G Assembly designations 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H Purchasers data sheet 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figures
1 Amplification factor 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tables
1 Symbols used in equations 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Recommended accuracy grades 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 Recommended maximum length--to--diameter (L/d) ratios 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Hydrodynamic babbitt bearing design limits 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 Dynamic factor as a function of accuracy grade 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Recommended lubricants 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 Casing vibration levels 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
iv
AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Foreword
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for
informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA Standard
6011--I03, Specification for High Speed Helical Gear Units.]
The first high speed gear unit standard, AGMA421.01, was adopted as a tentative standard
in October, 1943. It contained formulas for computing the durability horsepower rating of
gearing, allowable shaft stresses, and included a short table of application factors. AGMA
421.01 was revised and adopted as a full status standard in September, 1947 and issued as
AGMA 421.02.
The High Speed Gear Committee began work on the revision of AGMA 421.02 in 1951,
which included: classification of applications not previously listed; changing the application
factors fromK values to equivalent Service Factors; revision of the rating formula to allow
for the use of heat treated gearing; and develop a uniform selection method for high speed
gear units. This Uniform Selection Method Data Sheet became AGMA 421.03A.
AGMA 421.03 was approved as a revision by the AGMA membership in October, 1954.
The standard was reprinted as AGMA 421.04 in June, 1957. It included the correction of
typographical errors and the addition of a paragraph on pinion proportions and bearing
span, which had been approved by the committee for addition to the standard at the
October, 1955 meeting.
In October, 1959 the Committee undertook revisions to cover developments in the design,
manufacture, and operation of high speed units with specific references to high hardness
materials and sound level limits. The revisions were incorporated in AGMA 421.05 which
was approved by the AGMA membership as of October 22, 1963.
The significant changes of 421.06 from 421.05 were: minimum pitch line speed was
increased to 5000 feet per minute (25 meters per second); strength and durability ratings
were changed; and some service factors were added. AGMA 421.06 was approved by the
High Speed Gear Committee as of June 27, 1968, and by the AGMA membership as of
November 26, 1968.
ANSI/AGMA 6011--G92 was a revision of 421.06 approved by the AGMA membership in
October, 1991. The most significant changes were the adaptation of ratings per
ANSI/AGMA 2001--B88 and the addition of normal design limits for babbitted bearings.
ANSI/AGMA 6011--G92 used application factor and not service factor.
ANSI/AGMA 6011--H98 was a further refinement of ANSI/AGMA 6011--G92. One of the
most significant changes was the conversion to an all metric standard. The rating methods
were changed to be per ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95 which is the metric version of ANSI/AGMA
2001--C95. To provide uniformrating practices, clearly defined rating factors were included
in the standard (ANSI/AGMA 6011--H98). While some equations may slightly change to
conform to metric practices, no substantial changes were made to the rating practice for
durability and strength rating. In addition, minimum pitch line velocity was raised from 25
m/s to 35 m/s and minimum rotational speed increased to 4000 rpm.
AGMA has reverted to the term service factor in their standards, which was reflected in
ANSI/AGMA 6011--H98. The service factor approach is more descriptive of enclosed gear
drive applications and can be defined as the combined effects of overload, reliability,
desired life, and other application related factors. The service factor is applied only to the
gear tooth rating, rather than to the ratings of all components. Components are designed
based on the service power and the guidelines given in this standard.
In continued recognition of the effects of scuffing in the rating of the gear sets, additional
information on scuffing resistance was added to annex B of ANSI/AGMA 6011--H98.
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
--`,``,`,`,`,``````,`,``,,`,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
v AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
AGMA427.01 has been withdrawn. The informationfound inAGMA427.01was includedin
annex D of ANSI/AGMA 6011--H98.
ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 is a further refinement to ANSI/AGMA 6011--H98. Symbols have
been changed where possible to conformwith ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95 and ISOstandards.
The minimum rotational speed has been increased to 4500 rpm. Helix angle limits have
changed, and a minimum axial contact ratio limit has been added. The L/D limits have
changed, and use of modified leads is now encouraged with the use of predicted rotor
deflection and distortion. Bearing load design limits have also changed. For gear tooth
accuracy, reference is now made to ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01 rather than to ANSI/AGMA
2000--A88. The Z
n
and Y
n
life factors now have a maximum rather than a minimum limit
when the number of load cycles exceeds 10
10
. A table of dynamic factor as a function of
accuracy grade has beenadded. References toAGMAoil grades havebeen removed; now
only ISO viscosity grades are listed. To facilitate communications between purchaser and
vendor, an annex with data sheets has been added.
Realistic evaluation of the various rating factors of ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 requires specific
knowledge and judgment which come from years of accumulated experience in designing,
manufacturing and operating high speed gear units. This input has been provided by the
AGMA High Speed Gear Committee.
The first draft of AGMA 6011--I03 was made in May, 2001. It was approved by the AGMA
membership in October, 2003. It was approved as an American National Standard on
February 12, 2004.
Suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome. They should be sent to the
American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria,
Virginia 22314.
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
vi
AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
PERSONNEL of the AGMA Helical Enclosed Drives High Speed Unit Committee
Chairman: John B. Amendola MAAG Gear AG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACTIVE MEMBERS
E. Martin Lufkin Industries, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J.M. Rinaldo Atlas Copco Compressors, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
W. Toner Siemens Demag Delaval Turbomachinery, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASSOCIATE MEMBERS
A. Adams Textron Power Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
K.O. Beckman Lufkin Industries, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.S. Cohen Engranes y Maquinaria Arco, S.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
W. Crosher Flender Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
G.A. DeLange Hansen Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H. Ernst HSB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R. Gregory Turner Uni--Drive Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M. Hamilton Flender Graffenstaden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
L. Hennauer BHS Getriebe GmbH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O.A. LaBath Gear Consulting Services of Cincinnati, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
L. Lloyd Lufkin Industries, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M.P. Starr Falk Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.A. Thoma F.A. Thoma, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.C. Uherek Flender Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U. Weller MAAG Gear AG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D.G. Woodley Shell Oil Products U.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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1 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
American National Standard --
Specification for High
Speed Helical Gear Units
1 Scope
This high speed helical gear unit standard is
provided as a basis for improved communication
regarding:
-- establishment of uniform criteria for rating;
-- guidance for design considerations; and,
-- identification of the unique features of high
speed gear units.
1.1 Application
Operational characteristics such as lubrication,
maintenance, vibration limits and testing are dis-
cussed. This standard is applicable to enclosed high
speed, external toothed, single and double helical
gear units of the parallel axis type. Units in this
classification are:
-- single stage units with pitch line velocities
equal to or greater than 35 meters per second or
rotational speeds greater than 4500 rpm;
-- multi--stage units with at least one stage hav-
ing a pitch line velocity equal to or greater than 35
meters per second and other stages having pitch
line velocities equal to or greater than 8 meters
per second.
Limits specified are generally accepted design
limits. When specific experience exists for gear units
of similar requirements above or below these limits,
this experience may be applied.
Marine propulsion, aircraft, automotive, and
epicyclic gearing are not covered by this standard.
2 Normative references
The following standards contain provisions which,
throughreferenceinthis text, constituteprovisions of
this American National Standard. At the time of
publication, the editions indicated were valid. All
standards are subject to revision, and parties to
agreements based on this American National Stan-
dard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of
applying the most recent editions of the standards
indicated below.
ANSI/AGMA 1010--E95, Appearance of Gear Teeth
-- Terminology of Wear and Failure
ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01, Accuracy Classification
System -- Tangential Measurements for Cylindrical
Gears
ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, Fundamental Rating Fac-
tors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur and
Helical Gear Teeth
ANSI/AGMA 6000--B96, Specification for
Measurement of Linear Vibration on Gear Units
ANSI/AGMA 6001--D97, Design and Selection of
Components for Enclosed Gear Drives
ANSI/AGMA 6025--D98, Sound for Enclosed
Helical, Herringbone, and Spiral Bevel Gear Drives
ISO 14635--1, Gears FZG test procedures Part
1: FZG test method A/8,3/90 for relative scuffing
load carrying capacity of oils
3 Symbols, terminology and definitions
3.1 Symbols
The symbols usedin this standard areshown intable
1.
NOTE: The symbols and terms contained in this docu-
ment may vary from those used in other AGMA stan-
dards. Users of this standard should assure
themselves that they are using these symbols and
terms in the manner indicated herein.
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
2 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Table 1 -- Symbols used in equations
Symbol Term Units
Reference
paragraph
A Allowable double amplitude of unfiltered vibration mm 7.5
A
ct
Amplitude at N
ct
mm 7.3.3.3
AF Amplification factor -- -- 7.3.3.3
C
SF
Service factor for pitting resistance -- -- 5.2
CRE Critical response envelope rpm 7.3.3.3
c
p
Specific heat of lubricant kJ/(kgC) 8.2.5
D
J
Nominal bearing bore diameter mm Table 4
d Pinion operating pitch diameter mm 4.6
F
d
Incremental dynamic load N 5.3.3
F
t
Transmitted tangential load N 5.3.3
K
B
Rim thickness factor -- -- 5.4
K
H
Load distribution factor -- -- 5.3.2
K
He
Mesh alignment correction factor -- -- 5.3.2
K
Hma
Mesh alignment factor -- -- 5.3.2
K
Hmc
Lead correction factor -- -- 5.3.2
K
Hpm
Pinion proportion modifier -- -- 5.3.2
K
s
Size factor -- -- 5.3
K
SF
Service factor for bending strength -- -- 5.2
K
v
Dynamic factor -- -- 5.3.3
L Face width including gap mm 4.6
N
cm
Initial (lesser) speed at 0.707 peak amplitude (critical) rpm 7.3.3.3
N
cp
Final (greater) speed at 0.707 peak amplitude (critical) rpm 7.3.3.3
N
ct
Rotor first critical, center frequency rpm 7.3.3.3
N
mc
Maximum continuous rotor speed rpm 4.1
n
L
Number of stress cycles -- -- 5.3.1
P
a
Allowable transmitted power for the gear set kW 5.1
P
ayu
Allowable transmitted power for bending strength at unity
service factor
kW 5.1
P
azu
Allowable transmitted power for pitting resistance at unity
service factor
kW 5.1
P
L
Power loss kW 8.2.5
P
S
Service power of enclosed drive kW 4.1
Q
LUBE
Lubricant flow kg/sec 8.2.5
S
J
Diametral clearance mm Table 4
SM Separation margin rpm 7.3.3.3
U
max
Amount of residual rotor unbalance g--mm 7.4
W Journal static loading kg 7.4
W
cpl
Half weight of coupling and spacer kg 7.3.3.2
W
r
Total weight of rotor kg 7.3.3.2
Y
N
Stress cycle factor for bending strength -- -- 5.4.1
Y

Temperature factor -- -- 5.3


Z
N
Stress cycle factor for pitting resistance -- -- 5.3.1
Z
R
Surface condition factor for pitting resistance -- -- 5.3
Z
W
Hardness ratio factor for pitting resistance -- -- 5.3
T Change in lubricant temperature _C 8.2.5

FP
Allowable bending stress number N/mm
2
5.5

HP
Allowable contact stress number N/mm
2
5.5
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
--`,``,`,`,`,``````,`,``,,`,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
3 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
3.2 Nomenclature
The terms used, wherever applicable, conformtothe
following standards:
AGMA 904--C96, Metric Usage
ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90, Gear Nomenclature, Defi-
nitions of Terms with Symbols
ISO 701, International gear notation Symbols for
geometrical data
4 Design considerations
This standard should be used in conjunction with
appropriate current AGMA standards. External
loads must be considered as acting in directions and
rotations producing the most unfavorable stresses
unless more specific information is available.
Allowances must be made for peak loads.
4.1 Service power, P
S
Service power of an application is defined as the
maximuminstalled continuous power capacity of the
prime mover, unless specifically agreed to by the
purchaser and vendor. For example, for electric
motors, maximum continuous power will be the
motor nameplate power rating multiplied by the
motor service factor.
For gear units between two items of driven equip-
ment, service power of such gears should normally
not be less than item (a) or (b) below, whichever is
greater.
a. 110 percent of the maximum power required
by the equipment driven by the gear;
b. maximum power of the driver prorated be-
tween the driven equipment, based on normal
power demands.
If maximum torque occurs at a speed other than
maximum continuous speed, this torque and its
corresponding speed shall be specified by the
purchaser. Maximum continuous speed, N
mc
, is
normally the speed at least equal to 105% of the
specified (or nominal) pinion speed for variable
speed units and is the rated pinion speed for
constant speed units.
All components shall be capable of transmitting the
service power.
4.2 High transient torque levels
Where unusual torque variations develop peak
loads which exceed the application power by a ratio
greater than the service factor, C
SF
or K
SF
, specified
for the application, the magnitude and frequency of
such torque variations should be evaluated with
regard to the endurance and yield properties of the
materials used. See annex D and also ANSI/AGMA
2101--C95, subclause 16.3.
4.3 Torsional and lateral vibrations
When an elastic system is subjected to externally
applied, cyclic or harmonic forces, the periodic
motion that results is called forced vibration. For the
systems in which high speed gears are typically
used, two modes of vibration are normally consid-
ered.
a) Lateral or radial vibration, which considers
shaft dynamic motion that is in a direction perpen-
dicular to the shaft centerline; and
b) Torsional vibration, which considers the am-
plitude modulation of torque measured peak to
peak referenced to the axis of rotation.
In certain cases, axial or longitudinal vibration might
also be considered.
Because of the wide variation of gear driven
systems, clause 7 of this standard outlines areas
where proper assessment of the system may be
necessary. In addition, appropriate responsibility
between the vendor and purchaser must be clearly
delineated.
4.4 Tooth proportions and geometry
Any practical combination of tooth height, pressure
angle and helix angle may be used. However, it is
recommended that the gears have a minimum
working depth of 1.80 times the normal module, a
maximum normal pressure angle of 25 degrees, a
helix angle of 5 to 45 degrees, and a minimum axial
contact ratio of 1.1 per helix.
4.5 Recommended accuracy grade
Table 2 presents recommended ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01 accuracy grades as a function of pitch
line velocity. Based on experience and application,
other accuracy grades may be appropriate.
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
4 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Table 2 -- Recommended accuracy grades
Pitch line
velocity, m/s
ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01
accuracy grade
35 100 A5
100 160 A4
Over 160 A3
4.6 Pinion proportions
Table 3 presents maximumlength--to--diameter (L/d)
ratios for material hardening methods in current use.
The L/d values shown in table 3 apply to helical gears
when designed to transmit the service power.
Generally, higher L/d ratios are permitted when
analytical load distribution methods are employed
that yield load distribution values, K
H
, that are less
than the value calculated per 5.3.2 at the maximum
L/d ratio per table 3. A detailed analytical method
should include, but not be limited to, bending and
torsional deflection and thermal distortion.
Table 3 Recommended maximum length--to--
diameter (L/d) ratios
Maximum L/d ratio
Hardening
method
Double
helical
Single
helical
Through hardened 2.2 1.6
Case hardened 2.0 1.6
NOTE:
L = face width including gap, mm;
d = pinion operating pitch diameter, mm
No matter what the L/d ratio is, if the combination of
tooth and rotor deflection and distortion exceeds 25
mm for through hardened gears, or 18 mm for case
hardened gears, then an analytically determined
lead modification should be applied in order to
reduce the total mismatch to a magnitude below
these values. Determination of the combined tooth
and rotor deflection shall be based on the service
power. The modification is intended to provide a
uniformload distribution across the entire face width.
Working flanks of the pinion or gear wheel should be
modified when necessary to compensate for torsion-
al and bending deflections and thermal distortion.
Gears with pitch line velocities in excess of 100 m/s
are particularly susceptible to thermal distortion.
Consideration should be given to the relationship of
lead modifications to gear tooth accuracy.
When a higher L/d ratio than tabulated in table 3 is
proposed, the gear vendor shall submit justification
in the proposal for using the higher L/d ratio.
Purchasers should be notified when L/d ratios
exceed those in table 3. When operating conditions
other than gear rated power are specified by the
purchaser, such as the normal transmitted power,
the gear vendor shall consider in the analysis the
length of time and load range at which the gear unit
will operate at each condition so that the correct lead
modification can be determined. When modified
leads are to be furnished, purchaser and vendor
shall agree on the tooth contact patterns obtained in
the checking stand, housing or test stand.
4.7 Rotor construction
Several configurations may be applied in the
construction of rotors. The most commonly used are
listed below:
a) Integral shaft and gear element. This con-
figuration is commonly used for pinions, smaller
gears, or rotating elements operating above a
pitch line velocity of 150 meters per second. The
pinion or gear, integral with its shaft, is machined
from a single blank;
b) Solid blank shrunk on ashaft. The shrink fit
may be used either with or without a mechanical
torque transmitting device (such as key or spline).
When no torque transmitting device is used, the
shrink fit must provide ample capacity to transmit
torque when considering centrifugal and thermal
effects. When a torque transmitting device is
used, the shrink fit must provide ample location
support when considering centrifugal and thermal
effects;
c) Fabricated gear. A forged rim is welded di-
rectly to the fabricated substructure producing a
one--piece welded gear. The shaft may be a part
of theweldment. Fabricated gears should beana-
lyzed to consider centrifugal and thermal stresses
and fatigue life. Maximum pitch line velocity for
welded gear construction is 130 meters per sec-
ond;
d) Forged rim shrunk onto a substructure.
The substructure may be forged, cast, or fabrica-
ted. The shaft may be a part of the substructure.
Shrunk rims shall consider stresses and torque
transmitting capacity due to fit, centrifugal, and
thermal effects (refer to item b). The normal de-
sign limit for this type of construction is 60 meters
per second.
Combinations of the above are often used on
multistage units.
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
5 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Stresses anddeflections at highspeeds oftendictate
limits for a specific type of construction. High
pitchline velocity, especially when combined with
high loads, may require special material specifica-
tions and/or testing. Construction features such as
holes in the gear body should be analyzed for their
influence on the stress. The influence of real or
virtual inclusions and/or cracks may need to be
considered using the methods of fracture mechan-
ics, with testing of the material to ensure that there
are no inclusions greater than the assumed maxi-
mum. Overall, a careful analysis of actual operating
stresses and deflection should be made to ensure
reliable operation.
4.8 Gear housing
The gear housing should be designed to provide a
sufficiently rigid enclosed structure for the rotating
elements that enables them to transmit the loads
imposed by the system and protects them from the
environment in which they will operate. The
vendors design of the housing must provide for
proper alignment of the gearing when operating
under the users specified thermal conditions, and
the torsional, radial and thrust loadings applied to its
shaft extensions. In addition, it should be designed
to facilitate proper lubricant drainage from the gear
mesh and bearings.
The users design of the supporting structure must
maintain proper and stable alignment of the gearing.
Alignment must consider all specified torsional,
radial and thrust loadings, and thermal conditions
present during operation.
4.8.1 Special housing considerations
Certain applications may be subjected to operating
conditions requiring special consideration. Some of
these operating conditions are:
-- temperature variations in the vicinity of the
gear unit;
-- relative thermal growth between mating sys-
tem components;
-- environmental elements that will attack the
unit housing, rotating components, bearings or lu-
bricant;
-- inadequate support for the housing;
-- high pitch line velocities which may affect lu-
bricant distribution, create excessive temperature
rise, or cause other adverse conditions.
4.8.2 Shaft seals
Where shafts pass through the housing, the hous-
ings shall be equipped with seals and deflectors that
shall effectively retain lubricant in the housing and
prevent entry of foreign material into the housing.
Easily replaceable labyrinth--type end seals and
deflectors are preferred. The seals and deflectors
shall be made of nonsparking materials. Lip--type
seals have a very finite life and can generate enough
heat at higher speeds to be a fire hazard. Surface
velocity should be kept within the seal manufactur-
ers conservative recommendation.
4.9 Bearings
Proper design of bearings is critical to the operation
of high speed enclosed drive units. The bearing
design shall consider normal service power.
Radial bearings are normally of the hydrodynamic
sleeve or pad type. Thrust bearings are usually flat
land, tapered land, or thrust pad type. Rolling
element bearings are occasionally used when
speeds are at the very low end of the high speed
range. Bearing design shall consider start--up and
unloaded conditions, as well as normal service
power.
4.9.1 Hydrodynamic bearings
Hydrodynamic bearings shall be lined with suitable
bearing material. Tin and lead based babbitts (white
metal) are among the most widely used bearing
materials. Tin alloy is usually preferred over lead
alloys because of its higher corrosion resistance,
easier bonding, and better high temperature charac-
teristics. Hydrodynamic bearings shall have a rigid
steel or other suitable metallic backing, and be
properly installed and secured in the housing against
axial and rotational movement. Bearings are
generally supplied split for ease of assembly.
Selection of the particular design (sleeve, pad type
or land bearing) shall be based on evaluation of
surface velocity, surface loading, hydrodynamic film
thickness, calculated bearing temperature, lubricant
viscosity, lubricant flow rate, and bearing stability.
Heat is generated at running speeds as a result of
lubricant shear. Temperature is regulated by control-
ling the lubricant flow through the bearing and
external cooling of the lubricant. The anticipated
peak babbitt temperature as related to bearing
lubricant discharge temperatures should be kept
within a range that is compatible with the bearing
material and lubricant characteristics. See table 4
for design limits.
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
6 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Table 4 -- Hydrodynamic babbitt bearing design limits
1)
Type of bearing
Projected unit
load,
3)
N/mm
2
Minimum lubricant
film thickness,
mm
Bearing metal
temperature,
2) 3)
C
Maximum
velocity,
3)
m/s
Radial bearing
-- Fixed geometry 3.8 0.020 115 100
-- Tilting pad 4.2 0.020 115 125
Thrust bearings
-- Tapered land 2.5 0.020 115 125
-- Flat face 0.5 N/A 115 50
-- Tilt pad 3.5 0.015 115 125
NOTE: Table limits will generally not occur all together; one parameter alone may dictate the design.
1)
Limits are for babbitt on steel backing. When other materials are used, established limits for these materials are per-
missible. Bearing clearances should be chosen to yield proper temperature, high stiffness and stability, as well as to en-
sure adequate clearance to cope with thermal gradients, whether steady, static, or transient. The averageratio of diame-
tral clearance (S
J
) to the nominal bore size (D
J
), S
J
/D
J
, for radial bearings is approximately 0.002 mm/mm.
2)
Bearing temperature measurements are taken in the backing material within 3 mm of the backing material/babbitt
interface at the hottest operational zone of the bearing circumference.
3)
Higher values are acceptable if supported either with special engineering or testing and field experience.
4.9.2 Radial bearing stability
Hydrodynamic radial bearings shall be designed
such that damaging self generated instabilities (e.g.,
half frequency whirl) do not occur at any anticipated
operational load or speed. Hydrodynamic instability
occurs when a journal does not return to its
established equilibrium position after being momen-
tarily displaced. Displacement introduces an insta-
bility in which the journal whirls around the bearing
axis at less than one--half journal speed. Known as
half frequency whirl, this instability may occur in
lightly loaded high speed bearings.
4.9.3 Thrust bearings
Thrust bearings shall be furnished with all gear units
unless otherwise specified. Thrust bearings are
generally provided on the low speed shaft for all
double helical gears and on single helical gears fitted
with thrust collars (see 4.9.4). Thrust bearings are
generally provided on each shaft for all single helical
gears not fitted with thrust type collars. If the axial
position of any of the shafts depends on items
outside the gear unit, the purchaser and vendor shall
agree to the arrangement relative to the thrust
bearings.
When gear units are supplied without thrust bear-
ings, some type of end float limitation shall be
provided at shaft couplings to maintain positive axial
positioning of the gear rotors and connected rotors.
Provisions to prevent contact of the rotating ele-
ments with the gear casing shall be provided unless
otherwise specifically agreed to by the purchaser.
The design of a hydrodynamic bearing to sustain
thrust is as complicated as the design of a radial
hydrodynamic bearing. Complete analysis requires
consideration of heat generation, lubricant flow,
bearing material, load capacity, speed and stiffness.
Thrust bearing load capacity should consider the
possibility of torque lock--up loads from couplings.
When other external thrust forces are anticipated,
the vendor must be notified of their magnitudes.
4.9.4 Thrust collars
Thrust collars (also known as rider rings) may be
usedtocounteract theaxial gear thrust developedby
single helical gear sets.
Thrust collars arrangednear eachendof theteethon
a single helical pinion and having bearing surface
contact diameters greater than that of the pinion
outside diameter may be used to carry the gear
mesh thrust forces. Typically the thrust collars have
a conical shape where they contact a similarly
shapedsurfaceonthemating gear rimlocatedbelow
the root diameter of the gear. Other designs also
exist and may be used. Single helical gear sets
using thrust collars may be positioned in the housing
in a similar fashion to that of double helical gear
elements.
4.9.5 Rolling element bearings
Selection of rolling element bearings shall be based
upon the application requirements and the bearing
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
7 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
manufacturers recommendations and rating
methods. For normal applications, an L
10
life of
50 000 hours minimum is required.
4.10 Threaded fasteners
Refer to ANSI/AGMA 6001--D97, Design and Selec-
tion of Components for Enclosed Gear Drives,
clause 8.
4.11 Shafting
The pinion and gear shafts may normally be
designed for the maximum bending and maximum
torsional shear stresses at service power (see 4.1)
by the appropriate methods and allowable values
from ANSI/AGMA 6001--D97, clause 4, or other
equivalent standards. In some instances, this may
result in an oversized or undersized shaft.
Therefore, an in--depth study using other available
analysis methods may be required.
5 Rating of gears
5.1 Rating criteria
The pitting resistance power rating and bending
strength power rating for each gear mesh in the unit
must be calculated. The lowest value obtained shall
be used as the allowable transmitted power of the
gear set.
The allowable transmitted power for the gear set, P
a
,
is determined:
P
a
= the lesser of
P
azu
C
SF
and
P
ayu
K
SF
(1)
where
P
azu
is allowable transmitted power for pitting re-
sistance at unity service factor (C
SF
= 1.0);
P
ayu
is allowable transmitted power for bending
strength at unity service factor (K
SF
= 1.0);
C
SF
is service factor for pitting resistance; rec-
ommended values are shown in annex A;
K
SF
is service factor for bending strength; rec-
ommended values are shown in annex A.
The service power shall be less than, or equal to, the
allowable transmitted gearset power rating:
P
S
P
a
(2)
where:
P
S
is service power, kW.
It is recognized that all prime movers have overload
capacity, which should be specified.
5.2 Service factor, C
SF
and K
SF
The service factor includes the combined effects of
overload, reliability, life, and other application related
influences. The AGMA service factor used in this
standard depends on experience acquired in each
specific application.
In determining the service factor, consideration
should be given to the fact that systems develop a
peak torque, whether from the prime mover, driven
machinery, or transitional system vibrations, that is
greater than the nominal torque.
When anacceptable servicefactor is not knownfrom
experience, the values shown in annex A should be
used as minimum allowable values.
5.3 Pitting resistance power rating
The pitting resistance of gear teeth is considered to
be a Hertzian contact fatigue phenomenon. Initial
pitting and destructive pitting are illustrated and
discussed in ANSI/AGMA 1010--E95.
The purpose of the pitting resistance formula is to
determine a load rating at which destructive pitting of
the teeth does not occur during their design life.
Ratings for pitting resistance are based on the
formulas developed by Hertz for contact pressure
between two curved surfaces, modified for the effect
of load sharing between adjacent teeth.
The pitting resistance power rating for gearing within
the scope of this standard shall be determined by the
rating methods and procedures of ANSI/AGMA
2101--C95, clause 10, when using service factors,
with the following values:
Z
W
is hardness ratio factor, Z
W
= 1.0;
Y

is temperature factor, Y

= 1.0;
K
s
is size factor, K
s
= 1.0;
Z
R
is surface condition factor, Z
R
= 1.0;
Z
N
is stress cycle factor (see 5.3.1);
K
H
is load distribution factor (see 5.3.2);
K
v
is dynamic factor (see 5.3.3).
5.3.1 Stress cycle factor, Z
N
Stress cycle factor, Z
N
, is calculated by the lower
curve of figure 17 of ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, and
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
8 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
should be based on 40 000 hours of service at rated
operating speed.
Z
N
= 2.466 n
0.056
L
(3)
where
n
L
is number of stress cycles.
When the number of stress cycles exceeds 10
10
(i.e., speed above 4167 rpm for 40 000 hours), Z
N
should be less than or equal to 0.68.
If less than 40 000 hours is used for rating, it must be
with the specific approval of the purchaser and must
be so stated along with the rating.
5.3.2 Load distribution factor, K
H
K
H
is the load distribution factor. Values are to be per
ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95. The following values shall
be used with the empirical method:
K
Hma
is mesh alignment factor. Use values from
curve 3, precision enclosed gear units, of
figure 7 and table 2 of ANSI/AGMA
2101--C95;
K
Hmc
is lead correction factor,
K
Hmc
= 0.8;
K
Hpm
is pinion proportion factor,
K
Hpm
= 1.0;
K
He
is mesh alignment correction factor,
K
He
= 0.8.
The calculated value of K
H
shall not be less than 1.1.
NOTE: The above empirical rating method assumes
properly matched leads whether unmodified or modi-
fied, teeth central to the bearing span and tooth contact
checked at assembly with contact adjustments as re-
quired. If these conditions are not met, or for wide face
gears, it may bedesirabletouseananalytical approach
to determine load distribution factor. AGMA 927--A01
provides one such approach.
5.3.3 Dynamic factor, K
v
Dynamic factors account for internally generated
gear tooth dynamic loads, which are caused by gear
tooth meshing action at a non--uniform relative
angular velocity.
The dynamic factor is the ratio of transmitted
tangential tooth load to the total tooth load, which
includes the dynamic effects.
K
v
=
F
d
+ F
t
F
t
(4)
where:
F
d
is incremental dynamic tooth load due to the
dynamic response of the gear pair to trans-
mission error excitation, N;
F
t
is transmitted tangential load, N.
Dynamic forces on gear teeth result from gear
transmission error, which is defined as the departure
from uniform relative angular motion of a pair of
meshinggears. Thetransmissionerror is causedby:
-- inherent variations in gear accuracy as
manufactured;
-- gear tooth deflections which are dependent
on the variable mesh stiffness and the trans-
mitted load.
The dynamic response to transmission error excita-
tion is influenced by:
-- masses of the gears and connected rotors;
-- shaft and coupling stiffnesses;
-- damping characteristics of the rotor and
bearing system.
The AGMA accuracy grades per ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01, specifically tooth element tolerances
for pitch and profile, and the pitch line velocity may
be used as parameters to guide the selection of
dynamic factors. Within the 1.09 to 1.15 dynamic
factor range, the trend is for K
v
to vary in nearly a
direct relationship with AGMA accuracy grades from
A5 to A2 as shown in table 5.
Table 5 -- Dynamic factor as a function of
accuracy grade
ANSI/AGMA 2015--1--A01
accuracy grade
Dynamic factor, K
v
A5 1.15
A4 1.13
A3 1.11
A2 1.09
The dynamic factor, K
v
, does not account for
dynamic tooth loads which may occur due to
torsional or lateral natural frequencies. System
designs should avoid having such natural frequen-
cies close to an excitation frequency associated with
an operating speed, since the resulting gear tooth
dynamic loads may be very high.
Refer to ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95 for additional
considerations influencing dynamic factors.
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
9 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
5.4 Bending strength power rating
The bending strength of gear teeth is a measure of
the resistance to fatigue cracking at the tooth root
fillet.
The intent of the AGMA strength rating formula is to
determine the load which can be transmitted for the
design life of the gear drive without causing root fillet
cracking or failure.
The gear rim thickness must be sufficient for the
calculated rim thickness factor to be 1.0.
Occasionally, manufacturing tool marks, wear, sur-
face fatigue, or plastic flow may limit bending
strength due to stress concentration around large,
sharp cornered pits or wear steps on the tooth
surface.
The bending strength power rating for gearing within
the scope of this standard shall be determined by the
rating methods and procedures of ANSI/AGMA
2101--C95, clause 10, when using service factors,
with the following values:
Y

is temperature factor, Y

= 1.0;
K
s
is size factor, K
s
= 1.0;
K
B
is rim thickness factor, K
B
= 1.0;
Y
N
is stress cycle factor (see 5.4.1);
K
v
is dynamic factor (see 5.3.3);
K
H
is load distribution factor (see 5.3.2).
5.4.1 Stress cycle factor, Y
N
Stress cycle factor, Y
N
, is calculated by the lower
curve of figure 18 of ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, and
should be based on 40 000 hours of service at rated
operating speed.
Y
N
= 1.6831 n
0.0323
L
(5)
where
n
L
is number of stress cycles.
When the number of stress cycles exceeds 10
10
, Y
N
should be less than or equal to 0.80.
If other than 40 000 hours is used for rating, it must
be with the specific approval of the purchaser and
must be so stated along with the rating.
5.5 Allowable stress numbers,
HP
and
FP
Allowable stress numbers, which are dependent
upon material and processing, are given in ANSI/
AGMA 2101--C95, clause 16. That clause also
specifies the treatment of momentary overload
conditions.
Three grades of material have been established.
Grade 1 is normal commercial quality steel and shall
not beusedfor gears rated by this standard. Grade2
is high quality steel meeting SAE/AMS 2301 cleanli-
ness requirements. Grade 3 is premiumquality steel
meeting SAE/AMS 2300 cleanliness requirements.
Both Grade 2 and Grade 3 are heat treated under
carefully controlled conditions. The choice of
material, hardness and grade is left to the gear
designer; however, values of
HP
and
FP
shall befor
grade 2 materials.
Due consideration should be given to additional
testing, such as ultrasonic or magnetic particle
inspection of high speed gear rotors which are
subject to high fatigue cycles or high stress, or both,
during operation.
For details on tooth failure, refer to ANSI/AGMA
1010--E95.
5.6 Reverse loading
For idler gears and other gears where the teeth are
completely reverse loaded on every cycle, use 70
percent of the allowable bending stress number,
FP
,
in ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95.
5.7 Scuffing resistance
Scuffing failure (sometimes incorrectly referred to as
scoring) has been known for many years and is a
concern for high speed gear units. When high speed
gears are subject to highly loaded conditions and
high sliding velocities, the lubricant film may not
adequately separate the surfaces. This localized
damage to the tooth surface is referred to as
scuffing. Scuffing will exhibit itself as a dull matte or
rough finish usually at the extreme end regions of the
contact path or near the points of a single pair of
teeth contact resulting in severe adhesive wear.
Scuffing is not a fatigue phenomenon and may occur
instantaneously. The risk of scuffing damage varies
with the material of the gear, lubricant being used,
viscosity of the lubricant, surface roughness of the
tooth flanks, sliding velocity of the mating gear set
under load, and geometry of the gear teeth.
Changes in any or all of these factors can reduce
scuffing risk.
Further information is provided in annex B. Annex B
is not a requirement of this standard. However, it is
recommended that either annex B or some other
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method be used to check for the probability of
scuffing failure. See AGMA 925--A03 for further
information.
6 Lubrication
6.1 Design parameters
High speed gear units shall be designed with a
pressurized lubrication supply system to provide
lubrication and cooling to the gears and bearings. A
normal lubricant inlet pressure of 1 to 2 bar is an
industry accepted value. Special applications may
require other lubricant pressures. If a gear element
extends below the lubricant level in the gear casing,
it is said to be dipping in the lubricant. Dipping at high
speed can result in high power losses, rapid
overheating, possible fire hazard, and should be
avoided.
The following minimum parameters should be con-
sidered to ensure that proper lubrication is provided
for the gear unit:
-- type of lubricant;
-- lubricant viscosity;
-- film thickness;
-- surface roughness;
-- inlet lubricant pressure;
-- inlet lubricant temperature;
-- filtration;
-- drainage;
-- retention or settling time;
-- lubricant flow rate;
-- cooling requirements.
6.2 Choice of lubricant
Certain lubricant additives, such as those in extreme
pressure (EP) lubricants, may be removed by fine
filtration. Changes to the level of filtration should
only be done in consultation with both the gear unit
and lubricant manufacturers. Extreme pressure
lubricants are not normally used in high speed units.
To avoid dependency on extreme pressure addi-
tives, unless otherwise specified, the gear unit shall
be designed for use with a lubricant that fails ISO
14635--1 load stage 6. The lubricant used shall pass
ISO 14635--1 load stage 5. When an alternate
lubricant is requested, the vendor shall provide
calculations and an experience list to support a
request for an alternate lubricant selection.
6.2.1 Lubricant viscosity
Selection of an appropriate lubricant viscosity is a
compromise of factors. In addition, lubrication
systems are oftentimes integrated with other drive
train equipment whose viscosity requirements are
different from the gear unit. This complicates the
selection of the lubricant.
Load carrying capacity of the lubricant filmincreases
with the viscosity of the lubricant. Therefore, a
higher viscosity is preferred at the gear mesh.
Development of an adequate elastohydrodynamic
lubricant film thickness and reduction in tooth
roughness are of primary importance to the life of the
gearset. However, in high speed gear units,
particularly those with high bearing loads and high
journal velocities, heat created in the bearings is
considerable. Here, the viscosity must be low
enough to permit adequate cooling of the bearings.
Lubricant viscosity recommendations are specified
as ISOviscosity grades. Recommendations for high
speed applications are listed in table 6. For turbine
driven speed increasers where the lubrication sys-
tem supplies both the bearings and the gear mesh,
anISOVG32is usually provided for the gear drive. A
lubricant with a viscosity index (VI) of 90 or better
should be employed. Special considerations may
require the use of lubricants not listed in table 6. The
gear vendor should always be consulted when
selecting or changing viscosity grades.
Table 6 -- Recommended lubricants
ISO
viscosity
grade (VG)
Viscosity range
mm
2
/s (cSt)
at 40 C
Minimum
viscosity
index (VI)
32 28.8 to 35.2 90
46 41.4 to 50.6 90
68 61.2 to 74.8 90
100 90.0 to 100.0 90
NOTE:
When operating at low ambient temperatures, the lubri-
cant selected should have a pour point at least 6C
below the lowest expected ambient temperature.
6.2.2 Synthetic lubricants
Synthetic lubricants may be advantageous in some
applications, especially where extremes of tempera-
ture are involved. There are many types of synthetic
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
11 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
lubricants, and some have distinct disadvantages.
The gear vendor should be consulted before using
any synthetic lubricant.
6.3 Lubrication considerations
6.3.1 Ambient temperature
Ambient temperature is defined as the temperature
of the air in the immediate vicinity of the gear unit.
The normal ambient temperature range for high
speed gear unit operation is from --10C to 55C.
The vendor should be informed what the ambient
temperature will be, or if a large radiant heat source
is located near the gear unit. Furthermore, if low
ambient temperature causes the sump temperature
to drop below20Cat start--up, the vendor should be
advised. Special procedures or equipment, such as
heaters, may be required to ensure adequate
lubrication.
6.3.2 Environment
If a gear unit is to be operated in an extremely humid,
salt water, chemical, or dust laden atmosphere, the
vendor must be advised. Special care must be taken
to prevent lubricant contamination.
6.3.3 Temperature control
The lubricant temperature control system must be
designed to maintain a lubricant inlet temperature
within design limits at any expected ambient temper-
ature or operating condition. Design inlet tempera-
ture may vary, but 50C is a generally accepted
value. Lubricant temperature rise through the gear
unit should be limited to 30C. Special operating
conditions, such as high pitch line velocity, high inlet
lubricant temperature, and high ambient tempera-
ture may result in higher operating temperatures.
6.3.4 Gear element cooling and lubrication
The size and location of the spray nozzles is critical
to the cooling and proper lubrication of the gear
mesh.
Spray nozzles may be positioned to supply lubricant
at either the in--mesh, out--mesh, or both sides of the
gear mesh (or at other points) at the discretion of the
vendor.
6.3.5 Lubricant sump
The lubricant reservoir may be in the bottom of the
gear case (wet sump) or in a separate tank (dry
sump). In either case, the reservoir and/or gear case
should be sized, vented, and baffled to adequately
deaerate the lubricant and control foaming. In dry
sump applications, the external drainage system
must be adequately sized, sloped and vented to
avoid residual lubricant buildup in the gear case.
Drain velocities may vary, but 0.3 meters per second
in a half full opening is a generally accepted
maximum value.
6.3.6 Filtration
A good filtering system for the lubricant is very
important. The design filtration level may vary, but
filtration to a 25 micron or finer nominal particle size
is a generally accepted value. Filtration finer than 25
microns is recommended when light turbine lubri-
cants are used, particularly for higher operating
temperatures. ISO 4406 may be used as a more
complete specification of the oil cleanliness re-
quired. An ISO 4406:1999 cleanliness level of
17/15/12 is recommended if there is no other
recommendation from the gear unit manufacturer.
To remove the finer particles, systems may be
installed downstreamof the filters. It has been found
that removing very fine particles can greatly extend
lubricant life. It is good practice to locate the filter as
near as possible to the gear unit lubricant inlet.
Further, it is recommended to provide a duplex filter
to facilitate cleaning of the filter when the unit can not
beconveniently shut downfor filter change. Any kind
of bypass of the filter is prohibited. A mechanism to
indicate the cleanliness of the filter is recommended.
Systems that take a portion of the filtered lubricant
and further clean it are acceptable.
6.3.7 Drain lines
Location of the drain line must be in accordance with
the vendors recommendations. Drain lines should
be sized so they are no more than half full. The lines
should slope down at a minimum of 20 millimeters
per meter and have a minimumnumber of bends and
elbows.
6.4 Lubricant maintenance
The lubricant must be filtered and tested, or changed
periodically, to assure that adequate lubricant prop-
erties are maintained.
Prior to initial start--up of the gear unit, the lubrication
systemshould be thoroughly cleaned and flushed. It
is recommended that the initial charge of lubricant be
changed or tested after 500 hours of operation.
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6.4.1 Change interval
Unless the vendor recommends different intervals,
under normal operating conditions subsequent
change or test intervals should be 2500 operating
hours, or 6 months, whichever occurs first. Ex-
tended change periods may be established through
periodic testing of lubricants. With periodic lubricant
testing and conditioning, it is not uncommon to
operate lubrication systems without lubricant
changes for the life of the gear drive.
6.4.2 Water contamination
Where operating conditions result in water collecting
in the lubrication system, the lubricant should be
processed, or changed as required, to keep water
content below the lubricant manufacturers recom-
mendation. Failure to control moisture may result in
damage to the gear unit. Some lubricants are
hygroscopic (absorb water) and may need special
consideration to eliminate or control the water
content and total acid number.
7 Vibration and sound
7.1 Vibration analysis
When the frequency of a periodic forcing phenome-
non (exciting frequency) applied to a rotor--bearing
support systemcoincides with a natural frequency of
that system, the system may be in a state of
resonance. A shaft rotational speed at which the
rotor--bearing support system is in a state of
resonance with any exciting frequency associated
with that speed, is called a critical speed.
Vibration of any component of the gear unit can
result in additional dynamic loads being superim-
posed on the normal operating loads. Vibration of
sufficient amplitude may result in impact loading of
the gear teeth, interference in the gear mesh, or
damage to close clearance parts of the gear unit.
Where torque variations exceed 20 percent of the
rated torque at the service power, the magnitude and
frequency of such torque variations should be
evaluated with regard to the endurance properties of
the materials used.
The types of vibration which are generally of concern
for gear units are the torsional, lateral and axial
modes of the rotating elements, since these can
have a direct influence on the tooth load. Of these,
the two that are normally reviewed analytically
during design are the lateral critical speeds of the
gear unit rotating shafts and the torsional critical
frequencies of all connected rotating elements.
7.2 Torsional vibration analysis
Any torsional vibration analysis must consider the
complete system including prime mover, gear unit,
driven equipment and couplings. Dynamic loads
imposed on a gear unit from torsional vibrations are
the result of the dynamic behavior of the entire
systemand not the gear unit alone. Thus, a coupled
systemhas to be analyzed in its entirety. A common
method used is to separate the system into a series
of discrete spring connected masses. When applied
to a multi--mass system, this method is known as
using lumped parameters. These parameters are
developed into a model in order to analyze the
systemas a wholeand solveits torsional mechanical
vibrations.
It is important to note that this result is only as good
as its model. In fact, the process of lumping
parameters could be the largest source of errors.
The result of the torsional system analysis is not
within the control of the vendor, since the gear unit
itself is only one of several elements in a coupled
train.
The gear unit vendor is seldom the system designer
and in normal cases the gear unit vendor is
responsible only for providing mass elastic data.
The system designer, not the gear vendor, is
responsible for the torsional vibration analysis.
7.3 Lateral vibration analysis
The rating equations used in this standard assume
smooth operation of the rotors. To insure smooth
operation, these rotors should be analyzed for lateral
critical speeds. It is imperative that slow roll,
start--up, and shutdown of rotating equipment not
cause any damage as the rotating elements pass
through their critical speeds. See annex C.
7.3.1 Undamped lateral critical speed map
An undamped lateral critical speed analysis is
sufficient in somecases todetermine rotor suitability.
If this method is chosen as the sole criterion for
determining the suitability of a rotor, it should be
based upon significant experience in designing high
speed gear drives utilizing this method. It includes a
lateral critical speed map, showing the undamped
critical speeds versus support stiffness or percent-
age of torque load. This graphic display shows all
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applicable loading conditions and no--load test
conditions (approximately 10 percent of the rated
torque) at the maximum continuous speed.
The undamped lateral critical speed map for gear
rotors is used to determine potential locations of the
critical speeds by locating the intersection of the
principal bearing stiffness values with the undamped
critical speeds. If no intersections are indicated, with
experience this can be used to determine rotor
suitability.
Note that these undamped speeds can be signifi-
cantly different from the critical speeds determined
from a rotor response to unbalance analysis. The
differences are due to the cross coupled stiffness
and damping effects from the bearings.
7.3.2 Analytical methods
Coupling moments and shear force transfer effects
between rotors with properly designed and installed
couplings will be minimal. As a result, each coupled
element can generally be analyzed independently.
The mathematics of this analysis are complex and
beyond the scope of this standard (see C.6.2).
Commercial computer software is available and
analysts should assure themselves that the method
they use gives accurate results for the type of rotors
being analyzed. Most high speed rotors are
supported in hydrodynamic journal bearings; there-
fore, of equal importance is the method used to
analyzethesupport (bearing) stiffness anddamping.
The analyses should include the following effects on
the critical speeds:
-- bearing--lubricant film stiffness and damping
for the range of bearing dimensions and toler-
ances, load, and speed;
-- bearing structure and gear casing support
structure stiffness;
-- coupling weight to be supported by each gear
unit shaft (the weight of the coupling hub plus 1/2
the weight of the coupling spacers). The coupling
weight shall be applied at the proper center of
gravity relative to the shaft end. The weight and
center of gravity will be specified by the purchaser
of the coupling;
-- potential unbalance of the gear rotor and cou-
pling.
7.3.3 Lateral critical speeds
Lateral critical speeds correspond to resonant
frequencies of the rotor--bearing support system.
The basic identification of critical speeds is made
fromthe natural frequencies of the systemand of the
forcing phenomena. If the frequency of any harmon-
ic component of a periodic forcing phenomenon is
equal to or approximates the natural frequency of
any mode of rotor vibration, a condition of resonance
may exist. If resonance exists at a finite rotational
speed, the speed at which the peak response occurs
is called a critical speed. The speed or frequency at
which these occur varies with the degree of trans-
mitted load, primarily as a result of the change in
stiffness of the bearing lubricant film.
Critical speeds are normally determined using a
rotor response analysis and are deemed to be
acceptable if: (a) the separation margin is greater
than 20 percent; or (b) the vibration levels are within
the specified limit and the amplification factor is less
than 2.5 (see 7.3.3.3).
In some cases a simple undamped lateral critical
speed analysis may be sufficient to properly analyze
the rotor.
7.3.3.1 Forcing phenomena
A forcing phenomenon or exciting frequency may be
less than, equal to, or greater than the synchronous
frequency of the rotor. Potential forcing frequencies
may include, but are not limited to, the following:
-- unbalance in the rotor system;
-- coupling misalignment frequencies;
-- loose rotor--system component frequencies;
-- internal rub frequencies;
-- lubricant film frequencies;
-- asynchronous whirl frequencies;
-- gear--meshing and side--band frequencies,
as well as other frequencies produced by inaccu-
racies in the generation of the gear tooth.
7.3.3.2 Rotor response analysis
The rotor response to unbalance analysis is used to
predict the damped vibration responses of the rotor
to potential unbalance combinations (i.e., critical
speeds). The critical speeds of a gear rotor
determined from the rotor response analysis should
be verified by shop and field test data.
The rotor response analysis should consider the
following parametric variations in order to assure
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that the vibrations will be acceptable for all expected
conditions:
1. Unbalance, g--mm
-- midspan unbalance
6350 W
r
N
mc
;
-- overhung mass unbalance
63 500 W
cpl
N
mc
;
-- out--of--phase unbalance
63 500 W
cpl
N
mc
at cou-
pling, and
3175 W
r
N
mc
at the furthermost mass sta-
tion on the gear tooth portion of the gear.
where
N
mc
is maximumcontinuous speed of rotor, rpm;
W
r
is total weight of the rotor, kg;
W
cpl
is half weight of the coupling and spacer, kg.
2. Gear loading
-- unloaded, or minimum load, or both;
-- 50 percent load;
-- 75 percent load;
-- 100 percent load.
3. Bearing clearances
-- minimum clearance and maximum preload;
-- maximum clearance and minimum preload.
4. Speed range from zero to 130 percent of
maximum rotor speed.
7.3.3.3 Amplification factor
The amplification factor, AF, is defined as the critical
speed divided by the band width of the response
frequencies at the half power point.
AF =
N
ct
N
cp
N
cm
(6)
where
N
ct
is rotor first critical, center frequency, rpm;
N
cm
is initial (lesser) speed at 0.707 peak am-
plitude (critical), rpm;
N
cp
is final (greater) speed at 0.707 peak am-
plitude (critical), rpm.
The response of a critical speed is considered to be
critically damped if the amplification factor is less
than 2.5 (see figure 1).
The shape of the curve in figure 1 is for illustration
only and does not necessarily represent any actual
rotor response plot. In most cases the amplitude
does not decrease to N
cp
(0.707 of peak); therefore
calculate N
cp
from the flip of N
cm
, or use another
method such as the amplification factor in the
Handbook of Rotordynamics by F.F. Ehrich, page
4.28.
Shaft speed, rpm
V
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
N
mc
N
cm
N
ct
N
cp
CRE
SM
Operating
speed
A
ct
0.707 Peak
Key:
N
mc
is maximum continuous rotor speed, rpm;
N
cp
--N
cm
is peak width at the half power point;
AF is amplification factor ;
SM is separation margin;
CRE is critical response envelope;
A
ct
is amplitude at N
ct
.
=
N
ct
N
cp
N
cm
Figure 1 -- Amplification factor
7.3.4 Stability analysis
Damped eigenvalues (damped natural frequencies)
may occur below120%maximumrotor speed due to
a variation in load, bearing properties, etc. These
damped eigenvalues are the frequencies at which
the rotor will vibrate if there is sufficient energy or
insufficient damping in the system. Therefore, a
damped stability analysis is performed to ensurethat
these damped eigenvalues have a large enough
logarithmic decrement (log dec) to insure stability.
The stability analysis calculates the damped eigen-
values and their associated logarithmic decrement.
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
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The rotor should have minimum log dec of +0.1 at
any of the damped eigenvalues to be considered
stable.
7.3.5 Mode shape
Each finite resonant frequency has an associated
mode shape. Knowing the mode shapethat therotor
will assume when responding to a critical speed is
important in understanding the consequences of
bearing placement and residual unbalance. In most
high speed gear unit rotors, the mode shape of the
first critical speed is mostly conical with a node point
between the bearings, vibration at the bearings
approximately 180 out of phase, and the point of
highest vibration at the drive (coupling) end of the
shaft. Aslight bending shape of the rotor is common.
The amplitudeat thebearing locations is usually high
enough to allow the damping inherent in hydrody-
namic journal bearings to limit maximum vibration
amplitudes. However, the location of highest
amplitude at the coupling makes most gear units
sensitive to unbalance at this location and extra care
in coupling balance is recommended.
7.4 Balance
All gear rotating elements shall be multiplane
dynamically balanced after assembly of the rotor.
Rotors with single keys for couplings shall be
balanced with their keyway fitted with a fully crowned
half--key so that the shaft keyway is filled for its entire
length. The balancing machine shall be suitably
calibrated, with documentation of the calibration
available. Therotating elements should bebalanced
to the level of the following equation:
U
max
=
6350 W
N
mc
(7)
where
U
max
is amount of residual rotor unbalance,
g--mm;
W is journal static loading, kg;
N
mc
is maximum continuous speed, rpm.
7.5 Shaft vibration
During the shop test of the assembled gear unit
operating at its maximumcontinuous speedor at any
other speed within the specified range of operating
speeds, the double amplitude of vibration for each
shaft in any plane measured on the shaft adjacent
and relative to each radial bearing shall not exceed
the following value or 50 mm, whichever is less:
A =
2800
N
mc

(8)
where
A is allowable double amplitude of unfiltered
vibration, micrometers (mm) true peak to
peak.
7.5.1 Electrical and mechanical runout
When provisions for shaft non--contact eddy current
vibration probes are supplied on the gear unit,
electrical and mechanical runout shall be deter-
mined by rolling the rotor in V--blocks at the journal
bearing centerline, or on centers true to the bearing
journals, while measuring runout with a non--con-
tacting vibration probe and a dial indicator. This
measurement will be taken at the centerline of the
probe location and one probe tip diameter to either
side and the results included with the test report.
7.5.2 Electrical/mechanical runout
compensation
If the vendor can demonstrate that electrical/me-
chanical runout is present, themeasured runout may
be vectorially subtracted from the vibration signal
measured during the factory test. However, in no
case shall the amount subtracted exceed the
smallest of:
-- measured runout;
-- 25 percent of the test level determined from
7.5;
-- 6.4 micrometers.
7.6 Casing vibration
During shop no--load test of the assembled gear
drive operating at its maximum continuous speed or
at any other speed within the specified range of
operating speeds, casing vibration as measured on
the bearing housing shall not exceed the values
shown in table 7.
7.7 Vibration measurement
Vibration measurements and instrumentation shall
be in accordance with ANSI/AGMA 6000--B96
unless otherwise agreed upon by the purchaser and
vendor.
7.8 Sound measurement
Sound level measurement and limits shall be in
accordance with ANSI/AGMA 6025--D98 unless
otherwise agreed upon by the purchaser and
vendor.
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Table 7 -- Casing vibration levels
Frequency
range
Velocity
10 Hz --
2.5 kHz
Acceleration
2.5 kHz --
10 kHz
Unfiltered (peak) 4 mm/sec 4 gs
Filtered
component
2.5 mm/sec
NOTES:
1) The above vibration levels are for horizontal offset
gear unitsonly. Theallowablevibrationlevelsfor vertical
offset gears are twice those shown in the table.
2) Filteredcomponent means any vibrationpeak within
the frequency range.
8 Functional testing
8.1 General
Each unit conforming to this standard should be
functionally tested at full speed. Additional tests may
also be done at other speeds. Functional testing
provides a means of evaluating operational charac-
teristics of the unit. The procedures may be the
vendors standard or one agreed upon by the vendor
and purchaser.
Functional testing presents an opportunity to
evaluate the operational integrity of the design and
manufacture of gear drives. Functional test
procedures provide a means of evaluating the entire
gear system for noise, vibration, lubrication, gear
tooth contact, bearing operating temperatures, bear-
ing stability, lubricant sealing, mechanical efficiency,
instrument calibration and other unit features, and
provide data that parallels the expected on--line
operational characteristics.
8.2 Procedures
Functional testing may also include procedures
ranging frompartial speed and no load spin testingto
full speed and full power testing. Following testing,
the unit may be disassembled for bearing and gear
tooth contact inspection.
8.2.1 No load testing
The unit under test is normally driven in the same
rotational direction and with the same input shaft as
in the design application. The output shaft will have
no load applied to it. Test speeds may range from
partial speedtoover speed. Thetest durationshould
be no less than one hour after temperature stabiliza-
tion.
8.2.2 Full speed and partial load testing
The unit under test is normally driven in the same
rotational direction and with the same input shaft as
in the design application. The output shaft will be
connected to a loading device which applies a
resisting torque less than the design full load torque.
Test duration should be no less than one hour after
temperature stabilization.
8.2.3 Full speed and full power testing
Full speed and full power testingcan becarried out in
the same manner as described in 8.2.2 for units with
lower operating powers.
Full power testing of units with higher power ratings
may require back--to--back locked torque testing. In
this procedure two identical ratio units are shaft
coupled together, input to input and output to output.
Full operational torque is appliedby disengagingone
of the shaft couplings, rotating the shafts relative to
one another until the proper torque is achieved, then
re--engaging the shaft coupling. The unit shafts are
then rotated at full speed. Full power testingduration
is usually not less than four hours after temperature
stabilization.
When performing back--to--back locked torque test-
ing the following risks should be considered:
-- Bearings with full load applied at the static
condition will start with full load and no hydrody-
namic lubricant film until some rotational speed
is reached;
-- Gear and pinion teeth with full load applied at
the static condition will start with full load and no
lubricant film to separate the teeth until some
rotational speed is reached. Scuffing may occur;
special procedures such as coating of the gear
teeth with an EP lubricant may be required (this
problem may be avoided if the method of torque
application allows start up at low torque);
-- Bearings of one unit will be loaded in a direc-
tion opposite normal operation;
-- Slave unit bearing loads are in the opposite
direction, stub shafts used to complete the torque
path may have to be removed, and if the gear ele-
ments of the slave unit are not flipped end for end,
they will be loaded on the flanks that are not nor-
mally loaded. Therefore the slave unit, and often
also the tested unit, will have to be modified after
the test;
-- For purposes of this test the slaveunit may re-
quire a lead and profile modification suitable for
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
17 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
loading in the testing mode. When the leads are
modified specifically for test, then after back--to--
back testing the slave gears may require final
modification suitable for the contract application.
The vendor and purchaser shall agree on the ex-
tent of this work. At the conclusion of back--to--
back tests, the slave unit will require a test of its
own, since the back--to--back configuration can-
not be duplicated for that purpose. The vendor
and purchaser shall agree on the test to be per-
formed.
8.2.4 Special testing
In the case of very high rotational speeds or multiple
input/output shafts, conventional testing may be-
come impractical. In such cases, special test
procedures specific to the application should be
developed between the vendor and purchaser.
8.2.5 Power loss testing
When testing for power loss in a high speed gear
unit, one method is to measure the heat removed by
the lubricant flowing through the gear unit. Lubricant
flow rate and lubricant inlet and outlet temperatures
are measured. Power loss is then calculated using:
P
L
= Q
LUBE
c
p
T
(9)
where
P
L
is power loss, kW;
Q
LUBE
is lubricant flow, kg/sec;
T is change in lubricant temperature fromin-
let to outlet, C;
c
p
is specific heat of the lubricant, kJ/(kgC).
Aeration of the lubricant may result in the indicated
flow rate being higher than the actual mass flow, so
the indicated flowmay need to be adjusted to a lower
value.
Accuracy of the power loss calculation may be
improved if all other heat transfer to or from the gear
unit is properly accounted for.
Other methods of measuring power loss may be
used, such as the difference in the power in and out
as measured with torque meters, if agreed to by the
purchaser and vendor.
9 Vendor and purchaser data exchange
9.1 Rationale for data requirements
In order to promote consistency and reduce errors,
recommended information to be furnished to the
vendor and data provided by the vendor is specified
in this section. A detail of the schedule for
transmission of drawings, curves and data should be
agreed to at the time of the proposal or order.
The purchaser should promptly review the vendors
data when he receives them; however, this review
does not constitute permission to deviate from any
requirements in the order unless specifically agreed
upon in writing. After the data has final approval, the
vendor should furnish certified copies in the quantity
specified.
A complete list of all vendor data should be included
with the first issue of major drawings. This list
contains titles, drawing numbers, and a schedule for
transmission of all data the vendor will furnish.
Inquiry documents should be revised to reflect any
subsequent changes. These changes will result in
the purchasers issue of completed, corrected data
sheets as part of the order specifications.
9.2 Document identification
Transmittal (cover) letter title blocks or title pages
should contain the following information, when
available:
-- purchaser/users corporate name;
-- job/project;
-- equipment item number;
-- inquiry or purchase order number;
-- any other identification specified in the inquiry
or purchase order;
-- vendors identifying proposal number, shop
order number, serial number, or other reference
required to completely identify return correspon-
dence.
9.3 Data provided by purchaser
To allow the gear unit to be properly selected or
designed, the vendor must have adequate informa-
tion from the purchaser. The following is a guide to
data that should be sent along with a request for
quotation:
-- a data sheet is provided in annex H. All of the
data on the left hand side of that form should be
included in the request for proposal;
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
18 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
-- scope of supply;
-- information on the couplings that will be used;
-- testing requirements;
-- measurement units to be used in drawings
and other communications (SI or U.S.
customary);
-- list of applicable standards and
specifications;
-- copies of any applicable purchaser specifica-
tions;
-- any other special requirements, such as
painting, shipping, storage or environmental
protection requirements.
9.4 Proposal data
The following is a guide to proposal data that should
be furnished by the vendor:
-- general arrangement or outline drawing for
each gear unit showing overall dimensions;
-- purchasers data sheets, with completed ven-
dors information entered thereon and literature to
fully describe details of the offering (a suggested
data sheet is provided in annex H);
-- if applicable, a list of requested exceptions to
the specifications;
-- schedule for shipment of the equipment, in
weeks after receipt of the order, and all approved
drawings;
-- list of recommended start--up spares, includ-
ing any items that the vendors experience indi-
cates are likely to be required;
-- complete tabulation of the utility require-
ments, including the required flowrate of lubricant
and supply pressure, heat load to be removed by
the lubricant, and nameplate power rating
(approximate data shall be defined and identified
as such);
-- description of tests and inspection
procedures, as required;
-- when requested, the vendor should furnish a
list of the procedures for any special, or optional
tests, that have been specified by the purchaser
or proposed by the vendor;
-- any start--up, shut--down, or operatingrestric-
tions required to protect the integrity of the equip-
ment;
-- conditions and period of the vendors
warranty.
9.5 Items needing resolution
The following items normally should be resolved
after purchase commitment. This may be done at a
coordination meeting, preferably at the vendors
plant or by other suitable means of communication.
-- purchase order, vendors internal order
details and sub--vendor items;
-- any required data sheets;
-- applicable specifications, standards, clarifi-
cations and previously agreed upon exceptions;
-- that the system and all its components are in
accordance with specified standards;
-- schedules for transmittal of data, production
and testing;
-- quality assurance program, procedures and
acceptance criteria;
-- inspection, expediting and testing;
-- schematics and bills of material (B/Ms) of
auxiliary systems;
-- physical orientation of equipment, shaft rota-
tion, piping and auxiliary systems;
-- final coupling selection.
9.6 Contract data
The following lists contract data normally supplied by
the vendor:
a. Certified dimensional outline drawing and
parts list, including the following:
-- size, rating and location of all purchasers
connections;
-- approximate overall and handling weights;
-- overall dimensions;
-- dimensioned shaft end(s) for coupling
mounting(s);
-- height of shaft centerline;
-- dimensions of baseplates or soleplates (if
furnished), complete with the diameter, num-
ber and location of bolt holes and thickness of
the metal through which bolts must pass;
-- shaft position diagram, including recom-
mended limits during operation, with all
changes in shaft end position and support
growths from an ambient reference or 15C
noted;
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
19 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
-- journal bearing clearances and tolerances;
-- axial rotor float or thrust bearing clearance,
as applicable;
-- number of teeth on each gear.
b. When a lubricant system is supplied, a sche-
matic, certified dimensional outline drawing, and
parts list including the following:
-- control, alarm and trip settings (pressures
and recommended temperatures);
-- utility requirements, including electrical,
water and air;
-- pipe and valve sizes;
-- instrumentation, safety devices and
control schemes;
-- size, rating and location of all purchasers
connections;
-- instruction and operation manuals;
-- maximum, minimum and normal liquid lev-
els in the reservoir;
-- quantity of lubricant required to fill reservoir
to the normal level.
c. Electrical and instrumentation schematics
and bills of materials, including the following:
-- vibration warning and shutdown limits;
-- bearing temperature warning and shut-
down limits;
-- lubricant temperature warning and shut-
down limits.
d. Lateral critical speed analysis, which may in-
clude any or all of the following:
-- method used;
-- graphic display of bearing and support stiff-
ness and their effects on critical speeds (un-
damped lateral critical speed map);
-- graphic display of the rotor response to un-
balance, including damping (rotor response
analysis);
-- journal bearing stiffness and damping
coefficients;
-- damped stability analysis, including identi-
fied eigenvalues and associated logarithmic
decrement.
e. Torsional data for the gear unit and any shaft
couplings supplied by the vendor, sufficient for a
third party to do a system torsional analysis.
f. When mechanical running test is supplied,
test reports, includingthe following(see clause8):
-- vibration;
-- lubricant flow and inlet and outlet tempera-
tures;
-- bearing temperatures.
g. Nameplates and rotation arrows shall be of
Series 300 stainless steel or of nickel--copper
alloy (Monel or its equivalent) attached by pins of
similar material and located for easy visibility. As
a minimum, the following data should be clearly
stamped on the nameplate:
-- vendors name;
-- size and type of gear unit;
-- gear ratio;
-- serial number;
-- service power, P
s
;
-- rated input speed, in revolutions per
minute;
-- rated output speed, in revolutions per
minute;
-- gear service factor, as defined in this
standard;
-- purchasers item number;
-- number of gear teeth;
-- number of pinion teeth;
-- date of manufacture: month and year unit
was successfully tested.
h. Statement of any special protection required
for start--up, operation, and periods of idleness
under the site conditions specified on the data
sheets. The list shall clearly identify theprotection
to be furnished by the purchaser, as well as that
included in the vendors scope of supply.
9.7 Installation manual
When specified by the purchaser, an installation
manual shall be supplied. Any special information
required for proper installation design that is not on
the drawings shall be compiled in this manual. This
manual shall be forwarded at a time that is mutually
agreed upon in the order. The manual shall contain
information such as special alignment and grouting
procedures, utility specifications (including quanti-
ties), and all other necessary installation design
data, including drawings and data specified in 9.6.
The manual shall also include sketches that show
the location of the center of gravity and rigging
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
20 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
provisions, to permit removal of the top half of the
casing, rotors, and subassemblies that have a mass
(weight) greater than 140 kilograms.
9.8 Operation, maintenance and technical
manuals
The vendor shall provide sufficient written instruc-
tions and a cross--referenced list of all drawings to
enable the purchaser to correctly operate and
maintain all the equipment ordered. This information
should be compiled in a manual or manuals with a
cover sheet containing all reference--identifying data
specified in 9.2, an index sheet containing section
titles, and a complete list of referenced and enclosed
drawings by title and drawing number. The manual
shall be prepared for the specified installation; a
generic manual is not acceptable. This manual shall
be forwarded at a time that is mutually agreed upon
in the order. This manual shall contain a section that
provides special instructions for operation at speci-
fied extreme environmental conditions, such as
temperatures.
9.9 Recommended spares
When the vendor submits a complete list of spare
parts, the list should include spare parts for all
equipment and accessories supplied. The vendor
should forward the list to the purchaser promptly
after receipt of the reviewed drawings and in time to
permit order and delivery of the parts before field
start--up.
9.10 Special tools
A list of special tools required for maintenance shall
be furnished.
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
21 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Annex A
(informative)
Service factors
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03, Specification for High Speed Helical Gear Units.]
A.1 Purpose
This annex provides detailed instructions for the
determination and use of service factors for en-
closed high speed helical gear units as described in
ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03.
A.2 Determination of service factors
The determination of service factor is based on the
equipment characteristic overload of the gear unit as
a result of operation, desired reliability of the gear
unit during its design life, and length of time that is
considered the design life. It relies heavily on
experience acquired in each specific application. A
broad explanation of the factors involved are:
-- The causes of service overloads are broken
into three broad categories: those produced by
the prime mover, those produced by the driven
equipment, and those resulting from system con-
siderations unique to the equipment train;
-- The reliability of a geared systemdepends on
many factors both internal to the gear unit itself
and external to the unit. Increases in service fac-
tor to influence reliability normally take into con-
sideration external sources of failure such as
abuse and unexpected operating conditions;
-- The desired life of most high speed enclosed
drives is usually longer than other types of en-
closed drives. At high operating speeds this can
translate into a very large number of stress cycles
on the components.
A.2.1 Prime mover characteristics
Some different types of prime movers are: electric or
hydraulic motors, steam or gas turbines, and single
or multiple cylinder internal combustion engines.
Each of these prime movers is designed to produce
some nominal power, but each will produce this
power with some variation over time. The variation
of power output with time may be lower or higher
depending on the prime mover and also the way the
prime mover is applied in a particular machinery
train, but any variation over nominal power is an
overload and must be considered.
A.2.2 Driven equipment characteristics
Driven equipment can generally be divided into
rotary and reciprocating types of machines. Rotary
machines generally have smoother power require-
ments than reciprocating machines, but each type is
unique and the equipment characteristics of each
must be known to be properly evaluated.
A.2.3 System conditions
The gear unit is a part of a system, and this system
can have dynamic (vibratory) response to time,
varying (dynamic) power transmission that may
overload the gear unit. This is most commonly found
as torsional vibration in the rotating shafts, but can
be any vibratory response to dynamic exciting
forces. Generally, overloads are assumed to be
transmitted with no amplification through the gear.
However, when there is a resonant response to a
dynamic power overload, a much higher load may
occur at the gear unit.
Thus, the dynamic overloads that are caused by
primemovers anddriven machines may beamplified
in such a way as to greatly increase their magnitude
at the gear unit, and primarily at the gear tooth mesh.
The normal rating of gear units and the normal
service factors used assume that these responses
(resonances) do not appreciably affect the gear unit
load. Therefore, careful system analysis is recom-
mended to ensure that no unexpected overloads
due to resonances are present.
A.2.4 Reliability and life requirements
There is a reliability factor in the power rating
equations, but it deals only with the statistical nature
of material testing and probability of failure for
materials at a given stress level. In a gear unit there
are many separate components that may fail, many
modes of failure, and many factors that can contrib-
ute to those modes of failure. For this reason,
quantifying factors associated with reliability and life
to account for these external issues can be extreme-
ly difficult.
A.3 Service factor table
Service factors have served the industry well when
they have been identified by knowledgeable and
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
22 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
experienced gear design engineers. The service
factors shown in table A.1 have been used with
success in the past. These values may be used as
general guidelines, but they do not eliminate the
responsibility of defining any unusual system re-
quirements that would alter the listed values.
A.3.1 General selection guidelines
There is no way to list all the possible considerations
that may affect selection of service factors, but the
following are some guidelines.
-- Induction electric motors can produce high
torques on start--up. Therefore, on an application
with many starts, higher service factors may be
warranted;
-- Electric motors that have electric power inter-
rupted and then re--applied before induced mag-
netic fields have dissipated can produce very high
torques;
-- Synchronous electric motors can produce
very high torsional forcing functions during start--
up. This can cause very high transient torsional
torques on the gear unit;
-- Generators have extremely high loads when
they are out of phase with the main system, and
across--the--line electrical shorts can produce
very high torque loads. For this reason torquelim-
iting devices or higher service factors are advis-
able;
-- Brakes or other decelerating devices can pro-
duce loads on the gear unit larger than the trans-
mitted power.
The list could be much longer, but the intent here
is to give a general idea of items to consider when
selecting service factors.
Table A.1 -- Service factors, C
SF
and K
SF
Service factor, with prime mover
Application
Synchronous
motors
Induction
motors
Gas or steam
turbine
1)
Internal
combustion
engine
(multi--cylinder)
Blowers
Centrifugal 1.7 1.4 1.6 1.7
Lobe 2.0 1.7 1.7 2.0
Compressors
Centrifugal
process gas, except air conditioning 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.6
air conditioning service 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.6
air or pipe line service 1.7 1.4 1.6 1.7
Rotary
axial flow -- all types 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7
liquid piston (Nash) 2.0 1.7 1.7 2.0
lobe -- radial flow 2.0 1.7 1.7 2.0
Reciprocating
3 or more cylinders 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
2 cylinders 2.3 2.0 2.0 2.3
Dynamometer -- test stand 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.3
Fans
Centrifugal 1.7 1.4 1.6 1.7
Forced draft 1.7 1.4 1.6 1.7
Induced draft 2.2 1.7 2.0 2.2
Industrial and mine (large with
frequent starts)
2.2 1.7 2.0 2.2
Generators and exciters
Base load or continuous 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4
Peak duty cycle 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.7
(continued)
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
23 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Table A.1 (concluded)
Service factor, with prime mover
Application
Synchronous
motors
Induction
motors
Gas or steam
turbine
1)
Internal
combustion
engine
(multi--cylinder)
Paper industry
Jordan or refiner ---- ---- 1.5 ----
Paper machine -- line shaft ---- ---- 1.3 ----
Pumps
Centrifugal (all service except as listed
below)
1.7 1.3 1.5 1.7
Centrifugal
boiler feed ---- 1.7 2.0 ----
descaling (with surge tank) ---- 2.0 2.0 ----
hot oil ---- 1.7 2.0 ----
pipe line 2.0 1.5 1.7 2.0
water works 2.0 1.5 1.7 2.0
Reciprocating
3 or more cylinders 2.0 2.0 1.7 2.0
2 cylinders 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Rotary
axial flow -- all types 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.8
gear type 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.8
liquid piston 2.0 1.7 1.7 2.0
lobe 2.0 1.7 1.7 2.0
sliding vane 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.8
Sugar industry
Cane knives 1.8 ---- 1.5 1.8
Crushers 2.0 ---- 1.7 2.0
Mills 2.3 ---- 1.7 2.3
NOTES:
1)
Gas turbines seldom operate at full design power while steam turbines often operate at or above rated power.
Appropriate design considerations should be made to assure adequate torque capacity.
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
24 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Annex B
(informative)
A simplified method for verifying scuffing resistance
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03, Specification for High Speed Helical Gear Units.]
B.1 Purpose
This annex provides information concerning the
scuffing (scoring) of high speed gear units.
B.2 Scuffing considerations
ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 is concerned with two failure
modes in gear teeth. They are surface pitting and
root bending fatigue failure of the tooth material for a
given number of stress cycles. There is another
known failure type: scuffing (sometimes referred to
as scoring).
The calculation of the scuffing load capacity is a very
complex problem. While this type failure has been
known for many years and mathematical methods
have been devised to assess relative risk (see
AGMA 925--A03), a simplified scuffing criterion is
suggested that is suitable for general high speed
design work.
From the values of tooth loading, pitch line velocity,
and viscosity of the lubricant, a condensed load
function, F (load), is formed, which, to assure
scuffing resistance, must be less than (or equal to)
the geometric function, F (geometric). The geomet-
ric function is based on gear characteristics such as
number of teeth of the pinion and gear, center
distance and gearset ratio. As long as the value of
the load function, F (load), does not exceed that of
the geometric function, F (geometric), there is
adequate safety against scuffing.
Therefore:
F (load) F (geometric) (B.1)
Load function, F (load):
F (load) =
w
C
w
[v]
0.25

46

40

0.22
(B.2)
where
w is specific tooth load on the pitch circle, N/
mm;
v is pitch line velocity, m/s;

40
is viscosity of lubricant at 40 C, mm
2
/s
(cSt);
C
w
= 1.10 (conservative value);
C
w
= 1.15 (nominal value);
C
w
= 1.20 (maximum value).
NOTE: C
w
values aresuggestedvalues. Vendors own
experience may change these values with supporting
data. Value of C
w
= 1.20 should only be used if total he-
lixdeviationmeetsANSI/AGMA2015--1--A01accuracy
grade A3.
Table B.1 -- Lubricant viscosities
ISO viscosity grade
VG
Nominal viscosity at
40C, mm
2
/sec (cSt)
VG -- 22 22
VG -- 32 32
VG -- 46 46
VG -- 68 68
NOTE: For high speed gearset applications, lubricant
viscosity means light turbineoil withlittleor noadditives
based on a viscosity range of: 32
40
68. The stan-
dard FZG oil test, ISO14635--1, gives approximations
for the lubricant with respect to scuffing tendency.
Geometric function, F (geometric):
F(geometric) =

50 +z
1
+ z
2
(a)
0.5
A
[C
u
]
(B.3)
where:
z
1
is number of teeth of the pinion;
z
2
is number of teeth of the gear;
a is center distance, mm;
A is taken from table B.2;
C
u
is taken from table B.2.
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
25 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Table B.2 -- Values A and C
u
for calculating F (geometric)

p
A C
u
@ 1 u < 3 C
u
@ 3 u 10
15 350 95 + 28.6 (3 -- u) 130 -- 10 [112.5 -- (13 -- u)
2
]
0.5
17.5 300 90 + 30 (3 -- u) 120 -- 10 [90 -- (12 -- u)
2
]
0.5
20 300 100 + 33.3 (3 -- u) 130 -- 10 [109 -- (13 -- u)
2
]
0.5
22.5 250 95 + 28.5 (3 -- u) 130 -- 10 [112.5 -- (13 -- u)
2
]
0.5
25 250 105 + 31.4 (3 -- u) 140 -- 10 [133.5 -- (14 -- u)
2
]
0.5
NOTE

p
is pressure angle, degrees;
u is gear ratio (z
2
/z
1
).
B.3 Field of application
The above scuffing criterion is applicable to:
a. High speed gears with a modified addendum
(rack shift or x factor) resulting in reasonably ba-
lanced sliding and rolling conditions between the
tooth flanks at the tip of the pinion and mating
gear;
b. Gear tooth accuracy grade, per ANSI/AGMA
2015--1--A01, shall be equal to or better than:
A5 for single pitch deviation, f
pt
A5 for total cumulative pitch deviation, F
p
A4 for total profile deviation, F

A4 for total helix deviation, F

c. Surface roughness of tooth flanks after grind-


ing, Ra 0.5 m (20 rms);
d. Basic rack profile with:
pressure angle,
P
= 20 deg
addendum, h
ap
= 1 module.
The working flanks of the pinion or gear shall be
provided with profile modifications to obtain a
trapezoidal tooth load distribution along the path of
contact.
The working flanks of the pinion or gear shall be
provided with longitudinal modification to compen-
sate for bending and torsional deflections and
thermal deformations of the gear rotors in order to
obtain a uniform tooth load distribution over the
entire rated face width.
The lubricant used shall pass ISO 14635--1 load
stage 5.
B.4 Scuffing design criteria
As stated, there are no firm criteria for designing to
prevent scuffing at this time. However, it is hoped
that the use of methods such as those in this annex
and those in AGMA 925--A03 can lead to a set of
design criteria. There are other methods for
predicting scuffing and there is no intent to deny the
validity of any method at this time.
B.5 Conclusion
Predicting scuffing is very important in high speed
gearing. It is hoped that industry consensus can be
reached on scuffing prediction. To achieve this
consensus, industry must utilize available methods
and gain experience.
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
26 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Annex C
(informative)
Lateral rotor dynamics
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03, Specification for High Speed Helical Gear Units.]
C.1 Purpose
In the dynamic analysis of a high speed gear box, it is
necessary to verify that the drive is inherently stable,
and that any actual harmful critical speeds are
sufficiently removed from any operating speed or
load range of the equipment. This annex provides
information on rotor dynamics for high speed gear
drives.
C.2 Modes
High speed gear drives are frequently coupled to
turbomachinery. Although the gear drive operates at
turbomachinery speeds, its dynamic behavior is
significantly different from compressors or turbines.
Gear shafting is generally of the rigid rotor design.
This means that throughout the operating speed
range of the machine, most vibration that occurs is
caused by shaft displacements in the bearing
system oil films rather than deflections of the rotor
(see figure C.1).
Figure C.1 -- Typical modes of rigid rotor lateral
vibration
Typical turbomachinery equipment can pass
through what is called flexural type critical speeds
within their operating speed range. Here the rotor
will actually deflect to create mode shapes similar to
those shown in figure C.2, in addition to any vibration
resulting from shaft displacement in its bearings.
C.3 Bearings
In gear rotor dynamics, bearing oil film stiffness
varies with speed as well as torque load applied to
the drive. This is quite different fromturbomachinery
driven through a high speed flexible coupling where
bearing load is mainly a result of the rotor weight and
is therefore constant.
Figure C.2 -- Typical modes of flexural lateral
vibration
High speed gear drives use fluid film or sleeve type
bearings. They frequently are manufactured with
non--cylindrical bores. Gear drive bearings gener-
ally have a large length to diameter ratio to gain the
bearing area required to support the torque load as
well as rotor weight loading and still be able to
maintain high efficiencies. This type of bearing
design lends itself to asymmetrical oil film stiffness
rates in the X and Y directions. High stiffness values
occur in the direction of the applied load. Relatively
large cross coupled stiffness and damping coeffi-
cients are common. Bearing cross coupling spring
and damping, in simple terms, means that, in
addition to a resulting resisting force being gener-
ated in the direction of displacement or velocity,
another force is created 90 degrees from the
direction of motion. This phenomenon has a more
pronounced effect in gear drives than in turbo
equipment, which frequently uses tilting pad type
bearings. For an accurate analysis of a gear drive, a
complete eight element matrix of spring and damp-
ing rates should be obtained (see figure C.3).
Stiffness terms:
K
xx
is force in X resulting froma displacement in
the X direction, in Newtons per millimeter;
K
xy
is force in X resulting froma displacement in
the Y direction, in Newtons per millimeter;
K
yy
is force in Y resulting froma displacement in
the Y direction, in Newtons per millimeter;
K
yx
is force in Y resulting froma displacement in
the X direction, in Newtons per millimeter.
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
27 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Bearing shell
Bearing film
Journal
K
yy
Y
X
K
xx
D
xx
D
yy
K
yx
D
yx
D
xy
K
xy
Figure C.3 -- Cross coupled bearing schematic
representation
Damping terms:
D
xx
is force in X resulting from a velocity in the X
direction, in Newtons per millimeter;
D
xy
is force in X resulting from a velocity in the Y
direction, in Newtons per millimeter;
D
yy
is force in Y resulting from a velocity in the Y
direction, in Newtons per millimeter;
D
yx
is force in Y resulting from a velocity in the X
direction, in Newtons per millimeter.
Obtaining these coefficients is the first step to an
accurate gear drive rotor dynamics analysis.
Sophisticated bearing analysis techniques are
available to determine these coefficients. A typical
method will solve the Reynolds and energy equa-
tions over a grid network of the bearing area for the
particular geometry in question by finite difference
techniques. The results from each grid point are
numerically combined to produce the performance
characteristics of the complete bearing. A detailed
heat balance of the bearing system under its
operating conditions must be performed to ensure
that the actual oil film viscosities are being utilized.
This is normally accomplished in an iterative type
technique, where an assumed temperature is cho-
sen for performance calculation and then is com-
pared with the final calculated temperatures
resulting from the heat balance. If the two do not
agree, a new assumed temperature is chosen and
the process continues in the program until conver-
gence occurs (see figure C.4).
C.4 Stability
Astability analysis is requiredtoensurethat thedrive
will not exhibit self sustaining non--synchronous
vibrations. Lightly loaded fluid film bearings can get
into sub--synchronous vibration problems, particu-
larly in the qualification testing process, which is
generally a no load test. Oil whirl and oil whip are the
names for this type of problem. This vibration is
usually at a frequency of around 0.4 times rotational
speed. If not properly detected in the analysis of the
drive, undesirable or even destructive vibrations
may be exhibited in testing or lightly loaded field
running.
Q
v
T
3
T
G
T
2
Drains
Bearing
films
External
source
Bearing
groove
Q
e
T
e
Q
2
T
2
T
1
Q
LG
Qi
T
G
Q
e
T
e
Q
1 Q
2
Q
1
H
2
P
2
P
x
Figure C.4 -- Heat balance model
C.5 Critical speed
A critical speed is defined as the speed at which the
peak response amplitude actually will occur when
the rotor bearing system is in resonance with a
periodic forcing frequency. There are many possible
forcing frequencies in a gear drive system but the
one most likely to excite the system is the harmonic
force generated at rotor rotational speed due to
mass imbalance. Gears generally are designed to
have their actual critical speeds above 120 percent
of their maximum operating speed. Undamped and
damped natural frequencies may be calculated
below running speed. Damping may completely
suppress the response of these modes or signifi-
cantly shift the frequency at which these modes will
actually experience peak response or critical speed
by the above definition. Damping tends to lower
calculated natural frequencies. For simple systems
they are related by:
(C.1)
W
d
W
o
= 1
2
where
is the damping ratio;
W
d
is the damped natural frequency;
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
28 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
W
o
is the undamped natural frequency.
(C.2) =
D
D
c
where
D is the actual damping;
D
c
is the critical damping.
Damping, however, tends to raise the frequency at
which the actual response amplitude or critical
speed due to imbalance occurs. For simple systems
they are related by:
(C.3)
W
r
W
o
=
1
1 2
2
where
W
r
is the actual response frequency.
The damped, undamped, and response frequencies
will agree only when the damping ratio is small.
Large discrepancies will be seen at damping ratios
larger than 0.3. Another way of expressing damping
ratio is by a logarithmic decrement which defines
how quickly a vibration will decay with time.
(C.4)
Log decrement S =
4
2

2
1
2

C.6 Analysis types


There are three main tools used in natural frequency
and critical speed analysis, each having its own
strengths and weaknesses. They are the undamped
critical speed analysis, the damped critical speed
stability type analysis, and the damped unbalance
response analysis.
C.6.1 Undamped critical speed analysis
The undamped critical speed analysis is anexcellent
simple tool for preliminary evaluation of a rotor
bearing system. It allows the analyst to identify
approximately the magnitude of oil film stiffness
required to obtain the desired regime of operation of
the system (i.e., rigid or flexible rotor design).
Approximate mode shapes are obtained. Effective-
ness of bearing damping can be seen. If motion of
the rotor occurs at the bearing, damping will be very
effective.
If the motion occurs other than at the bearing,
damping will be ineffective. While the undamped
critical speed map is a useful tool in estimating
performance, it is lacking in several major areas.
First, it does not consider the cross coupled effects in
the oil film; and second, it does not consider the
direct or cross coupled damping terms. In gear
drives, which generally have large damping values
as well as large cross coupled terms, the result can
tend to yield critical speed predictions less than what
an actual machine may exhibit. Lastly, no indication
of stability characteristics is obtained. The map
should display the effect of load variations. Stiffness
values for the range of applied load are generally
plotted on the map (see figure C.5).
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
1 x pinion
1 x bull gear 4000 cpm
8000 cpm
Bearing support stiffness, N/mm
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
C
r
i
t
i
c
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
,
c
p
m
KXX -- 50% LD
KXX -- 75% LD
KXX--100%LD
KYY -- 50% LD
KYY -- 75% LD
KYY--100%LD
Figure C.5 -- Undamped critical speed map
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29 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
C.6.2 Damped critical speed analysis
The damping approach is similar to the undamped
map except that it is evaluated using full bearing
spring and damping characteristics, including cross
coupling terms.
Damping in gear bearings is significant and the first
two mode shapes generally show significant
movement in the bearings, thereby utilizing the
available damping (see figure C.6). This tends to
give a result closer to the real world when evaluated,
considering that frequencies with damping ratios
greater than 0.2--0.3 will not be responsive where
indicated. It gives results which agree very closely
with the damped response analysis for the flexural
mode of vibration which is generally the real critical
speed where response will occur. This is because of
little movement at the bearings and corresponding
small damping in the system for this mode.
Figure C.6 -- Bearing damping
The degree of damping or likelihood of response is
shown via logarithmic decrement or damping ratio
values. See figure C.7. This stability type analysis
can also identify sub--synchronous vibration
potential such as half
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
= 0.43
= 0.46
= 0.47
= 0.50
= 0.011 = 0.011 = 0.012 = 0.01
= 0.4
Shaft rotating speed (rpm)
= 0 .45
= 0.5
= 0.6
N
F1
N
F1
Rock
Bounce
Bend
N
F3
N
a
t
u
r
a
l
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
,
c
p
m
X
1
0
(
M
a
x
c
o
n
t
s
p
e
e
d
)
M
a
t
i
n
g
s
h
a
f
t
S
h
a
f
t
s
t
u
d
i
e
d
(
M
a
x
c
o
n
t
s
p
e
e
d
)
3
Figure C.7 -- Damped critical speed map--natural frequency versus rotational speed load
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
30 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
frequency whirl, which can occur with unloaded
gears. Here a growth factor is calculated for each
mode. If the factor has a negative value, the system
is inherently stable. If the value is positive, the
system may be unstable. This analysis should also
be performed over the load range if applicable. The
damped natural frequency analysis yields more
information but can bedifficult tointerpret if one is not
familiar with evaluating the effect of the damping
ratio.
C.6.3 Damped response analysis
The damped response analysis is generally consid-
ered to be the most useful of the tools for evaluating
rotor synchronous vibration. It gives excellent
correlation with actual machines. By definition, a
critical speed is the speed which corresponds to the
frequency of the peak in vibration response to
excitation.
The damped response analysis includes all the
effects fromboth damping and cross coupling. It will
not indicate stability problems. In the analysis, it is
generally best to specify unbalance forces several
times larger than the actual rotor balance specifica-
tion allows. Unbalanced force stations must be
selected to excite the particular mode of vibration in
question. The unbalance should be applied at
several places along the rotor in successive runs to
ensure that each mode will be excited. Coupling
end, midspan, and blind end locations should be run
as a minimum. Coupling end unbalance will usually
excite the most common mode seen (see figures
C.8, C.9 and C.10).
110
90
70
50
30
10
0 9000 18 000 27 000
Max AMP 99 mm
at 20 800 rpm
Speed (rpm)
D
i
a
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
(
m
)
m
Figure C.8 -- Unbalance modeled at coupling
110
90
70
50
30
10
0 9000 18 000 27 000
MAX AMP 86 mm
at 20 800 rpm
Speed (rpm)
D
i
a
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
(
m
)
m
Figure C.9 -- Midspan
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
31 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
110
90
70
50
30
10
0 9000 18 000 27 000
MAX AMP 98 mm
at 20 800 rpm
Speed (rpm)
D
i
a
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
(
m
)
m
Figure C.10 -- Blind end
In high speed gear drives with large L/D bearings, it
is generally accepted that N
F1
(bounce mode) and
N
F2
(rock mode) are heavily damped and unrespon-
sive. When heavily damped (damping ratio greater
than 0.3), these bearing modes may fall within the
20% band width around the rotating speed--natural
frequency line. The acceptability may be proven
either by response analysis or by the damping ratio
of actual damping/critical damping.
A term called the amplification factor determines
when a response peak is to be treated as a real
critical speed or if the frequency tends to be critically
damped. Amplification factors less than 2.5 are
considered to be critically damped.
It is not the normal case to be able to evaluate the
accuracy of a critical speed calculation for a gear
drive. This is because the criticals are usually
designed to be at operating speeds higher than the
rest of the drive may be able to withstand. Bearing
temperature or centrifugal stress considerations
usually limit the maximum operating speed. The
only thing that can usually be verified is that the
actual critical is above design speeds, but not the
actual critical speed frequency. This is determined
by not measuring any peak in response over the
speed range of the machine.
Evaluating the undamped and damped natural
frequencies as well as the damped response analy-
sis is the most complete way to determine if a gear
drive rotor will have dynamics problems. If only one
tool can be available, the most reliable overall results
will be obtained with the damped response analysis.
A
ct
0.707 PEAK
RRE
N
ct
= rotor first critical center frequency, cycles per
minute
N
cm
= initial (lesser) speed at 0.707 x peak amplitude
(critical)
N
cp
= final (greater) speed at 0.707 x peak amplitude
(critical)
N
cp
-- N
cm
= peak width at the half power point
AF = amplification factor
RRE = resonance response envelope
A
ct
= amplitude at N
ct
V
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
l
e
v
e
l
N
mc
N
cp
N
ct
N
cm
=
N
ct
N
cp
N
cm
Figure C.11 -- Amplification factor
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
32 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Annex D
(informative)
Systems considerations for high speed gear drives
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03, Specification for High Speed Helical Gear Units.]
D.1 Purpose
The need for high mechanical reliability in geared
drives can best be satisfied by a systems approach
to the entire train of machinery including founda-
tions, lubrication, vibration, the forces and moments
associated with piping, couplings, etc. The purpose
of this annex is to point out common problems that
may occur in geared systems, an explanation of
these problems, and the possible effects.
It is not the intent of this annex to present detailed
methods of analyzing or solving the problem, nor will
there be any attempt to set design criteria or limits.
D.2 Responsibility
A gear unit is susceptible to a variety of problems
when it becomes a part of a rotating machinery
system, the severity of which generally increases
with speed. Even though these problems are
generally beyondthe vendors control, they adverse-
ly affect system reliability and/or performance and
may cause damage to the gear unit.
The party having contractual responsibility for sys-
tem performance should investigate and resolve
these problems in the design stage and thereby
avoid the conflicts that may develop between the
component manufacturers and users.
It is recommended that the party having contractual
responsibility for the system analysis involving a
critical service gear drive be clearly identified in the
specifications, contract or purchase order. Because
of the substantial cost involved in a systemanalysis,
and in some cases the system performance, it
should be emphasized that all parties supplying
components to the system have a responsibility to
furnishcorrect and accuratedata sothat theanalysis
will be meaningful.
D.3 Introduction
It is not uncommon to find daily process system
operating costs many times the cost of the gear unit.
This downtime cost makes it desirable to avoid
failure of any part in the system ---- be it prime mover,
coupling, gear, driven equipment, or any other
component.
The increasing demands for system mechanical
reliability can best be satisfied by a coordinated
technical exchange between designer, equipment
supplier, erecting engineers, and user. The various
systemanalyses, in at least preliminary form, should
precede detailed equipment purchase specifica-
tions. This sequence will permit the design to be
based on more nearly correct load and operating
conditions.
This coordinated effort can be properly called
system engineering and is normally performed by
the design agent or his technical representative.
Gear vendors may not have the expertise nor the
detailed information to adequately analyze system
overload. This function must be performed by
specialists under the responsibility of the systems
engineer.
There is no set format for communicating this data.
The required information is the magnitude of over-
load and a description of the operational conditions
under which it occurs, such as when, how long, and
nature.
Gear units and couplings can be adversely affected
by one or more system generated problems.
Failures that result from these system induced
causes can be categorized under three main head-
ings:
-- those resulting from overstressing
component parts, which are grouped under over-
load;
-- alignment related, such as distorted
foundations or poor alignment with connected
machinery;
-- those resulting primarily from a lubrication
related failure.
D.4 Overloads
For the purpose of this discussion overload will be
defined as:
That load which is in excess of the nominal de-
sign point load.
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Overload can be of momentary duration, periodic,
quasi--steady state, or vibratory in nature. Depend-
ing on its magnitude and the number of stress cycles
accumulated at overload, it can bea fatigueor ayield
stress consideration.
Overload on a gear drive can result from internal or
external causes. Internal cause of overload ---- such
as faulty manufacturing (faults of manufacture) are
usually found by routine inspections before the gear
drive is put into service. External sources of
overload result from the operational characteristics
of the systeminto which the gear drive is placed, and
are more complex and difficult to identify.
The gear vendor has little if any control over the
external influences that produce overload. The
system engineer who has overall responsibility for
performance should include, along with output, unit
cost, efficiency, etc., the investigation of overloads
as they relate to potential failure, downtime, and
system reliability.
The following material is intended to assist the
system analyst by highlighting subjects for his
consideration, and to establish better communica-
tion between system people and the vendor.
D.4.1 Estimated maximum continuous power
Operational overload characteristics of various driv-
en equipment vary with the type of machine and
should be considered on an individual basis.
Pump or compressor designers, for example, can
predict the power requirements at the design point
with fairly good accuracy. However, continuous
power (service power) is a combination of:
-- changes in specific gravity or density of the
media being pumped;
-- carry out;
-- overspeed;
-- variations in pressure ratio across a
compressor due to abnormal operating condi-
tions.
Changes in specific gravity of the fluid medium
handled by a pump, or change in density of the gas
handled by a compressor, affect the power trans-
mitted in direct proportion. On boiler feed pumps, for
example, this occurrence can be encountered
during startup, upon malfunction of pre--heating
equipment, or during boiler cool--down following a
failure.
In the case of air handling centrifugal compressors,
design power is usually based on the normal
maximum ambient temperature. Consideration
should be given to cold weather operation since the
density of air varies with absolute temperature.
Compressors handling other gases are usually
encountered in process systems under greater
control where temperature variations are less.
However, other variables may become serious. In
refinery practice, for example, the composition of the
gas can vary widely, and in other process work the
inlet pressure may not be a fixed value.
Carry out is an expression used by the pump and
compressor industries to indicate performance on a
head curve beyond the so--called design point.
Figure D.1 illustrates a typical compressor percent-
age performance curve.
It will be noted at 100% speed as the head drops off
and flow is increased, power increases to a level as
high as 115% load. Carry out is an everyday reality.
It comes about through such things as improper
estimation of system performance during design
stages, altered system requirements of existing
processes, gradual deterioration of processes, sys-
tems employing multiple units where shutdown or
failure of one increases the requirements on the
remaining units, or through leaks or failures.
Figure D.2 illustrates a similar percentage perfor-
mance curve for centrifugal pumps.
Overspeed is just what the name implies, and is
obviously limited to applications with variable speed
prime movers. Because the power absorption of the
driven machine varies approximately with the third
power of speed, overspeed is a large contributor to
overload. Referring again to figure D.1, the perfor-
mance curve indicates that at 110% speed and
100%flow, power is increased to 125%. Carry out at
this speed can increase the power still further, to
levels approaching 140% of service power.
Normal practice for a turbine driven centrifugal pump
is to set the overspeed trips at 115% design speed.
Governor settings are generally established to
permit continuous operation between 105% and
110% design speed. It should be borne in mind that
operators can and do reset governors to avail
themselves of maximum output of the system,
regardless of the original settings.
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
34 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
140
130
120
110
100
90
60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140
Head at
110% speed
Power at
110% speed
Head at
100% speed
Power at
100% speed
%
H
e
a
d
a
n
d
%
p
o
w
e
r
% Flow
Figure D.1 -- Typical centrifugal compressor performance curve
140
130
120
110
100
90
60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140
Head at
110% speed
Power at
110% speed
Head at
100% speed
Power at
100% speed
%
H
e
a
d
a
n
d
%
p
o
w
e
r
% Flow
Figure D.2 -- Typical centrifugal pump performance curve
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
35 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
D.4.2 Vibratory overloads
An essential phase in the design of a critical service
system of rotating machinery is the analysis of the
dynamic (vibratory) response of a system to excita-
tion forces.
The dynamic response of a system results in
additional loads imposed upon the system and
relative motion between adjacent elements in the
system. The vibratory loads are superimposed upon
the mean running load in the systemand, depending
upon the dynamic behavior of system, could lead to
failure of the system components. In a gear unit
these failures could occur as tooth breakage or
pitting of the gear elements, shaft breakage or
bearing failure.
Due to the backlash between the geared elements of
a gear unit, tooth separation will occur when the
vibratory torques in the shafts exceed the average
torque, resulting in tooth separation and subsequent
impacts. Gear tooth loads due to these impacts can
be several times the vibratory torque in the gear
shafts.
A vibratory torque which is synchronized to the
rotation of a gear element can form a cyclic wear
pattern on the gear. This wear, which varies around
the circumference on the gear element, results in
tooth spacing errors of the gear causing noise or
even can become a self--generating excitation which
reinforces the original excitation.
Vibratory motion of gear unit components can take
up clearances causing interference problems be-
tween gearing elements, or between shafting and
bearings or seals.
D.4.2.1 Vibration analysis
Any vibration analysis must consider the complete
system including prime mover, gear unit, driven
equipment, couplings and foundations. Dynamic
loads imposed upon a gear unit are the result of the
dynamic behavior of the total system and not that of
the gear unit alone. The individual components of
the system are usually supplied by different
manufacturers. Therefore, responsibility for per-
forming the vibration analysis must rest with the
designer of the total systemor his designated agent.
The vibration analysis must determine all significant
systemnatural frequencies and evaluate the system
response to all potential excitation sources. If the
analysis indicates a resonant or near resonant
condition, the recommended solution is to shift
natural frequencies by changing stiffness or mass
instead of relying on system damping to limit
vibratory amplitudes. Normally, a linear vibration
analysis is adequate. However, under certain
conditions nonlinear responses can occur and the
possibility of their existence should be recognized.
It is also advantageous to perform a preliminary
vibration analysis early enough in the design proce-
dure to allow for any changes which might be
required for detuning purposes.
D.4.2.2 Torsional vibration
The vibratory load caused by a steady state torsional
vibration of a system is due to the interaction of a
periodic excitation, and a natural frequency of the
system. The magnitude of the dynamic load caused
by this type of vibration is dependent on three
factors: magnitude of the excitation, amount of
damping in the system, and proximity of the excita-
tion frequency to resonance. Typical sources for
steady state excitation are:
-- internal combustion engines;
-- reciprocating pumps and compressors;
-- pump or compressor impellers.
A torsional vibration in a system can also be caused
by a transient excitation which is often called a shock
or impact loading. Transient conditions occur due to
suddenchanges inloador speed, or theaccelerating
or decelerating through system natural frequencies,
including the A.C. component of synchronous mo-
tors during startup.
This type of disturbance will produce oscillations at
all the natural frequencies of the system. These
oscillations will decay and eventually disappear due
to damping. The peak dynamic loads occur duringor
directly after the disturbance and their magnitudes
are not substantially reduced by the damping in the
system. Effects of thetransient class of vibrationcan
be most severe in the case of gear teeth due to their
ability to separate, thus producing impact loadings
on the teeth.
D.4.2.3 Lateral vibration
Dynamic loads at a gear mesh can be caused by a
lateral vibration of a gear element in response to an
excitation source. The lateral vibration of a rotor
system should consider all flexibilities and restraints
which will influence the vibratory response of the
rotor. In the case of a rotor system comprised of a
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
36 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
gear element and shaft, this should include the
influence of bearings, foundations, couplings,
connecting adjacent rotors and the mating gear
element.
The most common sources of lateral excitation in a
rotor system are unbalance and misalignment.
Therefore, care should be given to minimize these
factors in the design, manufacture and installation of
a rotating system. The lateral response of the
system should be evaluated based on the design
tolerances for system unbalance and misalignment.
Consideration must be given to operation in the
proximity of lateral natural frequencies because
large vibratory loads may result with relatively low
excitation. Fluid film bearings are generally used to
support rotors in critical service systems. These
bearings possess stiffness and damping properties
which vary with speed and load. These non--linear
properties should be considered when calculating
the lateral natural frequencies of the system. Under
certain conditions of operation, these bearings can
cause instabilities in the rotor motion which will
impart dynamic loads on the gear mesh.
D.4.2.4 Axial vibration
Dynamic loads on a gear mesh are sometimes
caused by what appears to be an axial vibration.
This axial motion is most often the response of the
gear element to unbalanced thrust forces. Common
sources for these forces are malfunctioning or
misaligned couplings, electric armatures mounted
off their magnetic center, face runout of thrust collars
or compressor wheels, and assembly errors.
D.4.2.5 Vibration measurements and design
considerations
The results of any theoretical vibration analysis are
only as accurate as the mathematical model which is
developed to perform the calculations. The correct-
ness of the model of the system is dependent on the
accuracy to which the inertia, stiffness, damping and
excitation can be ascertained. Since there is always
the possibility of the actual system responding
differently than the theoretical evaluation, consider-
ation should be given to physically measuring the
vibratory loads in the system at the time of initial
startup.
Obtaining test data related to operational loading on
a system has the following advantages:
-- establishes confidence that the rotating sys-
tem will perform satisfactorily or indicate areas
where corrective actions are required prior to a
system failure;
-- provide a basis for evaluation of systems that
may be designed or manufactured in the future;
-- pinpoint system excitations or non--linear re-
sponses which were not considered in any
theoretical evaluation.
In the design stages it is advantageous to provide
design features in the system which would facilitate
testing, such as ground surfaces and proper access
points for pickups or strain gages. Alsoin thesystem
design, if it is feasible, consideration should be given
to field modifications that could be made with a
minimum of operational downtime if damaging
vibratory loads were encountered. An example of
this would be providing both access to couplings and
additional space for coupling changes for detuning
purposes.
D.5 Alignment
D.5.1 Drive train alignment
A gear unit by the nature of its operation is always
connected to at least two other pieces of equipment.
The successful operation of the gear unit is largely
dependent on the alignment of these components.
There are three distinct types of misalignment which
must be considered between connecting component
shafting.
-- Parallel offset misalignment ---- when two
shafts are not coaxial, but their axes are parallel;
-- Angular misalignment ---- when two shafts are
not coaxial, and their axes are not parallel;
-- Axial misalignment ---- when the ends of the
two shafts are not positioned to provide the re-
quired shaft separation under operating condi-
tions.
Misalignment during operation not only causes
vibration, but superimposes bending stress on the
shear stress due to transmitted torque. These
stresses cannot be readily calculated but they
warrant discussion so the designer can take precau-
tions to minimize their effect. Perfect alignment is
almost impossible to obtain; therefore, flexible
couplings are used to minimize the effects of the
inherent misalignment.
However, flexible couplings, whether of the gear
tooth, spring elements, flexing disc, or elastomeric
type, produce forces and moments on their support-
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ing shafts when operating misaligned. The analyti-
cal determination of the magnitude of these forces
and moments is not fully understood. It can be
generalized that:
-- the sense and direction are such that they try
to bring the supporting shafts in line;
-- significant bending moments may be im-
posed on supporting shafts;
-- the magnitude of the forces and moments in-
creases with larger angularity across the cou-
pling;
-- notwithstanding catalog claims for angular
capacity, flexible couplings should not be looked
upon as universal joints; they should be given the
best possible alignment.
The designer, in order to obtain a greater mechanical
reliability of a coupled shafting system must make a
comprehensive assessment of the operating align-
ment. This is a system study and must include all
elements of the system including bedplates and/or
foundations. An accurate evaluation of thermal
growth for all components from a valid and common
reference line is required. Journal displacement
within bearings, though generally smaller in magni-
tude, should be considered, particularly as it affects
cold or static alignment checks. After determining
the probable magnitude of alignment change from
static and cold to dynamic and hot (including any
periodic cyclic changes that may occur), select a
coupling arrangement that provides enough length
or span between flexible elements to keep angularity
low, in the region of 5 minutes or lower.
A hot alignment check is recommended at the time
the unit is put in service. This should be performed
when all temperatures have stabilized, and the
system is transmitting rated power at rated speed.
D.5.2 Foundations
Another kind of alignment problem commonly en-
countered in geared systems is the misalignment of
pinion and gear axes due to foundation or bedplate
twistings or deflections. It should be recognized that
gear units require foundations with sufficient rigidity
to maintain alignment under operating loads.
Reinforced concrete foundations with grouted--in
soleplate are generally preferable to fabricated steel
bedplates in terms of foundation stiffness, mass and
damping characteristics. A concrete foundation of
adequate section, on good soil or on sufficient piling,
is the best insurance to avoid unequal settling or
twisting from other causes.
Fabricated steel bedplates make convenient ship-
ping and handling frames, but are generally de-
signed for strength, not rigidity. They are frequently
designed without consideration for the various
piping and/or oil sump thermal expansion. Out--of--
door installations on steel bedplates are particularly
subject to cyclic bowing caused by the daily rise and
fall of the sun.
When steel bedplates are used, the designer should
endeavor to achieve two things:
-- arrange oil sumps, piping, and weather
protection to minimize unsymmetrical thermal ex-
pansion;
-- thoroughly investigate elastic deformation of
the bedplate due to piping forces and moments;
then design the bedplate to eliminate twisting at
the gear supports.
D.5.3 System piping
The forces and moments imposed on pumps,
compressors and turbines by their inlet and dis-
charge piping are major factors in deflecting this
equipment and causing operating misalignment. All
efforts should be made to minimize piping effects.
Lubricant supply and drain piping for the gear unit
should be given similar consideration.
D.5.4 Installation instructions
The systemdesigner should assemble and integrate
complete and comprehensive installation instruc-
tions covering, as a minimum, such things as:
-- soleplate, bedplate, machinery position and
leveling details;
-- foundation bolting and grouting details;
-- cold alignment data ---- including method of
measuring, relative position, and sequence of
alignment;
-- keying, pinning and torquing details as re-
quired;
-- pipe support and flange makeup details;
-- all other relevant details that would otherwise
be left to the judgment of the job site mechanic.
D.6 Additional lubrication considerations
The continued successful operation and long life of a
gear unit is dependent on the constant supply of a
lubricating oil of proper quantity, quality, and condi-
tion. The lubrication system has five functions to
perform:
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
38 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
-- reduce friction;
-- transfer heat;
-- minimize wear;
-- transfer wear particles;
-- reduce rusting and corrosion.
Failure of the lubrication system to adequately
perform any one or more of these functions may
result in premature failure of the gear drive.
D.6.1 Type of lubricant
Two basic types of oils are used to lubricate gear
drives:
-- petroleum base;
-- synthetic.
There can be a wide variation in the lubricating
qualities of oils within each of these general types.
Oils are compounded to meet specific requirements
for various applications such as gear oils, bearing
oils, internal combustion oils, worm gear oils, etc.
Therefore, it is important that an oil be selected
meeting the recommendations supplied with the
gear unit.
Synthetic oils should never be substituted for
petroleum base oils without the gear vendors
approval, since these oils not only have different
lubricating qualities, but also may not be compatible
with materials used in the gear unit.
D.6.2 Lubricant selection
The correct type and viscosity of oil must be supplied
in accordance with the vendors recommendations.
The friction, wear, film strength and corrosion
protection characteristics of different types of oils
can vary widely. Deviation from the recommended
oil for the gear drive can result in premature wear,
failure, or both.
D.6.2.1 Lubricant quality
Lubricating oils for high speed gear units should be
high quality, refined, paraffin base petroleum oils.
They must not be corrosive and must be free from
grit or abrasives. As they are oftentimes subject to
large flow rates and high operating temperatures,
they must have good antifoaming properties.
Oils of a straight mineral type should be used. High
quality rust and oxidation resistance is desirable.
Oils with additives which enhance these characteris-
tics should be carefully selected and, if selected,
frequently changed to avoid accumulative separa-
tion of the additives during operation. When
exposed to high operating temperatures in excess of
90 C, rapid degradation will occur.
D.6.2.2 Viscosity and viscosity index
Oils refinedintolubricants aregenerally derivedfrom
two types of crude oil, either paraffin base or naptha
base. Paraffinbasedoils arepreferred becausethey
have better natural extreme pressure characteristics
and better resistance to thinning down at higher
operating temperatures. Naptha based oils, on the
other hand, require special additives in order to
possess this benefit.
The oils resistance to thinning is measured by the
viscosity index. The higher the index value thebetter
the resistance to thinning. Oils without additives of
the paraffin base type usually have VI values of
ninety (90) or above, whereas naptha base oils will
exhibit lower values, oftentimes between twenty (20)
and thirty (30).
D.6.3 Oil film
Gear elements and the supporting bearing system
require a continuous supply of properly selected and
conditioned oil for survival. An oil film of adequate
thickness must be established between the rolling
and sliding component surfaces to avoid damaging
wear and scuffingand toprovide component cooling.
Hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic lubrication
theories are commonly used today in analyzing film
thickness in bearings and gear teeth. The oil
viscosity has the greatest effect on the film thick-
ness. Consequently, failure to use an oil that has
both the proper viscosity and viscosity index can
result in failure to produce an adequate film thick-
ness for the gear teeth and bearings.
Improper oil film thickness may cause several
operational problems. Lack of oil film or inadequate
oil film thickness may cause metallurgical drawing
due to frictional heat of hardened surfaces, destruc-
tive wear, scuffing or pitting of the gear teeth, and
frictional melting, plastic flow or failure of the
babbitted bearing surfaces. Increased oil viscosity
increases frictional power losses and therefore
increases the temperature rise and may produce
heat energy beyond the control of the cooling
system.
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The lubrication system design must successfully
achieve a balance of the viscosity and the oil film
thickness considerations.
D.6.4 Lubricant supply
The oil supply must meet the requirements set forth
in the gear vendors recommendations.
D.6.4.1 Quantity
The proper flow rate of oil must be supplied to the
gear drive to ensure adequate oil film formation on
the rotor elements, and in cases where babbitted
bearings are employed, in the bearing journals, to
prevent metal to metal contact of the respective
elements. In addition, sufficient flow must be
maintained to assure adequate cooling. Too small a
quantity may cause inadequate distribution resulting
in potential overheating, whereas too large a quanti-
ty may result in excessive churning of the oil which
may also result in overheating.
D.6.4.2 Pressurized lubrication systems
When lubrication systems are self contained, the
system should be designed with a flow capacity of a
minimumof 10%greater than that initially required to
allowfor pump wear, slight bearing wear with normal
service, or change in oil viscosity due to temperature
variations and change of viscosity with use.
Where pressurized oil is furnished from a central
supply, operating, alarm and shutdown pressures
must be in accordance with the gear unit vendors
specifications. Pressures lower than that recom-
mended may result in reduced flowand overheating.
Pressures too high may cause excessive churning
and possible gearbox flooding, increasing power
loss and also resulting in overheating.
Oil pressure to the gear drive should be measured
either in the oil passages of the gear unit or at a point
as near to the entry of the unit as possible, thus
avoiding the inclusion of pressure losses in the
piping between the point of measurement and the
actual gear supply.
D.6.4.3 Lubricant temperature
The gear supplier will normally specify the minimum
allowable oil temperature for startup. If tempera-
tures lower than this are expected, provisions must
be made to heat and, if possible, circulatethe oil prior
to startup. The gear drive must not be operated for
extended periods at this minimum startup tempera-
ture.
Oil inlet temperature must be in accordance with the
vendors specifications. A low supply temperature
may result in a change in viscosity causing higher
than expected temperature rise in the gear unit and
improper oil distribution to the spray jets and
bearings.
When the oil supply temperature is higher than
specified, the oil will be subject to rapid oxidation
reducing the life of the oil, and reducing the operating
viscosity resulting in an inadequate oil film. This
condition can result in overheating, excessive wear
and even failure.
D.6.4.4 Pressurized system components
The system components must be selected and
installed to avoid problems. The following are some
suggestions to avoid problems:
-- Aeration. Care must be taken to avoid exces-
sive aeration of the oil. Aeration may result in
pump cavitation and decrease the volume of oil to
come in contact with the elements of the gear
drive;
-- Oil reservoir. The reservoir must be large
enough to allow time for the air to separate from
the oil. Return lines to the oil reservoir should re-
turn below the oil level. This also includes relief
valve bypass lines and any other return lines.
These lines should be located as far away from
the pump suction line as possible. Baffles proper-
ly located in the reservoir will ensure the aerated
return oil does not find its way to the suction line
until air has had time to escape from the oil;
-- Drain lines. The location of the drain fromthe
gear drive is critical, and the vendors recommen-
dations should be followed. Drain lines should be
sized so they run no more than half full of oil. The
line should slope down at a minimum of (20
mm/m, 2%) and have a minimum number of
bends and elbows. It is desirable to have a vent
located in the drain line near the exit fromthe gear
drive to insure proper drainage;
-- Vents. Vents must be carefully located and of
ample size to avoid pressure buildup and allow
ready escape of air from the system without the
loss of oil. Vents must be high enough to avoid
entry of contaminants from the environment into
the oil. Oftentimes it is desirable to place the vent
in the drain line near the exit fromthe gear drive to
ensure proper drainage. The oil is filtered prior to
returning to the gear drive as well. In this manner
direct contamination of the gear drive from the at-
mosphere outside is avoided;
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
40 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
-- Suction lines. These lines should be gener-
ously sized to minimize pressure loss. Suction
pressure (net positive suction head) must not be
less than that recommended by the pump
manufacturer. The total suction loss must include
the loss in the piping, valves and fittings, in addi-
tion to the distance of the lift. If a check valve is
used in the suction line of positive displacement
pumps, a pressure limiting device should be
installed to protect against the effects of reverse
rotation of the pump;
-- Flushing. Before oil is circulated through the
gear drive, a bridge section containing a remov-
able screen is fitted between the supply point and
the drain. The systemmust be flushed until there
is no significant accumulation of dirt on the
screen. Duringflushingthe pipingshould beham-
mer rapped to dislodge foreign particles. After
flushing is completed, the supply and drain lines
are connected to the gear drive.
D.6.4.5 Lubricant condition
Having provided the proper type and grade of oil, it is
also important the oil be supplied and maintained in
the proper condition. Dust, dirt, grit and other
particles in the oil supply should be eliminated.
These foreign matters act as an abrasive in the
bearings and gear teeth, causing abrasive wear.
The pressurized oil must be supplied through a filter
as specified by the gear unit vendor. These filter
systems should be serviced regularly to avoid
circulation of contaminants with the oil and to avoid
excessive pressure drops through the filters which
may reduce the quantity of oil supplied to the gear
drive.
The oil must be maintained in its correct chemical
condition to properly perform. Foreign matter, dirt
and moisture can change the chemical properties of
the oil. Additives used in many oils are depleted with
use and require replacement. Since many factors
influence the useful life of the oil, its condition should
be analyzed on a regular basis to ensure its
properties are within specification.
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
41 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Annex E
(informative)
Illustrative example
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03, Specification for High Speed Helical Gear Units.]
E.1 Purpose
This annex provides examples based on the as-
sumption that the gear set power rating is the
minimum component rating. In practice all compo-
nent ratings must be calculated to determine the
lowest rated component.
E.2 Example #1
E.2.1 Operational parameters
The gearset to be rated transmits power from an
induction motor rated at 2500 kilowatts and 1480
RPM to a centrifugal compressor operating at 5000
RPM. Annex Aindicates that aservicefactor of 1.4is
appropriate for this service.
E.2.2 Gearset parameters
The through hardened double helical gearset to be
rated has the following parameters:
Number of teeth, pinion 53
Number of teeth, gear 179
Gear speed 1480 rpm
Module, normal 3 mm
Pressure angle, normal 20
Helix angle 29 32 30
Center distance 400 mm
Outside diameter, pinion 188.75 mm
Outside diameter, gear 623.24 mm
Normal circular tooth thickness at
reference diameters pinion reference diameters, pinion
(182.76 mm) and gear (617.24
4.63 mm
(182.76 mm) and gear (617.24
mm)
Face width 255 mm
Overall face (gap included) 300 mm
Hardness pinion 350 HB
Hardness gear 300 HB
Pinion speed 5000 rpm
Material grade 2
Gear quality level A4
Cutter whole depth 7.0 mm
Cutter 1/2 pitch addendum 3.8 mm
Cutter tip radius 1.28 mm
E.2.3 Rating parameters
The pitting resistance power rating and bending
strength power rating at unity service factor are
calculated per ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95 equations.
With the factors that have a value of one (1.0)
deleted, the equations are:
P
azu
=

1
b
1.91 10
7
Z
I
K
v
K
H

d
w1

HP
Z
N
Z
E

2
(see ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, Eq. 27)
P
ayu
=

1
d
w1
1.91 10
7
b m
t
Y
J
K
v
K
H

FP
Y
N
1
(see ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, Eq. 28)
where:

1
= 4998.5 rpm
b = 255 mm
Z
I
= 0.22656 (see AGMA 908--B89)
d
w1
= 182.76 mm
Z
N
= 0.67313 (pinion)
= 0.720 (gear)
Z
E
= 190 [N/mm
2
]
0.5
Y
J pinion
= 0.56923 (see AGMA 908--B89)
Y
J gear
= 0.58766 (see AGMA 908--B89)
m
t
= 3.4483 mm (3/cos 293230)
Y
N
= 0.79531 (pinion)
= 0.82720 (gear)
K
v
= 1.13
K
H
= 1.2648 (see ANSI/AGMA2101--C95)
C
SF
= K
SF
= 1.4 (see annex A)

HP
= 1079 N/mm
2
(pinion @ 350 HB)
= 958 N/mm
2
(gear @ 300 HB)
(see ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, figure 8
Grade 2)

FP
= 359 N/mm
2
(pinion)
(see ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, figure 9
Grade 2)
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
42 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

FP
= 324 N/mm
2
(gear @ 300 HB)
(see ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, figure 9,
Grade 2)
P
azu
=
4998.5 (255) (0.22656)
1.91 10
7
(1.13) (1.2648)
= 5163 kW (pinion)

182.76 (1079) (0.67313)


190

2
P
azu
=
4998.5 (255) (0.22656)
1.91 10
7
(1.13) (1.2648)
= 4657 kW (gear)

182.76 (958) (0.72)


190

2
P
ayu
=
4998.5 (182.76)
1.91 10
7
255(3.4483) (0.56923)
1.13 (1.2648)

359 (0.79531)
1
= 4782 kW (pinion)
P
ayu
=
4998.5 (182.76)
1.91 10
7
255(3.4483) (0.58766)
1.13 (1.2648)

324 (0.8272)
1
= 4635 kW (gear)
P
a
is the lesser of
5163
1.4
4657
1.4
4782
1.4
4635
1.4
or 3311 kW
E.2.4 Rating conclusions
P
a
is equal to the lesser of P
azu
or P
ayu
divided by the
service factor, or P
a
= 4635 1.4 = 3311 kW. This is
greater than the service power of 2500 kW.
E.3 Example #2
E.3.1 Operational parameters
The gearset to be rated transmits power from a gas
turbine rated at 15 MW and 8215 RPM to an electric
generator operating at 3600 RPM on a base load
cycle. The service factor is 1.3.
E.3.2 Gearset parameters
The carburized and case hardened double helical
gearset to be rated has the following parameters:
Number of teeth, pinion 39
Number of teeth, gear 89
Gear speed 3600 rpm
Module, normal 6 mm
Pressure angle, normal 20
Helix angle 2345
Center distance 421.6 mm
Outside diameter, pinion 268.8 mm
Outside diameter, gear 595.1 mm
Profile shift coefficient (x
1
), pinion 0.1
Profile shift coefficient (x
2
), gear 0.0
Face width 260 mm
Gap 80 mm
Hardness pinion and gear 58 HRC
Material grade 2
Quality level A4
Cutter tip radius 2.4 mm
Cutter depth 14 mm
Cutter 1/2 pitch addendum 8 mm
Cutter protuberance 0.25 mm
E.3.3 Rating parameters
The pitting resistance power rating and bending
strength power rating at unity service factor are
calculated per ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95 equations.
With the factors that have a value of one (1.0)
deleted, the equations are:
P
azu
=

1
b
1.91 10
7
Z
I
K
v
K
H

d
w1

HP
Z
N
Z
E

2
(see ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, Eq. 27)
P
ayu
=

1
d
w1
1.91 10
7
b m
t
Y
J
K
v
K
H

FP
Y
N
1
(see ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, Eq. 28)
where:

1
= 8215.4 rpm
b = 260 mm
Z
I
= 0.1730 (see AGMA 908--B89)
d
w1
= 256.91 mm
Z
N
= 0.6547 (pinion)
= 0.6856 (gear)
Z
E
= 190 [N/mm
2
]
0.5
Y
J pinion
= 0.4722 (see AGMA 908--B89)
Y
J gear
= 0.4861 (see AGMA 908--B89)
m
t
= 6.5551 mm (6/cos 23.75)
Y
N
= 0.7826 (pinion)
= 0.8038 (gear)
K
v
= 1.13
K
H
= 1.2369 (see ANSI/AGMA2101--C95)
C
SF
= K
SF
= 1.3 (see annex A)

HP
= 1550 N/mm
2
(see ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, table 3
Grade 2)
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
43 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

FP
= 450 N/mm
2
(pinion and gear)
(see ANSI/AGMA 2101--C95, table 4
Grade 2)
P
azu
=
8215.4 (260)
1.91 10
7
0.1730
1.13 (1.2369)
= 26 060 kW (pinion)

256.91 (1550) (0.6547)


190

2
P
azu
=
8215.4 (260)
1.91 10
7
0.1730
1.13 (1.2369)
= 28 580 kW (gear)

256.91 (1550) (0.6856)


190

2
P
ayu
=
8215.4 (256.91)
1.91 10
7
260 (6.5551) (0.4722)
1.13 (1.2369)

450 (0.7826)
1
= 22 410 kW (pinion)
P
ayu
=
8215.4 (256.91)
1.91 10
7
260 (6.5551) (04861)
1.13 (1.2369)

450 (0.8038)
1
= 23 690 kW (gear)
P
a
is the lesser of
26 060
1.3
28 580
1.3
22 410
1.3
23 690
1.3
or 17 240 kW.
E.3.4 Rating conclusions
The allowable transmitted power, P
a
= 17 240 kW, is
greater than the service power of 15 MW.
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
44 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Annex F
(informative)
Efficiency
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03, Specification for High Speed Helical Gear Units.]
F.1 Gear unit efficiency
Most contracts for high speed helical gear units
require some guarantee of minimum operational
efficiency. When high power is transmitted, a very
small increment of efficiency can represent substan-
tial economic gain or loss over the life of the gear
unit. To realize optimum gear unit efficiency, a
detailed study of the several sources of power loss is
required.
Sources of power loss for high speed helical gear
units include: mesh, internal windage, radial and
thrust bearing friction, and shaft driven accessory
power requirements.
F.1.1 Mesh losses
Mesh losses result from oil shearing and frictional
losses which are dependent on the specific sliding
velocity and friction coefficient. Most gear meshes
under this standard will operate in the EHD lubrica-
tion regime.
F.1.2 Internal windage losses
Because of the sensitivity of gear and unit specific
relationships (such as housing--to--rotor clearances,
pitch line velocity, gear blank proportions and
design, oil viscosity, method of mesh lubrication and
cooling, horizontal or vertical offset, and internal
baffling), this component of gear box losses is very
difficult to accurately estimate without experimental
data from a specific gear unit.
F.1.3 Bearing losses
Hydrodynamic journal bearing losses are generated
through oil shearing. Bearing losses may be
calculated by a modified Petroff equation or by
complex computer modeling methods.
F.1.4 Accessory losses
The power consumed by shaft driven accessories
can be computed by classic pressure -- displace-
ment methods in the case of fuel or lube oil pumps.
Accessories other than pumps require appropriate
evaluation.
F.2 Calculation methods
F.2.1 Mesh losses
Mesh power loss (P
M
), for 17
1
/
2
or 20 NPA of basic
rack, can be estimated as below:
P
M
= (22 0.8
n
) 0.01 P
z
1
+ z
2
z
1
z
2
(F.1)
where

n
is normal pressure angle of basic rack;
z
1
is number of teeth in the pinion;
z
2
is number of teeth in gear;
P is transmitted power, kw.
F.2.2 Windage losses
Windage and churning loss can be evaluated by the
following equation:
P
W
=
d
2
n
2
b cos
3
m
n
1.42 10
11
A
(F.2)
where
P
W
is windage power loss per gear, kW;
d is operating pitch diameter of gear, mm;
n is gear speed, rpm;
b is total face width, mm;
is operating helix angle;
m
n
is normal module, mm;
A is arrangement constant (use 1000 to 4000,
based on arrangement).
F.2.3 Bearing losses
Hydrodynamic sleeve bearing loss in kW, P
Bh
, can
be estimated by the following equation:
P
Bh
= m n
2
b
d
3
b
L j 1.723 10
17
c
(F.3)
The thrust bearing power loss in kW, P
Bt
, is:
P
Bt
= m n
2
b

r
4
o
r
4
i

1.723 10
17
t
(F.4)
where
m is oil viscosity, mPas;
n
b
is bearing speed, rpm;
d
b
is bearing bore, mm;
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
45 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
t is oil film thickness, mm;
r
i
is inside radius of thrust bearing, mm;
r
o
is outside radius of thrust bearing, mm;
L is bearing length, mm;
c is diametral clearance, mm;
j is bearing power loss coefficient (see figure
F.3).
The Sommerfield Number used in figure F.3 is
calculated by the following:
S =
d
2
b
m n
b
10
6
c
2
w 60
(F.5)
where
w is load per unit area, kPa.
3
2
1
40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
10
60
70
80
90
20
30
40
50
100
110
Temperature, C
A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,
m
P
a
s
S
1 ISO Grade 46
2 ISO Grade 68
3 ISO Grade 100
Figure F.1 -- Viscosity of petroleum oil
F.2.5 Accessory losses
Oil pump losses may be evaluated based on oil flow
for lubrication and operating pressure:
P
p
=
Q p
60 000 e
(F.6)
where
Q is pump displacement (l/min);
p is pump operating pressure (kPa);
e is pump efficiency (85% estimated).
Temperature, C
4
5
3
1
2
0
10
20
30
40
50
40 50 60 70 80 90 100
60
A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,
m
P
a
s
S
1 Dow Corning XF--258 (Silicone)
2 GE Versalube F--30 (Silicone)
3 MIL--L0286B (Cellutherm 2505A)
4 Mil--7808D
5 Mil--L--25336 (Sinclair L--743)
Figure F.2 -- Viscosity of synthetic oil
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
46 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
0.2
0.25
0.375
0.5
0.75
1.0
1.25
1.5
10 5 2 1 0.5 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.01
Plot of j for elliptical bearings
Sommerfield Number, S
(A)
(B)
(C)
0.5
0.75
1.0
1.25
1.5
0.5
0.75
1.0
1.25
1.5
10 5 2 1 0.5 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.01
10 5 2 1 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.01
Sommerfield Number, S
Sommerfield Number, S
Plot of j for cylindrical bearings
Plot of j for four--groove bearings
j = Power Loss Coefficient
j = Power Loss Coefficient
j = Power Loss Coefficient
0.2
L/d
b
=
L/d
b
=
L/d
b
=
0.25
L/d
b
=
Figure F.3 -- Bearing power loss coefficient, j
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
47 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Annex G
(informative)
Assembly designations
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03, Specification for High Speed Helical Gear Units.]
NOTES:
1. Code: L = Left; R = Right
2. Arrows indicate line of sight to determine direction of shaft extensions.
3. Letters preceding the hyphen refer to number and direction of high speed shaft extensions.
4. Letters following the hyphen refer to number and direction of low speed shaft extensions.
Plan views
L--R L--L R--R R--L
LR--LR
LR--R R--LR LR--L L--LR
Plan views
Figure G.1 -- Parallel shaft spur, helical and herringbone gear drives, single or multiple stage
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
48 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Annex H
(informative)
Purchasers data sheet
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03, Specification for High Speed Helical Gear Units.]
H.1 Purpose
Data sheets in SI and U.S. customary units are
provided to facilitate communication between pur-
chaser and vendor. The purchaser should fill in the
left side of the data sheet.
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
49 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
C
C
cSt @ 100 C cSt @ 40 C
T LUBE
WR
2
REFERRED TO LS SHAFT
DATASHEET: ANSI/AGMA6011--I03 JOB NO. ITEMNO.
HIGHSPEEDGEARUNITS END USER
SI UNITS SITE
PURCHASER: PROJECT NAME
REVISION NO. BY DATE
INFORMATION TO BE COMPLETED BY PURCHASER INFORMATIONTOBECOMPLETEDBYVENDOR
1 APPLICABLE TO: PROPOSAL PURCHASE MANUFACTURER
2 REQUISITION NO. MODEL NO.
3 SERVICE QUOTE NO.
4 DRIVERTYPE BASICGEARUNITDATA
5 DRIVEN EQUIPMENT FULL LOAD POWER LOSS kW
6 NO. REQUIRED MEASUREDBY: OTHER
7 SPECIFIED RATING REQUIREMENTS MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY %
8 GEAR SERVICE POWER kW PITCH LINE VELOCITY m/sec
9 GEAR SERVICE FACTOR (MIN) ANTICIPATED SPL dBA @ m
10 RATED SPEED, RPM: N
.
m
.
s
2
11 INPUT SPECIFIED NOMINAL BREAKAWAY TORQUE N--m@LSShaft
12 OUTPUT SPECIFIED NOMINAL NET MASS (WT) OF GEAR UNIT kg
13 MAX CONTINUOUS SPEED RPM MAX. MAINTENANCE MASS (WT) (IDENTIFY) kg
14 TRIP SPEED RPM TOTAL SHIPPING MASS (WT) kg
15 EXTERNAL LOADS TOTAL SHIPPING DIMENSIONS X X m
16 OTHEROPERATINGCONDITIONS LUBRICATION REQUIREMENTS
17 OIL VISCOSITY:
18 CONFIGURATION REQUIREMENTS UNIT OIL PRESSURE kPa
19 SHAFT ASSEMBLY DESIGNATION (LR or RL) UNIT OIL FLOW (TOTAL) m
3
/hr
20 HSSHAFT ROT FACGCPLG CW CCW MIN. STARTUPOILTEMPERATURE
21 LSSHAFT ROT FACGCPLG CW CCW CONSTRUCTION FEATURES
22 HS SHAFT END: CYLN. TAPER 1-- KEY 2--KEYS TYPE OF GEAR REDUCER INCREASER
23 HYDRLCTAPER INTEGRAL FLANGE SINGLE STAGE DOUBLE STAGE
24 LS SHAFT END: CYLN. TAPER 1-- KEY 2--KEYS SINGLE HELICAL DOUBLE HELICAL
25 HYDRLCTAPER INTEGRAL FLANGE GEAR TOOTH GEOMETRY
26 INSTALLATIONDATA NUMBER OF TEETH PINION GEAR
27 AMBIENTTEMPERATURE(MIN/ MAX): / GEAR RATIO CENTERDIST mm
28 ELEVATION m BAROMETER kPa abs AGMA GEOMETRY FACTOR J:
29 ELECTRICAL AREA CLASS GRP DIV PINION GEAR
30 MAX ALLOW SPL dBA @ m HELIX ANGLE DEGREES FINISH Ra
31 UNUSUALCONDITIONS DUST FUMES NORMAL PRESSURE ANGLE DEGREES
32 INSTRUMENTATION NET FACEWIDTH mm PINION L/d
33 RADIALVIBRATION PROBES NORMAL DIAMETRAL PITCH BACKLASH mm
34 NO. AT EACH RADIAL BEARING TOTALNO. ADD MOD COEF: GEAR PINION
35 AXIALPOSITION PROBES MIN HARDNESS: GEAR PINION
36 LOCATION NO. REQUIRED MANUFACTURING METHODS PINION / GEAR
37 KEYPHASORS TEETHGENERATING /
38 LOCATION NO. REQUIRED TEETHFINISHING /
39 ACCELEROMETER TEETHHARDENING /
40 LOCATION NO. REQUIRED GEAR HUB TO SHAFT INTEGRAL SHRUNK--ON
41 BEARING METALTEMPURATURE SENSORS RIMATTACHMENT
42 TYPE TOTALNO. BEARINGS
43 NO. AT EACH RADIAL BEARING PINION GEAR
44 NO. AT EACHTHRUST BEARING RADIAL TYPE
45 ADDITIONALREQUIREMENTS UNIT LOADING, kPa
46 JOURNAL VELOCITY, m/s
47 THRUST TYPE
48 UNIT LOADING, kPa
49 MEAN DIA VELOCITY, m/s
50
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
50 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
ft lb @ LS Shaft
lb ft
2
US CUSTOMARY UNITS
F
F
cSt @ 210 F SSU @ 100 F
T LUBE
WR
2
REFERRED TO LS SHAFT
DATASHEET: ANSI/AGMA6011--I03 JOB NO. ITEMNO.
HIGHSPEEDGEARUNITS END USER
SITE
PURCHASER: PROJECT NAME
REVISION NO. BY DATE
INFORMATION TO BE COMPLETED BY PURCHASER INFORMATIONTOBECOMPLETEDBYVENDOR
1 APPLICABLE TO: PROPOSAL PURCHASE MANUFACTURER
2 REQUISITION NO. MODEL NO.
3 SERVICE QUOTE NO.
4 DRIVERTYPE BASICGEARUNITDATA
5 DRIVEN EQUIPMENT FULL LOAD POWER LOSS HP
6 NO. REQUIRED MEASUREDBY: OTHER
7 SPECIFIED RATING REQUIREMENTS MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY %
8 GEAR SERVICE POWER HP PITCH LINE VELOCITY ft/min
9 GEAR SERVICE FACTOR (MIN) ANTICIPATED SPL dBA @ ft
10 RATED SPEED, RPM:
11 INPUT SPECIFIED NOMINAL BREAKAWAY TORQUE
12 OUTPUT SPECIFIED NOMINAL NET MASS (WT) OF GEAR UNIT lb
13 MAX CONTINUOUS SPEED RPM MAX. MAINTENANCE MASS (WT) (IDENTIFY) lb
14 TRIP SPEED RPM TOTAL SHIPPING MASS (WT) lb
15 EXTERNAL LOADS TOTAL SHIPPING DIMENSIONS X X ft
16 OTHEROPERATINGCONDITIONS LUBRICATION REQUIREMENTS
17 OIL VISCOSITY:
18 CONFIGURATION REQUIREMENTS UNIT OIL PRESSURE psi
19 SHAFT ASSEMBLY DESIGNATION (LR or RL) UNIT OIL FLOW (TOTAL) GPM
20 HSSHAFT ROT FACGCPLG CW CCW MIN. STARTUPOILTEMPERATURE
21 LSSHAFT ROT FACGCPLG CW CCW CONSTRUCTION FEATURES
22 HS SHAFT END: CYLN. TAPER 1-- KEY 2--KEYS TYPE OF GEAR REDUCER INCREASER
23 HYDRLCTAPER INTEGRAL FLANGE SINGLE STAGE DOUBLE STAGE
24 LS SHAFT END: CYLN. TAPER 1-- KEY 2--KEYS SINGLE HELICAL DOUBLE HELICAL
25 HYDRLCTAPER INTEGRAL FLANGE GEAR TOOTH GEOMETRY
26 INSTALLATIONDATA NUMBER OF TEETH PINION GEAR
27 AMBIENTTEMPERATURE(MIN/ MAX): / GEAR RATIO CENTERDIST in
28 ELEVATION ft BAROMETER Hg AGMA GEOMETRY FACTOR J:
29 ELECTRICAL AREA CLASS GRP DIV PINION GEAR
30 MAX ALLOW SPL dBA @ ft HELIX ANGLE DEGREES FINISH
31 UNUSUALCONDITIONS DUST FUMES NORMAL PRESSURE ANGLE DEGREES
32 INSTRUMENTATION NET FACEWIDTH in PINION L/d
33 RADIALVIBRATION PROBES NORMAL DIAMETRAL PITCH BACKLASH mil
34 NO. AT EACH RADIAL BEARING TOTALNO. ADD MOD COEF: GEAR PINION
35 AXIALPOSITION PROBES MIN HARDNESS: GEAR PINION
36 LOCATION NO. REQUIRED MANUFACTURING METHODS PINION / GEAR
37 KEYPHASORS TEETHGENERATING /
38 LOCATION NO. REQUIRED TEETHFINISHING /
39 ACCELEROMETER TEETHHARDENING /
40 LOCATION NO. REQUIRED GEAR HUB TO SHAFT INTEGRAL SHRUNK--ON
41 BEARING METALTEMPURATURE SENSORS RIMATTACHMENT
42 TYPE TOTALNO. BEARINGS
43 NO. AT EACH RADIAL BEARING PINION GEAR
44 NO. AT EACHTHRUST BEARING RADIAL TYPE
45 ADDITIONALREQUIREMENTS UNIT LOADING, psi
46 JOURNAL VELOCITY, ft/sec
47 THRUST TYPE
48 UNIT LOADING, psi
49 MEAN DIA VELOCITY, ft/sec
50
Ra
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
51 AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved
Bibliography
The following documents are either referenced in the text of ANSI/AGMA 6011--I03, Specification for High
Speed Helical Gear Units, or indicated for additional information.
AGMA 908--B89, Geometry Factors for Determin-
ing the Pitting Resistance and Bending Strength of
Spur, Helical and Herringbone Gear Teeth
AGMA 925--A03, Effect of Lubrication on Gear
Surface Distress
AGMA 927--A01, Load Distribution Factors -- Ana-
lytical Methods for Cylindrical Gears
Ehrich, Fredric F., Handbook of Rotordynamics,
McGraw--Hill, Inc., 1992
ISO 4406:1999 (SAE J1165), Hydraulic fluid power
-- Fluids -- Method for coding the level of
contamination by solid particles
SAE/AMS 2300, Steel Cleanliness, Premium Air-
craft--Quality Magnetic Particle Inspection Proce-
dure
SAE/AMS 2301, Steel Cleanliness, Aircraft Quality
Magnetic Particle Inspection Procedure
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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PUBLISHED BY
AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
1500 KING STREET, ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22314
Copyright American Gear Manufacturers Association
Provided by IHS under license with AGMA Licensee=Praxair Inc/5903738101
Not for Resale, 09/14/2005 02:40:06 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS
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