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An operating system is a program that acts as an intermediary between a user of

a computer and the computer hardware. The purpose of an operating system is

to provide an environment in which a user can execute programs in a convenient
and efficient manner.
1--The primary goal of an operating system is convenience for the user.
Operating systems exist because they are supposed to make it easier to compute
with them than without them.This view is particularly clear when we look at
operating systems for small personal computers.
2--A secondary goal is efficient operation of the computer system. This goal
is particularly important for large, shared multiuser systems. These systems
are typically expensive, so it is desirable to make them as efficient as possibl
These two goalsconvenience and efficiencyare sometimes contradictory.
4.DEVICE MANAGEMENT--The operating system controls and coordinates the use of th
e hardware among the various application
programs for the various users.Mainframe operating systems are designed primaril
y to optimize utilization
of hardware.
The operating system acts as the manager of these devices and allocates
them to specific programs and users as necessary for tasks. Since there may
be many possibly conflicting requests for devices, the operating system
must decide which requests are allocated resources to operate the computer
system efficiently and fairly.
3.STORAGE MANAGEMENT--To make the computer system convenient for users, the oper
ating system
provides a uniform, logical view of information storage.
The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection
with file management:
Creating and deleting files
Creating and deleting directories to organize files
Supporting primitives for manipulating files and directories
Mapping files onto secondary storage
Backing up files on stable (nonvolatile) storage media
The operating system is
responsible for the following activities in connection with disk management:
Free-space management
Storage allocation
Disk scheduling
1.PROCESS MANAGEMENT--The operating system is responsible for the following acti
vities in connection
with process management:
Creating and deleting both user and system processes
Suspending and resuming processes
Providing mechanisms for process synchronization
Providing mechanisms for process communication
Providing mechanisms for deadlock handling
The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection
with memory management:
Keeping track of which parts of memory are currently being used and by
Deciding which processes (or parts thereof) and data to move into and out
of memory
Allocating and deallocating memory space as needed
1.Simple batch systems
Batch systems allowed automatic job sequencing by a resident operating
system and greatly improved the overall utilization of the computer. The
computer no longer had to wait for human operation. GPU utilization was still
low, however, because of the slow speed of the I/O devices relative to that of
4he CPU. Off-line operation ofIslow devicesjpmvMes ajneans Jo> use jnultiple
reader-to-tape and tape-to-printer systems for one CPU. Spooling allows the
CPU to overlap the input of one job with the computation and output of other
2.Multiprogrammed batched systems
In a multiprogramming system, the operating system simply switches
to and executes another job. VJhen.-that job needs to wait, the CPU is switched
to another job, and so on. Eventually, the first job finishes waiting and gets t
CPU back. As long as there is always some job to execute, the CPU will never be
Multiprogramming, which was developed to improve performance, also
allows time sharing.
3.Time sharing systems
Time-sharing systems were developed to provide interactive use of a computer
system at a reasonable cost. A time-shared operating system uses CPU
scheduling and multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion
of a time-shared computer.Since each action or command in a time-shared system
tends to be short, only a little CPU time is needed for each user. As the system
switches rapidly from one user to the next, each user is given the impression
that she has her own computer, whereas actually one computer is being shared
among many users.
4.Personal computer systems
Personal computer systems are microcomputers that are considerably
smaller and less expensive than are mainframe systems. Operating systems for
these computers have benefited from the development of operating systems
for mainframes in several ways. However, since individuals have sole use. of
the computer, CPU utilization is no longer a prime concern. Hence, some of the
design decisions that are made in operating systems for mainframes may not
be appropriate for smaller systems.
5.Parallel systems
Parallel systems have more than one CPU in close communication; the CPUs
share the computer bus, and sometimes share memory and peripheral devices.
Such systems can provide increased throughput and enhanced reliability.
6.Distributed systems
A distributed system is a collection of processors that do not share memory
or a clock. Instead, each processor has its own local memory, and the processors
communicate with one another through various communication lines, such as
high-speed buses or telephone lines. A distributed system provides the user
with access to the various resources located at remote sites.
7. Real time systems
A real-time system is used when there are rigid time requirements on the
operation of a processor or the flow of data, and thus is often used as a contro
device in a dedicated application. Sensors bring data to the computer. The
computer must analyze the data and possibly adjust controls to modify the
sensor inputs. Systems that control scientific experiments, medical -imaging
systems, industrial control systems, and some display systems are real-time
7(1)A hard real-time operating system has well-defined, fixed time
constraints. Processing must be done within the defined constraints, or the
system will fail.
7(2)Soft real-time systems have less stringent timing constraints,
and do not support deadline scheduling.