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MEEG 202 Strength

of Materials
26-06-2012 26-06-2012
Beam Deflections Using Singularity
Functions
Admin
Preview Example Problems
BEFORE Class
Homework #4 Due Thursday
Next class Thursday 1-4
Please be on Time
Lesson Objectives
1. Understand the meaning of a singularity
functions.
2. Be able to integrate singularity functions.
3. Be able to calculate the deflection of a
beam by using singularity functions. beam by using singularity functions.
Surprise Quiz
Name:_____________________________ Roll #____________________
1) The drawing below shows a simply supported beam with a center load. The
cross section is triangular.
a) At what point in the cross section do you expect the transverse shear
stress (due to the shear load) to be the greatest?
b) What is its value?
Sketch:
x
A
m 2
C
m 1
kN 50
B
mm 90
mm 90
My
bh I
xx
=
3
36
1
2) What was the subject of the pre-class example problem for today?
Ib
SQ
I
My
=
=
t
o
Beam Deflection by
Integration Summary
F
x
Deflection at any point is y
dx
y d
EI
=
e
4
4
( ) x f y
dx
dy
dx
y d
EI
M
dx
y d
EI
S
dx EI
=
=
=
=
=
u
2
2
3
3
4
Review Beam Deflection by Integration
Process
F
x
Deflection at any point is y
dx
y d
EI
=
e
4
4
x F
S
M
A
Fl
Fl Fx M =
2) Put M(x) into the integral:
}
= Mdx
dx
dy
EI
( )
}
= dx Fl Fx
dx
dy
EI
3) Integrate to get slope function
2
1
C Flx Fx
dy
EI + =
C
A
1) Write Moment Function as a function of x
( ) x f y
dx
dy
dx
y d
EI
M
dx
y d
EI
S
dx EI
=
=
=
=
=
u
2
2
3
3
4
3) Integrate to get slope function
1
2
2
1
C Flx Fx
dx
dy
EI + =
4) Integrate again to get deflection
2 1
2 3
1
2
2
1
6
1
2
1
C x C Flx Fx EIy
dx C Flx Fx EIy
+ + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
}
5) Apply slope and deflection boundary
conditions to get C
1
and C
2
.
( )
( ) 0 0
0 0
=
=
y
u
At y=0
0
0
2
1
=
=
C
C
Therefore:
Superposition Example
( ) m kN / 10
x
A
m 2
B
kN 40
mm 150
mm 100
F
x
A
l
EI
Fl
y
3
3
=
max ( ) l x
EI
Fx
2
2
= u
( ) m N / e
x
A
l
B
EI
l
y
8
4
e
=
max
( )
2 2
3 3
6
x lx l
EI
x
+ =
e
u
( ) l x
EI
Fx
y 3
6
2
=
( )
2 2
2
4 6
24
x lx l
EI
x
y + =
e
Singularity Functions
Know as Macaulays Method for
finding beam deflections
Unit Step Function Unit Step Function
x
1
a
( )
0
a x x f =
1
0
0
0
=
=
a x
a x
What does the Integral of
a x
a x
>
<
0
a x
Look like?
dx a x
}

0
Singularity Functions
Unit Ramp Function
1
( )
1
a x x f =
a x =
1
0 a x <
1 0
a x dx a x =
}
( )
1
a x x f =
x
1
a
a x a x
a x
=
=
1
0
What is the Integral of
a x
a x
>
<
1
a x
?
1
2
2
1
a x
dx a x

=
}
( )
2 2
0
2
2
2
2
a x
a x
a x

a x
a x
>
<
Singularity Functions
What is the Derivative of the Unit Step Function?
x
( )
0
a x x f =
1
a
This is the Unit Impulse (Concentrated Force Function)
( )
1
= a x x f
1
0
1
1
=
=

a x
a x
a x
a x
=
=
0 1
a x dx a x =
}

x
( )
1
= a x x f

a
This is the Unit Impulse (Concentrated Force Function)
Singularity Functions
x
( )
1
= a x x f

a
What is the Derivative of the Unit Impulse Function?
The derivative of the Unit impulse is the unit doublet
(or concentrated moment function)?
( )
2
= a x x f
=
=

2
2
0
a x
a x
a x
a x
=
=
1 2
=
}
a x dx a x
x
( )
2
= a x x f
a
Singularity Function Summary
=
=

2
2
0
a x
a x
a x
a x
=
=
1 2
=
}
a x dx a x
x
( )
2
= a x x f
a
1
0
1
1
=
=

a x
a x
a x
a x
=
=
0 1
a x dx a x =
}

( )
1
= a x x f

x
1
a
( )
0
a x x f =
1
0
0
0
=
=
a x
a x
a x
a x
>
<
1 0
a x dx a x =
}
a x dx a x =
}
x
a
x
1
a
( )
1
a x x f = a x a x
a x
=
=
1
1
0
a x
a x
>
<
1
2
2
1
a x
dx a x

=
}
Singularity Function
Process
1) Write the load function w(x) in
terms of singularity functions.
2) Integrate again to get S(x)
3) Integrate twice to get M(x)
4) Integrate again to get EI(x) plus an
dx
y d
EI
S
dx
y d
EI
=
=
e
3
3
4
4
4) Integrate again to get EI(x) plus an
integration constant
5) One more integration gets you
EIy(x) with another integration
constant
6) Use boundary conditions to find
integration constants.
( ) x f y
dx
dy
dx
y d
EI
M
dx EI
=
=
=
u
2
2
3
Find a function that describes the deflection of the
beam shown at right as a function of x.
Solution:
Problem Type:
Find:
Given:
The figure of the simply supported beam
at right.
y(x)
Beam Deflections
Example 10 Beam Deflection Using Singularity Functions
First find the reactions.
l
Fa
R
Fa l R
M
C
C
A
=
=
=

0
0
Now write an equation for the loading in terms of singularity functions.
Sketch:
x
A
l
C
a
F
x
A
l
C
a
F
B
B
A
R
C
R
l
Fb
R
Fb l R
M
A
A
C
=
= +
=

0
0
b
Now write an equation for the loading in terms of singularity functions.
Next, Integrate w(x) to get S(x), the shear loading function
No constant of integration is needed
since this completely describes the
shear.
( )
1 1 1
+ = l x
l
Fa
a x F x
l
Fb
x w
( )
0 0 0
l x
l
Fb
a x F x
l
Fa
x S + =
Next, Integrate S(x) to get M(x), the bending moment function
No constant of integration is needed
again since this completely describes
the moment function.
( )
1 1 1
l x
l
Fa
a x F x
l
Fb
x M + =
Note that the first term in the singularity function will always be evaluated as x
2
since x is
always greater than 0 and the last term will always be zero since xl. We can then simplify
the last two equations.
Now integrate to get EI(x)
( )
1
2 2 2
2 2 2
C l x
l
Fa
a x
F
x
l
Fb
x EI + + = u
Now we need to have a constant
of integration to make sure any
physical boundary conditions are
met.
Lastly, integrate one more time to get EIy(x)
( )
2 1
3 3 3
6 6 6
C x C l x
l
Fa
a x
F
x
l
Fb
x EIy + + + = We need 1 more constant of
integration.
( )
1
2
2
2 2
C a x
F
x
l
Fb
x EI + = u
( )
2 1
3
3
6 6
C x C a x
F
x
l
Fb
x EIy + + =
6 6l
( )
( ) 0
0 0
=
=
l y
y
Now apply Boundary Conditions
And ( )
( ) ( )
0
0 0 0 0
0 0
6
0
6
0
6 6
2
2
2 1
3
3
2 1
3
3
=
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
C
C
C C a
F
l
Fb
EI
C x C a x
F
x
l
Fb
x EIy
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 2
1
1
3 3
1
3
3
1
3
3
2 1
3
3
6
6 6
0
6 6
0
0
6 6
0
6 6
b l
l
Fb
C
l C b
F
l
l
Fb
l C a l
F
l
l
Fb
C l C a l
F
l
l
Fb
EI
C x C a x
F
x
l
Fb
x EIy
=
+ =
+ =
+ + =
+ + =
a l b
sub
=
Now substitute C
1
and C
2
into the deflection function and solve for y(x)
This equation completely describes the displacement, if we want we can split it into two
continuous functions. One for the interval 0<xa and one for ax<l
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3
2 2 2
2 2
3
3
2 2
3
3
6
6
6 6 6
1
a x l b l x bx
EIl
F
x y
x b l b a x l bx
EIl
F
x y
x b l
l
Fb
a x
F
x
l
Fb
EI
x y
+ =
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
( ) ( )
2 2 2
6
b l x
EIl
Fbx
x y + =
For 0<xa
For ax<l
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) a x l b l x bx
EIl
F
x y
6
3
2 2 2
+ =
Reflection:
This result can now be used for any simply supported beam with a
single load in between the supports. It can also be used in
conjunction with superposition.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) lx a x
EIl
x l Fa
x y
la x al x a alx ax
EIl
F
x y
a x l a l l x x a l
EIl
F
x y
a l b
EIl
2
6
2 3
6
6
6
2 2
3 2 3 2 3
3 2
2 2
+

=
+ + =
+ =
=
To do for next time
Next Class on Thursday 1-4
We will practice beam deflection
problems