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Through all this data it can clearly be seen that there are tremendous effects on the
different types of steel. The hardness tests proved successful in showing how the samples
differed when having different heat treatments applied to them. Overall water quenching seems
to be the leader in strengthening steel, which makes sense because being the fastest of the
treatments it creates the most martensite, a strong but brittle microstructure. Following water
quenching was water quench & tempering and then air cooled as the least strengthening process.
Like the water quenching the other too processes make sense in correlation to their hardness.
After looking at the samples under a microscope and comparing that with the hardness
measurements it can be inferred of what the microstructures for the steels are. The water
quenched treatment for all samples is clear to have formed a very needle-like martensitic
structure. Once again, this can be corroborated by the hardness of the sample compared to the
other treatments. As for the water quenched and tempered samples they show similar martensitic
structures but include some dendritic segments which comes from the reheating and second
water quench. In the higher carbon steels, 4340 & 1045, the grains after water quench and
tempering were greatly reduced. The air cooled samples show the slowest cooling by the
formation of large rounded structures with solid pockets of white ferrite and black pearlite. The
1018 and 1045 samples are similar in this respect, whereas the 4340 is more grey intermediate
phases with a rectangular grain shape compared to the more organic shapes of the 1000 series
steels. This is because of the other elements added to the 4340, the molybdenum, nickel and
chromium, although trace amounts, affect the structure of the steel.
When analyzing the heat affect zone (HAZ) of the welded cross sections some very
interesting characteristics were found. Using the microhardness tester reading were taken across
William Kurlinkus 10/13/12 8:54 PM
Comment [36]: Both these sentences are
way too general. You need to start specific and
stay specific.
William Kurlinkus 10/13/12 8:55 PM
Comment [37]: In the discussion section
you need to refer directly to your tables and
figures. Thats why you labeled them and
included them in the report.
William Kurlinkus 10/13/12 8:59 PM
Comment [38]: You need to give specific
examples and measurements. You need to refer
to your figures and tell why things happened.
William Kurlinkus 10/13/12 8:57 PM
William Kurlinkus 10/13/12 8:57 PM
Deleted: they
William Kurlinkus 10/13/12 8:58 PM
Comment [39]: Again, way too broad.
Very interesting characteristics is student
language, not professional language.

the HAZ from right outside the fusion zone all the way into the base metal. The reading showed
that the hardness of the steel decreased when moving away from the fusion zone. This must
come from the differences in cooling rates in the base metal. To support the hardness test the
microscopic images of the HAZ shows the difference in microstructure from coarse hard bar
structure near the fusion zone to the end of the HAZ where there are definite lamellar structures
which support the growth of pearlite. These results are able to be determined because of the
structure identification in doing the heat treatments as well as the original hardness tests of the
William Kurlinkus 10/13/12 8:59 PM
Comment [40]: This is procedure, not
William Kurlinkus 10/13/12 8:59 PM
Comment [41]: You need to give specific
measurements here.