Anda di halaman 1dari 98

presented by Kimberly M.

Wiggins, OTR/L 101


Handwriting Without Tears
Printing and Cursive
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p.285 Lots of HWT Information
p.287 research
presented by Kimberly M.
Wiggins, OTR/L 102
Helpful Information
y Handwriting Advice
Identifying handwriting difficulties, Remediating handwriting
difficulties, Handedness, Grip, Pencil Pressure, Posture, Helper
Hand, Strategies for self correction and printing skills
y Teaching Guidelines Calendars
Found at The Learning Lounge

y Classroom Downloads
y Screeners
y Digital Teaching Tools
y A+ Worksheet Maker A+ Worksheet Maker



presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L
More
y Online Seminars/Webinars
y Ask Jan
y HWT Community Forum
y Handwriting Downloads
http://www.hwtears.com/educators/classroomextras
y How To Video Library http://www.hwtears.com/videos
y A Click Away

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 104
ZB vs HWT
y Similarities:
Multi sensory
activity ideas in their teacher guides
Encourage gross/fine motor skills, grip, etc.
Self check at the end of each page
Encourage continuous drawing
Almost all letters are the same (NOT q,b,p,G,Y)
Both use pieces (wood pieces vs. paper)
y Differences:
ZB teaches upper and lower together
ZB labels parts of lowercase letters (horizontal, vertical,
circle, slant). HWT labels uppercase letters (big
line/curve, little line/curve)
PAPER (3 line vs. 2 line)
ZB uses more directional terms (right, left, forward,
back, front, etc.)
Paper Position
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 105
p.233 (Kindergarten)
Use Multi-Sensory Techniques:
Make letters with various mediums
Paint
Shaving Cream
Pudding
Chalkboards
Play Doh/ Putty
Finger in flour, powder, dry Kool Aid, Jello Mix
Clay in a container and draw with a dowel
Draw with chalk on rug samples
Sing/Dance
presented by Kimberly M.
Wiggins, OTR/L 106
Build letters out of
Wikki Stix/Bendaroos
Popsicle Sticks
Stroke Pieces/Wood Pieces
Cooked spaghetti
Pinch Jello/Kool Aid sugar on a letters
Use tweezers to glue cereal to letters
Make letters out of bodies!
Letter Scavenger Hunts

presented by Kimberly M.
Wiggins, OTR/L 107
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 108

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 109
44
46
p.305 handout for parents
p.307 Activities
http://www.hwtears.com/matman

Before
After Aft
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 110
Before After
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 111
Shapes
y Build Shapes with Wood Pieces
y Color Shapes in the workbook
y Trace shapes in the workbook
Use a highlighter
Stay away from dots
y Sing and Draw Shapes in the workbook,
track #17
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 112
Developmental Order of Teaching Capitals
Some have more than one diagonal stroke
Some can be reversed
Some change direction during the stroke
p.315, 316
Some Capitals Are Easier than Others:
2-3 year olds
3-4 year olds
4-6 year olds
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 113
Letter Play in Pre-school
Wood Pieces with Letter Cards Wood Pieces with Mat
Roll-A-Dough
TM
Stamp and See Screen
TM

Demonstrate Wet Dry Try
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 114
Lets Do the Math
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 115
Help Me Write My Name
y Use Capitals
y Start all letters at the top
y Teach letters step-by-step
(use the same language)
y Write on paper strips


presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 116
Formal Instruction Should NOT begin until
1. Hand dominance
2. Knowledge of simple size and shape
concepts for big line/little line, big
curve/little curve
3. Ability to hold a crayon with the fingers
placed correctly
4. Satisfactory level of attention, cognitive
skills, and cooperation
5. Imitate of a vertical line, horizontal line,
circle, and cross

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 117
See
Page 253 for Motor Assessments comparison article
Page 265 Handwriting Tool Reliability article
Page 268 ETCH Reliability and Validity
p.109-119 Common Handwritings
118 presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L
Handwriting Expectations
Kindergarten Expectations
y Entry - Children can print several capitals and
numbers, and write recognizable names.
y Mid Year - Children can print most letters and
numbers they've been taught, and a simple
three-word sentence. Name includes a
transitioning mix of capital and lowercase
letters.
y End of Year - Children can print most letters
and numbers, and a simple three-word
sentence. Name is in title case.

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 119
1st Grade Expectations
y Entry - Children can print most letters,
numbers, and a simple three-word
sentence. Name is in title case.
y Mid Year - Children can print all letters,
numbers, and a simple four-word
sentence. Name is in title case.
y End of Year - Children can print all letters,
numbers, and a simple four-word
sentence. Name is in title case.

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 120
2nd Grade Expectations
y Entry - Children print all capitals,
numbers, and a four-word sentence.
Names are in title case.
y Mid Year - Children continue to print all
letters, numbers, and a four-word
sentence. Names are in title case.
y End of Year - Children are proficient in all
printing skills.

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 121
3rd Grade Expectations
y Entry - Expect only proficient printing
skills until cursive instruction begins.
y Mid Year - Students can write all
lowercase letters and simple words in
cursive. They can use cursive for their
names and some schoolwork.
y End of Year - Students can write all
letters, some words, and their names in
cursive. They can use cursive for their
names and some schoolwork.

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 122
4th Grade+ Expectations
y Entry - Before cursive review, students
can write most letters and some words.
They can use cursive for their names and
some schoolwork.
y Mid Year - Students can write all letters,
most words, and their names in cursive.
They use cursive for half of their school
writing.
y End of Year - Students can write all
letters, most words, and their names in
cursive. They use cursive for most of their
school writing.

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 123
The Print Tool $54.95
y Evaluates the 8 components of handwriting
y Complete instructions for administering, scoring,
and interpreting
y Functional tips for evaluating printing skills
y Intervention strategies for printing and numbers
y Intervention strategies for fixing printing difficulties
y Transparent Measuring tool

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 124
ETCH $200
cursive and print
writing numbers from memory, copying a nonsense
sentence from a near- and a far-point distance,
writing dictation, and sentence composition.
Tests legibility and speed.
The Written Productivity Profile $FREE
http://www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/depart
ments/hiat/resources/wpp.shtm
y Data collection and logs
y Keyboarding and handwriting speeds while
assessing alphabet, sentence copying and
sentence dictation.

The McMaster Handwriting Assessment Protocol -
2nd edition $FREE (62 pages) p.120
y Grip, Pencil Pressure, Paper Positioning, Cursive
y Writing from memory, Near Point and Far Point
copying, Dictation, Composition (different choices
for each grade level)
y http://www.canchild.ca/en/measures/handwritingasse
ssment.asp
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 125
Test of Handwriting Skills (THS) $145
6 years to 18 years 11 months
cursive/print
can be used with entire classrooms
includes suggestions for progress monitoring
STANDARDIZED SCORES!
Memory, copying, dictation
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presented by Kimberly M.
Wiggins, OTR/L 126
Grade level Handwriting Speeds
Letters per Minute
Grade 1 15-32
Grade 2 20-35
Grade 3 25-47
Grade 4 34-70
Grade 5 38-83
Grade 6 46-91



# of letters x X = letters per minute
# of seconds 60

Check Readiness
Name 6 Pictures
Name 6 Colors
Color 2 Pictures
Crayon Grip
Name and Trace Shapes
Copy Shapes
Draw a Person
Name 10 Letters
Name 9 Numbers
Try to Write Name presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 127
*FREE* p.121
Screener of Handwriting Proficiency
http://www.hwtears.com/screener
y 1
Administer
Administer the Screener to your whole class, grades K-4
y 2
Score
Score each student online in minutes
y 3
Report
Generate individual and whole class reports instantly
y 4
Remediate
Implement instruction and remediation plans

Helpful HOW-TO Videos are also on the website!
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 128
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 129
Kindergarten Screener
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 130
1
st
grade Screener
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 131
2
nd
Grade Screener
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 132
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 133
CURSIVE Screener 3
rd
/ 4
th

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 134
presented by Kimberly M.
Wiggins, OTR/L 135
www.writeonhandwriting.com

Digital workbook for print and cursive
Includes Teacher Manual, font,
and worksheets
$60 per computer per program
presented by Kimberly M.
Wiggins, OTR/L 136
1. Memory
2. Orientation
3. Placement
4. Size
presented by Kimberly M.
Wiggins, OTR/L 137
5. Start
6. Sequence
7. Control
8. Spacing
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 138
GP before
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 139
GP before

1. Memory
2. Orientation
3. Placement
4. Size
5. Start
6. Sequence
7. Control
8. Spacing

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 140
GP after
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 141
GP after 6 weeks
DW before
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 142
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 143
DW before

1. Memory
2. Orientation
3. Placement
4. Size
5. Start
6. Sequence
7. Control
8. Spacing

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 144
DW after
#1 Memory
y Name letters and numbers quickly from a
random list and visualize a letter/number
quickly without seeing it

Play visual memory games
Readiness materials
Letter scavenger hunts
Alphabet Games (Starfall, PBS Kids, etc.)
(http://www.playkidsgames.com/alphabetGames.htm)
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 145
#2 Orientation/Reversals
y Print all letters and numbers without
reversals
Jordan L-R Reversal Test
Wet Dry Try
Gross motor movements
Mystery Letter Game
Multi Sensory Techniques
When building letters, build on piece of paper
that fits the pieces
Correcting Reversals by Penny Groves book
($6.99)
Correcting Word Reversals
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 146
p.312 Pattern


Always call them:
- Big Line
- Little Line
- Big Curve
- Little Curve
Introducing the Wood Pieces
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 147
Remediation Strategies

Draw letter with sidewalk chalk, then use gross motor skills to walk
on it
Space directionality (i.e. touch your left ear with your right hand)
Finger painting or sand paper
Write words and purposely reverse one letter all on index cards,
attach a paper clip to each one. Use a stick with a small magnet. Have
the child go fishing and tell you what letters are reversed
Make up sentences and insert words that are commonly reversed (i.e.
ton/not, on/no, was/saw
Make a list of paired words, with one reversed and place below the
correct word. Draw a line between the similar letters
W A S N O

S A W O N
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 148
Memory
Orientation
Sequence
for top/bottom, left/right habit
Organizes children at an early age nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaatttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt
Mat for Wood Pieces/Letter Cards
149
Roll-A-Dough $17.25
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 150
4" x 6" Multisensory tray

18 Double-sided laminated capital
letter and number cards

12 oz. Container of dough

Cards fit on Stamp and See Screen
too.
Stamp-and-See-Screen ($12.95)
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 151
4" x 6" Magnetic screen in a plastic
frame

4 Magnetic stamps (big line, little
line, big curve, little curve)

Chalk-sized magnetic writing tool
#3 Placement
y Follow lines and place letters and numbers
correctly on the baseline

Bump the lines
Imitation of small/tall/descending letter
placement
Model
Wikki Stix/rulers/dark bottom lines
Tracing Wheel
Write Track:
http://web.mac.com/feldman5/iWeb/Site/How%20WriteTrack%20Works.html

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 152
#4 Size
y Write an appropriate size for grade level.
Make letters a consistent size

Use paper that promotes age appropriate
letter size p.327
Avoid poorly designed worksheets
Use landscape rather than portrait
worksheets
Wikki stix to form a border for lines
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 153
Wet-Dry-Try
Teachers Part
Demonstrate correct letter formation.
Students Part
WET
DRY
TRY
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 154
Presented by Kim Wiggins, OTR/L 155
Paper
y Highlighted Paper order from
www.theraproducts.com

y Color coded lines order from
www.theraproducts.com

y Raised Line:
Therapro: Raised Line paper
Mead Learn to Letter with Raised Ruling
Straight edge/ruler/index cards


p.365 Handwriting Paper did not print
accurately in manual
y Graph paper p.362 www.do2learn.com
(go to Academics, mathematics, printable math
grids)
y Stop and Go Paper
http://www.printablepaper.net/
p.365
y Low-vision writing paper with bold lines
y writing guides http://shop.lighthouse.org

y http://donnayoung.org/penmanship/

y Word Shapes Worksheet
http://www.atozteacherstuff.com/

y Webber Handwriting Paper CD to buy:
http://www.superduperinc.com/products/view.a
spx?pid=OTS403



Presented by Kim Wiggins, OTR/L 156
Do You See the Problem?
The More You Do, The Worse You Get Phenomena!
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 157
Heres the Solution
Left handed worksheet generator:
http://www.handwritingforkids.com/handwrite/manuscript
/alphabets/index.htm
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 158
HWT Double Lines
Take a look at space
Why Double Lines?
Because double lines help children develop an innate sense of letter size
and placement. Double lines make all lines easy!
WWhy Do ouble Lines s?
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 159
Why Double Lines Work
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 160
14
letters
7
letters
5
letters
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 161
p. 325 Hand Activity

p. 366 Laminate and use
these on desks or hang up
in the classroom
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 162
Trouble with Lines
Too Many! Too Confusing!
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 163 presented by Kimber rly M. Wigggins, OTR/ /L presented by Kimberrly M Wigg gins OTR/ /L
Lukes Spelling Test 1
st
Grade
2 Months Later
Line Generalization Activities
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 164
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 165
#5 Start
p.317 Why do you start your letters at the top?
y Start all letters and numbers at the top
(except d and e)
y Make letter parts in correct order and
direction and make them the same way each
time.

Demonstrate and Imitate correct habits
Teach the TOP!
Use cues
Use Gray Block Paper
Gross Motor movements
ZB Music Sky Writing
Where do you start your letters? HWT music presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 166
#6 - Practice Formation
Tic Tac Toe p.330-335
Smart Board Activities
http://exchange.smarttech.com
(type in handwriting without tears, zaner
bloser, etc.

Wet-Dry-Try
Teachers Part
Demonstrate correct letter formation.
Students Part
WET
DRY
TRY
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 168
Gray Block Paper
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 169
1. Starting Corner
2. Center Starting
3. Alphabet
4. Blank
Use of:
Wikki Stix
Graph Paper
Uppercase
Developmental Teaching Order
1. Frog Jump Capitals: FEDPBRNM
2. Starting Corner Capitals: HKL then
UVWXYZ
3. Corner Starting Capitals: COQG
then SAITJ


See page 319 for formation charts
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 170
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 171
#7 Control
y Print the letter parts neatly no gaps,
overlaps, extra tracings, points, etc.

Help correct all other printing skills
Work on grip/posture/pencil pressure
Consult an OT if all other skills are age
appropriate, but control is poor


presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 172
# 8 Spacing
y Keep letters in words close
y Leave space between words in sentences.
y Understand the concept of word vs. space

TEACH spacing
Use worksheets that model generous
spacing (landscape format)
Sentence Spacing with
pennies/M&Ms/googly
eyes/raisins/peanuts/chocolate chips/
Blow
Sick Sentence Clinic
(Iseeadog. I see a dog.)
Presented by Kim Wiggins, OTR/L 173
I L O V E
O T.
OT is the
best!
Finger spacers (set of 20 for $14)
Spaceman or make your own!
Bookworm Word Spacers (24 for
$10)
popsicle sticks or coffee stirrers
Fake press-on nails on popsicle
sticks
When reading a sentence at the
board
9Clap for the word
9Jump for the space
y Kids stand at the front holding
words, yarn between them

Lowercase Techniques
y Magic C Letters
y Diver Letters
y Letter Stories for
tricky letters
y Mystery letter games
for Frog Jump Capitals
and Magic C
uppercase and
lowercase letters

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 175
Numbers
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 176
See page
177 presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L
p.278 Kinesthetic Approach to
Handwriting by Mary Benbow
Top 5 Reasons to
Learn Cursive?
It can be used to overcome print problems
and gives students a fresh start to writing
Cursive is faster to write than print
(especially for SATs)
Cursive gives writing a mature appearance
and makes a good adult impression
Cursive eliminates space confusion: letters
in a word are joined words are not
Recommended for people with dyslexia!
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 178
The 8 Components of
Cursive Handwriting
1. Memoryname and visualize letters quickly
2. Connectionsconnect letters together
3. Placementfollow lines and place letters on
baseline
4. Sizemaking letters a consistent size and age
appropriate
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 179
5. Startdo letters start at the right place?
6. Sequencemake the letter parts the
correct way every time
7. Controlno gaps, overlaps, points, or
extra tracings
8. Spacingleave space between words in
sentences.

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 180
181 presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L
HWT Cursive Letter Style
y Less Loops
Stays neat with speed


y Removed the SLANT:
Less intimidating to learn
Easier to write
Easier to read
Leads to faster fluency
Allows for personalization
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 182
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 183
p. 348-352
Good Solution
Poor Solution
46
15
26
73
Double Line Black Board
Wet - Dry Try
186 presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 187


Teach Connections: See Getting it Together: Cursive
Connections Handout p.341

Baseline Connections: (after 22 letters)
Easy: baseline to baseline
Tricky: baseline to high
High Connections (after 4 letters: o, w, b, v)
Easy: high to high
Tricky: high to low
Other programs have too many connections



Remember Whos Boss
y Ending of the first letter is the boss!

y Try making the 2 letters separate and see
where the first letters ends
The ending of a letter does not change
The beginning of the letter can change even if its
not the spot where is usually starts


Teach Cursive First program:
http://www.swrtraining.com/id17.html

presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 189
p. 120 Typing Speed Norms
p. 282 Typing Skills information
presented by Kimberly M.
Wiggins, OTR/L 190
Typing
Learning the geography of the keyboard is
important. Here are some ways to simplify the
process:

y Beginners may find it useful to have a colored
dot or sticker (such as Spider Man) on certain
letters and the Enter key. The dots allow them
to be a little self-directed.

y Teach kids how to troubleshoot. Show them
how to shut down and restart, and label
specific keys if necessary.

y Kids who are starting to spell can practice with
a basic word processing program, and use all
kinds of fun fonts. Allow them to play in
Microsoft Word for practice.

191 presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L
y Slip the waistband of shorts over the
keyboard and have them insert their
hands in the leg holes.
y Learn to Type Keyboard Skin ($15)
y Cover the keys with stickers
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 192
Typing Continued
Teaching Rings
Touchtypers $14.49
Juice Cap Ring
Typing Programs to Buy:
http://www.superkids.com/aweb/pages/reviews/typing
/
Typing Instructor
Mavis Beacon
Jump Start Typing

Gives you lots of typing games/programs:
y http://www.berkeleyprep.org/lower/llinks/typing%20g
ames.htm

y http://www.primaryschool.com.au/learningtechresults.
php?strand=Typing%20and%20Word%20Processing&g
rade=General


FREE Mouse Work: www.abcya.com
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 193
y Use 1 or 2 finger typing
Keyboard is divided in half with the dividing line
between keys: 6, Y, H, and N (put stickers on these
keys to visually split- try putting black stickers on the
right and white stickers on the left)
Left finger for the left side/ right finger for the right
side
Some students have learned to type 40-60 wpm
y Trackballs
y Joystick
y Keyguards
MORE Assistive Technology Resources:
http://www.austinschools.org/at/resources/
instructional_links.php

-Dance Mat Typing:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/typing/
-Lessons, tests, games: www.freetypinggame.net
-Sense-Lang http://sense-lang.org/
Type E Chi: http://www.e-
learningforkids.org/Courses/Keyboarding_Skills/i
ndex.html
Fun Computer Programs Online:
http://funschool.kaboose.com/
Doorway Text Type:
http://www.doorwayonline.org.uk/texttype-
fullscreen.html
Learning Games For Kids:
http://www.learninggamesforkids.com/keyboardin
g_games.html
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 195
FREE Typing Lessons/Games ONLINE
1. RTI issues Brainstorm
2. Assess your handwriting samples
presented by Kimberly M.
Wiggins, OTR/L 196
y Jacob M.
y Mark H.
y Gabe F.
y Max A.
presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L 197
www.listenwriteshinebright.com
198 presented by Kimberly M. Wiggins, OTR/L
1. Switch Mount
2. Book Props
3. Moving Symbols
4. Bumper for switch toys
5. Puppets
6. Adapted Stampers
7. Adapted Writing Instruments
8. Slanted Lap Board
9. Symbol Board

10. Toy Base/Game Piece
http://www.vicurriculum.org/activities.html
Pool Noodle Adaptations