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Management Information

Systems

Process Modeling

Dr Amr Eltawil
Data Flow Diagrams
DFD

Learning Objectives
9 Understand
U d t d th the llogical
i l modeling
d li off processes
through studying data flow diagrams
9 H
How tto d
draw d data
t flflow di
diagrams usingi rulesl and
d
guidelines
9 H
How tto d
decompose d data
t flflow di
diagrams iinto
t
lower-level diagrams
9 B l
Balancing
i off data
d t fl flow di
diagrams
9 Discuss the use of data flow diagrams as
analysis
l i ttools
l
9 Represent processing logic using Structured
E li h and
English dd decision
i i ttables
bl
5.2
2
Process Modeling
‡ Graphically represent the processes that
capture, manipulate, store and distribute data
between a system and its environment and
among system components
‡ Data flow diagrams (DFD)
„ Graphically
p y illustrate movement of data between
external entities and the processes and data stores
within a system

5.3
3

A DFD example

4
DFD Symbols
‡ Data Flow
„ Depicts
p data that are in
motion and moving as a unit
from one p
place to another in
the system
„ Drawn as an arrow
„ Select a meaningful name to
represent the data

5.5
5

DFD Symbols
‡ Process
„ Depicts
p work or action
performed on data so that
they
y are transformed,, stored
or distributed
„ Drawn as a rectangle with
rounded corners
„ Number of process as well as
name are recorded
5.6
6
Data Flow Diagramming Symbols
‡ Data
D t Store
St
„ Depicts data at rest
„ May represent data in:
‡ Filefolder
‡ Computer-based file

‡ Notebook

„ Drawn as a rectangle with the


right hand vertical line missing
„ Label includes name of the
store as well as the number
5.7
7

Data Flow Diagramming Symbols


‡ S
Source/Sink
/Si k
„ Depicts the origin and/or
destination of the data
„ Sometimes referred to as an
external entityy
„ Drawn as a square symbol
„ Name states what the external
agent is
„ Because they are external, many
characteristics are not of interest
to us

5.8
8
A DFD example

5.9
9

Data Flow Diagramming Definitions


‡ Context Diagram
„ A data flow diagram (DFD) of the scope of an
organizational system that shows the system
boundaries, external entities that interact with the
system and the major information flows between the
entities and the system
‡ Level 0 Diagram
Level-0
„ A data flow diagrams (DFD) that represents a
system’s
system s major processes
processes, data flows and data stores
at a higher level

5.10
10
The system consists of many subsystems

11

Decomposition of DFDs
‡ Functional decomposition
„ Act of g
goingg from one
single system to
many y component
p p
processes
„ Repetitive procedure
„ Lowest level is called a primitive DFD
„ When decomposing a DFD, you must
conserve inputs
i t to
t andd outputs
t t from
f a
process at the next level of decomposition
5.12
12
Decomposition of DFDs
‡ Level-N Diagrams
„ A DFD that is the result
of n nested decompositions
of a series of sub-processes from a process on a level-0
diagram
‡ Rules for stopping decomposition
„ When each process has been reduced to a single
decision, calculation or database operation
„ When each data store represents data about a single
entity
„ When the system user does not care to see any more
5.13
detail
13

Developing DFDs: A Take Away


Example

‡ The customer initiates food orders


‡ The system generates customer
p
receipts.
‡ The system generates food orders
to the kitchen.
‡ The system generates management
reports.
5.14
14
Developing DFDs: An Example
‡ Nextt step
N t isi to
t expand d
the context diagram to
show the breakdown of
processes.
‡ Level n DFD
‡ Inputs to a process are
always different than
outputs
‡ Objects always have a
q name
unique
„ In order to keep the
diagram uncluttered, you
p
can repeat data stores
and data flows on a
5.15
diagram
15

Common DFD errors

16
Data Flow Diagramming Rules
‡ Process ‡ Data Store
A. No process can have only D. Data cannot be moved
outputs (a miracle) from one store to another
B. No process can have only E. Data cannot move from an
inputs (black hole) outside source to a data
C. A process has a verb store
phrase label F. Data cannot move directly
from a data store to a data
sink
G. Data store has a noun
phrase
h llabel
b l

5.17
17

Data Flow Diagramming Rules


‡ Source/Sink ‡ Data Flow
H. Data cannot move directly J. A data flow has only one
from a source to a sink direction of flow between
I. A source/sink has a noun symbols
phrase label K. A fork means that exactly
the same data go from a
common location to two or
more pprocesses,, data
stores or sources/sinks

5.18
18
Data Flow Diagramming Rules
‡ Data Flow (Continued)
L. A join means that exactly the same data come from
any two or more different processes, data stores or
sources/sinks to a common location
M A data
M. d t flow
fl cannott go directly
di tl b back
k tto th
the same
process it leaves
N A data flow to a data store means update
N.
O. A data flow from a data store means retrieve or use
P A data flow has a noun phrase label
P.

5.19
19

illegal Data Flows

20
Logic Modeling
‡ Data flow diagrams do not show the logic inside
the processes
‡ Logic modeling involves representing internal
structure and functionality
y of processes depicted
on a DFD
‡ Two methods
„ Structured English
„ Decision Tables

5.21
21

Modeling Logic with Structured English


‡ Modified form of English used to specify the
logic of information processes
‡ Uses a subset of English
„ Action verbs
„ Noun phrases
„ No adjectives
j or adverbs
‡ No specific standards

5.22
22
Structured English Example
START

Initialize storage
TOTAL.SALES, TOT.COM = 0

Process sales data


DO WHILE (more records)
PERFORM READ DATA
PERFORM PROCESS DATA
PERFORM PRINT DATA
END DO

23

Policies and Decision Tables


Policy – a set of rules that govern show a process
is to be completed.

Decision table – a tabular form of presentation


that specifies a set of conditions and their
corresponding actions.
„ As required to implement a policy.

24
A Simple Decision Table

25

Data Dictionary
‡ Written description of the data contained in the
database
‡ First ones maintained in hardcopy form
‡ Most are now maintained on a computer
‡ Data flow dictionary entry describes data flows
on DFD

26
Data Flow Dictionaryy Entryy
Data flow name: Sales Order

Description:
p The documents that are
filled out by customers to identify
the products, and the
quantities of each, that they
will wish to purchase.

From: 1 Open mail


1.

To: 2. Enter sales order


information

Data structures: Sales order record

Comments:
27

Data Store Dictionary Entry

Data store name: Sales order form

Description:
p The history
y file of sales order forms,
after the data has been entered into the sales
commission system.

Data structures: Sales order record

Volume: Approximately 140 per day

Activity:

Access: Order department personnel

Comments:

28
A DFD example

29