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MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY

- Study of microorganisms
- Device: microscope
HISTORY
1. Anton van Leeuwenhoek
- Father of Microbiology
- Discover simple microscope with double convex
lenses
- animalcules
2. Robert Hooke
- cells
- Spontaneous Generation Theory (aka Abiogenesis
Theory = without inanimate matter [living organism]
- Proponent: John Needham
o Rotten food maggots
3. Aristotle
- Smaller invertebrae = arise from S. G. T
4. Francesco Redi
- Opponent
- Decaying meat placed in 3 containers
o 1 uncovered VR: + maggots
o 2 covered w/ paper VR: - maggots
o 3 covered w/ fire gauze VR: - maggots
5. Luzzaro Spallanzani
- Sealed flask placed in boiling water = - growth
(absence of air)
6. Louis Pasteur
- Totally stopped S.G.T
- Pasteurization (60
0
C, 30 minutes)
- Swan-necked flask experiment
7. John Tyndall
- Tyndallization
o Intermittent/ fractional sterilization
o Milk even if pasteurized, can still become
spoiled
o 2 forms of microorganisms
Vegetative cells endospores =
SPORULATION (trigger: depletion
of nutrients)
Endospores Vegetative cells=
GERMINATION (trigger: Ca-
dipicolinate/dipicolinic acid
=resistant form)
8. Joseph Lister
- Aseptic Technique
- Discovered phenol (aka Carbolic acid)
- Surgeon : antiseptic surgery
9. Ignaz Semmelweiz
- Decrease puerperal sepsis (child delivery)
- Chlorinated lime
10. Robert Koch
- Studied anthrax causing disease (CA: Bacillus
anthracis)
- Theory of disease causation
- Kochs Postulates
o The microorganism must be present in
every case of disease but absent for a
healthy host. Exceptions: asymptomatic
carrier (without S & Sx) eg. Amoebiasis
o The suspected microorganism can be
isolated and grown in pure culture.
Exception: Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy/
Hansens disease) MOT: Skin contact,
armadillos
o The same disease must result when the
isolated microorganism is isolated to a
healthy host.
Streptococcus pyogenes strep
throat, scarlet fever(red tongue),
otitis media
o Same microorganism must be isolated again
from the disease host
11. Edward Jenner
- Developed vaccine= cow pox vaccine small pox
totally eradicated thru vaccination (Pasteur culture
of a virulent microorganism)
- immunity = ability to resist disease
- Avirulent microorganism
o Without virulence factor
- Pathogenicity = ability of pathogen to cause a
disease
- Virulence = degree or intensity of pathogenicity
CLASSIFICATION OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS
1. IgM
- macro = largest antibody
- First antibody to be produced during initial infection
2. IgG
- Most abundant (80%)
- Smallest
- Crosses the placenta
- Initial protection to newborn
3. IgA
- Present in mucous and body secretions (tears, saliva,
colostrum)
- Seminal fluid highest prostaglandin
4. IgE
- P-K antibody (Prausnitz Kustner)
- Skin sensitizing antibody
- Response in hypersensitivity (allergy, anaphylaxis)
5. IgD
- Surface of Beta-cells


STAGES OF IMMUNITY
INNATE /
NATURALLY
ACQUIRED
ADAPTIVE /
ARTIFICIALLY
ACQUIRED
ACTIVE
IMMUNITY
(long-lasting
antibody
synthesis)
Px was exposed
to infection
Vaccination
- Vaccines
- Toxoid
PASSIVE
IMMUNITY
(short term; w/o
AB synthesis)
-colostrum (IgA)
-breast feeding
-placental
transmission
(IgG)
Anti-sera
Antitoxins
-give immediate
protections

12. Paul Ehrlich
- Speculated magic bullet= aka Compound 606,
Salvarsan (arsenic derivative against syphilis),
Arsphenamine
- Test animal : Rabbit
13. Alexander Fleming
- Discovered Penicillin = 1
st
antibiotic by accident;
Penicillium notatum
14. Florey and Chain
- Purified Penicillin
TYPES OF MICROORGANISMS
I. Prokaryotes
a. Eubacteria
i. True bacteria
ii. Peptidoglycan cell wall
iii. Multiply by: Binary Fission
b. Archaea
i. Live in extreme environment
ii. Without Peptidoglycan
= eg. Methanogens generate
from methane
= extreme halophiles salty
environment
= extreme thermophiles high
temperature
= philes live on
II. Eukaryotes
a. Fungi
i. Plant-like microorganisms (multiply
by: Photosynthesis)
ii. Cell wall : Chitin
iii. Feed on organic chemical
(Saprophytic)
Eg. Mushrooms, molds =
multicellular
Yeast (Candida albicans) =
unicellular
b. Algae
i. Kingdom Protista
ii. Cell wall: Cellulose
iii. Photosynthesis
c. Parasites
i. Helminthes (worms)
ii. Platylhelminthes (flatworms)
iii. Flatworms
1. Trematodes (flukes)
a. Liver fluke
(hepatica)
2. Cestodes (tapeworm)
a. Beef: Taenia
saginata
b. Pork: Taenia
solium
iv. Nematodes (roundworms)
1. Blood and Tissue, lymph
nodes
Eg. Microfilariae (blood),
filariae (Tissue), Filariasis
(CM: Elephantiasis)
d. Viruses
i. Acellular
ii. Parasites
1. need a living host
2. Only has nucleic acid
(DNA,RNA) , protein
CHON: Capsid
DIFFERENT TYPES OF CELLS