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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 29, NO.

3, MARCH 2014 1041


Letters
A Transformerless Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System Based on the Coupled
Inductor Single-Stage Boost Three-Phase Inverter
Yufei Zhou, Student Member, IEEE, Wenxin Huang, Member, IEEE, Ping Zhao, and Jianwu Zhao
AbstractThis letter presents a modulation technique for the
modied coupled-inductor single-stage boost inverter (CL-SSBI)-
based grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. This technique
can reduce the system leakage current in a great deal and can
meet the VDE0126-1-1 standard. To maintain the advantages of
the impedance network, only a diode is added in the front of the
original topology, to block the leakage current loop during the
active vectors and open-zero vectors. On the other hand, the near-
state pulse width modulation (NSPWM) technique is applied with
one-leg shoot-through zero vectors in order to reduce the leakage
current through the conduction path in the duration of changing
fromand to open-zero vectors. Simultaneously, the leakage current
caused by other transitions can also be reduced due to the fact that
the magnitude of common-mode voltages is reduced. Simulationre-
sults of the transformerless PV system are presented in two cases:
modied CL-SSBI modulated by maximum constant boost (MCB)
control method and NSPWM. Experimental results for both CL-
SSBI topology modulated by the MCB control method and mod-
ied CL-SSBI topology modulated by NSPWM are also obtained
to verify the accurateness of theoretical and simulation models.
Index TermsLeakage current, photovoltaic (PV) power sys-
tem, shoot-through zero vector, single-stage boost inverter, width
modulation.
I. INTRODUCTION
T
HE transformerless photovoltaic (PV) power system has
been attracting more and more attention for its lower cost,
smaller volume, as well as higher efciency, compared to the
ones with transformer [1][15]. One of the technical challenges
is the safety issue of the leakage current caused by the common-
mode voltages (CMV), conducting in the loop with parasitic
capacitors between the solar panel and the ground. For single-
stage boost inverter transformerless PV systems, such as the
Z-source inverter [7]-based systems, the modulation strategy
is carefully designed to maintain the constant CMV to reduce
Manuscript received February 16, 2013; revised June 5, 2013; accepted July
17, 2013. Date of current version September 18, 2013. This work was supported
by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant 50977045
and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, Funding of
Jiangsu Innovation Programfor Graduate Education under Grant CX10B_101Z.
Recommended for publication by Associate Editor B. Choi.
The authors are with the College of Automation Engineering, Nanjing
University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu, China
(e-mail: zhou_yufei@126.com; huangwx@nuaa.edu.cn; 717160417@qq.com;
zhaojianwu030836@126.com).
Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPEL.2013.2274463
the leakage current. But the OPWM or EPWM method uses
only odd or even active vectors to synthesize the output refer-
ence voltage, leading to only 57.7%of the maximummagnitude
compared to SVPWM, and also to worsen harmonic distortion
of the output waveforms.
A coupled inductor single-stage boost inverter (CL-SSBI) is
proposed in [16], which introduced an impedance network, in-
cluding coupled inductor in the front-end of the inverter bridge.
The structure is simple, while LCD can be viewed as a snubber.
The converter uses shoot-through zero vectors [17] to store and
transfer energy within the unique impedance network, to step up
the bus voltage. Turns ratio of the coupled inductor within the
impedance network can also be designed to improve the boost
gain. So the ac output voltage can be regulated in a wide range
and can be stepped up to a higher value. Higher power loss and
lower efciency would be unavoidable if higher boost gain is
required, which is the disadvantage of inverters of this type. As
shoot-through zero vectors evenly distributed among the three
phase legs during a switching period [17], the equivalent switch-
ing frequency viewed from the impedance network can be six
times the switching frequency of the inverter bridge, which will
greatly reduce the power density and cost of the inverter.
This letter presents the method to reduce the leakage current
of the transformerless grid-connected PV system based on CL-
SSBI. A diode is added in the front of the topology to block the
leakage current loop when in the active vectors and open-zero
vectors. In addition, the near-state PWM (NSPWM) technique
is used with one-leg shoot-through zero vectors to reduce the
leakage current caused in the transient states of changing from
and to open-zero vectors. And the leakage current caused by
other transitions can also be reduced due to the fact that the
magnitude of CMVs is reduced. Note that the leakage current
can be reduced effectively without lowering the maximummag-
nitude of the output reference voltage, for the modulation index
of NSPWM stays in the high modulation section.
II. PROPOSED TRANSFORMERLESS GRID-CONNECTED PV
SYSTEM BASED ON CL-SSBI
The modied CL-SSBI is shown in Fig. 1. Only a diode is
added in the front of the topology compared to the original
structure, to block the leakage current loop during the active
vectors and open-zero vectors, of which the CMVv
CM
is dened
as [4]
v
CM
=
v
aN
+v
bN
+v
cN
3
. (1)
0885-8993 2013 IEEE
1042 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 29, NO. 3, MARCH 2014
Fig. 1. Transformerless grid-connected PV system based on CL-SSBI with
an additional diode.
TABLE I
COMMON-MODE VOLTAGES v
CM
, VOLTAGES v
N n
AND v
P n
IN DIFFERENT
SPACE VECTORS (a) FOR CL-SSBI-D (b) FOR CL-SSBI
The voltage between positive P or negative N solar panel and
grounded neutral n can be expressed as
v
Nn
=
v
aN
+v
bN
+v
cN
3
= v
CM
(2)
v
P n
= v
P N
+v
Nn
= v
P N
v
CM
. (3)
Because shoot-through of the inverter bridge becomes a
normal operation state, the possible switching states in-
clude six active vectors (V
1
V
6
), two open-zero vectors
(V
0
, V
7
), and seven shoot-through zero vectors including one-
leg shoot through (V
a
shoot
, V
b
shoot
, V
c
shoot
), two-legs shoot
through (V
ab
shoot
, V
ac
shoot
, V
bc
shoot
) and three-legs shoot through
(V
abc
shoot
). For all the odd active vectors (V
1
, V
3
, V
5
), all the
even active vectors (V
2
, V
4
, V
6
), all the open-zero vectors
(V
0
, V
7
), and all the shoot-through zero vectors, the common-
mode voltages (v
CM
) and voltages (v
P n
, v
Nn
) of CL-SSBI and
CL-SSBI with an additional diode (CL-SSBI-D) can be derived
from (2) and (3), as shown in Table I.
For convenience, supposing the turns ratio N of the coupled
inductor is 2.5, shoot-through zero duty cycle D
0
is 0.17, and
then boost factor B is 3, according to the bus voltage expression
of V
b
= Bv
P N
[16], and using the maximum constant boost
(MCB) control method realized by space vector-based PWM
control [18], the switching pattern and CMV of CL-SSBI and
CL-SSBI-D in section A1 [see Fig. 2(a)] can be obtained, as
shown in Fig. 2(b) and (c), in which T
s
is dened as a switching
period.
TABLE II
SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL PARAMETERS OF CL-SSBI AND CL-SSBI-D
TRANSFORMERLESS PV SYSTEM
In section A1, V
1
, V
2
, V
0
, and V
7
are used to synthesize
the output reference voltage and V
shoot
is inserted in open-zero
vectors to realize the boost characteristics. Fig. 2(b) and (c)
illustrates that the magnitude of CMV of CL-SSBI-D is lower
than that of CL-SSBI, which indicates that the magnitude of the
leakage current can be also reduced.
III. MODULATION TECHNIQUE TO REDUCE
LEAKAGE CURRENT
The CMV of CL-SSBI-D changes in a maximum step value
when the active vectors V
odd
convert to open-zero vector V
0
,
and changes in a relatively high step value when the open-zero
vector V
0
convert to shoot-through zero vectors V
shoot
, as
shown in Fig. 2(c), which will induce high spikes in the leakage
current due to the parasitic capacitor path. Therefore, open-zero
vectors are the key to be considered to reduce the magnitude of
the leakage current.
One possible technique is the NSPWM control, which omits
the open-zero vectors and employs three adjacent voltage vec-
tors to synthesize the output reference voltage. V
shoot
can still
be inserted to boost the output voltage. The utilized voltage vec-
tors are changed every 60

throughout the space, as shown in


Fig. 3(a). Compared to the MCB control method [see Fig. 2(a)],
the sections rotate 30

in clockwise. Moreover, only one-leg


shoot-through vectors are used in order to reduce switching
events, and are changed every 120

to assure equal current stress


of each leg during shoot-through zero vectors, that is V
a
shoot
for
30

to 150

, V
b
shoot
for 150

to 180

and 180

to 90

, and
V
b
shoot
for 90

to 30

.
The voltage utilization level can be indicated by the modula-
tion index m
i
(m
i
= V
m
/(2V
b
/), where V
m
is the magnitude
of the reference voltage vector). Modulation index within the
linear area for NSPWM control is m
i

3,

=
[0.61, 0.907]. Therefore, m
i
stays in the high modulation in-
dex section, leading to lower harmonic distortion of the output
waveforms than the remote-state PWM (RSPWM) control [19],
which include OPWM and EPWM control.
Under the same circuit conditions from Section II and by
using the NSPWM control, the switching pattern and CMV of
CL-SSBI-D in section B1 and B2 can be obtained, as shown
in Fig. 3(b) and (c), in which T
sh
is dened as a shoot-through
period.
FromFig. 3(b) and (c), changes of CMVshould result in eight
spikes inthe leakage currents per switchingcycle, corresponding
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 29, NO. 3, MARCH 2014 1043
Fig. 2. (a) Voltage space vectors of a three-phase inverter; switching pattern and CMV of (b) CL-SSBI in section A1, and of (c) CL-SSBI-D in section A1.
Fig. 3. (a) Voltage space vectors of NSPWM denition; switching pattern and CMV of CL-SSBI-D in (b) section B1 and (c) section B2.
to 1600 spikes in the leakage current per fundamental cycle
(T
s
= 100 s, 50 Hz grid). Nevertheless, the magnitude of the
leakage current is lower than that of CL-SSBI with the MCB
control method.
It is important to note that leakage current occurs from CMV
only in the duration of transiting from or to shoot-through zero
vectors with NSPWMcontrol, when open-zero vectors are omit-
ted. And the magnitude of CMV is also reduced, which leads to
lower leakage current.
IV. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
In order to validate the theoretical analysis, the simulation
and experimental tests of the transformerless grid-connected
PVsystemconstructed by CL-SSBI and CL-SSBI-Dare carried
out, respectively. The PV frame and the neutral point of the grid
are grounded. The simulation and experimental parameters are
shown in Table II.
Fig. 4 shows the simulation results of the grid-connected
CL-SSBI system modulated by MCB control. The three-phase
1044 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 29, NO. 3, MARCH 2014
Fig. 4. Simulation waveforms of transformerless grid-connected PV system based on CL-SSBI with MCB control: (a) grid currents; (b) CMV v
CM
; (c) leakage
current.
Fig. 5. Simulation waveforms of transformerless grid-connected PV system based on CL-SSBI-D with MCB control: (a) grid currents; (b) CMV v
CM
;
(c) leakage current, and with NSPWM control: (d) grid currents; and (e) CMV v
CM
; and (f) leakage current.
currents as shown in Fig. 4(a) present high ripple due to the high
leakage current [see Fig. 4(c)]. CMVv
cm
shown in Fig. 4(b) has
four different levels and changes eight times. The magnitude of
the leakage current is 1.5 A, and its RMS is calculated as 0.96 A,
which is well above the 300 mA threshold level stated in the
VDE0126-1-1 standard [20].
Fig. 5 shows the simulation results of the CL-SSBI-D grid-
connected system modulated by the MCB control method and
by NSPWM, respectively. The magnitude of the leakage current
is 0.45 A, and its RMS is calculated as 0.28 A of CL-SSBI-D
modulated by the MCB control method. While the magnitude
of the leakage current is 65 mA, and its RMS is calculated as
27 mA of CL-SSBI-D modulated by NSPWM, which is below
the threshold level of VDE0126-1-1 standard. The three-phase
currents of both control methods have lower ripple than that of
Fig. 4(a) due to the lower leakage current. CMV v
cm
of CL-
SSBI-D modulated by NSPWM has three different levels which
lower than that of Fig. 4(b) and Fig. 5(b), and similar to Fig. 3(b).
Fig. 6 shows the experimental results for CL-SSBI-D topol-
ogy modulated by MCB control with the same parameters of
simulation. The shoot-through duty cycle is 0.17, and boost fac-
tor is 3 if the coupled inductor is fully coupled. The diodes
D
1
, D
2
, D
3
, and D
4
are 600 V/30 A fast-recovery diodes. Due
to the proper regulation of the shoot-through zero vectors and
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 29, NO. 3, MARCH 2014 1045
Fig. 6. Experimental waveforms of transformerless PV system based on CL-SSBI with MCB control: (a) bus voltage v
b
, voltage v
N n
, leakage current i
leak
;
(b) phase current i
a
, leakage current i
leak
, and its FFT analysis.
Fig. 7. Experimental waveforms of transformerless PV system based on CL-SSBI-D with NSPWM control: (a) bus voltage v
b
, voltage v
N n
, leakage current
i
leak
; (b) phase current i
a
, leakage current i
leak
, and its FFT analysis.
design of the coupled inductor of impedance network, the dc-
bus voltage is stepped up to about 400 V when the input dc
source equals to 150 V. The magnitude of the leakage current is
0.4 A, of which 40 mA at the point of switching frequency and
25 mA at shoot-through frequency by FFT analysis.
Fig. 7 shows the experimental results for CL-SSBI-D topol-
ogy modulated by NSPWM with the same parameters of simu-
lation. The magnitude of the leakage current is 80 mA, of which
10 mA at the point of switching frequency and 4 mA at shoot-
through frequency by FFT Analysis. The output phase current
i
a
has low ripple and smooth waveform.
V. CONCLUSION
This paper has presented a transformerless grid-connected
PV system based on a coupled inductor single-stage boost three
phase inverter. Diode D
4
is added in the front of the topology
together with D
1
, to block the leakage current loop during the
active vectors and open-zero vectors. The leakage current caused
in the transient states of changing fromand to shoot-through zero
vectors is also reduced by using the NSPWM technique with
one-leg shoot-through zero vectors, when open-zero vectors are
omitted. Simultaneously, the leakage current caused by other
transitions can be further reduced due to the magnitude reduction
of the CMV. The CMVs and the caused leakage currents are
compared between CL-SSBI with MCB control and CL-SSBI-
D with NSPWM. According to the simulation and experimental
results, the amplitude and RMS value of the leakage current can
be well below the threshold level required by the VDE0126-1-1
standards, indicating an effective leakage current reduction.
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