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Letters

A Transformerless Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System Based on the Coupled

Inductor Single-Stage Boost Three-Phase Inverter

Yufei Zhou, Student Member, IEEE, Wenxin Huang, Member, IEEE, Ping Zhao, and Jianwu Zhao

AbstractThis letter presents a modulation technique for the

modied coupled-inductor single-stage boost inverter (CL-SSBI)-

based grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. This technique

can reduce the system leakage current in a great deal and can

meet the VDE0126-1-1 standard. To maintain the advantages of

the impedance network, only a diode is added in the front of the

original topology, to block the leakage current loop during the

active vectors and open-zero vectors. On the other hand, the near-

state pulse width modulation (NSPWM) technique is applied with

one-leg shoot-through zero vectors in order to reduce the leakage

current through the conduction path in the duration of changing

fromand to open-zero vectors. Simultaneously, the leakage current

caused by other transitions can also be reduced due to the fact that

the magnitude of common-mode voltages is reduced. Simulationre-

sults of the transformerless PV system are presented in two cases:

modied CL-SSBI modulated by maximum constant boost (MCB)

control method and NSPWM. Experimental results for both CL-

SSBI topology modulated by the MCB control method and mod-

ied CL-SSBI topology modulated by NSPWM are also obtained

to verify the accurateness of theoretical and simulation models.

Index TermsLeakage current, photovoltaic (PV) power sys-

tem, shoot-through zero vector, single-stage boost inverter, width

modulation.

I. INTRODUCTION

T

HE transformerless photovoltaic (PV) power system has

been attracting more and more attention for its lower cost,

smaller volume, as well as higher efciency, compared to the

ones with transformer [1][15]. One of the technical challenges

is the safety issue of the leakage current caused by the common-

mode voltages (CMV), conducting in the loop with parasitic

capacitors between the solar panel and the ground. For single-

stage boost inverter transformerless PV systems, such as the

Z-source inverter [7]-based systems, the modulation strategy

is carefully designed to maintain the constant CMV to reduce

Manuscript received February 16, 2013; revised June 5, 2013; accepted July

17, 2013. Date of current version September 18, 2013. This work was supported

by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant 50977045

and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, Funding of

Jiangsu Innovation Programfor Graduate Education under Grant CX10B_101Z.

Recommended for publication by Associate Editor B. Choi.

The authors are with the College of Automation Engineering, Nanjing

University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu, China

(e-mail: zhou_yufei@126.com; huangwx@nuaa.edu.cn; 717160417@qq.com;

zhaojianwu030836@126.com).

Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPEL.2013.2274463

the leakage current. But the OPWM or EPWM method uses

only odd or even active vectors to synthesize the output refer-

ence voltage, leading to only 57.7%of the maximummagnitude

compared to SVPWM, and also to worsen harmonic distortion

of the output waveforms.

A coupled inductor single-stage boost inverter (CL-SSBI) is

proposed in [16], which introduced an impedance network, in-

cluding coupled inductor in the front-end of the inverter bridge.

The structure is simple, while LCD can be viewed as a snubber.

The converter uses shoot-through zero vectors [17] to store and

transfer energy within the unique impedance network, to step up

the bus voltage. Turns ratio of the coupled inductor within the

impedance network can also be designed to improve the boost

gain. So the ac output voltage can be regulated in a wide range

and can be stepped up to a higher value. Higher power loss and

lower efciency would be unavoidable if higher boost gain is

required, which is the disadvantage of inverters of this type. As

shoot-through zero vectors evenly distributed among the three

phase legs during a switching period [17], the equivalent switch-

ing frequency viewed from the impedance network can be six

times the switching frequency of the inverter bridge, which will

greatly reduce the power density and cost of the inverter.

This letter presents the method to reduce the leakage current

of the transformerless grid-connected PV system based on CL-

SSBI. A diode is added in the front of the topology to block the

leakage current loop when in the active vectors and open-zero

vectors. In addition, the near-state PWM (NSPWM) technique

is used with one-leg shoot-through zero vectors to reduce the

leakage current caused in the transient states of changing from

and to open-zero vectors. And the leakage current caused by

other transitions can also be reduced due to the fact that the

magnitude of CMVs is reduced. Note that the leakage current

can be reduced effectively without lowering the maximummag-

nitude of the output reference voltage, for the modulation index

of NSPWM stays in the high modulation section.

II. PROPOSED TRANSFORMERLESS GRID-CONNECTED PV

SYSTEM BASED ON CL-SSBI

The modied CL-SSBI is shown in Fig. 1. Only a diode is

added in the front of the topology compared to the original

structure, to block the leakage current loop during the active

vectors and open-zero vectors, of which the CMVv

CM

is dened

as [4]

v

CM

=

v

aN

+v

bN

+v

cN

3

. (1)

0885-8993 2013 IEEE

1042 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 29, NO. 3, MARCH 2014

Fig. 1. Transformerless grid-connected PV system based on CL-SSBI with

an additional diode.

TABLE I

COMMON-MODE VOLTAGES v

CM

, VOLTAGES v

N n

AND v

P n

IN DIFFERENT

SPACE VECTORS (a) FOR CL-SSBI-D (b) FOR CL-SSBI

The voltage between positive P or negative N solar panel and

grounded neutral n can be expressed as

v

Nn

=

v

aN

+v

bN

+v

cN

3

= v

CM

(2)

v

P n

= v

P N

+v

Nn

= v

P N

v

CM

. (3)

Because shoot-through of the inverter bridge becomes a

normal operation state, the possible switching states in-

clude six active vectors (V

1

V

6

), two open-zero vectors

(V

0

, V

7

), and seven shoot-through zero vectors including one-

leg shoot through (V

a

shoot

, V

b

shoot

, V

c

shoot

), two-legs shoot

through (V

ab

shoot

, V

ac

shoot

, V

bc

shoot

) and three-legs shoot through

(V

abc

shoot

). For all the odd active vectors (V

1

, V

3

, V

5

), all the

even active vectors (V

2

, V

4

, V

6

), all the open-zero vectors

(V

0

, V

7

), and all the shoot-through zero vectors, the common-

mode voltages (v

CM

) and voltages (v

P n

, v

Nn

) of CL-SSBI and

CL-SSBI with an additional diode (CL-SSBI-D) can be derived

from (2) and (3), as shown in Table I.

For convenience, supposing the turns ratio N of the coupled

inductor is 2.5, shoot-through zero duty cycle D

0

is 0.17, and

then boost factor B is 3, according to the bus voltage expression

of V

b

= Bv

P N

[16], and using the maximum constant boost

(MCB) control method realized by space vector-based PWM

control [18], the switching pattern and CMV of CL-SSBI and

CL-SSBI-D in section A1 [see Fig. 2(a)] can be obtained, as

shown in Fig. 2(b) and (c), in which T

s

is dened as a switching

period.

TABLE II

SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL PARAMETERS OF CL-SSBI AND CL-SSBI-D

TRANSFORMERLESS PV SYSTEM

In section A1, V

1

, V

2

, V

0

, and V

7

are used to synthesize

the output reference voltage and V

shoot

is inserted in open-zero

vectors to realize the boost characteristics. Fig. 2(b) and (c)

illustrates that the magnitude of CMV of CL-SSBI-D is lower

than that of CL-SSBI, which indicates that the magnitude of the

leakage current can be also reduced.

III. MODULATION TECHNIQUE TO REDUCE

LEAKAGE CURRENT

The CMV of CL-SSBI-D changes in a maximum step value

when the active vectors V

odd

convert to open-zero vector V

0

,

and changes in a relatively high step value when the open-zero

vector V

0

convert to shoot-through zero vectors V

shoot

, as

shown in Fig. 2(c), which will induce high spikes in the leakage

current due to the parasitic capacitor path. Therefore, open-zero

vectors are the key to be considered to reduce the magnitude of

the leakage current.

One possible technique is the NSPWM control, which omits

the open-zero vectors and employs three adjacent voltage vec-

tors to synthesize the output reference voltage. V

shoot

can still

be inserted to boost the output voltage. The utilized voltage vec-

tors are changed every 60

Fig. 3(a). Compared to the MCB control method [see Fig. 2(a)],

the sections rotate 30

shoot-through vectors are used in order to reduce switching

events, and are changed every 120

of each leg during shoot-through zero vectors, that is V

a

shoot

for

30

to 150

, V

b

shoot

for 150

to 180

and 180

to 90

, and

V

b

shoot

for 90

to 30

.

The voltage utilization level can be indicated by the modula-

tion index m

i

(m

i

= V

m

/(2V

b

/), where V

m

is the magnitude

of the reference voltage vector). Modulation index within the

linear area for NSPWM control is m

i

3,

=

[0.61, 0.907]. Therefore, m

i

stays in the high modulation in-

dex section, leading to lower harmonic distortion of the output

waveforms than the remote-state PWM (RSPWM) control [19],

which include OPWM and EPWM control.

Under the same circuit conditions from Section II and by

using the NSPWM control, the switching pattern and CMV of

CL-SSBI-D in section B1 and B2 can be obtained, as shown

in Fig. 3(b) and (c), in which T

sh

is dened as a shoot-through

period.

FromFig. 3(b) and (c), changes of CMVshould result in eight

spikes inthe leakage currents per switchingcycle, corresponding

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 29, NO. 3, MARCH 2014 1043

Fig. 2. (a) Voltage space vectors of a three-phase inverter; switching pattern and CMV of (b) CL-SSBI in section A1, and of (c) CL-SSBI-D in section A1.

Fig. 3. (a) Voltage space vectors of NSPWM denition; switching pattern and CMV of CL-SSBI-D in (b) section B1 and (c) section B2.

to 1600 spikes in the leakage current per fundamental cycle

(T

s

= 100 s, 50 Hz grid). Nevertheless, the magnitude of the

leakage current is lower than that of CL-SSBI with the MCB

control method.

It is important to note that leakage current occurs from CMV

only in the duration of transiting from or to shoot-through zero

vectors with NSPWMcontrol, when open-zero vectors are omit-

ted. And the magnitude of CMV is also reduced, which leads to

lower leakage current.

IV. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

In order to validate the theoretical analysis, the simulation

and experimental tests of the transformerless grid-connected

PVsystemconstructed by CL-SSBI and CL-SSBI-Dare carried

out, respectively. The PV frame and the neutral point of the grid

are grounded. The simulation and experimental parameters are

shown in Table II.

Fig. 4 shows the simulation results of the grid-connected

CL-SSBI system modulated by MCB control. The three-phase

1044 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 29, NO. 3, MARCH 2014

Fig. 4. Simulation waveforms of transformerless grid-connected PV system based on CL-SSBI with MCB control: (a) grid currents; (b) CMV v

CM

; (c) leakage

current.

Fig. 5. Simulation waveforms of transformerless grid-connected PV system based on CL-SSBI-D with MCB control: (a) grid currents; (b) CMV v

CM

;

(c) leakage current, and with NSPWM control: (d) grid currents; and (e) CMV v

CM

; and (f) leakage current.

currents as shown in Fig. 4(a) present high ripple due to the high

leakage current [see Fig. 4(c)]. CMVv

cm

shown in Fig. 4(b) has

four different levels and changes eight times. The magnitude of

the leakage current is 1.5 A, and its RMS is calculated as 0.96 A,

which is well above the 300 mA threshold level stated in the

VDE0126-1-1 standard [20].

Fig. 5 shows the simulation results of the CL-SSBI-D grid-

connected system modulated by the MCB control method and

by NSPWM, respectively. The magnitude of the leakage current

is 0.45 A, and its RMS is calculated as 0.28 A of CL-SSBI-D

modulated by the MCB control method. While the magnitude

of the leakage current is 65 mA, and its RMS is calculated as

27 mA of CL-SSBI-D modulated by NSPWM, which is below

the threshold level of VDE0126-1-1 standard. The three-phase

currents of both control methods have lower ripple than that of

Fig. 4(a) due to the lower leakage current. CMV v

cm

of CL-

SSBI-D modulated by NSPWM has three different levels which

lower than that of Fig. 4(b) and Fig. 5(b), and similar to Fig. 3(b).

Fig. 6 shows the experimental results for CL-SSBI-D topol-

ogy modulated by MCB control with the same parameters of

simulation. The shoot-through duty cycle is 0.17, and boost fac-

tor is 3 if the coupled inductor is fully coupled. The diodes

D

1

, D

2

, D

3

, and D

4

are 600 V/30 A fast-recovery diodes. Due

to the proper regulation of the shoot-through zero vectors and

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 29, NO. 3, MARCH 2014 1045

Fig. 6. Experimental waveforms of transformerless PV system based on CL-SSBI with MCB control: (a) bus voltage v

b

, voltage v

N n

, leakage current i

leak

;

(b) phase current i

a

, leakage current i

leak

, and its FFT analysis.

Fig. 7. Experimental waveforms of transformerless PV system based on CL-SSBI-D with NSPWM control: (a) bus voltage v

b

, voltage v

N n

, leakage current

i

leak

; (b) phase current i

a

, leakage current i

leak

, and its FFT analysis.

design of the coupled inductor of impedance network, the dc-

bus voltage is stepped up to about 400 V when the input dc

source equals to 150 V. The magnitude of the leakage current is

0.4 A, of which 40 mA at the point of switching frequency and

25 mA at shoot-through frequency by FFT analysis.

Fig. 7 shows the experimental results for CL-SSBI-D topol-

ogy modulated by NSPWM with the same parameters of simu-

lation. The magnitude of the leakage current is 80 mA, of which

10 mA at the point of switching frequency and 4 mA at shoot-

through frequency by FFT Analysis. The output phase current

i

a

has low ripple and smooth waveform.

V. CONCLUSION

This paper has presented a transformerless grid-connected

PV system based on a coupled inductor single-stage boost three

phase inverter. Diode D

4

is added in the front of the topology

together with D

1

, to block the leakage current loop during the

active vectors and open-zero vectors. The leakage current caused

in the transient states of changing fromand to shoot-through zero

vectors is also reduced by using the NSPWM technique with

one-leg shoot-through zero vectors, when open-zero vectors are

omitted. Simultaneously, the leakage current caused by other

transitions can be further reduced due to the magnitude reduction

of the CMV. The CMVs and the caused leakage currents are

compared between CL-SSBI with MCB control and CL-SSBI-

D with NSPWM. According to the simulation and experimental

results, the amplitude and RMS value of the leakage current can

be well below the threshold level required by the VDE0126-1-1

standards, indicating an effective leakage current reduction.

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