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# Review Material for PHY10 : DO NOT BRING DURING ACTUAL EAMINATION

PHY10 : Review
A. Vectors
Scalar Quantity ! a "#a\$tit% w&i'& &a( o\$l% )a*\$it#+e ,#t \$o +ire'tio\$
E-. /0ee+ 1 20 30&
Vector Quantity ! a "#a\$tit% w&i'& &a( ,ot& )a*\$it#+e a\$+ +ire'tio\$
E-. 4elo'it%! 20 30& +#e \$ort&
Analytical Methods of Finding the Resultant
A. Triangle Method 1 'o\$(tr#'t a tria\$*le #(i\$* t&e 5 *ive\$ ve'tor( a\$+ #(e 'o\$'e0t( of
tri*o\$o)etr% (#'& a( osine !aw6 "ine !aw or Pythagorean #heore\$ to (olve for
t&e #\$3\$ow\$ ve'tor.
B. Vector Resolution Method or Component Method! it i( t&e 0ro'e(( of re(olvi\$*
t&e ve'tor to it( verti'al a\$+ &ori7o\$tal 'o)0o\$e\$t(
Resultant, R! i( t&e ve'tor (#) of 5 or )ore ve'tor( w&o(e e8e't i( t&e (a)e a( t&e *ive\$
(et of ve'tor(.
%&:
A ()all ,oat travel( 90.0 3) \$ort& a\$+ t&e\$ travel( :0.0 3) ea(t i\$ 1.0 &r. ;&at i(
t&e ,oat( +i(0la'e)e\$t for o\$e!&o#r tri0< ;&at i( t&e ,oat=( avera*e (0ee+ +#ri\$* t&e
o\$e!&o#r tri0<
'nit Vectors
A. "calar Product or (ot Product of vectors A and ) * A) cos +
). Vector Product or ross Product of vectors A and ) *A) sin +
). ,ine\$atics
It i( t&e (t#+% of &ow o,>e't )ove( wit&o#t re*ar+ to t&e 'a#(e of )otio\$.
%-'A#./0" for \$otion along a straight
1ath 2&3a&is4
5here:
VF * V/ 6 at VF fnal velocity
s * V/t 6 7 at
8
VO initial velocity
VF
8
* V/
8
6 8as s horizontal displacement/distance
traveled
Note : if a = 0 ; V = constant a constant acceleration
%-'A#./0" for \$otion along vertical
a&is 2y3a&is4
h vertical displacement/ height
VF * V/ 6 gt g gravitational acceleration = !" m/s
#
h * V/t 6 7 gt
8
\$ign %onvention &from origin' : s : &(' ) *
h : &(' +
VF
8
* V/
8
6 8gh V : &(' ) O, &(' +
Note : if o-.ect is free/fall or dropped VO = 0 a : &(' if speeding 0p O, &(' +1 hence g
= !" m/s
#
%-'A#./0" for Pro9ectile Motion 2&3
a&is4
%-'A#./0" for Pro9ectile Motion 2y3a&is4
V/: * V/ cos + : 4O: 1 Hori7o\$tal
Co)0o\$e\$t of 4O
V/Y * V/ sin + : 4OY 1 4erti'al Co)0o\$e\$t of
4O
V/: * VF: * Vn: Note : Constant 2orizontal
Velocities
VFY * V/Y 6 gt
s * V& t h * V/Yt 6 7 gt
8

VFY
8
* V/Y
8
6 8gh
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Review Material for PHY10 : DO NOT BRING DURING ACTUAL EAMINATION
\$ign %onvention &from origin' : s : &(' ) * h :
&(' +
V : &(' ) O, &(' +
g = !" m/s
#
/ther .\$1ortant
%;uations
Note g = + !" m/s
#
R * <V/
8
sin 28+4= >g H * V/Y
8
>28g4 * 2V/ sin +
8
4>28g4
tR * R>V/: tH * V/Y >g * 2V/ sin +4>g
* tR>8
%&:
A 0ro>e'tile i( ?re+ fro) a *#\$ a\$+ &a( i\$itial &ori7o\$tal a\$+ verti'al 'o)0o\$e\$t( of
velo'it% e"#al to @0 )A( a\$+ 20 )A(6 re(0e'tivel%.
a. ;&at i( t&e i\$itial (0ee+ of t&e 0ro>e'tile<
,. 3ppro4imately &ow lo\$* +oe( it ta3e t&e 0ro>e'tile to rea'& t&e &i*&e(t 0oi\$t<
'. ;&at i( t&e (0ee+ of t&e 0ro>e'tile at t&e &i*&e(t 0oi\$t i\$ it( tra>e'tor%<
+. 3ppro4imately w&at i( t&e )a-i)#) &ori7o\$tal +i(ta\$'e rea'&e+ ,% t&e 0ro>e'tile
. Forces ? !aws of Motion
0ewton@s !aws of Motion
0ewton@s First !aw of Motion
A\$ o,>e't (itti\$* at re(t will re)ai\$ at re(t if t&e (#) of all for'e( a'ti\$* o\$ t&e
o,>e't i( 7ero. /i)ilarl%6 if a\$ o,>e't i( )ovi\$* a\$+ t&e (#) of t&e for'e( a'ti\$* o\$ t&e
o,>e't i( 7ero6 t&e\$ t&e o,>e't will 'o\$ti\$#e to )ove i\$ t&e (a)e +ire'tio\$ wit& (a)e
(0ee+. <AF * 0=
First %ondition of 560ili-ri0m
7he -ody or system at this condition remains at rest or moves in a straight line 8ith
constant velocity! &7ranslational 560ili-ri0m'
\$tatic 560ili-ri0m refers to all o-.ects at rest!
9ynamic 560ili-ri0m refers to all o-.ects / systems moving at constant velocity
:F = , = 0 ;:F<=0 * :F= = 0>
E-:
A 5!3* 0i't#re fra)e i( (#00orte+ ,% two wire( w&ere ea'& wire )a3e( @0B wit& t&e
&ori7o\$tal. ;&at i( t&e te\$(io\$ i\$ ea'& wire<
0ewton@s "econd !aw of Motion 20"!M4
If a\$ #\$,ala\$'e+ for'e a't( o\$ a ,o+%6 it i( a''elerate+ ,% a\$ a)o#\$t 0ro0ortio\$al to
t&e #\$,ala\$'e+ for'e a\$+ i\$ t&e (a)e +ire'tio\$ ,#t i\$ver(el% to it( )a((. <a * Fnet > \$=
or <Fnet * \$a=
:F =ma 8here : :F<= ma< * :F= = 0 &if motion is relatively or p0rely horizontal'
:F<= 0 * :F= = ma= &if motion is relatively or p0rely vertical'
%&: A\$ o,>e't )ove( +#e to a \$et for'e of @C.D N. It (tart( at re(t a\$+ a''elerate( at 5.D )A(
5
. ;&at
i( it( )a((<
A. 10 3* B. 5D 3* C. 1D 3* D. 50 3*
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Review Material for PHY10 : DO NOT BRING DURING ACTUAL EAMINATION
0ewton@s #hird !aw of Motion
;&e\$ever o\$e o,>e't e-ert( a for'e o\$ a (e'o\$+ o,>e't6 t&e (e'o\$+ o,>e't e-ert( a
rea'tio\$ for'e of e"#al )a*\$it#+e ,#t o00o(ite +ire'tio\$ o\$ t&e ?r(t o,>e't. It i\$+i'ate( t&at
for'e( 'o)e i\$ 0air( 1 a\$ a'tio\$ for'e a\$+ rea'tio\$ for'e
Friction Force 2f4 B force acting Cetween the Cody and its surface of contact which
is acting 1arallel Cut o11osite to the direction of \$otion

< f D 0 or f * E0 =
#y1es:
/tati' Eri'tio\$6 f( 1 e-i(t( w&e\$ t&e ,o+% i( at re(t ,#t &a( t&e te\$+e\$'% to (li+e.
Fi\$eti' Eri'tio\$6 f3 1 o00o(i\$* for'e w&e\$ t&e ,o+% i( i\$ )otio\$
%&:
T&ree i+e\$ti'al ,lo'3( are 0#lle+ or 0#(&e+ a'ro(( a &ori7o\$tal (#rfa'e ,% a for'e F6
a( (&ow\$ i\$ t&e +rawi\$*(. T&e for'e F i\$ ea'& 'a(e &a( t&e (a)e )a*\$it#+e. ;&i'&
?*#re will *ive t&e lea(t 3i\$eti' fri'tio\$al for'e<
%&:
A 10!3* ,lo'3 i( (et )ovi\$* wit& a\$ i\$itial (0ee+ of : )A( o\$ a ro#*& &ori7o\$tal
(#rfa'e. If t&e fri'tio\$ for'e i( 50 N6 a00ro-i)atel% &ow far +oe( t&e ,lo'3 travel ,efore
it (to0(<
(. ircular Motion
entri1etal Force 2F4
T&e \$et for'e t&at 'a#(e( o,>e't to )ove i\$ a
'ir'#lar 0at& rat&er t&a\$ a (trai*&t o\$e.
Ce\$tri0etal )ea\$( Gtowar+( t&e 'e\$terH6 (o t&i(
*oe( towar+( t&e a-i( of rotatio\$.
entri1etal Acceleration 2a4
T&e a''eleratio\$ a((o'iate+ wit& t&e 'e\$tri0etal
for'e. It al(o *oe( towar+( t&e 'e\$ter of rotatio\$.
Al(o 3\$ow\$ a( t&e Gra+ial a''eleratio\$H
%-'A#./0"
5here:
F * \$a a *
v
8
>R
v linear or tangential velocity &m/s'
F * \$v
8
>R v *
F>R
F * \$RF
8
F *
8G>#
7 period of rotation1 time for @ complete revol0tion
&seconds'
F * H\$RG
8
>#
8
# * 1>f
f fre60ency1 n0m-er of revol0tions at a given time &per
second or hertz'
F * H\$RG
8
f
8

0ewton@s "econd !aw of Motion A11lications
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Review Material for PHY10 : DO NOT BRING DURING ACTUAL EAMINATION
1. HoriIontal ircle
1.1 Flat urve
5here:
vMA: * J2E"Rg4
v linear or tangential velocity &m/s' : vA3<
ma4im0m velocity
1.8 )anKed
urve
B\$ static coeCcient of the road s0rface
tan L * v
8
>
2Rg4
L * tan
B1
<v
8
>
2Rg4=
I -anDing angle &E'
8. Vertical ircle 20on 'nifor\$4
M !owest
Point
M Highest
Point
a\$a& * vMA:
8
>R a\$in *
vM.0
8
>R
F is \$a&i\$u\$ F is
\$ini\$u\$
%&: A 10 3* *ar,a*e ,a* i( w&irle+ i\$to a #\$ifor) 'ir'#lar )otio\$. T&e +ia)eter of t&i(
'ir'le i( D0). If t&e 'e\$tri0etal for'e wa( )ea(#re+ to ,e 926100 +%\$e(6 w&at i( t&e li\$ear
(0ee+ of t&e *ar,a*e ,a*<
A. 1.2D )A( B. 15.D )A( C. 50.D: )A( D. 1C.:CC )A(
%. 0ewton@s !aw of Nravitation
!Ever% 0arti'le of )atter i\$ t&e #\$iver(e attra't( ever% ot&er 0arti'le wit& a for'e t&at i(
+ire'tl% 0ro0ortio\$al to t&e 0ro+#'t of t&e )a((e( of t&e 0arti'le( a\$+ i\$ver(el% 0ro0ortio\$al
to t&e ("#are of t&e +i(ta\$'e ,etwee\$ t&e).
F * N\$1\$8 > 2R
8
4
;&ere:
)1 J )5 1 )a((e( of t&e two 0arti'le(
K3*L
E 1 for'e of attra'tio\$ KNL
R 1 +i(ta\$'e ,etwee\$ t&e two
0arti'le( K)L
G 1 *ravitatio\$al 'o\$(ta\$t M :.:C -10
!11
N )
5
A3*
5
(eter\$ining the Acceleration (ue to NravityO g
Co\$(i+er a\$ o,>e't of )a(( m falli\$* \$ear a 0la\$et=( (#rfa'e6 t&e for'e of attra'tio\$ i( t&e
*ravitatio\$al 0#ll of t&e 0la\$et towar+ t&e o,>e't w&i'& i( t&e wei*&t of t&e o,>e't o\$ t&at
0la\$et.
F * 5
N \$ MPlanet> R
8
* \$g
g * N M1lanet> R
8

%&:
If t&e eart& were t&ree ti)e( fart&er fro) t&e (#\$ t&a\$ it i( \$ow6 t&e *ravitatio\$al
for'e e-erte+ o\$ it ,% t&e (#\$ wo#l+ ,e
a. t&ree ti)e( a( lar*e a( it i( \$ow
,. \$i\$e ti)e( a( lar*e a( it i( \$ow
'. o\$e!t&ir+ a( lar*e a( it i( \$ow
+. o\$e!\$i\$t& a( lar*e a( it i( \$ow
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