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Review Material for PHY10 : DO NOT BRING DURING ACTUAL EAMINATION

PHY10 : Review
A. Vectors
Scalar Quantity ! a "#a$tit% w&i'& &a( o$l% )a*$it#+e ,#t $o +ire'tio$
E-. /0ee+ 1 20 30&
Vector Quantity ! a "#a$tit% w&i'& &a( ,ot& )a*$it#+e a$+ +ire'tio$
E-. 4elo'it%! 20 30& +#e $ort&
Analytical Methods of Finding the Resultant
A. Triangle Method 1 'o$(tr#'t a tria$*le #(i$* t&e 5 *ive$ ve'tor( a$+ #(e 'o$'e0t( of
tri*o$o)etr% (#'& a( osine !aw6 "ine !aw or Pythagorean #heore$ to (olve for
t&e #$3$ow$ ve'tor.
B. Vector Resolution Method or Component Method! it i( t&e 0ro'e(( of re(olvi$*
t&e ve'tor to it( verti'al a$+ &ori7o$tal 'o)0o$e$t(
Resultant, R! i( t&e ve'tor (#) of 5 or )ore ve'tor( w&o(e e8e't i( t&e (a)e a( t&e *ive$
(et of ve'tor(.
%&:
A ()all ,oat travel( 90.0 3) $ort& a$+ t&e$ travel( :0.0 3) ea(t i$ 1.0 &r. ;&at i(
t&e ,oat( +i(0la'e)e$t for o$e!&o#r tri0< ;&at i( t&e ,oat=( avera*e (0ee+ +#ri$* t&e
o$e!&o#r tri0<
'nit Vectors
A. "calar Product or (ot Product of vectors A and ) * A) cos +
). Vector Product or ross Product of vectors A and ) *A) sin +
). ,ine$atics
It i( t&e (t#+% of &ow o,>e't )ove( wit&o#t re*ar+ to t&e 'a#(e of )otio$.
%-'A#./0" for $otion along a straight
1ath 2&3a&is4
5here:
VF * V/ 6 at VF fnal velocity
s * V/t 6 7 at
8
VO initial velocity
VF
8
* V/
8
6 8as s horizontal displacement/distance
traveled
Note : if a = 0 ; V = constant a constant acceleration
%-'A#./0" for $otion along vertical
a&is 2y3a&is4
h vertical displacement/ height
VF * V/ 6 gt g gravitational acceleration = !" m/s
#
h * V/t 6 7 gt
8
$ign %onvention &from origin' : s : &(' ) *
h : &(' +
VF
8
* V/
8
6 8gh V : &(' ) O, &(' +
Note : if o-.ect is free/fall or dropped VO = 0 a : &(' if speeding 0p O, &(' +1 hence g
= !" m/s
#
%-'A#./0" for Pro9ectile Motion 2&3
a&is4
%-'A#./0" for Pro9ectile Motion 2y3a&is4
V/: * V/ cos + : 4O: 1 Hori7o$tal
Co)0o$e$t of 4O
V/Y * V/ sin + : 4OY 1 4erti'al Co)0o$e$t of
4O
V/: * VF: * Vn: Note : Constant 2orizontal
Velocities
VFY * V/Y 6 gt
s * V& t h * V/Yt 6 7 gt
8

VFY
8
* V/Y
8
6 8gh
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Review Material for PHY10 : DO NOT BRING DURING ACTUAL EAMINATION
$ign %onvention &from origin' : s : &(' ) * h :
&(' +
V : &(' ) O, &(' +
g = !" m/s
#
/ther .$1ortant
%;uations
Note g = + !" m/s
#
R * <V/
8
sin 28+4= >g H * V/Y
8
>28g4 * 2V/ sin +
8
4>28g4
tR * R>V/: tH * V/Y >g * 2V/ sin +4>g
* tR>8
%&:
A 0ro>e'tile i( ?re+ fro) a *#$ a$+ &a( i$itial &ori7o$tal a$+ verti'al 'o)0o$e$t( of
velo'it% e"#al to @0 )A( a$+ 20 )A(6 re(0e'tivel%.
a. ;&at i( t&e i$itial (0ee+ of t&e 0ro>e'tile<
,. 3ppro4imately &ow lo$* +oe( it ta3e t&e 0ro>e'tile to rea'& t&e &i*&e(t 0oi$t<
'. ;&at i( t&e (0ee+ of t&e 0ro>e'tile at t&e &i*&e(t 0oi$t i$ it( tra>e'tor%<
+. 3ppro4imately w&at i( t&e )a-i)#) &ori7o$tal +i(ta$'e rea'&e+ ,% t&e 0ro>e'tile
. Forces ? !aws of Motion
0ewton@s !aws of Motion
0ewton@s First !aw of Motion
A$ o,>e't (itti$* at re(t will re)ai$ at re(t if t&e (#) of all for'e( a'ti$* o$ t&e
o,>e't i( 7ero. /i)ilarl%6 if a$ o,>e't i( )ovi$* a$+ t&e (#) of t&e for'e( a'ti$* o$ t&e
o,>e't i( 7ero6 t&e$ t&e o,>e't will 'o$ti$#e to )ove i$ t&e (a)e +ire'tio$ wit& (a)e
(0ee+. <AF * 0=
First %ondition of 560ili-ri0m
7he -ody or system at this condition remains at rest or moves in a straight line 8ith
constant velocity! &7ranslational 560ili-ri0m'
$tatic 560ili-ri0m refers to all o-.ects at rest!
9ynamic 560ili-ri0m refers to all o-.ects / systems moving at constant velocity
:F = , = 0 ;:F<=0 * :F= = 0>
E-:
A 5!3* 0i't#re fra)e i( (#00orte+ ,% two wire( w&ere ea'& wire )a3e( @0B wit& t&e
&ori7o$tal. ;&at i( t&e te$(io$ i$ ea'& wire<
0ewton@s "econd !aw of Motion 20"!M4
If a$ #$,ala$'e+ for'e a't( o$ a ,o+%6 it i( a''elerate+ ,% a$ a)o#$t 0ro0ortio$al to
t&e #$,ala$'e+ for'e a$+ i$ t&e (a)e +ire'tio$ ,#t i$ver(el% to it( )a((. <a * Fnet > $=
or <Fnet * $a=
:F =ma 8here : :F<= ma< * :F= = 0 &if motion is relatively or p0rely horizontal'
:F<= 0 * :F= = ma= &if motion is relatively or p0rely vertical'
%&: A$ o,>e't )ove( +#e to a $et for'e of @C.D N. It (tart( at re(t a$+ a''elerate( at 5.D )A(
5
. ;&at
i( it( )a((<
A. 10 3* B. 5D 3* C. 1D 3* D. 50 3*
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Review Material for PHY10 : DO NOT BRING DURING ACTUAL EAMINATION
0ewton@s #hird !aw of Motion
;&e$ever o$e o,>e't e-ert( a for'e o$ a (e'o$+ o,>e't6 t&e (e'o$+ o,>e't e-ert( a
rea'tio$ for'e of e"#al )a*$it#+e ,#t o00o(ite +ire'tio$ o$ t&e ?r(t o,>e't. It i$+i'ate( t&at
for'e( 'o)e i$ 0air( 1 a$ a'tio$ for'e a$+ rea'tio$ for'e
Friction Force 2f4 B force acting Cetween the Cody and its surface of contact which
is acting 1arallel Cut o11osite to the direction of $otion

< f D 0 or f * E0 =
#y1es:
/tati' Eri'tio$6 f( 1 e-i(t( w&e$ t&e ,o+% i( at re(t ,#t &a( t&e te$+e$'% to (li+e.
Fi$eti' Eri'tio$6 f3 1 o00o(i$* for'e w&e$ t&e ,o+% i( i$ )otio$
%&:
T&ree i+e$ti'al ,lo'3( are 0#lle+ or 0#(&e+ a'ro(( a &ori7o$tal (#rfa'e ,% a for'e F6
a( (&ow$ i$ t&e +rawi$*(. T&e for'e F i$ ea'& 'a(e &a( t&e (a)e )a*$it#+e. ;&i'&
?*#re will *ive t&e lea(t 3i$eti' fri'tio$al for'e<
%&:
A 10!3* ,lo'3 i( (et )ovi$* wit& a$ i$itial (0ee+ of : )A( o$ a ro#*& &ori7o$tal
(#rfa'e. If t&e fri'tio$ for'e i( 50 N6 a00ro-i)atel% &ow far +oe( t&e ,lo'3 travel ,efore
it (to0(<
(. ircular Motion
entri1etal Force 2F4
T&e $et for'e t&at 'a#(e( o,>e't to )ove i$ a
'ir'#lar 0at& rat&er t&a$ a (trai*&t o$e.
Ce$tri0etal )ea$( Gtowar+( t&e 'e$terH6 (o t&i(
*oe( towar+( t&e a-i( of rotatio$.
entri1etal Acceleration 2a4
T&e a''eleratio$ a((o'iate+ wit& t&e 'e$tri0etal
for'e. It al(o *oe( towar+( t&e 'e$ter of rotatio$.
Al(o 3$ow$ a( t&e Gra+ial a''eleratio$H
%-'A#./0"
5here:
F * $a a *
v
8
>R
v linear or tangential velocity &m/s'
F * $v
8
>R v *
F>R
? ang0lar velocity &rad/s'
F * $RF
8
F *
8G>#
7 period of rotation1 time for @ complete revol0tion
&seconds'
F * H$RG
8
>#
8
# * 1>f
f fre60ency1 n0m-er of revol0tions at a given time &per
second or hertz'
F * H$RG
8
f
8

0ewton@s "econd !aw of Motion A11lications
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Review Material for PHY10 : DO NOT BRING DURING ACTUAL EAMINATION
1. HoriIontal ircle
1.1 Flat urve
5here:
vMA: * J2E"Rg4
v linear or tangential velocity &m/s' : vA3<
ma4im0m velocity
1.8 )anKed
urve
B$ static coeCcient of the road s0rface
tan L * v
8
>
2Rg4
, radi0s of c0rvat0re &m'
L * tan
B1
<v
8
>
2Rg4=
I -anDing angle &E'
8. Vertical ircle 20on 'nifor$4
M !owest
Point
M Highest
Point
a$a& * vMA:
8
>R a$in *
vM.0
8
>R
F is $a&i$u$ F is
$ini$u$
%&: A 10 3* *ar,a*e ,a* i( w&irle+ i$to a #$ifor) 'ir'#lar )otio$. T&e +ia)eter of t&i(
'ir'le i( D0). If t&e 'e$tri0etal for'e wa( )ea(#re+ to ,e 926100 +%$e(6 w&at i( t&e li$ear
(0ee+ of t&e *ar,a*e ,a*<
A. 1.2D )A( B. 15.D )A( C. 50.D: )A( D. 1C.:CC )A(
%. 0ewton@s !aw of Nravitation
!Ever% 0arti'le of )atter i$ t&e #$iver(e attra't( ever% ot&er 0arti'le wit& a for'e t&at i(
+ire'tl% 0ro0ortio$al to t&e 0ro+#'t of t&e )a((e( of t&e 0arti'le( a$+ i$ver(el% 0ro0ortio$al
to t&e ("#are of t&e +i(ta$'e ,etwee$ t&e).
F * N$1$8 > 2R
8
4
;&ere:
)1 J )5 1 )a((e( of t&e two 0arti'le(
K3*L
E 1 for'e of attra'tio$ KNL
R 1 +i(ta$'e ,etwee$ t&e two
0arti'le( K)L
G 1 *ravitatio$al 'o$(ta$t M :.:C -10
!11
N )
5
A3*
5
(eter$ining the Acceleration (ue to NravityO g
Co$(i+er a$ o,>e't of )a(( m falli$* $ear a 0la$et=( (#rfa'e6 t&e for'e of attra'tio$ i( t&e
*ravitatio$al 0#ll of t&e 0la$et towar+ t&e o,>e't w&i'& i( t&e wei*&t of t&e o,>e't o$ t&at
0la$et.
F * 5
N $ MPlanet> R
8
* $g
g * N M1lanet> R
8

%&:
If t&e eart& were t&ree ti)e( fart&er fro) t&e (#$ t&a$ it i( $ow6 t&e *ravitatio$al
for'e e-erte+ o$ it ,% t&e (#$ wo#l+ ,e
a. t&ree ti)e( a( lar*e a( it i( $ow
,. $i$e ti)e( a( lar*e a( it i( $ow
'. o$e!t&ir+ a( lar*e a( it i( $ow
+. o$e!$i$t& a( lar*e a( it i( $ow
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