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Process Control Process Control

and and and and


Instrumentat Instrumentation
Module Objectives Module Objectives Module Objectives Module Objectives
Learning the fundamentals of industrial Learning the fundamentals of industrial
instrumentation
A General Principles of Measurement A.General Principles of Measurement
Systems
B T d El t B. Transducer Elements
C.Specialized Measurement Systems
Pressure Temperature
Flow Level
D Control Valve and Instrumentation D. Control Valve and Instrumentation
Diagram
Module Contents Module Contents
A. General Principles of Measurement Systems
Introduction to measurement systems
Functional elements of an instrument
Classification of instruments
Input-output configurations of instruments
Performance characteristics of instruments
Static characteristics
Dynamic characteristics
Error analysis
B Transducer Elements B. Transducer Elements
Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)
Resistance strain gauges
Capacitive type transducers Capacitive type transducers
Piezoelectric transducers
Module Contents (Contd) Module Contents (Contd) Module Contents (Cont d) Module Contents (Cont d)
C S i li d M t S t C. Specialized Measurement Systems
Pressure
Temperature p
Flow
Level
D. Control Valve & Instrumentation
Di Diagram
Control valve
Instrumentation diagram g
Text/Reference Books Text/Reference Books Text/Reference Books Text/Reference Books
1. Doeblin, E.O. (2004). Measurement Systems: Application and
Design, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
2. J ohnson, C.D. (2006). Process control instrumentation technology, , ( ) gy,
Prentice-Hall, New Delhi.
3 Patranabis D (2009) Principles of Industrial Instrumentation Tata 3. Patranabis, D. (2009). Principles of Industrial Instrumentation , Tata
McGraw-Hill Education Private Limited, New Delhi.
4 Eckman D P (2004) Industrial Instrumentation CBS Publishers & 4. Eckman, D. P. (2004). Industrial Instrumentation , CBS Publishers &
Distributors Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
The Purpose of Measurement The Purpose of Measurement
Measurement is an essential activity in every branch
of science and technology gy
In a process industry we may (and we will) ask:
What is the temperature in the reactor or furnace or reboiler?
What is the pressure in a high pressure reactor vessel?
What is the flow rate of a process fluid in a pipe?
What is the level of liquid in a storage tank? q g
What is the concentration in the product stream?
pH, moisture content, conductivity, density . ?
The fundamental purpose of measurements in industrial manufacturing
and processing is to obtain a numerical value (generally speaking)
corresponding to the variable being measured so that we can determine
(and improve) the quality of a product or the efficiency of production
Types of Measurement Applications Types of Measurement Applications Types of Measurement Applications Types of Measurement Applications
1. Monitoring/Supervision Processes and
O ti Operations
keep track of some quantity
N t l ti t k di il No control action taken ordinarily
Homely example: Water/gas/electric meter keeps track of commodity used
2. Control of Processes and Operations p
Most important applications
Refers to automatic control and has been the topic of discussion so far
3. Experimental Engineering Analysis
Test the validity of predictions from theories
Build empirical model from data Build empirical model from data
Characterization of materials, devices etc
Feedback Control Block Diagram
Disturbance
Actuator Controller
Plant/Pro
cess
Desired
output
Sensor
(Measuring
Element) Element)
Bath Temp
Input flow Valve
Liquid
Level
Indicator
Heating
Element
Example: Functional Elements: A Example: Functional Elements: A
P Th P Th Pressure Thermometer Pressure Thermometer
Example: Functional Elements: A Example: Functional Elements: A
P Th P Th Pressure Thermometer Pressure Thermometer