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Anda di halaman 1dari 8

A. Per di chi zzi and M. Savi ni *

Maxi mi zi ng ef f i ci ency is the main goal in centri fugal compressor desi gn. Thus a

comput er code has been devel oped to opti mi ze geometri c and f l ui d dynami c

variables wi t h respect to several desi gn constrai nts. Comput at i ons are performed

wi t h an adi abati c one- di mensi onal approach usi ng st at e- of - t he- ar t loss and slip

correl ati ons. The opt i mi zat i on takes i nt o account mechanical stress limits. Results

wi t h di fferent loss and slip correl ati ons are compared wi t h the available

experi mental data. Changes in opt i mum effi ci ency and speci fi c speed due to

vari ati ons of mass f l ow rate and pressure ratio are also presented and di scussed

t oget her wi t h the trends of the opt i mum geometri c features.

K e y w o r d s : compressors, f l ui d dynami cs, desi gn

Centrifugal compressors are widely used in small aero-

nautic and industrial gas turbines and in turbochargers

for internal combustion engines. The main demand is to

achieve the highest possible efficiency, especially for

highly loaded machines, ie at high compression ratios.

Numerous theoretical and experimental investigations

are aimed at resolving the fluid dynamic problems and

improving the design criteria.

The great number of geometric and fluid dynamic

variables and their interactions make it hard to choose the

best values for any given project using simple design

criteria. To overcome this obstacle, the authors have

developed a computer code which uses a mathematical

optimization algorithm for maximizing efficiency.

Fl ow model

Since the results of the optimization process are strictly

dependent on the flow model accuracy, it is necessary to

take into account, even if in an approximate way, the

complex fluid dynamic phenomena, including boundary

layer growth, jet-wake formation, shock waves and

boundary layer interaction, etc, in a centrifugal compre-

ssor. One must also choose carefully the loss model,

because the available methods, by their very nature

always have an element of empiricism. Indeed, they are

based on a limited number of machines and problems may

arise when they are applied to others. To overcome this

drawback the authors tested several methods 1-5 to find

the most comprehensive for the medium-to-high com-

pression ratios.

Thermodynamic and fluid dynamic quantities are

computed in the one-dimensional approach at five sta-

tions according to the following scheme (Fig 1):

1 - rotor inlet

2 - rotor discharge

3 - vaned diffuser leading edge

4 - vaned diffuser throat

5 - vaned diffuser outlet

* Di p a r t i me n t o di Energetica, Pol i t e c ni c o di Mi l a n o , Piazza Leonar do

da Vi n c i 3 2 , Mi l a n o , I t al y

Recei ved 1 4 M a y 1 9 8 4 a n d accept ed f or p u b l i c a t i o n on 2 2 A u g u s t

1 9 8 4

R o t o r

Hub, mid-flow and tip quantities at the rotor inlet are

computed both outside and inside the blade row; trail-

ing edge thicknesses are considered and an optimum

incidence, ie minimum losses, is assumed. Station 2 is

solved evaluating dissipation in the flow field across the

entire impeller. Fluid dynamic losses may be estimated

in two alternative ways:

Northern Research met hod 2

With the one dimensional limitation, this method carries

out a detailed analysis of the flow within the impeller.

Albeit roughly, the relative velocity distributions on the

suction and pressure sides of the blade are considered. On

the basis of these distributions, the various losses are

evaluated and the jet-wake development estimated as-

suming that separation occurs if W/Wmax <0.56 and that,

beyond the separation point, diffusion ceases and W is a

constant. Thus the wake extension and the jet quantities

at the impeller exit can be determined.

Dissipative phenomena considered in evaluating

losses are:

Inducer incidence at the design point;

Skin friction along the blade channel;

Blade loading;

Mixing between jet and wake according to the

Johnston and Dean modelr;

Tip blade leakage;

Disc friction.

The method is also applicable to impellers with splitter

blade rows.

Galvas" met hod 3

This method is less detailed than the one above, not

allowing for the relative velocity distribution. In spite of

its simplicity, it takes into account the main loss factors

and gives reasonable results. Losses considered are:

Incidence;

Skin friction;

Blade loading;

Int. J. Heat S ~ Fluid Fl ow 0142-727X/ 85/ O10049-O8S3. 00@ 1985 Butterworth 0 Co (Publishers) Lt d 49

A. Perdichizzi and M. Savini

Fig 1 Geometric configuration of the compressor

No t a t i o n

a

A

b

Cp

D

L

Leu

Kb

rh

My

Mw

n

N,

o

P

r *

U

V

W

t~

T

X w

Z

B '

6

Ah. t

Ahis

Ar

TC

L

Speed of sound

Geomet ri c area

Axial dept h

Pressure recovery coefficient

Diameter

Diffuser length

Eulerian work

Blockage factor

Mass flow rate

Absolute Mach number

Relative Mach number

Rotational speed, r/s

(vduh

a Mechanical stress

Subscripts

ax Axial

D Diffuser

h Hub

I Impeller

mf Mean flow

OV Overall

r Radial

ref Reference conditions

t Tip

tg Tangential

VL Vaneless diffuser

VD Vaned diffuser

TS Total/static

TT Total/total

0 Stagnation conditions

1 Rotor inlet

2 Rotor outlet

3 Vaned diffuser inlet

4 Diffuser throat

5 Diffuser exit

At/Be Blade loading losses

At/eL Clearance losses

At/oF Disc friction losses

Specific speed, n " V i l / 2 / A h i s 3 / 4

Diffuser throat width

Pressure

Isentropic degree of reaction

Tangential velocity

Absolute velocity

Relative velocity

Normal blade thickness

Temperature

Volume flow rate

~o meridional length at splitter

Number of blades

Absolute velocity angle

Relative velocity angle

Geometric blade angle At/INC Incidence losses

Clearance between impeller and shroud

External losses At/MiX Mixing losses

IsenLropic head At/sv Skin friction losses

Impeller radial extent At/VL Vaneless diffuser losses

Flow coefficient, V~/U2 At/vD Vaned diffuser losses

Pressure ratio At/Ex Kinetic energy discharge losses

Diffuser half-divergence angle Units are SI, angles are measured from the meridion

Slip factor direction

50 Vol 6, No 1, March 1985

Disc friction;

Backflow.

The mixing loss is included in the global loss while

the backflow l os s al s o includes the clearance leakage loss.

The slip correlations commonly quoted in the

literature and used here to compute the exit flow angle ~2

are the Wiesner formulationT:

= 1 - ( c os / ~ ) o. s

zo. 7

and the Eckert formulation s as modified by the Northern

Research to consider the relative velocity deceleration

ratio:

i

p=

I f / Dis -+- DII'~" ~

)) / \ \

Vanel ess di f f user

The equations of motion are solved at an appropriate

number of stations using the classical Stanitz approach

with regard to friction and heat exchange 9. The aerody-

namic blockage due to the growth of the boundary layer

along the sidewalls and the joint losses are taken into

account.

V a n e d d i f f u s e r

The entrance region is extremely important since the flow

is unsteady, often transonic, and the viscous effects are

significant: special attention has therefore been paid to its

modelling. The diffuser performance and the pressure

recovery coefficient C~ are strongly related to the boun-

dary layer growth up to the throat since a boundary layer

that is well developed and near to separation may prevent

the diffusion process. Since it is impossible to predict

accurately the boundary layer in that region, a simplified

method proposed by Dean I allows one to estimate the

throat blockage once the pressure rise from the rotor

discharge is known. When the flow is supersonic at the

diffuser leading edge, it is assumed to become subsonic by

means of a normal shock wave: this makes it possible in

the one-dimensional representation to take into account

the shock wave-boundary layer interaction, in as much as

the shock pressure rise leads to a higher blockage. This is

substantially confirmed by Kenny' s results 1 o.

It is assumed that only straight channel diffusers

are used as this work refers mainly to high pressure ratio

machines. The design criteria and the performance eva-

luation are derived from Dean and Runstadler' s Diffuser

Data Book ~1, assuming as independent variables the

throat Mach number M~,, the blockage factor Kh, and the

aspect ratio bU04.

Each set of these parameters is joined to the

optimum geometry (A 5/A4, e) suggested by the maps given

by Dean and Runstadler. The optimum is determined by

the highest Cpv d and the smallest area ratio able to warrant

stable operating conditions, that is far enough away from

the region of unsteady stall. In this way a certain range for

the off-design performance is ensured. The positive in-

fluence of the inlet swirl, compared with the uniform test

conditions, is treated in the manner suggested by Stevens

and Williams12. Once the diffuser geometry is defined, it is

possible to evaluate the diffuser performance by means of

two other methods:

O p t i mi z a t i o n of c e n t r i f u g a l c o mp r e s s o r s

Northern Research method:

This divides the diffuser into two zones, before and after

the throat. The losses in the first part depend substantially

on the Mach number and rise, causing the latter to

approach unity; the other losses are due to throat Mach

number, blockage and area ratio.

Galvas' method:

This uses Dean and Runstandler' s data in a simplified

mode, for instance without accounting for the aspect ratio

and for the divergence angle e.

O p t i m i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y

Sol v i ng t he o p t i mi z a t i o n p r o b l e m r eq ui r es:

Design specifications, namely mass flow rate, pressure

ratio, thermodynamic properties of the working fluid and

inlet conditions.

Project variables; eleven independent variables (Table 1)

allow one to fix the machine geometry and to compute the

efficiency. Blade thicknesses and the clearance gap are

determined as functions of the rotor outlet diameter, with

respect to technological limits.

Target function; the function to be optimized is the overall

compressor efficiency. In some cases it may be useful to

optimize the total-to-static efficiency; in others the static-

to-static efficiency is optimised. The kinetic energy re-

covery factor DE is introduced therefore to cover both

definitions:

Ahi~ + OEV212

r/ -

L~u + Ah~xt

where Leu is the Eulerian work and Ahex t is the ' external'

losses.

Constraints; several geometric and fluid dynamic con-

straints limit the search field. These constraints must be

observed if physically meaningful and/or practically fea-

sible solution are to be found. In addition, mechanical

stress limitations within the rotor must be considered; the

critical regions are: the blade root at the outer diameter

owing to the bending stress; the blade root at about half

the radial extent owing to the sum of the bending and

centrifugal tensile stresses; and the bore because of

centrifugal force.

The stresses at these points are evaluated on the

basis of Osborne' s simplified criteria 1 s aild are compared

T a b l e 1 V a r i a b l e s a n d d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s

Optimization variab/es

Ol t, 01h, 02 , fl~, b2 , Zl, AJAr, D31D2, b31b2, ZD, Xsp

Depent variables

& = max ( 0. 3 mm, or 02 / 400 )

tnlmin=max ( 0. 2 mm, or 02 / 500 )

t.2 rnin=max ( 0.6 mm, or D2 / 2 00 )

tndt.h = 0. 3 3

Design data

- Fl ui d t her modynami c propert i es

- I nl et c ondi t i ons

- Pressure rat i o

- M a w w f l o w rat e

- Wheel al l oy

I nt . J. Heat ~t Fl ui d F l o w 51

A. Per di c hi z z i and M. Sav i ni

with the yield stress which depends upon the temperature

level and the alloy used. All these constraints are shown in

Table 2.

Mathematical optimization; the numerical procedure used

is able to optimize a function with up to 30 variables and

90 constraints (40 linear in the independent variables and

50 non-linear).

The search requires numerous attempts (about

4000) with different sets of variables; each one performs a

full design and performance evaluation of the compressor.

The time taken to solve a sample case is about 300 seconds

of CPU on a UNIVAC 1100/80 computer.

R e s u l t s

The reliability of the loss correlations was checked for

various compressors by comparing predicted perfor-

mances for the actual geometries with the experimental

data. Table 3 is an example of these comparisons for two

machines, one built by Franco Tosi SpA and the other by

Nuovo Pignone SpA, for which detailed measurements

were available.

The Nort hern Research method, coupled with the

T a b l e 2 C o n s t r a i n t s o n o p t i m i z a t i o n

1. Geometric 2. Fluid dynamics

2 0* < ]~lt < 700 Mw l t < 1.4 0 < Cpvt < 0.4

0 . 4 < D1 t / D2 < 0 . 7 Mwlm< 0.9 wake< 0.8

0 . 3 < Ol h / Ol t < 0 . 7 Wmi nl > 0 Kbax < 0.5

0 . 0 3 m <D2 <2 m W2/Wlt>0.25

0 <f l 2 <60 * 2 <4 ( ~2 <76 )

0.01 < b2/D 2 <0. 4

8 <Z l <6 0

0.8 < O2/ O r < 1.2 3. Me c h a n i c a l stress

0.4 <X s p < 0.6 aA < imA

1.05 < D3/D 2 < 1.2 a B < O'limB

0.8 < b3/ b 2 < 1.2 ac < alir. c

0.2 < b4/O 4 < 7.0

10<ZD<80

4 r a m<0 4

5 <7 <3 0 (Fi g. 1)

Ds/D2 < 2 .0

Dean and Runstadler met hod for the diffuser, gives the

most accurate results. The overall efficiency, the loss

distributions and the specific speed are close to those of

the real machines, and is confirmed by the results of the

optimizations, an example of which is presented in Table

4. Nevertheless, the geometry turns out to be dissimilar

because the optimum solution involves larger blade

heights which generate lower deceleration ratios W2/W1,

and flow coefficients ~b. In the actual compressor a smaller

ratio b2/D 2 is adopted to get a lower 2= V t t / V r , thus

ensuring a wider off-design range at low flow rates.

The optimization results show that, even if the

opt i mum efficiency and specific speed are nearly the same,

the fluid dynamic and geometric configuration tends to

correspond to the loss model trying to cut down the most

critical losses:

the Galvas met hod leads to too low efficiencies, as in

Table 3, because the rot or is over-penalized. Thus the

best solution is characterized by lower N~ and r* and by

a more radial fl~;

the full Nort hern Research method over-estimates the

vaned diffuser losses and the optimization tends to

overload the impeller adopting larger D 2 and fl~.

Table 5 shows the influence of the slip correlation on the

optimization.

It is important to note that although Wiesner' s

correlation gives a higher slip factor, the solution is similar

in terms of efficiency and fluid dynamic quantities. The

difference in the blade angle makes up for the slip

formulation so as to obtain an identical flow angle. Hence

one can say that the results are not seriously affected by

the type of correlation used. It seemed more advisable to

employ Eckert' s correlation because it takes into account

the deceleration ratio W2/WIt and this may become

important at high pressure ratios.

To test the importance of the impeller material, a

comparison was made between two optimizations for the

same design conditions (n = 5, rh = 2.45 Kg/s). In the first

case an aluminium alloy was used while titanium was used

in the second (Table 6). The first case gave lower efficiency

because blade backward leaning is limited (17 versus 40 )

T a b l e 3 C o m p a r i s o n o f r e s u l t s

~/TS A~I AF/V L AF]VD Ns q~

Galvas 79.4 6.3 2 . 2 5 6.4 0. 12 4 0. 712

NR* 76. 3 6.3 2 .4 9.5 0. 12 8 0. 72

NR+ DRt" 82 . 3 6.3 2 . 2 2 6.0 0. 12 2 0.71

Real 84. 0 4.8 1.71 6.1 0.12 1 0. 7t

F. TSOI compressor = = 2 . 4 r h= 1. 95 Kg/ s N= 2 8000 r / mi n

f l ~= 2 5 D2 = 0. 2 57 m Z~=16

v= 4 b4/04=0.99 ZD= 2 5

Galvas 80. 4 6. 17 1. 84 5.8

N R* 78.6 5.8 2 . 13 7.6

NR+ DR 82 . 0 5.8 1.8 6.0

Real 82 . 5 - - -

N. Pi gnone compressor r t = 2 . 45 r h= 4. 3 Kg/ s N= 2 0000 r / mi n

fl~ = 5 0 02 = 0. 3 85 m Z= = 16

~= 4 b4/04=0.716 ZD= 15

0. 3 0

0. 2 7

0.31

0. 42

0. 12 4 0. 673 0. 194

0. 12 6 0,674 0. 193

0. 12 3 0. 67 0. 2 0

0. 12 3 0. 67 0. 2 0

* Northern Research met hod

t Northern Research coupl ed wi t h Dean and Runstadler's met hod f or the di ffusor

52 Vol 6, No 1, Ma r c h 1985

Opt i mi zat i on of cent ri f ugal compressors

T a b l e 4 O p t i m i z a t i o n r e s u l t s ~ = 2 . 4 , m = 1 . 9 5 k g / s

r / T s Ar / i A~ / v L Ar / v D N s ~ ~p r * f l ~ b 2 / D 2

Galvas 80.6 5.8 1.1 5.2 0.111 0.76 0.2 2 0.64 2 6 0.057

NR 81.8 5.4 0.8 5.8 0.12 2 0.56 0.2 0 0.76 55 0.047

NR+ DR 83.3 4.8 0.87 5.1 0.117 0.73 0.2 0 0.67 34 0.071

Real 84.0 4.8 1.71 6.1 0.12 1 0.71 0.42 0.58 2 5 0.044

T a b l e 5 E f f e c t o f s l i p c o r r e l a t i o n o n o p t i m i z a t i o n

Slip

correlation / l r/rs Ns ~b ~b W 2 / W l t f 1 2 f12

Wiesner 0.867 0.834 0.12 0 0.2 2 0.71 0.58 53.4 40

Eckert 0.842 0.833 0.118 0.2 0 0.73 0.53 53.5 34

Ta b l e 6 I mp e l l e r m a t e r i a l c o m p a r i s o n n = 5, m= 2 . 4 5 k g / s

Impeller

alloy tiT s Ns (~ VJ r* B ~ U 2 W2 / Wl t Mwlt Mv2

Aluminium 0. 801 0.097 0.2 2 0.86 0.61 17 502 0.41 0.92 1.1

Titanium 0.82 7 0.109 0.2 0 0.73 0.67 40 535 0.53 0.99 0.99

0. 86

r

0. 84 ~ ~- = 2 . 5

i

i "

. .

~ 0.7a i / r,,f = 293K

~" ~ef = 1.0.13 x 10 5 PCl

0. 76

! - Exper i ment al dat a

7r 2 . 5

~,~F~.~A" r r 5

, e T / B

0. 72 ~-

0.70 I

0.1

Fig 2

I I I / I I i i I I I I [ I I I

0. 5 1.0 5. 0 I 0. 0

,,h TV'T-~rr e t

Pl~ef , k(:J/s

Total-to-static efficiency versus ma'ss flow rate and

pressure ratio

to avoid exceeding the yield stress at the blade root. Thus

the rotational speed and the degree of reaction are lower,

decreasing the efficiency.

F l o w r a t e a n d p r e s s u r e r a t i o v a r i a t i o n

These results refer to air compressors and assume a

titanium alloy to be used since it allows better

performance.

Fig 2 shows efficiency versus mass flow rate and

pressure ratio. Note that the performance of actual

compressors n are in good agreement with the results,

supporting the flow model and loss formulation accuracy.

The decreased efficiency at lower flow rates is due

0. 07

0 . 0 6 -

A%D

005 -- A .,./E x

O.04

0.0~ -

0.02 10.01 ~VL/~CL /~' ~

OI 05 I 0 50

m T V~ f , k g / s

P/,mf

Fig 3 Losses at different flow rates (n= 5)

I00

to the size reduction; in fact as one can see in Fig 3, which

shows the trend of the losses, the effect of the leakage rises

sharply since the tip gap has a lower limit of &~in = 0.2 mm,

which is fixed by technological considerations. The fric-

tional losses through the machine also rise because of

lower Reynolds numbers and higher relative roughness.

This is not noticeable in the vaned diffuser since the trend

is counterbalanced by a lower aerodynamic loading. In

fact, at lower flow rates the geometric limitations on O4mi,

and (Ds/D2)mx tend to transfer part of the loading from

the vaned diffuser to the vaneless diffuser by increasing

Da/D2.

The optimum specific speed (Fig 4) at equal

pressure ratio is almost constant, with respect of the

similarity rules, over a wide range of mass flow rates.

The curves of the geometric ratios Dlt/D 2 and

Int. J. Heat 8- Fluid Fl ow 53

A . P e r d i c h i z z i a n d M . S a v i n i

OA50 [

0 1 4 0

0.150

0.120

O.llO 1 -

0 1 0 0 I .. I I I

0 . 5

Fig 4

Tr~f = 2 93*K

P,~f = 1013 x i 0 a Po

v = 2 , 5

i

l 2 0

i

l i 0

-~%

~-- _

,oo ~ "

; I

1.0

th T ~ r o f

P l Pre f

I

5 490

8 8 0

J - - . ~ . I i i ]

5.0 I0.0

- - , k g / s

Optimum specific speed at different fl ow rates and

pressure ratios

0. 091

- - b 2 / D 2

o . o 8 ~ _ 0 . o 7 ~' ~ ~r/P2

~ o.o6,

0.05

004

~r = 2 , 5

8

I I

0.7

003 - - I I I I I i [ i ! [ ~ 0.5

0.I 0.5 i O 5.0 I 00

- - , k @ / s

P / Pref

o 6 " ~

F ig 5 Non-dimensional geometric features of the impeller

(Dl JD2, b2/D2)

7 0

65

oo / 3

55

b?5o~ ~ E "

40 \ \ ... ~ - - / - 3~ ~-' - 5

/

o, o.5 I o 5.0 ,o.o

rh ~ r ~ 1 , kg/ s

P/ Pr ef

F ig 6 Kinematic (,82) and geometric ([3'2) angles at the

rotor discharge

b2/D 2 substantially confir m the above statement (Fig 5).

At small fl ow r ates N~ tends to r ise because the

number of blades decr eases with the size (Fig 8) and the

blade loading loss incr eases: thus the optimum solution

moves towar d higher f12 (Fig 6) and r * (Fig 7) with an

appr eciable incr ease in the r otational speed.

The specific speed changes inver sely with the

pr essur e r atio for str ess r easons; in fact ther e ar e two ways

to limit the blade r oot bending str ess: decr ease blade

height b2, incr easing D2 and r educing the r otating speed;

or making the blade exit angle mor e r adial (smaller fl~) to

r educe the tangential velocity. The for mer solution is

mor e advisable as the incr ease in clear ance losses is less

than the blade loading and mixing losses due to the

gr eater extension of the wake in the latter case.

Fi g 6 shows geometr ic and kinematic angles at the

r otor dischar ge: note that the optimum flow angle

r emains near ly constant, at 500- 55 , although the blade

angle var ies with the pr essur e r atio. It fol l ows that the slip

factor incr eases with r t: in fact highly loaded machines

need a gr eater number of blades in or der to r educe the

aer odynamic loading.

Fig 7 shows that the pr essur e r atio does not

influence the degr ee of r eaction r * and the deceler ation

r atio W2/W~t, except at small flow r ates. For mass flow

r ates gr eater than 0.5 Kg/s the optimum degr ee of r eaction

is always 0.67 and the deceler ation r atio is slightly l ower

than the value r efer r ed to as thr eshold of separ ation,

W2/ W~ t = 0. 56.

Mach number s gr aphs (Fig 9) show that at l ow

Mv~ is gr eater than Mwlt, but, at high pr essur e r atio, this

tr end is r ever sed. In fact keeping l ow M~, helps r educe the

r ise of the thr oat blockage Kb,, a major factor in diffuser

per for mances. Fr om Fig 10 it is possible to assess the

optimum shape of the vaned diffuser . As the pr essur e r atio

0. 70 ~ - - ~ - ~ * r r = 2 . 5

0.6 5 ~

= 0. 60

/ S e p o r o t i o n l i m i t

i w~/w,,

5

0 5 0 I

0,48

0.1

I _ L _ t I L t J

/

05 I 0 5. 0 I 0. 0

,-h r ~ , t f . kg/ s

P / ~ . f

F ig 7 I sentropic degree of reaction and rotor deceleration

ratio (W2/Wlt)

30 !

F ig 8

vanes

: b z ~

. . . . . . ZD

2 5 - -

i j /

J , . ~ - t t

, / " ~ ~

5 I I I [ I I ] I L L _ _ I I I I t L I

Of 0. 5 1.0 5. 0 I 0 0

TV"T77~ f , k q / s

PIP~

Optimum numbers of impeller blades and diffuser

5 4 V o l 6 , N o 1 , M a r c h 1 9 8 5

1.4

1.2 f M W t T "~ --'*"

I.I

0.9

0 . 8 ~ ~ .

0.7 ~ "

0.6

0.1

u ~ 2 . . . . .

vr =8

Fig 9

I I I I I I I

0.5 1.0

rh TV' T' ~mf, kg/ s

P I P , ~

Mach numbers ( Mwl t , My2 )

2...5

I I I I I I I I

5.0 I0.0

goes up, the wor seni ng thr oat condi ti ons (Kb, and Mv4)

r educe the pr essur e r ecover y Cpv d and the ar ea r atio As~A4

that the diffuser can sustain. The decr ease in the aspect

r atio b J 04 for small fl ow r ates implies a gr eater diver -

gence angle.

C l o s i n g r e m a r k s

The analysis of the r esults compar ed with 'state- of- the- ar t'

per for mance and with the exper imental data of actual

centr ifugal compr essor s confir ms that the opti mi zati on

method pr esented in this paper is able to pr ovide

tr ustwor thy pr edictions.

The i nvesti gati on at differ ent flow r ates and

pr essur e r atios showed how small machines suffer the major

penalty of di mensi onal effects, for exampl e clear ances,

thicknesses, Reynol ds number s, and how consequentl y

the opti mum specific speed becomes gr eater . At the higher

pr essur e r atios the over all efficiency decr eases mor e

shar ply since Ns cannot incr ease because of mechanical

str ess limitations. The diagr ams pr esented may be helpful

in the design of centr ifugal compr essor s since they suppl y

the best N, and geometr i c featur es to obtai n the highest

possi bl e level of efficiency.

A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s

The author s wish to thank Fr anco Tosi SpA for placing

l oss cor r elations and exper imental measur ements at their

di sposal , and Nuo vo Pi gnone SpA for pr ovi di ng data of

their compr essor .

R e f e r e n c e s

1 De a n R. C. The fluid dynamic design of advanced centrifugal

compressors. T N 153, 1972, Creare Inc., Hanover, USA

2 An engineering research program for centrifugal compressors:

revised prediction procedures. Northern Research N. 1143-38,

Dec 1971

3 Galvas M.R. Fortran program for predicting off-design perfor-

mance of centrifugal compressors. NASA TN 07487, Nov 1973

4 Balje O.E. Loss and flow path studies on centrifugal compressors.

AS ME paper 70-GT-12, 1970

5 M~hi mo T., Watanabe I. and Ar i ga I. Effect of Reynolds

numbers on performance characteristics of a centrifugal compre-

O pt i mi zat i on of cent r i f ugal compr essor s

2.8

2.6

,,: 2 . 4

22

7 r = 2 . 5

I I I

F

i . B 4 r I I I i I I I I

1 . 6

1 , 5

1 . 3

1.2

L0

O8

0.7

o6 F-

o . 5 I

4

3 -

vr = 2 . 5

7r= 8.0

2 . 5

5.0

I I I

5.0

I [ I I J I I l l I

0.1 0.5 IO I0.0

T~' ~' ref, kg/ s

P / Pref

Fig 10 Geometric features of the diffuser (a) Area ratio

As/A4; (b) Aspect ratio b4/04; and (c) Divergence half-

angle of the channel e

ssor, with special reference to configurations of impellers. J. Eng.

f or Power, July 1975

6 Johnston J.P. and Dean R.C. Losses in vaneless diffusers of

centrifugal compressors and pumps. J. Eng. f or Power, 88, (1)

1966

7 Wei s a er F.J. A review of slip factors of centrifugal impellers. J.

Eng. f or Power, 89, 1967

8 Eekert, B. and Sehnell E. Axial und radial kompressoren, Springer

Verlag Berlin, 1961

9 Stanitz J.D. One-dimensional compressible flow in vaneless

diffusers of radial and mixed-flow centrifugal compressors,

including effects of friction, heat transfer and area change. NACA

TN 2610, 1952

10 Kenny D. P. Supersonic radial diffusers. AGARD Lecture notes

39, Advanced compressors, Von Karman Institute, Brussels, 1 ~

June 1970

11 Runstadler P., Dolan F. and Dean R. Diffuser data book. TN 186

Create Inc., May 1975

12 Stevens S. J. and Wi l l i a ms G. J. The influence of inlet conditions

on the performance of annular diffusers. J. Fluid Eng. 102, Sept

1980

13 Osborne C. Preliminary structural considerations in centrifugal

compressors. Lecture notes on Advanced Concepts in Centrifugal

Compressors Design and Performance, Paris, 16-20 May 1983

1 4 Buzzi Ferraris M. Subroutine OPTNOE CI LEA TN, Milan, 1976

15 Cnevis R. W. and Varley R. J. Centrifugal compressors for small

aero- and automotive gas turbine engines. AGARD CP 282

Centrifugal Compressors: Flow Phenomena and Performance,

Brussels, ~ 9 May 1980

Int. J. Heat 8 Fl ui d Fl ow 55

A. Perdichizzi and M. Savini

16

Vavra M. H. Basic elements for advanced design of radial flow

compressors. AGARD Lecture notes 39 Advanced Compressors,

Von Karman Institute, Brussels, 1-4 June 1970

17

Bammer t K., Rautember g M. and Wittekindt W. Matching of

turbocomponents described by the example of impeller and

diffuser in a centrifugal compressor. J. Eng. f or Power, 1 02, Jul y

1980

18

Mashi mo T. et a l . On the performance prediction of a centrifugal

compressor scaled up. A S ME paper 82-GT-112, 1982

19 J a p i k s e D. Design optimization and performance map prediction

for centrifugal compressors and radial inflow turbines. AGARD

L.S.83, June 1976

20 Dean R. C. The fluid dynamic design of advanced centrifugal

compressors. Lecture notes 50, Advanced Radial Compressors.

Fon Karman Institute, Brussels, May 1975

21 Jansen W. Steady fluid flow in a radial vaneless diffuser. A S ME

paper 63-WA-12, 1963

22 dapikse D. Life evaluation of advanced turbomachinery. LS. on

turbine blade cooling, Von Karman Institute, Jan. 1976

I OOK REVIIIEW

Fluidized Bed Combustion

and Applied Technology

Ed. R. G. Schwieger

This book contains 36 papers presented at the First

International Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC)

Symposium held in Beijing, People' s Republic of China

(PRC) in August 1983. It has about 600 pages and more

than 400 tables, charts, diagrams and photographs are

supplied on the topics covered. Most of the papers are

from PRC and USA. However, samples of work

accomplished in 9 countries (Belgium, Canada,

Denmark, UK, France, West Germany, Japan,

Netherlands and Sweden) by industry, government

research institutions and universities are also included.

The book is divided into five sections: overview,

theory, design and development, environmental

considerations, and operating data. Important aspects of

fluidized bed combustion are touched upon in these

sections. Some of the topics included are: a review of the

state-of-the-art, combustion phenomena, heat transfer,

modelling, pollution control and erosion of tubes in the

bed. Atmospheric and pressurised fluidized bed

combustion are discussed. Operations with low quality

fuels such as oil shale, process char, extremely poor grades

of coal and regular coal are described.

One of the attractive features of the book is that it

contains extensive information on the experience of PRC

in the area of fluidized bed combustion. Fluidized bed

combustors and boilers have been used in PRC for the last

20 years to produce industrial steam and electricity. These

units are locally built and run by average factory workers

after a short training period. The experimental data and

information on this experience should be valuable to

industries manufacturing small combustors burning coal

or other solid fuels, as well as to industries who are

considering installing fluidized bed combustors in their

facilities. There are also large amounts of data obtained

from small and large units operating in other countries

participating in the symposium. Empirical relations

important for design purposes are given.

The book is an important source of information

and a good reference for industry using or manufacturing

combustors, and for researchers working in this or related

areas in universities and government research

institutions.

S. Yavuzkurt

Depart ment of Mechani cal Engineering,

The Pennsylvania State University,

USA

Published, price $95.00, by Hemisphere Publishing Corporation,

B erkeley B ui l di ng, 19W 44th Street, NY 10036, USA

Books recei ved

Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer,

D. A. Anderson, J. C. Tannehill and R. H. Pletcher, $39.95,

pp 599, Hemisphere

Perturbation Methods in Heat Transfer, A. Azi z and T. E

Na, $37.50, pp 199, Hemisphere/Springer-Verlag

Steam tables (in SI-units) Wasserdampftafeln, eds

U. Grigull, J. Straub and P. Schiebener, pp 94, DM 26,

Springer-Verlag

Contains tables and diagrams concerni ng the properties of

water and steam f or use by students and research and i ndustri a/

engineers to solve probl ems i n power and chemi cal

engineering. Thermodynamic properties have been cal cul ated

accordi ng to the f ormul at i on by Hear, Gallagher and Ke//,

adopt ed i n 1983 by the "Internati onal Associ ati on f or the

Properties of Steam'.

Steam tables, eds L. Haar, J. S. Gallagher and G. S. Kell,

$34.50 (cloth), $14.95 (paper), pp 320, Hemisphere

Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, supplement 1, eds

E. U. Schlunder, K. J . Bell, D. Chisholm, V. Gnielinski,

G. F. Hewi t t , E. A. D. Saunders, F. W. Sehmidt, D. B.

Spalding, J. Taborek and A. Zukauskas, pp 134, $115.00,

Hemisphere/Springer- Verlag

Suppl ement 1 adds new t echni cal data to the core handbook

and includes." rules, practices and conversion charts;

regeneration and thermal energy storage; waste heat boi l er

systems; f oul i ng i n heat exchangers; and properties of l i qui d

heavy water.

Inclusion of a t i t l e in thi s section does not necessarily preclude

subsequent review.

56 Vol 6, No 1, March 1985

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