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Sample Report

Precast Pre-tensioned Beam Example


Eurocodes UK NA

Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example

1. Geometry & Basic Data ................................................................................................................... 5
2. Carriageway Configuration .................................................................................................. ...........9
3. Global Analysis Model ................................................................................................................... 13
4. Influence surfaces ......................................................................................................................... 17
a) Mid Span Sagging Moment ....................................................................................................... 19
b) Internal Support Hogging Moment ........................................................................................... 20
c) Internal Support Shear .............................................................................................................. 21
5. Traffic Loading Configuration ........................................................................................................ 23
a) Mid Span Sagging Moment ....................................................................................................... 25
b) Internal Support Hogging Moment ........................................................................................... 26
c) Internal Support Shear .............................................................................................................. 27
6. Global Analysis Results .................................................................................................................. 29
a) Mid Span Sagging Moment ....................................................................................................... 31
b) Internal Support Hogging Moment ........................................................................................... 33
c) Internal Support Shear .............................................................................................................. 35
7. Section Properties ......................................................................................................................... 37
a) Mid Span ................................................................................................................................... 39
b) Internal Support ........................................................................................................................ 41
8. Data Summary after Tendon Design ............................................................................................. 43
9. Temperature Gradient .................................................................................................................. 51
10. Shrinkage & Creep ........................................................................................................................ 55
11. Verification: Transfer Stresses ...................................................................................................... 63
12. Verification: SLS Bending - Mid Span ............................................................................................ 73
13. Verification: ULS Bending - Mid Span ........................................................................................... 93
14. Verification: SLS bending Pier .................................................................................................... 99
15. Verification: SLS bending Support ............................................................................................ 117
16. Verification: ULS Shear - Pier ...................................................................................................... 135
17. Verification: ULS Interface Shear ................................................................................................ 143
18. Verification: Web Shear Cracking ............................................................................................... 149
Appendix - National Annex NDP Values .............................................................................................. 157
3
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Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


1. Geometry & Basic Data
5
6




General Cross Section

Elevation

Plan
Grade C31/40 insitu concrete; Grade C50/60 precast concrete
Grade B500B reinforcement steel
Supports located 1m beneath soffit of slab
Reinforced Concrete diaphragm over supports
Cracked insitu concrete over central supports
Slab reinforcement over internal supports (6m either side)
Carriageway is 9.6 m wide with 1.2m footway on each side
Designed for vertical highway loading groups Gr1a with French National Annex NDP values
7
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court
Princess Street
Knutsford
WA16 6BW
Job: Sample Reports
Job No.: 6.5d
Calc. By: dlg
Beam: Prestress Beam - Inner span 1 Checked:
Eurocode + UK NA
Data File: J:\...\6.50d Data Files\inner beam span 1.sam 02/02/2012 09:39:44
SAM v6.50d 02/02/2012 10:57:11 Page: 1
2012 Bestech Systems Ltd
USER NOTES

The design had been completed using the following process:
-
1) Four beams are created in SAM, two representing each span of the Y7 inner
beams and the other two representing the edge beams of each span (with the
upstand on the left hand side). At this stage all possible tendons are active.
The differential temperatue profile is also determied and entered for each of
the beams
-
2) A line beam analysis is carried out to determine the bending moments and
shear forces atrributed to the dead load actions at each construction stage and
the secondary moments and shears for differential temperatuire and differential
shrinkage. Surfacing (SDL) actions are also established with the line beam
analysis
-
3) A grillage model of the bridge deck is created using the beams prepared in 1)
above. The grillage is to take account of the vertical level of each of the
component beam elements by way of member eccentricities. This will give rise to
a better distribution of effects but will intruduce (relatively small) axial
forces into the beams.
-
4) Traffic load patterns are established for max sagging, hogging and shear for
each node point along one of the central most beams, by using the load
optimisation. This will give rise to three envelopes for sagging, hogging and
shear.
-
5) The traffic live loads are transferred back to the table in the appropriate
beam file.
-
6) An alaysis at transfer is carried out and some tendons are removed and
debonded to reduce the compressive and tensile stresses to below limiting
values. (This can be done with the tendon optimisation facility if required).
Results output is produced for the mid span section
-
7) Other construction stages are checked at SLS Characteristic and ULS:STR to
check compliance with stress limits and Bending capacity. Results output is
produced for the mid span section.
-
8) Bending moments (sagging and Hogging) due to the full traffic action (plus
other permanent and variable effects) ar checked for compliance at SLS and ULS.
Results output is produced for the mid span section.
-
9) Transverse and Longitudinal shear reinforcement requirements are
established and the results output for the most onerouse section as well as web
shear cracking checks at SLS
-
10) Other reports of results, such as differential temp and shrinkage are
produced and appended to the final report.
-
11) Time dependant creep effects are accounted for using the simplified method
found in EN1992-2 Annex KK.7
8








Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


2. Carriageway Configuration
9
10
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court
Princess Street
Knutsford
WA16 6BW
Job: Sample Reports
Job No.: 6.5d
Calc. By: DLG
Structure: 2 span grillage prestresses beam deck Checked:
Eurocodes + UK NA
Data File: J:\...\6.50d Data Files\2 span prestress beam deck .sst 02/02/2012 09:29:44
SAM v6.50d 02/02/2012 11:00:53 Page: 1
2012 Bestech Systems Ltd
Data Report


STRUCTURE
CARRIAGEWAYS
CW1: Carriageway

Carriageway is for road traffic loading.
It is aligned to design line DL1 and is single.
Primary carriageway has 2 lanes 4.0m wide.

Carriageway Offset 1 (m) Offset 2 (m)
Primary -4.0 4.0
Footway 1 -5.5 -4.0
Footway 2 4.0 5.5

Loaded Widths for: CW1

CF1: Default
Primary carriageway - Number of lanes: 2
Ref Offset Width Direction
1 0.0 3.0 with Chainage
2 3.0 3.0 against Chainage

CF2: Load Opt. (created by load optimisation)
Primary carriageway - Number of lanes: 2
Ref Offset Width Direction
1 1.5 3.0 with Chainage
2 5.0 3.0 against Chainage

CF3: Load Opt. (created by load optimisation)
Primary carriageway - Number of lanes: 2
Ref Offset Width Direction
1 2.0 3.0 with Chainage
2 4.5 3.0 against Chainage

11
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court
Princess Street
Knutsford
WA16 6BW
Job: Sample Reports
Job No.: 6.5d
Calc. By: DLG
Structure: 2 span grillage prestresses beam deck Checked:
Eurocodes + UK NA
Data File: J:\...\6.50d Data Files\2 span prestress beam deck .sst 02/02/2012 09:29:44
SAM v6.50d 02/02/2012 11:00:53 Page: 2
2012 Bestech Systems Ltd
CF4: Load Opt. (created by load optimisation)
Primary carriageway - Number of lanes: 2
Ref Offset Width Direction
1 0.5 3.0 with Chainage
2 3.5 3.0 against Chainage

CF5: Load Opt. (created by load optimisation)
Primary carriageway - Number of lanes: 2
Ref Offset Width Direction
1 -0.25 2.5 with Chainage
2 3.5 3.0 against Chainage

CF6: Load Opt. (created by load optimisation)
Primary carriageway - Number of lanes: 2
Ref Offset Width Direction
1 0.0 3.0 with Chainage
2 5.0 3.0 against Chainage

CF7: Load Opt. (created by load optimisation)
Primary carriageway - Number of lanes: 2
Ref Offset Width Direction
1 0.0 3.0 with Chainage
2 4.5 3.0 against Chainage

CF8: Load Opt. (created by load optimisation)
Primary carriageway - Number of lanes: 2
Ref Offset Width Direction
1 0.0 3.0 with Chainage
2 3.5 3.0 against Chainage



12







Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example

3. Global Analysis Model
13
14











This is a view of the structure that is
modelled for the global analysis
highlighting the beam considered for
design
The beam in isolation indicates the
cracked concrete slab over the
central pier, shown dotted
15
16







Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


4. Influence surfaces
a) Mid Span Sagging Moment
b) Internal Support Hogging Moment
c) Internal Support Shear

17
18
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court
Princess Street
Knutsford
WA16 6BW
J ob: Sample Reports
Structure: 2 span grillage prestresses beamdeck
Eurocodes + UK NA
Data File: J :\Marketing\Sample Reports\Sam Eurocode UK Prestressed Beam\6.50d Data Files\2 span prestress beam deck .sst 02/02/2012 09:29:44
J ob No.: 6.5d
Calc. By: DLG
Checked:
Result Type: Influence Surface Name: I7: BM55; My Sagging
Influence coefficients are expressed with respect to global axes.
Analysis Run: 01/02/2012 14:39:12
Results shown for: Influence Coefficients - DZ (m)
SAM v6.50d
Copyright 2012 Bestech Systems Ltd 1 02/02/2012 11:14
19
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court
Princess Street
Knutsford
WA16 6BW
J ob: Sample Reports
Structure: 2 span grillage prestresses beamdeck
Eurocodes + UK NA
Data File: J :\Marketing\Sample Reports\Sam Eurocode UK Prestressed Beam\6.50d Data Files\2 span prestress beam deck .sst 02/02/2012 09:29:44
J ob No.: 6.5d
Calc. By: DLG
Checked:
Result Type: Influence Surface Name: I25: BM60; My Hogging
Influence coefficients are expressed with respect to global axes.
Analysis Run: 06/02/2012 11:01:20
Results shown for: Influence Coefficients - DZ (m)
SAM v6.50d
Copyright 2012 Bestech Systems Ltd 1 06/02/2012 10:58
20
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court
Princess Street
Knutsford
WA16 6BW
J ob: Sample Reports
Structure: 2 span grillage prestresses beamdeck
Eurocodes + UK NA
Data File: J :\Marketing\Sample Reports\Sam Eurocode UK Prestressed Beam\6.50d Data Files\2 span prestress beam deck .sst 02/02/2012 09:29:44
J ob No.: 6.5d
Calc. By: DLG
Checked:
Result Type: Influence Surface Name: I26: BM60; Shear z-
Influence coefficients are expressed with respect to global axes.
Analysis Run: 06/02/2012 11:01:20
Results shown for: Influence Coefficients - DZ (m)
SAM v6.50d
Copyright 2012 Bestech Systems Ltd 1 06/02/2012 10:59
21
22







Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


5. Traffic Loading Configuration
a) Mid Span Sagging Moment
b) Internal Support Hogging Moment
c) Internal Support Shear


23
24
SAM v6.50d 02/02/2012 11:20:38 : 1
2012 Bestech Systems Ltd












25
SAM v6.50d 02/02/2012 11:22:43 : 1
2012 Bestech Systems Ltd












26
SAM v6.50d 02/02/2012 11:23:44 : 1
2012 Bestech Systems Ltd












27
28







Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


6. Global Analysis Results
a) Mid Span Sagging Moment
b) Internal Support Hogging Moment
c) Internal Support Shear


29
30
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court
Princess Street
Knutsford
WA16 6BW
J ob: Sample Reports
Structure: 2 span grillage prestresses beam deck
Eurocodes + UK NA
Data File: J :\Marketing\Sample Reports\Sam Eurocode UK Prestressed Beam\6.50d D...\2 span prestress beam deck .sst 02/02/2012 09:29:44
J ob No.: 6.5d
Calc. By: DLG
Checked:
Result Type: Envelope Name: E1: GR1A; ULS STR/GEO Mem 49-60: My+
Result For: Beam Effect: Member End Actions
Moments at the member start end correspond with the local member axes directions. At the other end, moments are positive in the opposite
direction to the local member axes.
With this convention, a positive y or z moment at each end denotes sagging.
The table displays the enveloped effect and associated values. The enveloped effect is Member End Moments - My (kN.m).
Analysis Run: 01/02/2012 14:48:20
Results shown for: Member End Moments - My (kN.m)
SAM v6.50d
Copyright 2012 Bestech Systems Ltd 1 02/02/2012 11:29
New Selection

Member End Moments Member End Forces Reference


Mz (kN.m) Origin My (kN.m) Mx (kN.m) Fz (kN) Fy (kN) Fx (kN) J oint

Member

182.2866 C1 184.235 25.44022 26.53076 47.25736 -55.91424 53 49
100.8609 C9 335.773 19.73986 271.1681 33.06124 -35.84683 54 49
51.87468 C9 343.2836 23.78223 133.4978 22.6683 -22.25784 54 50
-1.920841 C17 1012.892 -2.971709 488.1098 -2.692833 54.62167 55 50
4.310352 C17 992.3741 1.268835 207.1184 -2.863775 20.41604 55 51
7.980115 C25 1519.03 0.4258882 341.2957 -3.108706 28.14961 56 51
8.499461 C25 1506.387 4.645401 12.84226 -2.213639 9.656585 56 52
11.38605 C33 1867.618 3.409645 271.0804 -3.992453 12.55014 57 52
10.30689 C33 1859.024 7.16562 -53.32979 -1.958322 1.544886 57 53
11.96043 C41 2039.232 5.880492 209.6595 -3.684942 2.67042 58 53
11.81908 C41 2035.977 8.95645 -115.5332 -0.7758132 0.7964923 58 54
10.77256 C49 2042.085 7.473753 138.1745 -2.487774 2.120291 59 54
12.77409 C49 2045.381 9.730765 -183.48 0.7455683 11.21513 59 55
Factored Factors Unfactored Load
Total Other Lane gr Alpha Psi Gamma Type Ref

Compilation : C49: BM55; My Sagging; GR1A; ULS STR/GEO (SUM=2045.38)
234.8349 1 1 1 0.61 1 1.35 285.1668 LM1 UDL System L57
66.86293 1 1 1 2.2 1 1.35 22.51277 LM1 UDL System L59
12.77871 1 1 1 1.35 9.465714 Footway: UDL System(Footway) L121
31.60481 1 1 1 1.35 23.41097 Footway: UDL System(Footway) L122
232.8916 1 0.2777778 1 2.2 1 1.35 282.2928 LM1 UDL System L123
584.2331 1 0.6666667 1 1 1 1.35 649.1479 LM1 TandemSystem L124
882.1748 1 1 1 1 1 1.35 653.4628 LM1 TandemSystem L125
My=2045.381 1925.46
<Filter is Empty>
-17.79333 C57 1895.5 7.514261 77.73588 0.798247 15.52078 60 55
-16.04987 C57 1907.151 2.884023 -247.2278 -2.988016 33.82052 60 56
-15.22928 C65 1621.272 5.464101 -6.834788 0.8282612 30.5347 61 56
-16.90568 C65 1638.577 0.3388024 -346.8961 -3.610685 60.01271 61 57
-10.54859 C73 1210.068 -0.6692659 -110.8182 -4.715206 48.37749 62 57
-17.32338 C73 1230.844 -5.560555 -465.8913 -10.92155 82.86469 62 58
-3.139501 C81 651.3091 -4.188907 -134.3832 -7.797547 28.10417 63 58
-11.63125 C81 681.349 -5.459631 -505.8134 -12.04783 52.21575 63 59
4.864394 C89 61.63301 -7.84137 -151.3374 -9.655632 5.630956 64 59
12.16619 C89 67.45666 -8.120834 -406.9595 -13.57086 11.72936 64 60
20.18539 C97 7.586888 -6.696705 -16.30567 -9.464386 -20.1954 65 60
31

32
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court
Princess Street
Knutsford
WA16 6BW
J ob: Sample Reports
Structure: 2 span grillage prestresses beam deck
Eurocodes + UK NA
Data File: J :\Marketing\Sample Reports\Sam Eurocode UK Prestressed Beam\6.50d D...\2 span prestress beam deck .sst 02/02/2012 09:29:44
J ob No.: 6.5d
Calc. By: DLG
Checked:
Result Type: Envelope Name: E2: GR1A; ULS STR/GEO Mem 49-60: My-
Result For: Beam Effect: Member End Actions
Moments at the member start end correspond with the local member axes directions. At the other end, moments are positive in the opposite
direction to the local member axes.
With this convention, a positive y or z moment at each end denotes sagging.
The table displays the enveloped effect and associated values. The enveloped effect is Member End Moments - My (kN.m).
Analysis Run: 01/02/2012 14:48:20
Results shown for: Member End Moments - My (kN.m)
SAM v6.50d
Copyright 2012 Bestech Systems Ltd 1 02/02/2012 11:31
New Selection

Member End Moments Member End Forces Reference


Mz (kN.m) Origin My (kN.m) Mx (kN.m) Fz (kN) Fy (kN) Fx (kN) J oint

Member

-0.3055404 C2 -540.7185 -2.139213 427.0325 5.094982 157.8887 53 49
-19.1692 C10 -203.0551 -4.97695 207.8578 5.170721 137.6641 54 49
-1.098864 C10 -224.4301 -4.123625 210.546 4.674887 99.32214 54 50
-0.04289707 C26 -70.21469 -0.1607472 -30.58831 0.125463 -2.612839 55 50
0.2566332 C26 -69.16653 -0.5053211 -30.84254 0.4065817 -0.8885847 55 51
-0.5195683 C26 -128.0478 -0.5053211 -30.84254 0.4065817 -0.8885847 56 51
0.5482784 C26 -126.6603 -0.8808424 -31.26312 0.7835213 1.513816 56 52
-1.782311 C42 -189.3661 0.08934582 -33.71269 1.11089 2.163933 57 52
0.3427496 C42 -186.3882 -0.4991898 -34.77629 1.586132 7.540948 57 53
-2.733323 C58 -252.8444 -0.4645858 -34.81647 1.625769 7.498607 58 53
0.4624202 C58 -248.9295 -1.132049 -36.42122 2.137992 14.86624 58 54
-3.609668 C74 -318.4683 -1.130482 -36.50214 2.121582 14.80931 59 54
0.6104634 C58 -313.4238 -1.896179 -38.68139 2.689951 24.70702 59 55
-4.508079 C74 -387.4718 -1.896578 -38.80091 2.664611 24.70534 60 55
0.7231245 C74 -381.0251 -2.795453 -41.87492 3.20602 37.70397 60 56
-5.397487 C74 -460.9685 -2.795453 -41.87492 3.20602 37.70397 61 56
0.8188211 C74 -453.6171 -3.869674 -45.78775 3.641991 54.36921 61 57
-6.134068 C74 -541.0301 -3.869674 -45.78775 3.641991 54.36921 62 57
0.7229482 C74 -531.9109 -5.391563 -50.55485 3.475636 74.1749 62 58
-5.145004 C82 -656.2544 -4.804924 -90.50055 2.989823 95.30983 63 58
0.5380956 C82 -610.4323 -8.621091 -95.09197 1.956679 117.8148 63 59
24.02131 C90 -888.0567 -23.02836 -266.468 -26.16291 150.7005 64 59
8.108403 C90 -883.7671 -19.99131 -270.5991 -36.96983 154.1473 64 60
13.65186 C98 -1286.162 -9.477075 -469.0165 -15.75881 190.1957 65 60
Factored Factors Unfactored Load
Total Other Lane gr Alpha Psi Gamma Type Ref

Compilation : C98: BM60; My Hogging; GR1A; ULS STR/GEO (SUM=-1286.16)
-33.73584 1 1 1 2.2 1 1.35 -11.35887 LM1 UDL System L24
-0.3976238 1 1 1 1.35 -0.2945362 Footway: UDL System(Footway) L210
-8.218735 1 1 1 1.35 -6.087952 Footway: UDL System(Footway) L211
-6.342243 1 1 1 1.35 -4.697958 Footway: UDL System(Footway) L212
-17.06124 1 1 1 1.35 -12.63796 Footway: UDL System(Footway) L213
-256.4173 1 1 1 0.61 1 1.35 -311.375 LM1 UDL System L214
-421.5176 1 1 1 1 1 1.35 -312.2353 LM1 TandemSystem L215
-257.3051 1 0.2777778 1 2.2 1 1.35 -311.8849 LM1 UDL System L216
-268.3589 1 0.6666667 1 1 1 1.35 -298.1766 LM1 TandemSystem L217
-16.80725 1 1 1 2.2 1 1.35 -5.659007 LM1 UDL System L218
My=-1286.162 -1274.408
<Filter is Empty>
33

34
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court
Princess Street
Knutsford
WA16 6BW
J ob: Sample Reports
Structure: 2 span grillage prestresses beam deck
Eurocodes + UK NA
Data File: J :\Marketing\Sample Reports\Sam Eurocode UK Prestressed Beam\6.50d D...\2 span prestress beam deck .sst 02/02/2012 09:29:44
J ob No.: 6.5d
Calc. By: DLG
Checked:
Result Type: Envelope Name: E9: GR1A; ULS STR/GEO Mem 50-60: Sh z
Result For: Beam Effect: Member End Actions
Forces at the member start end correspond with the local member axes directions. At the other end, forces are positive in the opposite direction
to the local member axes.
With this convention, a positive axial force at each end denotes compression.
The table displays the enveloped effect and associated values. The enveloped effect is Member End Forces - Fz (kN).
Analysis Run: 01/02/2012 14:48:20
Results shown for: Member End Forces - Fz (kN)
SAM v6.50d
Copyright 2012 Bestech Systems Ltd 1 02/02/2012 11:35
New Selection

Member End Moments Member End Forces Reference


Mz (kN.m) My (kN.m) Mx (kN.m) Origin Fz (kN) Fy (kN) Fx (kN) J oint

Member

-15.82357 -433.2182 -2.585628 C105 525.8172 -1.96579 114.2916 53 49
-13.94714 68.69836 -2.585628 C105 525.8172 -1.96579 114.2916 54 49
-3.454434 40.00968 -1.151738 C105 512.9767 -1.625222 60.94563 54 50
-0.3517376 1019.329 -1.151738 C105 512.9767 -1.625222 60.94563 55 50
-3.804586 674.1985 2.064739 C113 426.0225 -3.655797 33.78914 55 51
3.174661 1487.514 2.064739 C113 426.0225 -3.655797 33.78914 56 51
-4.992496 1064.631 4.608999 C121 352.5722 -4.877261 14.18757 56 52
4.318638 1737.724 4.608999 C121 352.5722 -4.877261 14.18757 57 52
-4.738815 1238.806 5.606502 C129 289.4707 -4.613297 1.836164 57 53
4.068386 1791.431 5.606502 C129 289.4707 -4.613297 1.836164 58 53
-3.223764 1243.906 5.591374 C137 233.3123 -3.216076 -0.7389602 58 54
2.91601 1689.32 5.591374 C137 233.3123 -3.216076 -0.7389602 59 54
-10.56414 1703.899 3.502448 C146 -292.0244 -2.013512 13.77622 59 55
-6.720165 1146.398 3.502448 C146 -292.0244 -2.013512 13.77622 60 55
11.65262 1668.201 6.038212 C154 -363.1734 5.128567 38.65846 60 56
1.861671 974.8671 6.038212 C154 -363.1734 5.128567 38.65846 61 56
11.47534 1443.039 4.055623 C162 -428.0912 5.968157 75.81142 61 57
0.08159752 625.7743 4.055623 C162 -428.0912 5.968157 75.81142 62 57
7.826455 1053.722 1.035365 C170 -500.8601 4.032943 110.6654 62 58
0.1272036 97.5351 1.035365 C170 -500.8601 4.032943 110.6654 63 58
1.894806 489.9939 -1.563676 C178 -583.3914 -0.4487549 114.069 63 59
2.751519 -623.7527 -1.563676 C178 -583.3914 -0.4487549 114.069 64 59
4.316139 -294.7813 -6.772206 C186 -655.6394 -2.104652 86.18819 64 60
Factored Factors Unfactored Load
Total Other Lane gr Alpha Psi Gamma Type Ref

Compilation : C186: BM60; Shear z-; GR1A; ULS STR/GEO (SUM=-655.64)
-4.8203 1 1 1 2.2 1 1.35 -1.622997 LM1 UDL System L231
-5.729905 1 1 1 2.2 1 1.35 -1.929261 LM1 UDL System L425
-1.03888 1 1 1 1.35 -0.7695409 Footway: UDL System(Footway) L467
-4.036234 1 1 1 1.35 -2.989803 Footway: UDL System(Footway) L468
-0.04679515 1 1 1 1.35 -0.03466308 Footway: UDL System(Footway) L469
-60.61321 1 0.2777778 1 2.2 1 1.35 -73.47056 LM1 UDL System L470
-128.9867 1 0.6666667 1 1 1 1.35 -143.3186 LM1 TandemSystem L471
-97.32159 1 1 1 0.61 1 1.35 -118.1804 LM1 UDL System L472
-352.5574 1 1 1 1 1 1.35 -261.1537 LM1 TandemSystem L473
-0.07389768 1 1 1 2.2 1 1.35 -0.02488137 LM1 UDL System L474
-0.4144637 1 1 1 2.2 1 1.35 -0.1395501 LM1 UDL System L475
Fz=-655.6394 -603.6339
<Filter is Empty>
6.325115 -920.6156 -6.772206 C186 -655.6394 -2.104652 86.18819 65 60
35
36







Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


7. Section Properties
a) Mid Span
b) Internal Support
37
38
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court
Princess Street
Knutsford
WA16 6BW
Job: Sample Reports
Job No.: 6.5d
Calc. By: dlg
Beam: Prestress Beam - Inner span 1 Checked:
Eurocode + UK NA
Data File: J:\...\6.50d Data Files\inner beam span 1.sam 02/02/2012 09:39:44
SAM v6.50d 06/02/2012 10:28:43 Page: 1
2012 Bestech Systems Ltd
Design code: EN 1992-2:2005 with UK National Annex (modified)
Analysis: Section Properties
EN 1990 Equation 6.14 SLS Characteristic
Exposure Class: XD1, XD2, XS1, XS2, XS3
Section Ref 1 at 10.5m from left end of beam



Section Ref: 1 "Section 1"

depth of precast beam = 1300.0 mm
total depth of section = 1470.0 mm



Section properties are detailed below in the following sequence:

PRECAST BEAM ALONE
COMPOSITE BEAM TO STAGE 1



PRECAST BEAM ALONE
Elastic section properties

area, A
c
= 5.372E5 mm
height to centroid, z
a
= 576.039 mm
overall depth, h = 1300.0 mm
2nd moment of area, I
yy
= 9.2977E10 mm
section modulus at bottom, W
b
= 9.2977E10 / -576.04
-1.6141E8 mm
section modulus at top, W
t
= 9.2977E10 / (1300.0-576.039)
1.28428E8 mm



COMPOSITE BEAM
COMPOSITE BEAM TO STAGE 1

Elastic section properties

Area centroid S
y
I
yy
I
yy
(z=0)
mm mm mm mm mm
Precast beam 537225.68 576.0392 1.0 3.09463E8 9.2977E10 2.7124E11
Stage 1 i.s. 388869.57 1372.4329 1.057 5.04816E8 1.18215E9 6.9401E11
TOTAL 905051.14(transformed) 8.14279E8 9.6525E11
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Data File: J:\...\6.50d Data Files\inner beam span 1.sam 02/02/2012 09:39:44
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2012 Bestech Systems Ltd

height to centroid = 8.14279E8/9.051E5
= 899.705 mm
I
yy
= 9.6525E11 - (9.051E5*899.705)
= 2.3264E11 mm


ELASTIC SECTION PROPERTIES SUMMARY TABLE
Level I
yy
z
na
W
mm mm mm mm
Precast beam only
Precast beam B 0.0 9.2977E10 576.0392 -1.6141E8
T 1300.0 1.28428E8
In situ to stage 1
Precast beam B 0.0 2.3264E11 899.70476 -2.5857E8
T 1300.0 5.81164E8
In situ Stage 1 B 1270.0 6.64191E8
T 1470.0 4.31262E8


40
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Data File: J:\...\6.50d Data Files\inner beam span 1.sam 02/02/2012 09:39:44
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2012 Bestech Systems Ltd
Design code: EN 1992-2:2005 with UK National Annex (modified)
Analysis: Section Properties
EN 1990 Equation 6.14 SLS Characteristic
Exposure Class: XD1, XD2, XS1, XS2, XS3
Section Ref 2 at 21m from left end of beam



Section Ref: 2 "Section 2"

depth of precast beam = 1300.0 mm
total depth of section = 1470.0 mm



Section properties are detailed below in the following sequence:

PRECAST BEAM ALONE
COMPOSITE BEAM TO STAGE 1



PRECAST BEAM ALONE
Elastic section properties

area, A
c
= 5.372E5 mm
height to centroid, z
a
= 576.039 mm
overall depth, h = 1300.0 mm
2nd moment of area, I
yy
= 9.2977E10 mm
section modulus at bottom, W
b
= 9.2977E10 / -576.04
-1.6141E8 mm
section modulus at top, W
t
= 9.2977E10 / (1300.0-576.039)
1.28428E8 mm



COMPOSITE BEAM
COMPOSITE BEAM TO STAGE 1

Elastic section properties

Area centroid S
y
I
yy
I
yy
(z=0)
mm mm mm mm mm
Precast beam 537225.68 576.0392 1.0 3.09463E8 9.2977E10 2.7124E11
Stage 1 i.s. 388869.57 1372.4329 1.057 5.04816E8 1.18215E9 6.9401E11
Rft in IS 1 4908.7385 1407.5 0.211 3.2698E7 907471.06 4.6E10
TOTAL 928282.4(transformed) 8.46977E8 1.0113E12
41
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Data File: J:\...\6.50d Data Files\inner beam span 1.sam 02/02/2012 09:39:44
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height to centroid = 8.46977E8/9.283E5
= 912.413 mm
I
yy
= 1.0113E12 - (9.283E5*912.413)
= 2.3848E11 mm


ELASTIC SECTION PROPERTIES SUMMARY TABLE
Level I
yy
z
na
W
mm mm mm mm
Precast beam only
Precast beam B 0.0 9.2977E10 576.0392 -1.6141E8
T 1300.0 1.28428E8
In situ to stage 1
Precast beam B 0.0 2.3848E11 912.41288 -2.6137E8
T 1300.0 6.1529E8
In situ Stage 1 B 1270.0 7.05066E8
T 1470.0 4.52167E8


42







Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


8. Data Summary after Tendon Design


43
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DATA SUMMARY



ANALYSIS TYPE: EN 1992-2 Pre-tensioned Prestressed Beam
With UK National Annex (modified)

BEAM DETAILS

Span:
Total length of pre-tensioned beam : 21 m
Distance from left support to beam end face : 0 m
Distance from right support to beam end face : 0 m
Total distance between supports : 21 m

Beam section varies along length of beam.

Number of different sections : 2
No. of longitudinal construction stages : 2
No. of superimposed construction stages : 1


Section 1
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Precast beam:
Precast beam is standard section: Y7 Beam
Property set: 2 "C40/50 Ecm 35.2 "
Age of beam at transfer: 4.0 days
Corresponding concrete strength at transfer: 23.8094 MPa

In situ concrete - stage 1A:
In situ is from standard section:
- width : 2.0 m
- depth : 0.2 m
Property set: 1 "C31/40 Ecm 33.3 "
Age of beam when stage 1A concrete is cast: 60 days

Shear resistance width: 216.0 mm


Section 2

Precast beam:
Precast beam is standard section: Y7 Beam
Property set: 2 "C40/50 Ecm 35.2 "
Age of beam at transfer: 4.0 days
Corresponding concrete strength at transfer: 23.8094 MPa

In situ concrete - stage 1B:
In situ is from standard section:
- dimensions (m) : 2.0 0.0
0.2 0.0
0.0 0.0
Property set: 1 "C31/40 Ecm 33.3 "
Age of beam when stage 1B concrete is cast: 60 days


Shear resistance width: 216.0 mm


46
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Tendons:
y-z coordinates area transmission coeffients draw-in property
mm mm
1

2

p1

1

p2
mm mm/beam ref
-275.0 60.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress
-225.0 60.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress
-175.0 60.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress
-125.0 60.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress
-75.0 60.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Debonded
0.0 60.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Debonded
75.0 60.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Debonded
125.0 60.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress
175.0 60.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress
225.0 60.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress
275.0 60.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress
-75.0 110.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Debonded
-25.0 110.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Debonded
25.0 110.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Debonded
75.0 110.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Debonded
-25.0 210.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress
25.0 210.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress
-25.0 260.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress
25.0 260.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress
-80.0 1200.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress
80.0 1200.0 150.0 1.0 0.19 3.2 1.0 1.2 16.0 3.0 4 Full stress

Debonded Tendons:
y-z coordinates distance from left end (m)
mm start end
-75.0 60.0 2.0 19.0
0.0 60.0 2.0 19.0
75.0 60.0 2.0 19.0
-75.0 110.0 2.5 18.5
-25.0 110.0 2.5 18.5
25.0 110.0 2.5 18.5
75.0 110.0 2.5 18.5



47
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Data File: J:\...\6.50d Data Files\inner beam span 1.sam 02/02/2012 09:39:44
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2012 Bestech Systems Ltd
Reinforcement:
y-z coordinates diameter Property Start End Length
mm mm ref m m m
900.0 1407.5 25.0 3 15.0 21.0 6.0
700.0 1407.5 25.0 3 15.0 21.0 6.0
500.0 1407.5 25.0 3 15.0 21.0 6.0
300.0 1407.5 25.0 3 15.0 21.0 6.0
100.0 1407.5 25.0 3 15.0 21.0 6.0
-100.0 1407.5 25.0 3 15.0 21.0 6.0
-300.0 1407.5 25.0 3 15.0 21.0 6.0
-500.0 1407.5 25.0 3 15.0 21.0 6.0
-700.0 1407.5 25.0 3 15.0 21.0 6.0
-900.0 1407.5 25.0 3 15.0 21.0 6.0



Location of sections
Position along span
from left support: Section
dimension (m) proportion
0.0 0.0 1 "Section 1"
18.0 0.857 1 "Section 1"
18.0 0.857 2 "Section 2"
21.0 1.0 2 "Section 2"




PROPERTIES DETAILS
ref: 1 Type: Concrete - Parabola-Rectangle
Name: C31/40 Ecm 33.3
Design Code Part : EN 1992-2
Characteristic strength f
ck
: 31.875 MPa
f
ck,cube
: 40.0 MPa
modulus of elasticity E
cm
: 33.314469 GPa
Elastic modulus - long term : 13.325787 GPa
Ultimate compressive strain
cu
: 0.0035
Tensile strength f
ctm
: -3.015931 MPa
Cement Class : N - Normal and rapid hardening
Contains Silica Fume : No
Coefficient of thermal expansion: 0.00001 /C
Density : 24.0 kN/m
Density increase for rft. : 1.0 kN/m

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Data File: J:\...\6.50d Data Files\inner beam span 1.sam 02/02/2012 09:39:44
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2012 Bestech Systems Ltd

ref: 2 Type: Concrete - Parabola-Rectangle
Name: C40/50 Ecm 35.2
Design Code Part : EN 1992-2
Characteristic strength f
ck
: 40.0 MPa
f
ck,cube
: 50.0 MPa
modulus of elasticity E
cm
: 35.220462 GPa
Elastic modulus - long term : 14.088185 GPa
Ultimate compressive strain
cu
: 0.0035
Tensile strength f
ctm
: -3.508821 MPa
Cement Class : N - Normal and rapid hardening
Contains Silica Fume : No
Coefficient of thermal expansion: 0.00001 /C
Density : 24.0 kN/m
Density increase for rft. : 1.0 kN/m


ref: 3 Type: Reinforcing Steel - Horizontal
Name: Grade 500 Es 200.0
Yield strength f
yk
: 500.0 MPa
modulus of elasticity E
s
: 200.0 GPa
Characteristic strain limit
uk
: 0.025
Density : 77.0 kN/m


ref: 4 Type: Prestressing Steel - Horizontal
Name: Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
tensile strength f
pk
: 1860.0 MPa
0,1% proof stress f
p0,1k
: 1600.0 MPa
modulus of elasticity E
p
: 195.0 GPa
Relaxation loss after 1000 hours: 8.0 %
Relaxation Class : 1
Density : 77.0 kN/m



ANALYSIS DATA

Data for loss calculations:

Shrinkage strain is calculated from the data provided
Creep coefficient is calculated from the data provided
Differential shrinkage is calculated from the data provided
Percentage of total long term loss which occurs before the section is made composite is 30.18
%

Age at start of drying shrinkage = 1.0 day
Ambient relative humidity = 80.0 %
Ambient temperature = 20.0 C
Maximum Curing temperature = 20.0 C


Creep calculations are based upon EN 1992-1-1

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2012 Bestech Systems Ltd

Data for shear calculations:

Material property for transverse reinforcement: Grade 500 Es 200.0
Angle between concrete strut and beam axis, = 35.0
Angle between shear reinforcement and beam axis, = 90.0
Enhancement close to supports is ignored
Surface condition for precast / in-situ interface = Smooth
Longitudinal force ratio is calculated
Angle for compression strut in slab,
f
= 26.0
50







Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


9. Temperature Gradient


51
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DIFFERENTIAL TEMPERATURE
EN 1991-1-5:2003 Figure 6.2 non-linear Temperature Profile


EN 1991-1-5:2003 Figure 6.2 non-linear Temperature Profile

Figure 6.2c: Type 3b. Concrete Beams
Surfacing : surfaced
Surfacing thickness : 0.1 m

Top warmer than bottom Bottom warmer than top
height m Temperature C height m Temperature C
0.0 13.5 0.0 -8.376
0.15 3.0 0.25 -0.56
0.4 0.0 0.45 0.0
1.27 0.0 1.02 0.0
1.47 2.5 1.22 -1.03
1.47 -6.488

Relaxing Forces
Moment Axial
kN.m kN
Heating Temperature difference -413.8371 -1015.993
Cooling Temperature difference 143.38408 976.55933

Note: The reinforcement has been ignored in the calculation of the above relaxing moments



Self Equilibrating Stresses

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Rectangle
Distance to top Stress - MPa
of section - m Heating Cooling
0.0 2.4760279 -1.437326
0.15 -0.769597
0.2 -0.885352 0.5291631


Y7 Beam
Distance to top Stress - MPa
of section - m Heating Cooling
0.17 -0.862578 0.2475882
0.25 1.0791869
0.4 -1.425518
0.45 1.1531531
1.02 0.8018382
1.22 0.3157990
1.27 0.1221205
1.47 1.358411 -1.760619

54








Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example

10. Shrinkage & Creep


55
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DIFFERENTIAL SHRINKAGE MODIFIED BY CREEP - Primary Load effects




Section Reference: 2 "Section 2"


Evaluate the shrinkage strains using EN 1992-1-1 clause 3.1.4(6)

Shrinkage in precast at time t =

Age of concrete at time considered, t =
Age of concrete at loading, t
0
= 4.0 days
Age of concrete at start of drying, t
s
= 1.0 days
Relative humidity of enviroment, RH = 80.0 %
Average temperature, T
a
= 20.0 C
Type of cement = Class N
for which, EN1992-1-1 Annex B.1(2) = 0.0
Annex B.2(1)
ds1
= 4.0
Annex B.2(1)
ds2
= 0.12
3.1.2(6) s = 0.25
Characteristic strength of concrete, f
ck
= 40.0 MPa
Mean compressive strength at 28 days (Table 3.1),
f
cm
= f
ck
+ 8.0 = 48.0 MPa
Mean comp. strength at 4.0 days (3.1.2(6) ),
f
cm
(t
0
) = f
cm
.exp[s.(1-(28/t
0
)]
= 48.0*exp[0.25*(1-(28/4.0)] = 31.809 MPa
Constant value from Annex B.2(1) f
cm0
= 10.0 MPa

Total Shrinkage:

cs
=
cd
+
ca
(3.8)

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Drying Shrinkage - Expression (3.9):

cd
(t) =
ds
(t,t
s
).k
h
.
cd,0


ds
(t,t
s
) = 1.0 for t =
From Table 3.3:
k
h
= 0.79438
From Annex B, Expression (B.11):

cd,0
= 0.85[(220+110.
ds1
).(exp(-
ds2
.f
cm
/f
cm0
)].10
-6
.
RH

RH
= 1.55[1.0-(RH/100)] (B.12)
= 0.7564
For cement class N,

ds1
= 4

ds2
= 0.12
hence,

cd,0
= 0.85[(220+110*4.0)*exp(-0.12*48.0/10.0)]*10
-6
*0.7564
= 238.54*10
-6
and,

cd
(t) = 1.0*0.79438*238.54*10
-6
= 189.491*10
-6


Autogenous Shrinkage - Expression (3.11):

ca
(t) =
as
(t).
ca
()

as
(t) = 1.0 for t =

ca
() = 2.5*(f
ck
-10.0)*10
-6
= 75.0*10
-6
hence,

ca
(t) = 1.0*75.0*10
-6
= 75.0*10
-6


Total Shrinkage:

cs
=
cd
(t) +
ca
(t)
= 189.49131 + 75.0
= 264.49131*10
-6



Shrinkage in in-situ concrete at time t =

Age of concrete at time considered, t =
Age of concrete at loading, t
0
= 4.0 days
Age of concrete at start of drying, t
s
= 1.0 days
Relative humidity of enviroment, RH = 80.0 %
Average temperature, T
a
= 20.0 C
Type of cement = Class N
for which, EN1992-1-1 Annex B.1(2) = 0.0
Annex B.2(1)
ds1
= 4.0
Annex B.2(1)
ds2
= 0.12
3.1.2(6) s = 0.25
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Characteristic strength of concrete, f
ck
= 31.875 MPa
Mean compressive strength at 28 days (Table 3.1),
f
cm
= f
ck
+ 8.0 = 39.875 MPa
Mean comp. strength at 4.0 days (3.1.2(6) ),
f
cm
(t
0
) = f
cm
.exp[s.(1-(28/t
0
)]
= 39.875*exp[0.25*(1-(28/4.0)] = 26.425 MPa
Constant value from Annex B.2(1) f
cm0
= 10.0 MPa

Total Shrinkage:

cs
=
cd
+
ca
(3.8)


Drying Shrinkage - Expression (3.9):

cd
(t) =
ds
(t,t
s
).k
h
.
cd,0


ds
(t,t
s
) = 1.0 for t =
From Table 3.3:
k
h
= 0.79438
From Annex B, Expression (B.11):

cd,0
= 0.85[(220+110.
ds1
).(exp(-
ds2
.f
cm
/f
cm0
)].10
-6
.
RH

RH
= 1.55[1.0-(RH/100)] (B.12)
= 0.7564
For cement class N,

ds1
= 4

ds2
= 0.12
hence,

cd,0
= 0.85[(220+110*4.0)*exp(-0.12*39.88/10.0)]*10
-6
*0.7564
= 262.969*10
-6
and,

cd
(t) = 1.0*0.79438*262.969*10
-6
= 208.897*10
-6


Autogenous Shrinkage - Expression (3.11):

ca
(t) =
as
(t).
ca
()

as
(t) = 1.0 for t =

ca
() = 2.5*(f
ck
-10.0)*10
-6
= 54.6875*10
-6
hence,

ca
(t) = 1.0*54.6875*10
-6
= 54.6875*10
-6


Total Shrinkage:

cs
=
cd
(t) +
ca
(t)
= 208.89738 + 54.6875
= 263.58488*10
-6



Shrinkage in precast at time in-situ is placed (t = 60 days)
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Age of concrete at time considered, t = 60.0 days
Age of concrete at loading, t
0
= 4.0 days
Age of concrete at start of drying, t
s
= 1.0 days
Relative humidity of enviroment, RH = 80.0 %
Average temperature, T
a
= 20.0 C
Type of cement = Class N
for which, EN1992-1-1 Annex B.1(2) = 0.0
Annex B.2(1)
ds1
= 4.0
Annex B.2(1)
ds2
= 0.12
3.1.2(6) s = 0.25
Characteristic strength of concrete, f
ck
= 40.0 MPa
Mean compressive strength at 28 days (Table 3.1),
f
cm
= f
ck
+ 8.0 = 48.0 MPa
Mean comp. strength at 4.0 days (3.1.2(6) ),
f
cm
(t
0
) = f
cm
.exp[s.(1-(28/t
0
)]
= 48.0*exp[0.25*(1-(28/4.0)] = 31.809 MPa
Constant value from Annex B.2(1) f
cm0
= 10.0 MPa

Total Shrinkage:

cs
=
cd
+
ca
(3.8)


Drying Shrinkage - Expression (3.9):

cd
(t) =
ds
(t,t
s
).k
h
.
cd,0


ds
(t,t
s
) = (t-t
s
)/[(t-t
s
)+0.04h
0
] (3.10)

t-t
s
= 60.0-1.0
= 59.0 days

ds
(t,t
s
) = 59.0/(59.0+0.04255.62)
= 0.26519
From Table 3.3:
k
h
= 0.79438
From Annex B, Expression (B.11):

cd,0
= 0.85[(220+110.
ds1
).(exp(-
ds2
.f
cm
/f
cm0
)].10
-6
.
RH

RH
= 1.55[1.0-(RH/100)] (B.12)
= 0.7564
For cement class N,

ds1
= 4

ds2
= 0.12
hence,

cd,0
= 0.85[(220+110*4.0)*exp(-0.12*48.0/10.0)]*10
-6
*0.7564
= 238.54*10
-6
and,

cd
(t) = 0.26519*0.79438*238.54*10
-6
= 50.2528*10
-6

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Autogenous Shrinkage - Expression (3.11):

ca
(t) =
as
(t).
ca
()

as
(t) = 1-exp(-0.2t) (3.13)
= 1.0-exp(-0.2*60.0)
= 0.78758

ca
() = 2.5*(f
ck
-10.0)*10
-6
= 75.0*10
-6
hence,

ca
(t) = 0.78758*75.0*10
-6
= 59.0686*10
-6


Total Shrinkage:

cs
=
cd
(t) +
ca
(t)
= 50.252794 + 59.068556
= 109.32135*10
-6



Summary of data

Section is composite from t = 60 days
at time t = 60 days:
shrinkage strain in precast concrete,
a
= 109.321 x10
-6
at time t =
shrinkage strain in precast concrete,
b
= 264.491 x10
-6
shrinkage strain in in-situ concrete,
c
= 263.585 x10
-6
differential shrinkage strain,

diff
=
c
- (
b
-
a
)
= 263.585 - (264.491-109.321) = 108.415 x10
-6
creep coefficient, = 2.00881
1 - e
(-)
creep reduction factor = = 0.43102

2nd moment of area of transformed section, I
yy
= 2.33E11 mm
height of centroid, z
a
= 899.705 mm
total transformed area, A
c
= 9.051E5 mm
elastic modulus of precast concrete, E
c,p
= 35.2205 GPa
elastic modulus of in situ concrete, E
c,i
= 33.3145 GPa

modular ratio n
0
= E
c,p
/ E
c,i
= 35.2205/33.3145
= 1.05721

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Stage 1 In-situ
area of concrete : 3.889E5 mm
height to centroid : 1372.43 mm
force required to restrain shrinkage:
A
c
..E
c,i
.
diff
= 3.889E5*0.65982*33.3145*108.415 x10
-6
= 605.383 kN
corresponding moment = 605.383*(1372.43-899.705)
= 286.182 kN.m (sagging)

self equilibrating stress in precast beam:
top of beam = P/A
c
+ M/W
t
= 605.38331/905051.14 + 286.18174/5.81164E8
= 1.1613224 MPa

soffit of beam = P/A
c
+ M/W
b
= 605.38331/905051.14 + 286.18174/-2.5857E8
= -0.437889 MPa

self equilibrating stress in stage 1 concrete:
at top = ( P/A
c
+ M.(z
t
-z
a
)/I
yy
+ .
diff
.E
c,p
)/
= (605.38331/905051.14 +
286.18174*570.29524/2.3264E11 +
0.4310270*-1.084E-4*35.220462 ) /1.0572122
= -0.260490 MPa

at bottom = ( P/A
c
+ M.(z
b
-z
a
)/I
yy
+ .
diff
.E
c,c
)/
= (605.38331/905051.14 +
286.18174*370.29524/2.3264E11 +
0.4310270*-1.084E-4*35.220462) /1.0572122
= -0.493208 MPa


62








Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


11. Verification: Transfer Stresses


63
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Design code: EN 1992-2:2005 with UK National Annex (modified)
Analysis: Stresses at Transfer
EN 1990 Equation 6.14 SLS Characteristic
Section Ref 1 at 10.5m from left end of beam



Section details:
Ref 1 "Section 1"
at 0.5 x span = 10.5 m from left end of beam

Analysis:
Stresses at Transfer
Serviceability Limit State: Characteristic - EN 1990 Equation 6.14


ACTUAL STRESSES IN PRECAST BEAM
No. of tendons fully bonded at this section: 21
No. of tendons fully debonded at this section: 0
No. of tendons deflected at this section: 0

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Maximum Stressing Force - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.2.1(1)P
For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
k
1
.f
pk
= 0.8*1860.0 = 1488.0 MPa
k
2
.f
p0,1k
= 0.9*1600.0 = 1440.0 MPa

Wedge draw-in loss Clause 5.10.4(1)(i)
draw-in strain = 0.003/21.0
= 1.43E-4
loss = E
p
. strain
= 195.0*1.43E-4
= 27.8571 MPa

Heat Curing Clause 5.10.4(1)(ii)(Note)
Concrete is cured at ambient temperature


Immediate Losses - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.4

height No of f
p
k
1
/k
2
draw-in heat cure area initial force
mm tendons MPa MPa MPa mm kN
60.0 11 1600.0 0.9 27.8571 0.0 150.0 2330.0357
110.0 4 1600.0 0.9 27.8571 0.0 150.0 847.28571
210.0 2 1600.0 0.9 27.8571 0.0 150.0 423.64286
260.0 2 1600.0 0.9 27.8571 0.0 150.0 423.64286
1200.0 2 1600.0 0.9 27.8571 0.0 150.0 423.64286
TOTAL 21 4448.25
In accordance with clause 5.10.9(1), for SLS, the Characteristic value must be used.
With r
inf
= 1.0, P
k,inf
= 4448.25 kN


Friction Clause 5.10.4(1)(i)
All tendons are straight in this beam.


Initial Relaxation Clause 5.10.4(1)(ii)
Loss is calculated from clause 3.3.2(7)
For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
relaxation loss at 1000 hours,
1000
= 8.0 %
=
pi
/ f
pk
= 1440.0-27.8571-0.0/1860.0
= 0.75921

time after tensioning = 96.0 hours
for Class 1 relaxation, use Expression (3.28)
5.39 .
1000
. e
6.7
. [t/1000]
0.75(1-)
. 10
-5
= 5.39 * 8.0 * 161.863 * 0.65495 * 10
-5
= 0.04571

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relaxation After relaxation
height No of area x loss force moment
mm tendons
pi
% kN kN kN.m
60.0 11 2330.04 4.57 106.51239 2223.5233 133.4114
110.0 4 847.286 4.57 38.731779 808.55394 88.940933
210.0 2 423.643 4.57 19.365889 404.27697 84.898163
260.0 2 423.643 4.57 19.365889 404.27697 105.11201
1200.0 2 423.643 4.57 19.365889 404.27697 485.13236
TOTAL 21 4244.9082 897.49487

Moment about the centroid of the precast beam:
M
r
= 897.49487-(4244.9082*0.5760392)
= -1547.739 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 4244.9082/537225.68+-1547.739/1.2843E8
= 7.9015362+-12.05139
= -4.149853 MPa
bottom stress = 4244.9082/537225.68+-1547.739/-1.614E8
= 7.9015362+9.5890175
= 17.490554 MPa

Self weight moment:
c.s.a. = 5.372E5 mm
density = 24.0 kN/m + 1.0 kN/m + 1.0 kN/m = 26.0 kN/m
[1]
self weight = 5.372E5*26.0
= 13.9679 kN/m
beam length = 21.0 m
distance = 10.5 m
M
sw
= 0.5*13.9679*10.5*(21.0-10.5)
= 769.979 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 769.979/1.2843E8
= 5.9954 MPa
bottom stress = 769.979/-1.614E8
= -4.7704 MPa



Elastic Deformation - Clause 5.10.4(1)(iii)
stress at top of precast beam = 1.84555 MPa
stress at bottom of precast beam = 12.7201 MPa
depth of precast beam = 1300.0 mm
elastic modulus of concrete at transfer = 31.1307 GPa
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height No of conc conc tendon tendon
tendons stress strain force moment
mm MPa kN kN.m
60.0 11 12.21824 3.925E-4 126.28096 7.5768575
110.0 4 11.79999 3.79E-4 44.348407 4.8783248
210.0 2 10.96348 3.522E-4 20.602262 4.326475
260.0 2 10.54523 3.387E-4 19.816291 5.1522358
1200.0 2 2.682055 8.615E-5 5.0400412 6.0480495
TOTAL 21 216.08796 27.981943

Moment about the centroid of the precast beam:
M
ed
= 27.981943-(216.08796*0.5760392)
= -96.49319 kN.m
hence,
top stress = 1.8455-216.08796/537.22568--96.49319/1.2843E8
= 1.8455-0.4022294--0.751339
= 2.1946575 MPa
bottom stress = 12.72-216.08796/537.22568--96.49319/-1.614E8
= 12.72-0.4022294-0.5978237
= 11.720096 MPa

After a further 2 iterations of the above process, the top and bottom stresses are as follows:
top stress = 2.16502461 MPa
bottom stress = 11.7912468 MPa


Max Prestress Force after transfer - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.3.(2)

For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
k
7
.f
pk
= 0.75*1860.0 = 1395.0 MPa
k
8
.f
p0,1k
= 0.85*1600.0 = 1360.0 MPa

Maximum tendon stress after transfer = 1329.4 MPa
which is not greater than 1360.0 and therefore OK.


TOTAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS SUMMARY
Initial stressing force = 4448.25 kN
Prestress after all transfer losses = 4043.05 kN

Corresponding loss = 9.11 %


LIMITING STRESSES IN PRECAST BEAM
Compression
EN 1992-1-1 Clause 3.1.2(5) & 3.1.2(6)
For transfer at t = 4.0 days

f
ck
(t) = f
cm
(t) - 8.0
f
cm
(t) =
cc
(t).f
cm
Equation 3.1

cc
(t) = exp{s[1-(28/t)]} Equation 3.2
for Class N cement, s = 0.25

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hence
cc
(t) = exp{0.25[1.0-28/4.0)]}
= 0.66269
f
cm
= f
ck
+ 8.0 (from Table 3.1)
= 48.0 MPa
f
cm
(t) = 0.66269*48.0
= 31.8094
and f
ck
(t) = 31.8094 - 8.0 MPa
= 23.8094 MPa

EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.2.2(5)

c
<= 0.6*f
ck
(t) Equation 5.42
= 0.6 * 23.8094
= 14.2857 MPa
hence limiting compression stress = 14.285666 MPa
This may be increased if justified to:

c
<= k
6
.f
ck
(t)
= 0.7 * 23.8094
= 16.6666 MPa


Tension
Tension is governed by crack width considerations, and reinforcement provided for crack
width control.
EN 1992-1-1 Clause 7.3.2(4)
No reinforcement is required for tensile stress less than
ct,p
where:

ct,p
= f
ct,eff
from clause 7.3.2(2),
f
ct,eff
= f
ctm
(t)
f
ctm
= 0.3*f
ck
(2/3)
(from Table 3.1)
= -3.5088 MPa
f
ctm
(t) =
cc
(t).f
ctm
(clause 3.1.2(9))
= 0.66269*-3.5088
= -2.3253 MPa
hence limiting tension stress = -2.325284 MPa
[Note: at transfer, the characteristic combination of loads is the same as the frequent
combination of loads, and this stress limit might therefore be considered to be higher than
appropriate]


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TRANSMISSION LENGTH
Bond stress at release, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(1)
f
bpt
=
p1
.
1
.f
ctd
(t) Expression (8.15)
where
f
ctd
(t) =
ct
.0.7f
ctm
(t)/
c
f
ctm
(t) = -2.3253 MPa
[2]

ct
= 1.0 - from EN 1992-1-1/3.1.6(2)

tendon type coefficient,
p1
= 3.2
bond condition coefficient,
1
= 1.0

hence
f
ctd
(t) = 1.0*0.7*-2.3253/1.5
= -1.0851 MPa

and
f
bpt
= 3.2*1.0*-1.0851
= -3.4724 MPa


Basic transmission length, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(2)
l
pt
=
1
.
2
..
pm0
/f
bpt
Expression (8.16)
where
speed of release coefficient,
1
= 1.0
tendon surface coefficient,
2
= 0.19
nominal diameter of tendon, = 16.0 mm
tendon stress after release,
pm0
= 1440.0 MPa

hence
l
pt
= 1.0*0.19*16.0*1440.0 / 3.47242
= 1.26068 m


Design value of transmission length, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(3)
l
pt1
= 0.8*l
pt
= 0.8*1.26068
= 1.00854 m


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SLS STRESS SUMMARY TABLE
Concrete Stresses (MPa)
force moment In situ Precast
kN kN.m top bottom top bottom

CHARACTERISTIC PERMANENT ACTIONS AND PRESTRESS
Prestress
[3]
4244.91 -1547.7 -4.1499 17.4906
Self Weight 769.979 5.9954 -4.7704

Prestress + Self Weight 1.84555 12.7201

Elastic Def -201.86 89.2851 0.31947 -0.9289
TRANSFER 4043.05 -688.47 2.16502 11.7912



SLS FLEXURE
Precast Curvature Deflection
Stress E Strain (x10
-6
) (mm)
(MPa) (x10
-6
) (rad/m) Here Max.

After Transfer
T
2.16502 E
T
69.5462 -237.86 14.6578 14.6578

B
11.7912 378.765

Curvatures here are derived from precast section height: 1300.0mm

E
T
= Elastic Modulus at Transfer = 31130.7MPa
[EN1992-1-1 Clauses 3.1.3-(3) and 3.1.2-(6) with age 4 days]






________
[1] Refer to EN 1991-1-1 Table A.1 Notes 1) and 2)
[2] For the derivation of this value refer to the limiting stress calculations for transfer
[3] includes draw-in and initial relaxation
71
72








Steel Composite Bridge Design Example


12. Verification: SLS Bending - Mid Span


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Design code: EN 1992-2:2005 with UK National Annex (modified)
EN 1990 Equation 6.14 SLS Characteristic
Exposure Class: XD1, XD2, XS1, XS2, XS3
Load case: Traffic gr1a TS - for Bending design 1
Section Ref 1 at 10.5m from left end of beam


WARNING - A reduction of flange width to allow for shear lag effects may be appropriate for this
beam. SAM makes no allowance for this.
Refer to EN 1992-1-1/5.3.2.1


Section details:
Ref 1 "Section 1"
at 0.5 x span = 10.5 m from left end of beam

Analysis:
Traffic Actions: Bending for gr1a, loading I.D. 1
At time considered, t =
Serviceability Limit State: Characteristic - EN 1990 Equation 6.14


ACTUAL STRESSES IN PRECAST BEAM
No. of tendons fully bonded at this section: 21
No. of tendons fully debonded at this section: 0
No. of tendons deflected at this section: 0

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Maximum Stressing Force - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.2.1(1)P
For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
k
1
.f
pk
= 0.8*1860.0 = 1488.0 MPa
k
2
.f
p0,1k
= 0.9*1600.0 = 1440.0 MPa

Wedge draw-in loss Clause 5.10.4(1)(i)
draw-in strain = 0.003/21.0
= 1.43E-4
loss = E
p
. strain
= 195.0*1.43E-4
= 27.8571 MPa

Heat Curing Clause 5.10.4(1)(ii)(Note)
Concrete is cured at ambient temperature


Immediate Losses - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.4

height No of f
p
k
1
/k
2
draw-in heat cure area initial force
mm tendons MPa MPa MPa mm kN
60.0 11 1600.0 0.9 27.8571 0.0 150.0 2330.0357
110.0 4 1600.0 0.9 27.8571 0.0 150.0 847.28571
210.0 2 1600.0 0.9 27.8571 0.0 150.0 423.64286
260.0 2 1600.0 0.9 27.8571 0.0 150.0 423.64286
1200.0 2 1600.0 0.9 27.8571 0.0 150.0 423.64286
TOTAL 21 4448.25
In accordance with clause 5.10.9(1), for SLS, the Characteristic value must be used.
With r
inf
= 1.0, P
k,inf
= 4448.25 kN


Friction Clause 5.10.4(1)(i)
All tendons are straight in this beam.


Initial Relaxation Clause 5.10.4(1)(ii)
Loss is calculated from clause 3.3.2(7)
For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
relaxation loss at 1000 hours,
1000
= 8.0 %
=
pi
/ f
pk
= 1440.0-27.8571-0.0/1860.0
= 0.75921

time after tensioning = 96.0 hours
for Class 1 relaxation, use Expression (3.28)
5.39 .
1000
. e
6.7
. [t/1000]
0.75(1-)
. 10
-5
= 5.39 * 8.0 * 161.863 * 0.65495 * 10
-5
= 0.04571

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relaxation After relaxation
height No of area x loss force moment
mm tendons
pi
% kN kN kN.m
60.0 11 2330.04 4.57 106.51239 2223.5233 133.4114
110.0 4 847.286 4.57 38.731779 808.55394 88.940933
210.0 2 423.643 4.57 19.365889 404.27697 84.898163
260.0 2 423.643 4.57 19.365889 404.27697 105.11201
1200.0 2 423.643 4.57 19.365889 404.27697 485.13236
TOTAL 21 4244.9082 897.49487

Moment about the centroid of the precast beam:
M
r
= 897.49487-(4244.9082*0.5760392)
= -1547.739 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 4244.9082/537225.68+-1547.739/1.2843E8
= 7.9015362+-12.05139
= -4.149853 MPa
bottom stress = 4244.9082/537225.68+-1547.739/-1.614E8
= 7.9015362+9.5890175
= 17.490554 MPa

Self weight moment:
c.s.a. = 5.372E5 mm
density = 24.0 kN/m + 1.0 kN/m = 25.0 kN/m
[1]
self weight = 5.372E5*25.0
= 13.4306 kN/m
beam length = 21.0 m
distance = 10.5 m
M
sw
= 0.5*13.4306*10.5*(21.0-10.5)
= 740.364 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 740.364/1.2843E8
= 5.76481 MPa
bottom stress = 740.364/-1.614E8
= -4.5869 MPa



Elastic Deformation - Clause 5.10.4(1)(iii)
stress at top of precast beam = 1.61496 MPa
stress at bottom of precast beam = 12.9036 MPa
depth of precast beam = 1300.0 mm
elastic modulus of concrete at transfer = 31.1307 GPa
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height No of conc conc tendon tendon
tendons stress strain force moment
mm MPa kN kN.m
60.0 11 12.38261 3.978E-4 127.97976 7.6787854
110.0 4 11.94843 3.838E-4 44.906297 4.9396927
210.0 2 11.08007 3.559E-4 20.821353 4.3724841
260.0 2 10.64589 3.42E-4 20.005455 5.2014182
1200.0 2 2.483314 7.977E-5 4.6665732 5.5998878
TOTAL 21 218.37943 27.792268

Moment about the centroid of the precast beam:
M
ed
= 27.792268-(218.37943*0.5760392)
= -98.00285 kN.m
hence,
top stress = 1.615-218.37943/537.22568--98.00285/1.2843E8
= 1.615-0.4064947--0.763094
= 1.9715546 MPa
bottom stress = 12.904-218.37943/537.22568--98.00285/-1.614E8
= 12.904-0.4064947-0.6071768
= 11.889955 MPa

After a further 2 iterations of the above process, the top and bottom stresses are as follows:
top stress = 1.94149211 MPa
bottom stress = 11.9620665 MPa


Max Prestress Force after transfer - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.3.(2)

For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
k
7
.f
pk
= 0.75*1860.0 = 1395.0 MPa
k
8
.f
p0,1k
= 0.85*1600.0 = 1360.0 MPa

Maximum tendon stress after transfer = 1330.61 MPa
which is not greater than 1360.0 and therefore OK.


ACTIONS DURING EXECUTION
Erection of beam Loading
Bending moment from erection loadcase at current span location:
M
Applied
= 738.00575 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 738.00575/1.2843E8
= 5.74644 MPa
bottom stress = 738.00575/-1.614E8
= -4.5723 MPa

Remove the dead load applied for transfer calculations
M
sw
= -740.36 kN.m
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Corresponding stresses:
top stress = -740.36/1.2843E8
= -5.7648 MPa
bottom stress = -740.36/-1.614E8
= 4.58693 MPa



Construction stage 1A Loading
M
Applied
= 512.3149 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 512.3149/1.2843E8
= 3.98911 MPa
bottom stress = 512.3149/-1.614E8
= -3.174 MPa


Construction stage 1B Loading
M
Applied
= 21.87451 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 21.87451/1.2843E8
= 0.17032 MPa
bottom stress = 21.87451/-1.614E8
= -0.1355 MPa


Time Dependent Losses - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.6
Simplified method using Expression (5.46)

P
c+s+r
= A
p
.
p,c+s+r


cs
.E
p
+ 0.8
pr
+ E
p
/E
cm
.(t,t
0
).
c,QP

p,c+s+r
=
1 + E
p
/E
cm
.A
p
/A
c
(1+A
c
/I
c
.z
cp
)[1+0.8(t,t
0
)]

The calculated loss is apportioned partly to the precast beam alone and partly to the full
composite section.

For in-situ cast at 60 days, the proportion of the loss occurring before the in-situ is cast
is calculated to be 28.63 %

Losses are calculated for time t =

Age of concrete at end of curing, t
s
= 1.0 days
Age of concrete at transfer, t
0
= 4.0 days

Age is adjusted for expression (B.5) (for cement type & temperature)
- for cement class N ( = 0)
adjusted t
0
= t
0,T
. [(9/(2+t
0,T
1.2
)+1)

>=0.5 Expression (B.9)


= 4.0 * [(9/(2+4.0
1.2
)+1]
0
= 4.0 days
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Age of concrete at time considered, t =
EN 1992-1-1/3.3.2(8) for relaxation, t is taken as 500,000 hours
Concrete age coefficient (Expression (3.2)),
cc
:

cc(t)
= f
cm(t)
/f
cm
Expression (3.1)
= exp{s[1-(28/t)]} Expression (3.2)
Coefficient for Class N cement, s = 0.25

cc(t0)
= exp{0.25[1.0-(28/4.0)]} = 0.66269

cc(t)
= exp{0.25} = 1.28403
Characteristic strength of concrete, f
ck
= 40.0 MPa
Mean compressive strength of concrete, f
cm
= 40.0 + 8.0
(from Table 3.1) = 48.0 MPa
f
cm0
= 10.0 MPa
f
cm(t0)
=
cc(t0)
. f
cm
= 31.8094 MPa
Ambient relative humidity = 80.0 %
Notional size of member, h
0
= 2A
c
/u = 2*9.051E5/7245.89
= 249.811 mm
Modulus of elasticity of concrete at 28 days, E
cm
= 35.2205 GPa
Modulus of elasticity of concrete at time considered,
E
cm(t)
=
cc(t)
0.3
. E
cm
Expressions (3.5) & (3.1)
= 1.28403
0.3
* 35.2205
= 37.9636 GPa

Area of concrete cross section, A
c
= 9.05E5 mm
Perimeter of concrete cross section, u = 7245.9 mm
Notional size, h
0
= 2*A
c
/u = 2*9.051E5/7245.89 = 249.81 mm


Creep coefficient for concrete - EN 1992-1-1 clause 3.1.4 and Annex B.1
(t,t
0
) =
0
.
c
(t,t
0
) Expression (B.1)
=
RH
. (f
cm
) . (t
0
) .
c
(t,t
0
) Expression (B.2)



for f
cm
> 35.0 MPa
1-RH/100

RH
= [ 1 + .
1
] .
2
Expression (B.3b)
0.1*h
0
0.33

1
= [35.0/48.0]
0.7
= 0.80163

2
= [35.0/48.0]
0.2
= 0.93878

3
= [35.0/48.0]
0.5
= 0.85391


RH
= [1.0 + (1.0-0.8) / (0.1*249.811
0.33
) * 0.80163]*0.93878
= 1.17777

(f
cm
) = 16.8/f
cm
Expression (B.4)
= 16.8/48.0
= 2.42487


For Permanent Loads
In the absence of heat curing t
0,T
= 4.0 days
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age is adjusted for expression (B.5) (for cement type and temperature)
- for cement class N ( = 0)

9.0
t
0
= t
0,T
. [ + 1.0 ]

>=0.5 Expression (B.9)


2.0 + t
0,T
1.2
9.0


= 4.0 * [ + 1.0 ]
0
2.0 + 4.0
1.2
= 4.0 day

(t
0
) = 1/(0.1+t
0
0.2
) Expression (B.5)
= 1/(0.1+4.0
0.2
)
= 0.70446

c
(t,t
0
) = 1.0 for time t =
hence from (B.1) and (B.2):
(t,t
0
) = 1.17777*2.42487*0.70446
= 2.01193


Check for creep non-linearity EN 1992-1-1 clause 3.1.4(4)

At the level of the centroid of the tendons, the compressive stress in the concrete at time t
0
= 8.31165 MPa.
This does not exceed 0.45*f
ck
(t
0
), i.e. 18.0 MPa, so non-linear creep is not considered




Shrinkage Strain for concrete - EN 1992-1-1 clause 3.1.4(6)

Total Shrinkage:

cs
=
cd
+
ca
(3.8)


Drying Shrinkage - Expression (3.9):

cd
(t) =
ds
(t,t
s
).k
h
.
cd,0


ds
(t,t
s
) = 1.0 for t =
From Table 3.3:
k
h
= 0.80018
From Annex B, Expression (B.11):

cd,0
= 0.85[(220+110.
ds1
).(exp(-
ds2
.f
cm
/f
cm0
)].10
-6
.
RH

RH
= 1.55[1.0-(RH/100)] (B.12)
= 0.7564
For cement class N,

ds1
= 4

ds2
= 0.12
hence,

cd,0
= 0.85[(220+110*4.0)*exp(-0.12*48.0/10.0)]*10
-6
*0.7564
= 238.54*10
-6
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and,

cd
(t) = 1.0*0.80018*238.54*10
-6
= 190.877*10
-6


Autogenous Shrinkage - Expression (3.11):

ca
(t) =
as
(t).
ca
()

as
(t) = 1.0 for t =

ca
() = 2.5*(f
ck
-10.0)*10
-6
= 75.0*10
-6
hence,

ca
(t) = 1.0*75.0*10
-6
= 75.0*10
-6


Total Shrinkage:

cs
=
cd
(t) +
ca
(t)
= 190.87688 + 75.0
= 265.87688*10
-6



Further Relaxation Clause 5.10.6(1)(b)

Loss is calculated from clause 3.3.2(7)
For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
relaxation loss at 1000 hours,
1000
= 8.0 %
time after tensioning = 500000.0 hours
= 0.75921 (as calculated for initial
relaxation loss above)
for Class 1 relaxation, use Expression (3.28)
5.39 .
1000
. e
6.7
. [t/1000]
0.75(1-)
. 10
-5
= 5.39 * 8.0 * 161.863 * 3.07185 * 10
-5
= 0.21440
With the initial relaxation deducted, the variation in tendon stress from relaxation becomes:


pr
/
pi
= 0.21440 - 0.04571
= 0.16868

Summary of the above for Expression (5.46):
Estimated shrinkage strain
cs
= 265.877 x10
-6
Creep coefficient at t for loading at t
0
(t,t
0
) = 2.01193
Relaxation,
pr
= 238.212 MPa
Modulus of elasticity for prestressing steel E
p
= 195.0 GPa
Modulus of Elasticity for concrete E
cm
= 37.9636 GPa
Area of all prestressing A
p
= 3150.0 mm
Area of concrete section A
c
= 9.051E5 mm
Second moment of area of concrete section I
c
= 2.33E11 mm

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E
p
/E
cm
= 195.0/37.9636 = 5.1365
E
p
/E
cm
.A
p
/A
c
= 5.1365*3150.0/9.051E5 = 0.01788
A
c
/I
c
= 9.051E5/2.33E11 = 3.8904


In the table below the following vary with tendon height:

c,QP
= Stress in concrete adjacent to tendons
z
cp
= Section centre of gravity to tendons
(t,t
0
) = Creep Coefficient (if non-linear creep is considered)

shrink relax creep denom
height
cs
.E
p
(t,t
0
) E
p
/E
cm
..
A
p
0.8
pr

c,QP
z
cp
P
c+s+r
mm mm MPa MPa MPa MPa mm kN
60.0 1650.0 51.846 190.57 2.012 8.605 88.927 839.705 1.175 465.43833
110.0 600.0 51.846 190.57 2.012 8.5109 87.954 789.705 1.16 170.90467
210.0 300.0 51.846 190.57 2.012 8.3226 86.008 689.705 1.133 86.962166
260.0 300.0 51.846 190.57 2.012 8.2284 85.035 639.705 1.121 87.637686
1200.0 300.0 51.846 190.57 2.012 6.4583 66.742 -300.3 1.063 87.248992
Total force loss: 898.19184
Total moment loss: 192.47246

M
csr
= 192.47246-(898.19184*0.8997047)
= -615.635 kN.m

Corresponding stresses - before composite:
top stress = ( 898.192/5.372E5+-615.64/1.284E8 )* 0.286
= ( 1.6719079+-4.793611 )* 0.286
= -0.893716 MPa
bottom stress = ( 898.192/5.372E5+-615.64/-1.61E8 )* 0.2862
= ( 1.6719079+3.8141679 )* 0.286
= 1.5706162 MPa

- after composite:
top stress = ( 898.192/9.051E5+-615.64/5.812E8 )*(1.0- 0.286)
= ( 0.9924210+-1.059313 )*(1.0-0.286)
= -0.047742 MPa
bottom stress = ( 898.192/9.051E5+-615.64/-2.59E8 )*(1.0-0.286 )
= ( 0.9924210+2.3809161 )*(1.0-0.286)
= 2.4075798 MPa


Surfacing 1 Loading
M
Applied
= 99.65918 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 99.65918/5.8116E8
= 0.17148 MPa
bottom stress = 99.65918/-2.586E8
= -0.3854 MPa

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Traffic gr1a TS - for Bending design 1 Loading
M
Applied
= 934.3025 kN.m
P
Applied
= -43.8224 kN
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = -43.8224/905051.1 + 934.3025/5.8116E8
= -0.0484 + 1.60764
= 1.55922 MPa
bottom stress = -43.8224/905051.1 + 934.3025/-2.586E8
= -0.0484 + -3.613
= -3.6618 MPa


Traffic gr1a UDL - for Bending design 1 Loading
M
Applied
= 324.4073 kN.m
P
Applied
= -4.365749 kN
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = -4.365749/905051.1 + 324.4073/5.8116E8
= -0.0048 + 0.55820
= 0.55337 MPa
bottom stress = -4.365749/905051.1 + 324.4073/-2.586E8
= -0.0048 + -1.255
= -1.2594 MPa


Traffic gr1a Footway - for Bending design 1 Loading
M
Applied
= 19.32731 kN.m
P
Applied
= 1.418796 kN
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 1.418796/905051.1 + 19.32731/5.8116E8
= 0.00157 + 0.03326
= 0.03482 MPa
bottom stress = 1.418796/905051.1 + 19.32731/-2.586E8
= 0.00157 + -0.075
= -0.0732 MPa


TOTAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS SUMMARY
Initial stressing force = 4448.25 kN
Prestress after all losses at t = = 3142.75 kN

Corresponding loss = 29.3 %


LIMITING STRESSES IN PRECAST BEAM
Compression
EN 1992-2 Clause 7.2(102)
k
1
.f
ck
= 0.6*40.0
= 24.0 MPa
In the presence of confinement or increase in cover this may be increased by up to 10%, i.e
to:
= 26.4 MPa
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Tension
Tension is governed by crack width considerations, and reinforcement provided for crack
width control.

Exposure Class is XD1, XD2, XD3, XS1, XS2, XS3 ...
... for which decompression is checked for the Frequent combination of loads.
Decompression requires all of the tendon to be at least 65.0 mm above the level of the
neutral axis.



LIMITING STRESSES FOR IN SITU CONCRETE
Compression
EN 1992-2-2 Clause 7.2(102)
To avoid longitudinal cracking, compressive stress is limited to:

c
= k
1
.f
ck
= 0.6*31.875
= 19.125 MPa

Tension
Tension is governed by crack width considerations, and reinforcement provided for crack
width control.
EN 1992-1_1 Clause 7.3
However, no tensile stress is present at this section.



TRANSMISSION LENGTH
Bond stress at release, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(1)
f
bpt
=
p1
.
1
.f
ctd
(t) Expression (8.15)
where
f
ctd
(t) =
ct
.0.7f
ctm
(t)/
c
f
ctm
(t) = -2.3253 MPa
[2]

ct
= 1.0 - from EN 1992-1-1/3.1.6(2)

tendon type coefficient,
p1
= 3.2
bond condition coefficient,
1
= 1.0

hence
f
ctd
(t) = 1.0*0.7*-2.3253/1.5
= -1.0851 MPa

and
f
bpt
= 3.2*1.0*-1.0851
= -3.4724 MPa

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Basic transmission length, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(2)
l
pt
=
1
.
2
..
pm0
/f
bpt
Expression (8.16)
where
speed of release coefficient,
1
= 1.0
tendon surface coefficient,
2
= 0.19
nominal diameter of tendon, = 16.0 mm
tendon stress after release,
pm0
= 1440.0 MPa

hence
l
pt
= 1.0*0.19*16.0*1440.0 / 3.47242
= 1.26068 m


Design value of transmission length, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(3)
l
pt1
= 0.8*l
pt
= 0.8*1.26068
= 1.00854 m



STRUCTURAL EFFECTS OF TIME DEPENDENT BEHAVIOUR
EN 1992-2 Annex KK.7


Age of concrete at first loading, t
0
= 4.0 days
Age of concrete when first composite, t
c
= 60.0 days
Age of concrete at time considered, t =
Creep coefficient when first composite, (t
c
,t
0
) = 0.89250
Final creep coefficient, (,t
0
) = 2.00881
Creep coefficient increment, (,t
c
) = 1.20422
Specified value of Ageing coefficient, = 0.8

From Expression (KK.119):
(,t
0
) - (t
c
,t
0
) 2.00881-0.89250
=
1 + .(,t
c
) 1.0 + 0.8*1.20422

= 0.56856

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SLS STRESS SUMMARY TABLE
Concrete Stresses (MPa)
force moment In situ Precast
kN kN.m top bottom top bottom

CHARACTERISTIC PERMANENT ACTIONS AND PRESTRESS
Prestress
[3]
4244.91 -1547.7 -4.1499 17.4906
Self Weight 740.364 5.76481 -4.5869

Prestress + Self Weight 1.61496 12.9036

Elastic Def -203.96 90.6953 0.32653 -0.9415
TRANSFER 4040.95 -716.68 1.94149 11.9621
Cr+Sh+Rlx B -257.14 176.251 0.89371 -1.5706
Erection -2.3584 -0.0184 0.01461
In situ 1A 512.315 3.98911 -3.174
In situ 1B 21.8745 0.05072 0.03293 0.03764 -0.0846
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL PERMANENT EFFECTS, S
0
6.8436 7.14742
Cr+Sh+Rlx A -641.05 439.384 0.34886 -0.0084 0.04774 -2.4076
TOTAL PERMANENT EFFECTS, S
0,
0.39958 0.0245 6.89134 4.73984

CREEP REDISTRIBUTION according to EN 1992-2 Annex KK.7
Construction On Centering, S
c
= G + P
1
+ P
2
Permanent G 606.626 1.40663 0.91333 1.04381 -2.3461
Prestress P
1
-2584.1 -5.992 -3.8906 -4.4465 9.99388
[4]
3780.83 3.95141 3.95141 4.17748 4.17748
Prestress P
2
2329.9 5.40251 3.50787 4.00902 -9.0107
[5]

(S
c
- S
0
)*0.56856 2.68239 2.52957 -1.1711 -2.4635
Hence from KK.119,
TOTAL CONSTRUCTION EFFECTS, S

3.08198 2.55407 5.72024 2.27635


SDL 99.6592 0.23108 0.15004 0.17148 -0.3854
Diff. Shr. 1 605.383 286.182 -0.2604 -0.4932 1.16132 -0.4378
Diff. Shr. 2 -101.97 -0.2364 -0.1535 -0.1754 0.39436
[Differential shrinkage is included when adverse ]
TOTAL PERMANENT EFFECTS 3.31306 2.70412 5.89172 1.89092
[including diff. shrinkage 2.81612 2.05738 6.87758 1.8474]
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VARIABLE ACTIONS - CHARACTERISTIC COMBINATION

Traffic
Selected case:
0
Traffic gr1a TS 1 934.303 2.16644 1.40668 1.60764 -3.6133 0.75
-43.822 -0.0458 -0.0458 -0.0484 -0.0484
Traffic gr1a UDL 1 324.407 0.75222 0.48842 0.55820 -1.2546 0.75
-4.3657 -0.0046 -0.0046 -0.0048 -0.0048
Traffic gr1a FT 1 19.3273 0.04482 0.0291 0.03326 -0.0747 0.4
1.4188 0.00148 0.00148 0.00157 0.00157
Total (Leading) : 2.9146 1.87532 2.14742 -4.9944
Total (in Combination) : 2.16974 1.39579 1.59838 -3.7202

Other traffic cases for comparison:
Traffic gr1a TS 2 -167.69 -0.3888 -0.2524 -0.2885 0.64854 0.75
14.063 0.0147 0.0147 0.01554 0.01554
Traffic gr1a UDL 2 -89.68 -0.2079 -0.1350 -0.1543 0.34682 0.75
5.225 0.00546 0.00546 0.00577 0.00577
Traffic gr1a FT 2 19.3273 0.04482 0.0291 0.03326 -0.0747 0.4
1.4188 0.00148 0.00148 0.00157 0.00157
Total (Leading) : -0.5303 -0.3367 -0.3867 0.94350
Total (in Combination) : -0.4139 -0.2632 -0.3022 0.73324
Temperature Restraint
None defined
Differential Temperature - Heating
Diff. Tmp H1 -1016.0 -413.84 2.47603 -0.8853 -0.8625 1.35841
Diff. Tmp H2 285.183 0.66127 0.42936 0.49071 -1.1029 0.6
Differential Temperature - Cooling
Diff. Tmp C1 976.559 143.384 -1.4373 0.52916 0.24758 -1.7606
Diff. Tmp C2 -98.811 -0.2291 -0.1487 -0.1700 0.38214 0.6
Other Variable Action
None defined

The following combinations of variable actions are evaluated in accordance with EN 1990
Equation 6.14b:
a) Traffic as leading action +
0
(Thermal + Other)
b) Thermal as leading action +
0
(Traffic + Other)
c) Other as leading action +
0
(Traffic + Thermal)

For thermal actions the following cases are considered:
i) temperature restraint alone
ii) differential temperature: Heating
iii) differential temperature: Cooling
iv) temperature restraint + differential temperature: Heating
v) temperature restraint + differential temperature: Cooling

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The most adverse case is with Traffic as leading action

Traffic 2.9146 1.87532 2.14742 -4.9944

0
x Thermal 1.88238 -0.2735 0.04654 -0.8270

0
x Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL VARIABLE ACTIONS 4.79698 1.60173 2.19396 -5.8215
TOTAL PERMANENT (from above) 3.31306 2.70412 6.87758 1.8474

TOTAL COMBINATION 8.11005 4.30585 9.07154 -3.9741

WARNING - The flexural tensile stress exceeds the value of f
ct,eff
so the section cannot be assumed
to be uncracked. (EN 1992-1-1/7.1(2)) A cracked section analysis must be performed to derive the
true compression stress in the concrete.

VARIABLE ACTIONS - FREQUENT COMBINATION

Traffic
Selected case:
2

1
= 0.75
Traffic gr1a TS 1 700.727 1.62483 1.05501 1.20573 -2.71 0.0
-32.867 -0.0343 -0.0343 -0.0363 -0.0363

1
= 0.75
Traffic gr1a UDL 1 243.305 0.56417 0.36631 0.41865 -0.9409 0.0
-3.2743 -0.0034 -0.0034 -0.0036 -0.0036

1
= 0.4
however, EN 1991-2 Clause 4.5.2 excludes the footway loading from the frequent action of LM1
Traffic gr1a FT 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total (Leading) : 2.15123 1.38355 1.58445 -3.6909
Total (in Combination) : 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Other traffic cases for comparison:

1
= 0.75
Traffic gr1a TS 2 -125.77 -0.2916 -0.1893 -0.2164 0.48640 0.0
10.5473 0.01102 0.01102 0.01165 0.01165

1
= 0.75
Traffic gr1a UDL 2 -67.26 -0.1559 -0.1012 -0.1157 0.26012 0.0
3.91875 0.0041 0.0041 0.00433 0.00433

1
= 0.4
however, EN 1991-2 Clause 4.5.2 excludes the footway loading from the frequent action of LM1
Traffic gr1a FT 2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total (Leading) : -0.4324 -0.2755 -0.3161 0.76251
Total (in Combination) : 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Temperature Restraint
None defined
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Differential Temperature - Heating

1
= 0.6
Diff. Tmp H1 -1016.0 -413.84 2.47603 -0.8853 -0.8625 1.35841
Diff. Tmp H2 285.183 0.66127 0.42936 0.49071 -1.1029 0.5
Differential Temperature - Cooling

1
= 0.6
Diff. Tmp C1 976.559 143.384 -1.4373 0.52916 0.24758 -1.7606
Diff. Tmp C2 -98.811 -0.2291 -0.1487 -0.1700 0.38214 0.5
Other Variable Action
None defined

The following combinations of variable actions are evaluated in accordance with EN 1990
Equation 6.15b:
a)
1
(Traffic) as leading action +
2
(Thermal + Other)
b)
1
(Thermal) as leading action +
2
(Traffic + Other)
c)
1
(Other) as leading action +
2
(Traffic + Thermal)

For thermal actions the following cases are considered:
i) temperature restraint alone
ii) differential temperature: Heating
iii) differential temperature: Cooling
iv) temperature restraint + differential temperature: Heating
v) temperature restraint + differential temperature: Cooling

The most adverse case is with Traffic as leading action


1
x Traffic 2.15123 1.38355 1.58445 -3.6909

2
x Thermal 1.56865 -0.2279 0.03878 -0.6892

2
x Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL VARIABLE ACTIONS 3.71988 1.15556 1.62323 -4.3801
TOTAL PERMANENT (from above) 3.31306 2.70412 6.87758 1.8474

TOTAL COMBINATION 7.03294 3.85968 8.50081 -2.5327




SLS FLEXURE
Precast Curvature Deflection
Stress E Strain (x10
-6
) (mm)
(MPa) (x10
-6
) (rad/m) Here Max.

After Transfer
T
1.94149 E
T
62.3657 -247.61 15.0561 15.0561

B
11.9621 384.253

After Erection
T
2.81685 E
I
151.712 -314.42 19.6107 19.6107

B
10.4061 560.458

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After in situ 1A
T
6.80596 E
I
366.561 -17.651 6.14087 6.14087

B
7.23201 389.507
After in situ 1B
T
6.8436 E
I
368.588 -12.587 5.84195 5.84195

B
7.14742 384.951

Long-term Dead
T
8.04868 E
L
687.582 245.625 -4.8888 -4.8888

B
4.31089 368.27

Diff. Temp H1
T
-0.5175 E
S
-14.695 -29.104 1.59073 1.59073

B
0.81504 23.1413
Diff. Temp H2
T
0.29442 E
S
8.35951 20.8834 -1.1442 -1.1726

B
-0.6617 -18.789
Diff. Temp C1
T
0.14855 E
S
4.2178 26.3161 -1.4413 -1.4413

B
-1.0564 -29.993
Diff. Temp C2
T
-0.1020 E
S
-2.8964 -7.2357 0.39644 0.40625

B
0.22928 6.51001

Traffic gr1a 1
T
2.14742 E
S
60.9709 155.98 -6.7548 -6.7548

B
-4.9944 -141.8
Extreme in-service 420.685 -12.688 -12.688

Curvatures here are derived from precast section height: 1300.0mm

E
T
= Elastic Modulus at Transfer = 31130.7MPa
[EN1992-1-1 Clauses 3.1.3-(3) and 3.1.2-(6) with age 4 days]

E
I
= Intermediate Term Elastic Modulus = 18567.1MPa
[EN1992-1-1 Clause 7.4.3-(5) at 60.0 days (=0.89693)]

E
L
= Long Term Elastic Modulus = 11705.8MPa
[EN1992-1-1 Clause 7.4.3-(5) at infinite time (=2.00881)]

E
S
= Short Term Elastic Modulus [E
cm
] = 35220.5MPa



________
[1] Refer to EN 1991-1-1 Table A.1 Note 1)
[2] For the derivation of this value refer to the limiting stress calculations for transfer
[3] includes draw-in and initial relaxation
[4] With immediate losses and shrinkage / creep / relaxation losses until time at which insitu is cast.
[5] Secondary effects arising from prestress in continuous section.
91
92








Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


13. Verification: ULS Bending - Mid Span


93
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Design code: EN 1992-2:2005 with UK National Annex (modified)
EN 1990 Equation 6.10 ULS Persistent / Transient
Load case: Traffic gr1a TS - for Bending design 1
Section Ref 1 at 10.5m from left end of beam



Section details:
Ref 1 "Section 1"
at 0.5 x span = 10.5 m from left end of beam

Analysis:
Traffic Actions: Bending for gr1a, loading I.D. 1
Ultimate Limit State: Persistent / Transient - EN 1990 Equation 6.10


ULS Stress / Strain summary for section with HOGGING moment

Location strain stress height
MPa mm
Precast beam - top -0.02234 0.0 1300.0
- bottom 0.0035 22.6667 0.0
In situ stage 1 - top -0.025719 0.0 1470.0
- bottom -0.021744 0.0 1270.0
Tendon - top -0.025441 -1391.3 1200.0
- bottom -0.002627 -512.29 60.0


Resistance of section = -551.202 kN.m
In conjunction with axial load of -48.0244 kN

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ULS Stress / Strain summary for section with SAGGING moment

Location strain stress height
MPa mm
Precast beam - top -5.156E-4 0.0 1300.0
- bottom -0.031223 0.0 0.0
In situ stage 1 - top 0.0035 18.0625 1470.0
- bottom -0.001224 0.0 1270.0
Tendon - top -0.007966 -1391.3 1200.0
- bottom -0.03474 -1391.3 60.0


Resistance of section = 5221.3 kN.m
In conjunction with axial load of -48.0244 kN


TRANSMISSION and ANCHORAGE
Bond stress at release, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(1)
f
bpt
=
p1
.
1
.f
ctd
(t) Expression (8.15)
where
f
ctd
(t) =
ct
.0.7f
ctm
(t)/
c
f
ctm
(t) = -2.3253 MPa
[1]

ct
= 1.0 - from EN 1992-1-1/3.1.6(2)

tendon type coefficient,
p1
= 3.2
bond condition coefficient,
1
= 1.0

hence
f
ctd
(t) = 1.0*0.7*-2.3253/1.5
= -1.0851 MPa

and
f
bpt
= 3.2*1.0*-1.0851
= -3.4724 MPa


Basic transmission length, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(2)
l
pt
=
1
.
2
..
pm0
/f
bpt
Expression (8.16)
where
speed of release coefficient,
1
= 1.0
tendon surface coefficient,
2
= 0.19
nominal diameter of tendon, = 16.0 mm
tendon stress after release,
pm0
= 1440.0 MPa

hence
l
pt
= 1.0*0.19*16.0*1440.0 / 3.47242
= 1.26068 m

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Design value of transmission length, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(3)
l
pt2
= 1.2*l
pt
= 1.2*1.26068
= 1.51281 m


Anchorage of the tendons for the ultimate limit state:

Bond stress for anchorage EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.3(2)
f
bpd
=
p2
.
1
.f
ctd
Expression (8.20)
where
f
ctd
=
ct
.0.7f
ctm
/
c
= 1.0*0.7*-3.5088/1.5
= -1.6374 MPa

tendon type coefficient,
p2
= 1.2

hence
f
bpd
= 1.2*1.0*-1.6374
= -1.9649 MPa


Total anchorage length, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.3(4)
l
bpd
= l
pt2
+
2
..(
pd
-
pm
)/f
bpd
Expression (8.21)

For a tendon stressed to its limit,
stress in tendon,
pd
= -1391.3 MPa
prestress after all losses,
pm
= -1069.1 MPa
[2]

hence
l
bpd
= 1.51281 + 0.19*16.0*(-1391.3--1069.1)/-1.9649
= 2.01123 m





SUMMARY OF ACTIONS
PERMANENT ACTIONS
ACTION TYPE MOMENT AXIAL
kN.m kN
Beam erection before composite = 996.3078 0.0
Construction stage 1A = 691.6251 0.0
Construction stage 1B = 29.53059 0.0
Surfacing = 119.591 0.0
Differential Shrinkage / creep = 0.0 0.0
[3]
TOTAL PERMANENT ACTIONS,
G
x G
k
1837.0545 0.0

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VARIABLE ACTIONS
ACTION TYPE MOMENT AXIAL
0

1

2
kN.m kN
Differential Temperature - Heating = 442.0334 0.0 0.6 0.6 0.5
Differential Temperature - Cooling = -153.1568 0.0 0.6 0.6 0.5
Traffic gr1a TS - for Bending desi = 1261.308 -59.16024 0.75 0.75 0.0
Traffic gr1a UDL - for Bending des = 437.9499 -5.893762 0.75 0.75 0.0
Traffic gr1a Footway - for Bending = 26.09187 1.915374 0.4 0.4 0.0


TOTAL VARIABLE ACTIONS,
Q,1
x Q
k,1
"+"
Q,i
x
0
x Q
k,i
TOTAL VARIABLE ACTIONS, Q
k,1
"+"
0
x Q
k,i
Thermal effects are set to zero when not adverse.
[4]
Traffic leading: Traffic 1725.3498 -63.13863

0
x Thermal 0.0 0.0

0
x Other 0.0 0.0
Total 1725.3498 -63.13863
Thermal leading:
0
x Traffic 1284.8802 -48.02435
Thermal 442.0334 0.0

0
x Other 0.0 0.0
Total 1726.9136 -48.02435
Other leading:
0
x Traffic 1284.8802 -48.02435

0
x Thermal 0.0 0.0
Other 0.0 0.0
Total 1284.8802 -48.02435

Critical case is with thermal leading


TOTAL COMBINATION

3563.9681 -48.02435


________
[1] For the derivation of this value refer to the limiting stress calculations for transfer
[2] Typical value used - varies for each tendon
[3] Shrinkage effects are excluded at ULS in accordance with EN1992-1-1/2.3.2.2(2)
[4] When thermal effects are not adverse, they are excluded at ULS according to EN 1992-1-1/2.3.1.2
98

99








Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


14. Verification: SLS bending Pier



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Design code: EN 1992-2:2005 with UK National Annex (modified)
EN 1990 Equation 6.14 SLS Characteristic
Exposure Class: XD1, XD2, XS1, XS2, XS3
Load case: Traffic gr1a TS - for Bending design 1
Section Ref 2 at 21m from left end of beam


WARNING - A reduction of flange width to allow for shear lag effects may be appropriate for this
beam. SAM makes no allowance for this.
Refer to EN 1992-1-1/5.3.2.1


Section details:
Ref 2 "Section 2"
at 1 x span = 21 m from left end of beam

Analysis:
Traffic Actions: Bending for gr1a, loading I.D. 1
At time considered, t =
Serviceability Limit State: Characteristic - EN 1990 Equation 6.14


ACTUAL STRESSES IN PRECAST BEAM
No. of tendons fully bonded at this section: 0
No. of tendons fully debonded at this section: 7
No. of tendons deflected at this section: 0
No. of tendons partially stressed: 14 (i.e. within the transmission length)
The prestress force in these tendons is interpolated in accordance with EN 1992-1-1
clause 8.10.2.2.

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Maximum Stressing Force - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.2.1(1)P
For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
k
1
.f
pk
= 0.8*1860.0 = 1488.0 MPa
k
2
.f
p0,1k
= 0.9*1600.0 = 1440.0 MPa

Wedge draw-in loss Clause 5.10.4(1)(i)
draw-in strain = 0.003/21.0
= 1.43E-4
loss = E
p
. strain
= 195.0*1.43E-4
= 27.8571 MPa

Heat Curing Clause 5.10.4(1)(ii)(Note)
Concrete is cured at ambient temperature


Immediate Losses - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.4

height No of f
p
k
1
/k
2
draw-in heat cure area initial force
mm tendons MPa MPa MPa mm kN
TOTAL 0 0.0
In accordance with clause 5.10.9(1), for SLS, the Characteristic value must be used.
With r
inf
= 1.0, P
k,inf
= 0.0 kN


Friction Clause 5.10.4(1)(i)
All tendons are straight in this beam.


Initial Relaxation Clause 5.10.4(1)(ii)
Loss is calculated from clause 3.3.2(7)
For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
relaxation loss at 1000 hours,
1000
= 8.0 %
=
pi
/ f
pk
= 0.0-0.0-0.0/1860.0
= 0.0

time after tensioning = 96.0 hours
for Class 1 relaxation, use Expression (3.28)
5.39 .
1000
. e
6.7
. [t/1000]
0.75(1-)
. 10
-5
= 5.39 * 8.0 * 1.0 * 0.17246 * 10
-5
= 7.44E-5

relaxation After relaxation
height No of area x loss force moment
mm tendons
pi
% kN kN kN.m
TOTAL 0 0.0 0.0

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Moment about the centroid of the precast beam:
M
r
= 0.0-(0.0*0.5760392)
= 0.0 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 0.0/537225.68+0.0/1.2843E8
= 0.0+0.0
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = 0.0/537225.68+0.0/-1.614E8
= 0.0+0.0
= 0.0 MPa

Self weight moment:
c.s.a. = 5.372E5 mm
density = 24.0 kN/m + 1.0 kN/m = 25.0 kN/m
[1]
self weight = 5.372E5*25.0
= 13.4306 kN/m
beam length = 21.0 m
distance = 21.0 m
M
sw
= 0.5*13.4306*21.0*(21.0-21.0)
= 0.0 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 0.0/1.2843E8
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = 0.0/-1.614E8
= 0.0 MPa



Elastic Deformation - Clause 5.10.4(1)(iii)
stress at top of precast beam = 0.0 MPa
stress at bottom of precast beam = 0.0 MPa
depth of precast beam = 1300.0 mm
elastic modulus of concrete at transfer = 31.1307 GPa
height No of conc conc tendon tendon
tendons stress strain force moment
mm MPa kN kN.m
TOTAL 0 0.0 0.0

Moment about the centroid of the precast beam:
M
ed
= 0.0-(0.0*0.5760392)
= 0.0 kN.m
hence,
top stress = 0.0-0.0/537.22568-0.0/1.2843E8
= 0.0-0.0-0.0
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = 0.0-0.0/537.22568-0.0/-1.614E8
= 0.0-0.0-0.0
= 0.0 MPa

After a further 0 iterations of the above process, the top and bottom stresses are as follows:
top stress = 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = 0.0 MPa

103
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Max Prestress Force after transfer - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.3.(2)

For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
k
7
.f
pk
= 0.75*1860.0 = 1395.0 MPa
k
8
.f
p0,1k
= 0.85*1600.0 = 1360.0 MPa

Maximum tendon stress after transfer = 1272.24 MPa
which is not greater than 1360.0 and therefore OK.


ACTIONS DURING EXECUTION
Erection of beam Loading
Bending moment from erection loadcase at current span location:
M
Applied
= 0.0 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 0.0/1.2843E8
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = 0.0/-1.614E8
= 0.0 MPa

Remove the dead load applied for transfer calculations
M
sw
= 0.0 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 0.0/1.2843E8
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = 0.0/-1.614E8
= 0.0 MPa



Time Dependent Losses - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.6
Simplified method using Expression (5.46)

P
c+s+r
= A
p
.
p,c+s+r


cs
.E
p
+ 0.8
pr
+ E
p
/E
cm
.(t,t
0
).
c,QP

p,c+s+r
=
1 + E
p
/E
cm
.A
p
/A
c
(1+A
c
/I
c
.z
cp
)[1+0.8(t,t
0
)]

The calculated loss is apportioned partly to the precast beam alone and partly to the full
composite section.

For in-situ cast at 60 days, the proportion of the loss occurring before the in-situ is cast
is calculated to be 30.0 %

104
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Losses are calculated for time t =

Age of concrete at end of curing, t
s
= 1.0 days
Age of concrete at transfer, t
0
= 4.0 days

Age is adjusted for expression (B.5) (for cement type & temperature)
- for cement class N ( = 0)
adjusted t
0
= t
0,T
. [(9/(2+t
0,T
1.2
)+1)

>=0.5 Expression (B.9)


= 4.0 * [(9/(2+4.0
1.2
)+1]
0
= 4.0 days
Age of concrete at time considered, t =
EN 1992-1-1/3.3.2(8) for relaxation, t is taken as 500,000 hours
Concrete age coefficient (Expression (3.2)),
cc
:

cc(t)
= f
cm(t)
/f
cm
Expression (3.1)
= exp{s[1-(28/t)]} Expression (3.2)
Coefficient for Class N cement, s = 0.25

cc(t0)
= exp{0.25[1.0-(28/4.0)]} = 0.66269

cc(t)
= exp{0.25} = 1.28403
Characteristic strength of concrete, f
ck
= 40.0 MPa
Mean compressive strength of concrete, f
cm
= 40.0 + 8.0
(from Table 3.1) = 48.0 MPa
f
cm0
= 10.0 MPa
f
cm(t0)
=
cc(t0)
. f
cm
= 31.8094 MPa
Ambient relative humidity = 80.0 %
Notional size of member, h
0
= 2A
c
/u = 2*9.283E5/7245.89
= 256.223 mm
Modulus of elasticity of concrete at 28 days, E
cm
= 35.2205 GPa
Modulus of elasticity of concrete at time considered,
E
cm(t)
=
cc(t)
0.3
. E
cm
Expressions (3.5) & (3.1)
= 1.28403
0.3
* 35.2205
= 37.9636 GPa

Area of concrete cross section, A
c
= 9.28E5 mm
Perimeter of concrete cross section, u = 7245.9 mm
Notional size, h
0
= 2*A
c
/u = 2*9.283E5/7245.89 = 256.22 mm


Creep coefficient for concrete - EN 1992-1-1 clause 3.1.4 and Annex B.1
(t,t
0
) =
0
.
c
(t,t
0
) Expression (B.1)
=
RH
. (f
cm
) . (t
0
) .
c
(t,t
0
) Expression (B.2)



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for f
cm
> 35.0 MPa
1-RH/100

RH
= [ 1 + .
1
] .
2
Expression (B.3b)
0.1*h
0
0.33

1
= [35.0/48.0]
0.7
= 0.80163

2
= [35.0/48.0]
0.2
= 0.93878

3
= [35.0/48.0]
0.5
= 0.85391


RH
= [1.0 + (1.0-0.8) / (0.1*256.223
0.33
) * 0.80163]*0.93878
= 1.17576

(f
cm
) = 16.8/f
cm
Expression (B.4)
= 16.8/48.0
= 2.42487


For Permanent Loads
In the absence of heat curing t
0,T
= 4.0 days
age is adjusted for expression (B.5) (for cement type and temperature)
- for cement class N ( = 0)

9.0
t
0
= t
0,T
. [ + 1.0 ]

>=0.5 Expression (B.9)


2.0 + t
0,T
1.2
9.0


= 4.0 * [ + 1.0 ]
0
2.0 + 4.0
1.2
= 4.0 day

(t
0
) = 1/(0.1+t
0
0.2
) Expression (B.5)
= 1/(0.1+4.0
0.2
)
= 0.70446

c
(t,t
0
) = 1.0 for time t =
hence from (B.1) and (B.2):
(t,t
0
) = 1.17576*2.42487*0.70446
= 2.00849


Check for creep non-linearity EN 1992-1-1 clause 3.1.4(4)

At the level of the centroid of the tendons, the compressive stress in the concrete at time t
0
= 0.0 MPa.
This does not exceed 0.45*f
ck
(t
0
), i.e. 18.0 MPa, so non-linear creep is not considered




Shrinkage Strain for concrete - EN 1992-1-1 clause 3.1.4(6)

Total Shrinkage:

cs
=
cd
+
ca
(3.8)

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Drying Shrinkage - Expression (3.9):

cd
(t) =
ds
(t,t
s
).k
h
.
cd,0


ds
(t,t
s
) = 1.0 for t =
From Table 3.3:
k
h
= 0.79377
From Annex B, Expression (B.11):

cd,0
= 0.85[(220+110.
ds1
).(exp(-
ds2
.f
cm
/f
cm0
)].10
-6
.
RH

RH
= 1.55[1.0-(RH/100)] (B.12)
= 0.7564
For cement class N,

ds1
= 4

ds2
= 0.12
hence,

cd,0
= 0.85[(220+110*4.0)*exp(-0.12*48.0/10.0)]*10
-6
*0.7564
= 238.54*10
-6
and,

cd
(t) = 1.0*0.79377*238.54*10
-6
= 189.347*10
-6


Autogenous Shrinkage - Expression (3.11):

ca
(t) =
as
(t).
ca
()

as
(t) = 1.0 for t =

ca
() = 2.5*(f
ck
-10.0)*10
-6
= 75.0*10
-6
hence,

ca
(t) = 1.0*75.0*10
-6
= 75.0*10
-6


Total Shrinkage:

cs
=
cd
(t) +
ca
(t)
= 189.3473 + 75.0
= 264.3473*10
-6



Further Relaxation Clause 5.10.6(1)(b)

Loss is calculated from clause 3.3.2(7)
For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
relaxation loss at 1000 hours,
1000
= 8.0 %
time after tensioning = 500000.0 hours
= 0.75921 (as calculated for initial
relaxation loss above)
for Class 1 relaxation, use Expression (3.28)
5.39 .
1000
. e
6.7
. [t/1000]
0.75(1-)
. 10
-5
= 5.39 * 8.0 * 161.863 * 3.07185 * 10
-5
= 0.21440
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With the initial relaxation deducted, the variation in tendon stress from relaxation becomes:


pr
/
pi
= 0.21440 - 0.04571
= 0.16868

Summary of the above for Expression (5.46):
Estimated shrinkage strain
cs
= 264.347 x10
-6
Creep coefficient at t for loading at t
0
(t,t
0
) = 2.00849
Relaxation,
pr
= 238.212 MPa
Modulus of elasticity for prestressing steel E
p
= 195.0 GPa
Modulus of Elasticity for concrete E
cm
= 37.9636 GPa
Area of all prestressing A
p
= 0.0 mm
Area of concrete section A
c
= 9.283E5 mm
Second moment of area of concrete section I
c
= 2.38E11 mm

E
p
/E
cm
= 195.0/37.9636 = 5.1365
E
p
/E
cm
.A
p
/A
c
= 5.1365*0.0/9.283E5 = 0.0
A
c
/I
c
= 9.283E5/2.38E11 = 3.89252


In the table below the following vary with tendon height:

c,QP
= Stress in concrete adjacent to tendons
z
cp
= Section centre of gravity to tendons
(t,t
0
) = Creep Coefficient (if non-linear creep is considered)

shrink relax creep denom
height
cs
.E
p
(t,t
0
) E
p
/E
cm
..
A
p
0.8
pr

c,QP
z
cp
P
c+s+r
mm mm MPa MPa MPa MPa mm kN
Total force loss: 0.0
Total moment loss: 0.0

M
csr
= 0.0-(0.0*0.9124128)
= 0.0 kN.m

Corresponding stresses - before composite:
top stress = ( 0.0/5.372E5+0.0/1.284E8 )* 0.3
= ( 0.0+0.0 )* 0.3
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = ( 0.0/5.372E5+0.0/-1.61E8 )* 0.3
= ( 0.0+0.0 )* 0.3
= 0.0 MPa

- after composite:
top stress = ( 0.0/9.283E5+0.0/6.153E8 )*(1.0- 0.3)
= ( 0.0+0.0 )*(1.0-0.3)
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = ( 0.0/9.283E5+0.0/-2.61E8 )*(1.0-0.3 )
= ( 0.0+0.0 )*(1.0-0.3)
= 0.0 MPa

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Surfacing 1 Loading
M
Applied
= -130.6559 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = -130.6559/6.1529E8
= -0.2123 MPa
bottom stress = -130.6559/-2.614E8
= 0.49988 MPa


TOTAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS SUMMARY
Initial stressing force = 0.0 kN
Prestress after all losses at t = = 0.0 kN

Corresponding loss = 100 %


LIMITING STRESSES IN PRECAST BEAM
Compression
EN 1992-2 Clause 7.2(102)
k
1
.f
ck
= 0.6*40.0
= 24.0 MPa
In the presence of confinement or increase in cover this may be increased by up to 10%, i.e
to:
= 26.4 MPa

Tension
Tension is governed by crack width considerations, and reinforcement provided for crack
width control.

Exposure Class is XD1, XD2, XD3, XS1, XS2, XS3 ...
... for which decompression is checked for the Frequent combination of loads.
Decompression requires all of the tendon to be at least 65.0 mm above the level of the
neutral axis.



LIMITING STRESSES FOR IN SITU CONCRETE
Compression
EN 1992-2-2 Clause 7.2(102)
To avoid longitudinal cracking, compressive stress is limited to:

c
= k
1
.f
ck
= 0.6*31.875
= 19.125 MPa

Tension
Tension is governed by crack width considerations, and reinforcement provided for crack
width control.
EN 1992-1_1 Clause 7.3
However, no tensile stress is present at this section.


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TRANSMISSION LENGTH
Bond stress at release, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(1)
f
bpt
=
p1
.
1
.f
ctd
(t) Expression (8.15)
where
f
ctd
(t) =
ct
.0.7f
ctm
(t)/
c
f
ctm
(t) = -2.3253 MPa
[2]

ct
= 1.0 - from EN 1992-1-1/3.1.6(2)

tendon type coefficient,
p1
= 3.2
bond condition coefficient,
1
= 1.0

hence
f
ctd
(t) = 1.0*0.7*-2.3253/1.5
= -1.0851 MPa

and
f
bpt
= 3.2*1.0*-1.0851
= -3.4724 MPa


Basic transmission length, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(2)
l
pt
=
1
.
2
..
pm0
/f
bpt
Expression (8.16)
where
speed of release coefficient,
1
= 1.0
tendon surface coefficient,
2
= 0.19
nominal diameter of tendon, = 16.0 mm
tendon stress after release,
pm0
= 1440.0 MPa

hence
l
pt
= 1.0*0.19*16.0*1440.0 / 3.47242
= 1.26068 m


Design value of transmission length, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(3)
l
pt1
= 0.8*l
pt
= 0.8*1.26068
= 1.00854 m


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STRUCTURAL EFFECTS OF TIME DEPENDENT BEHAVIOUR
EN 1992-2 Annex KK.7


Age of concrete at first loading, t
0
= 4.0 days
Age of concrete when first composite, t
c
= 60.0 days
Age of concrete at time considered, t =
Creep coefficient when first composite, (t
c
,t
0
) = 0.89250
Final creep coefficient, (,t
0
) = 2.00881
Creep coefficient increment, (,t
c
) = 1.20422
Specified value of Ageing coefficient, = 0.8

From Expression (KK.119):
(,t
0
) - (t
c
,t
0
) 2.00881-0.89250
=
1 + .(,t
c
) 1.0 + 0.8*1.20422

= 0.56856

SLS STRESS SUMMARY TABLE
Concrete Stresses (MPa)
force moment In situ Precast
kN kN.m top bottom top bottom

CHARACTERISTIC PERMANENT ACTIONS AND PRESTRESS
Prestress
[3]
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Self Weight 0.0 0.0 0.0

Prestress + Self Weight 0.0 0.0

Elastic Def 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TRANSFER 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Cr+Sh+Rlx B 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Erection 0.0 0.0 0.0
In situ 1A 0.0 0.0 0.0
In situ 1B 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL PERMANENT EFFECTS, S
0
0.0 0.0
Cr+Sh+Rlx A 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL PERMANENT EFFECTS, S
0,
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

CREEP REDISTRIBUTION according to EN 1992-2 Annex KK.7
Construction On Centering, S
c
= G + P
1
+ P
2
Permanent G -1332.6 -2.9471 -1.89 -2.1658 5.09841
Prestress P
1
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
[4]
Prestress P
2
4659.29 10.3044 6.6083 7.57251 -17.826
[5]
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(S
c
- S
0
)*0.56856 4.18309 2.68266 3.07408 -7.2366
Hence from KK.119,
TOTAL CONSTRUCTION EFFECTS, S

4.18309 2.68266 3.07408 -7.2366


SDL -130.66 -0.2889 -0.1853 -0.2123 0.49988
Diff. Shr. 1 605.383 278.488 -0.3240 -0.5449 1.10477 -0.4133
Diff. Shr. 2 -203.89 -0.4509 -0.2891 -0.3313 0.78006
[Differential shrinkage is included when adverse ]
TOTAL PERMANENT EFFECTS 3.89413 2.49735 2.86173 -6.7368
[including diff. shrinkage 3.1192 1.66324 3.63513 -6.37]
VARIABLE ACTIONS - CHARACTERISTIC COMBINATION

Traffic
Selected case:
0
Traffic gr1a TS 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.75
Traffic gr1a UDL 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.75
Traffic gr1a FT 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4
Total (Leading) : 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total (in Combination) : 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Other traffic cases for comparison:
Traffic gr1a TS 2 -648.5 -1.4342 -0.9197 -1.054 2.48113 0.75
131.125 0.13361 0.13361 0.14125 0.14125
Traffic gr1a UDL 2 -533.09 -1.179 -0.7560 -0.8664 2.0396 0.75
77.6189 0.07909 0.07909 0.08362 0.08362
Traffic gr1a FT 2 -34.778 -0.0769 -0.0493 -0.0565 0.13305 0.4
-11.642 -0.0119 -0.0119 -0.0125 -0.0125
Total (Leading) : -2.4892 -1.5243 -1.7646 4.86613
Total (in Combination) : -1.8359 -1.1218 -1.2993 3.60741
Temperature Restraint
None defined
Differential Temperature - Heating
Diff. Tmp H1 -1016.0 -400.93 2.57552 -0.8043 -0.7740 1.31996
Diff. Tmp H2 570.322 1.26131 0.80889 0.92691 -2.182 0.6
Differential Temperature - Cooling
Diff. Tmp C1 976.559 130.974 -1.5057 0.47350 0.18673 -1.7342
Diff. Tmp C2 -197.6 -0.4370 -0.2802 -0.3211 0.75602 0.6
Other Variable Action
None defined
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The following combinations of variable actions are evaluated in accordance with EN 1990
Equation 6.14b:
a) Traffic as leading action +
0
(Thermal + Other)
b) Thermal as leading action +
0
(Traffic + Other)
c) Other as leading action +
0
(Traffic + Thermal)

For thermal actions the following cases are considered:
i) temperature restraint alone
ii) differential temperature: Heating
iii) differential temperature: Cooling
iv) temperature restraint + differential temperature: Heating
v) temperature restraint + differential temperature: Cooling

The most adverse case is with Thermal (iii/v) as leading action


0
x Traffic 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Thermal -1.9427 0.19324 -0.1344 -0.9781

0
x Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL VARIABLE ACTIONS -1.9427 0.19324 -0.1344 -0.9781
TOTAL PERMANENT (from above) 3.1192 2.49735 3.63513 -6.37

TOTAL COMBINATION 1.1765 2.69059 3.50071 -7.3482

WARNING - The flexural tensile stress exceeds the value of f
ct,eff
so the section cannot be assumed
to be uncracked. (EN 1992-1-1/7.1(2)) A cracked section analysis must be performed to derive the
true compression stress in the concrete.

VARIABLE ACTIONS - FREQUENT COMBINATION

Traffic
Selected case:
2

1
= 0.75
Traffic gr1a TS 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

1
= 0.75
Traffic gr1a UDL 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

1
= 0.4
however, EN 1991-2 Clause 4.5.2 excludes the footway loading from the frequent action of LM1
Traffic gr1a FT 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total (Leading) : 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total (in Combination) : 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Other traffic cases for comparison:

1
= 0.75
Traffic gr1a TS 2 -486.37 -1.0756 -0.6898 -0.7904 1.86085 0.0
98.3438 0.10020 0.10020 0.10594 0.10594

1
= 0.75
Traffic gr1a UDL 2 -399.82 -0.8842 -0.5670 -0.6498 1.5297 0.0
58.2142 0.05932 0.05932 0.06271 0.06271
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1
= 0.4
however, EN 1991-2 Clause 4.5.2 excludes the footway loading from the frequent action of LM1
Traffic gr1a FT 2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total (Leading) : -1.8004 -1.0974 -1.2716 3.55921
Total (in Combination) : 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Temperature Restraint
None defined
Differential Temperature - Heating

1
= 0.6
Diff. Tmp H1 -1016.0 -400.93 2.57552 -0.8043 -0.7740 1.31996
Diff. Tmp H2 570.322 1.26131 0.80889 0.92691 -2.182 0.5
Differential Temperature - Cooling

1
= 0.6
Diff. Tmp C1 976.559 130.974 -1.5057 0.47350 0.18673 -1.7342
Diff. Tmp C2 -197.6 -0.4370 -0.2802 -0.3211 0.75602 0.5
Other Variable Action
None defined

The following combinations of variable actions are evaluated in accordance with EN 1990
Equation 6.15b:
a)
1
(Traffic) as leading action +
2
(Thermal + Other)
b)
1
(Thermal) as leading action +
2
(Traffic + Other)
c)
1
(Other) as leading action +
2
(Traffic + Thermal)

For thermal actions the following cases are considered:
i) temperature restraint alone
ii) differential temperature: Heating
iii) differential temperature: Cooling
iv) temperature restraint + differential temperature: Heating
v) temperature restraint + differential temperature: Cooling

The most adverse case is with Thermal (iii/v) as leading action


2
x Traffic 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

1
x Thermal -1.1656 0.11594 -0.0807 -0.5869

2
x Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL VARIABLE ACTIONS -1.1656 0.11594 -0.0807 -0.5869
TOTAL PERMANENT (from above) 3.1192 2.49735 3.63513 -6.7368

TOTAL COMBINATION 1.95358 2.6133 3.55448 -7.3237




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SLS FLEXURE
Precast Curvature Deflection
Stress E Strain (x10
-6
) (mm)
(MPa) (x10
-6
) (rad/m) Here Max.

After Transfer
T
0.04918 E
T
1.57982 2.16063 -4.E-16 15.0561

B
-0.0383 -1.229

After Erection
T
-0.2764 E
I
-14.887 -33.436 1.7E-15 19.6107

B
0.53063 28.5795

After in situ 1A
T
-0.2764 E
I
-14.887 -33.436 2.2E-16 6.14087

B
0.53064 28.5797
After in situ 1B
T
-0.2649 E
I
-14.271 -32.586 -1.E-15 5.84195

B
0.52154 28.0899

Long-term Dead
T
0.56105 E
L
47.9295 -20.08 -2.E-16 -4.8888

B
0.86661 74.0333

Diff. Temp H1
T
-0.4644 E
S
-13.186 -27.44 4.9E-16 1.59073

B
0.79197 22.4862
Diff. Temp H2
T
0.55615 E
S
15.7905 40.7406 1.9E-16 -1.1726

B
-1.3092 -37.172
Diff. Temp C1
T
0.11203 E
S
3.18107 25.1724 -2.E-16 -1.4413

B
-1.0405 -29.543
Diff. Temp C2
T
-0.1926 E
S
-5.471 -14.116 -4.E-17 0.40625

B
0.45361 12.8793

Traffic gr1a 1
T
-0.3085 E
S
-8.7613 -20.798 -2.E-15 -6.7548

B
0.64368 18.2758
Extreme in-service -29.821 -3.E-15 -12.688

Curvatures here are derived from precast section height: 1300.0mm

E
T
= Elastic Modulus at Transfer = 31130.7MPa
[EN1992-1-1 Clauses 3.1.3-(3) and 3.1.2-(6) with age 4 days]

E
I
= Intermediate Term Elastic Modulus = 18567.1MPa
[EN1992-1-1 Clause 7.4.3-(5) at 60.0 days (=0.89693)]

E
L
= Long Term Elastic Modulus = 11705.8MPa
[EN1992-1-1 Clause 7.4.3-(5) at infinite time (=2.00881)]

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E
S
= Short Term Elastic Modulus [E
cm
] = 35220.5MPa



________
[1] Refer to EN 1991-1-1 Table A.1 Note 1)
[2] For the derivation of this value refer to the limiting stress calculations for transfer
[3] includes draw-in and initial relaxation
[4] With immediate losses and shrinkage / creep / relaxation losses until time at which insitu is cast.
[5] Secondary effects arising from prestress in continuous section.
116

117








Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


15. Verification: SLS bending Support



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Design code: EN 1992-2:2005 with UK National Annex (modified)
EN 1990 Equation 6.14 SLS Characteristic
Exposure Class: XD1, XD2, XS1, XS2, XS3
Load case: Traffic gr1a TS - for Bending design 1
Section Ref 1 at 0m from left end of beam


WARNING - A reduction of flange width to allow for shear lag effects may be appropriate for this
beam. SAM makes no allowance for this.
Refer to EN 1992-1-1/5.3.2.1


Section details:
Ref 1 "Section 1"
at 0 x span = 0 m from left end of beam

Analysis:
Traffic Actions: Bending for gr1a, loading I.D. 1
At time considered, t =
Serviceability Limit State: Characteristic - EN 1990 Equation 6.14


ACTUAL STRESSES IN PRECAST BEAM
No. of tendons fully bonded at this section: 0
No. of tendons fully debonded at this section: 7
No. of tendons deflected at this section: 0
No. of tendons partially stressed: 14 (i.e. within the transmission length)
The prestress force in these tendons is interpolated in accordance with EN 1992-1-1
clause 8.10.2.2.

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Maximum Stressing Force - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.2.1(1)P
For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
k
1
.f
pk
= 0.8*1860.0 = 1488.0 MPa
k
2
.f
p0,1k
= 0.9*1600.0 = 1440.0 MPa

Wedge draw-in loss Clause 5.10.4(1)(i)
draw-in strain = 0.003/21.0
= 1.43E-4
loss = E
p
. strain
= 195.0*1.43E-4
= 27.8571 MPa

Heat Curing Clause 5.10.4(1)(ii)(Note)
Concrete is cured at ambient temperature


Immediate Losses - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.4

height No of f
p
k
1
/k
2
draw-in heat cure area initial force
mm tendons MPa MPa MPa mm kN
TOTAL 0 0.0
In accordance with clause 5.10.9(1), for SLS, the Characteristic value must be used.
With r
inf
= 1.0, P
k,inf
= 0.0 kN


Friction Clause 5.10.4(1)(i)
All tendons are straight in this beam.


Initial Relaxation Clause 5.10.4(1)(ii)
Loss is calculated from clause 3.3.2(7)
For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
relaxation loss at 1000 hours,
1000
= 8.0 %
=
pi
/ f
pk
= 0.0-0.0-0.0/1860.0
= 0.0

time after tensioning = 96.0 hours
for Class 1 relaxation, use Expression (3.28)
5.39 .
1000
. e
6.7
. [t/1000]
0.75(1-)
. 10
-5
= 5.39 * 8.0 * 1.0 * 0.17246 * 10
-5
= 7.44E-5

relaxation After relaxation
height No of area x loss force moment
mm tendons
pi
% kN kN kN.m
TOTAL 0 0.0 0.0

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Moment about the centroid of the precast beam:
M
r
= 0.0-(0.0*0.5760392)
= 0.0 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 0.0/537225.68+0.0/1.2843E8
= 0.0+0.0
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = 0.0/537225.68+0.0/-1.614E8
= 0.0+0.0
= 0.0 MPa

Self weight moment:
c.s.a. = 5.372E5 mm
density = 24.0 kN/m + 1.0 kN/m = 25.0 kN/m
[1]
self weight = 5.372E5*25.0
= 13.4306 kN/m
beam length = 21.0 m
distance = 0.0 m
M
sw
= 0.5*13.4306*0.0*(21.0-0.0)
= 0.0 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 0.0/1.2843E8
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = 0.0/-1.614E8
= 0.0 MPa



Elastic Deformation - Clause 5.10.4(1)(iii)
stress at top of precast beam = 0.0 MPa
stress at bottom of precast beam = 0.0 MPa
depth of precast beam = 1300.0 mm
elastic modulus of concrete at transfer = 31.1307 GPa
height No of conc conc tendon tendon
tendons stress strain force moment
mm MPa kN kN.m
TOTAL 0 0.0 0.0

Moment about the centroid of the precast beam:
M
ed
= 0.0-(0.0*0.5760392)
= 0.0 kN.m
hence,
top stress = 0.0-0.0/537.22568-0.0/1.2843E8
= 0.0-0.0-0.0
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = 0.0-0.0/537.22568-0.0/-1.614E8
= 0.0-0.0-0.0
= 0.0 MPa

After a further 0 iterations of the above process, the top and bottom stresses are as follows:
top stress = 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = 0.0 MPa

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Max Prestress Force after transfer - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.3.(2)

For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
k
7
.f
pk
= 0.75*1860.0 = 1395.0 MPa
k
8
.f
p0,1k
= 0.85*1600.0 = 1360.0 MPa

Maximum tendon stress after transfer = 1272.24 MPa
which is not greater than 1360.0 and therefore OK.


ACTIONS DURING EXECUTION
Erection of beam Loading
Bending moment from erection loadcase at current span location:
M
Applied
= 0.0 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 0.0/1.2843E8
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = 0.0/-1.614E8
= 0.0 MPa

Remove the dead load applied for transfer calculations
M
sw
= 0.0 kN.m
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = 0.0/1.2843E8
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = 0.0/-1.614E8
= 0.0 MPa



Time Dependent Losses - EN 1992-1-1 Clause 5.10.6
Simplified method using Expression (5.46)

P
c+s+r
= A
p
.
p,c+s+r


cs
.E
p
+ 0.8
pr
+ E
p
/E
cm
.(t,t
0
).
c,QP

p,c+s+r
=
1 + E
p
/E
cm
.A
p
/A
c
(1+A
c
/I
c
.z
cp
)[1+0.8(t,t
0
)]

The calculated loss is apportioned partly to the precast beam alone and partly to the full
composite section.

For in-situ cast at 60 days, the proportion of the loss occurring before the in-situ is cast
is calculated to be 30.0 %

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Losses are calculated for time t =

Age of concrete at end of curing, t
s
= 1.0 days
Age of concrete at transfer, t
0
= 4.0 days

Age is adjusted for expression (B.5) (for cement type & temperature)
- for cement class N ( = 0)
adjusted t
0
= t
0,T
. [(9/(2+t
0,T
1.2
)+1)

>=0.5 Expression (B.9)


= 4.0 * [(9/(2+4.0
1.2
)+1]
0
= 4.0 days
Age of concrete at time considered, t =
EN 1992-1-1/3.3.2(8) for relaxation, t is taken as 500,000 hours
Concrete age coefficient (Expression (3.2)),
cc
:

cc(t)
= f
cm(t)
/f
cm
Expression (3.1)
= exp{s[1-(28/t)]} Expression (3.2)
Coefficient for Class N cement, s = 0.25

cc(t0)
= exp{0.25[1.0-(28/4.0)]} = 0.66269

cc(t)
= exp{0.25} = 1.28403
Characteristic strength of concrete, f
ck
= 40.0 MPa
Mean compressive strength of concrete, f
cm
= 40.0 + 8.0
(from Table 3.1) = 48.0 MPa
f
cm0
= 10.0 MPa
f
cm(t0)
=
cc(t0)
. f
cm
= 31.8094 MPa
Ambient relative humidity = 80.0 %
Notional size of member, h
0
= 2A
c
/u = 2*9.051E5/7245.89
= 249.811 mm
Modulus of elasticity of concrete at 28 days, E
cm
= 35.2205 GPa
Modulus of elasticity of concrete at time considered,
E
cm(t)
=
cc(t)
0.3
. E
cm
Expressions (3.5) & (3.1)
= 1.28403
0.3
* 35.2205
= 37.9636 GPa

Area of concrete cross section, A
c
= 9.05E5 mm
Perimeter of concrete cross section, u = 7245.9 mm
Notional size, h
0
= 2*A
c
/u = 2*9.051E5/7245.89 = 249.81 mm


Creep coefficient for concrete - EN 1992-1-1 clause 3.1.4 and Annex B.1
(t,t
0
) =
0
.
c
(t,t
0
) Expression (B.1)
=
RH
. (f
cm
) . (t
0
) .
c
(t,t
0
) Expression (B.2)



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for f
cm
> 35.0 MPa
1-RH/100

RH
= [ 1 + .
1
] .
2
Expression (B.3b)
0.1*h
0
0.33

1
= [35.0/48.0]
0.7
= 0.80163

2
= [35.0/48.0]
0.2
= 0.93878

3
= [35.0/48.0]
0.5
= 0.85391


RH
= [1.0 + (1.0-0.8) / (0.1*249.811
0.33
) * 0.80163]*0.93878
= 1.17777

(f
cm
) = 16.8/f
cm
Expression (B.4)
= 16.8/48.0
= 2.42487


For Permanent Loads
In the absence of heat curing t
0,T
= 4.0 days
age is adjusted for expression (B.5) (for cement type and temperature)
- for cement class N ( = 0)

9.0
t
0
= t
0,T
. [ + 1.0 ]

>=0.5 Expression (B.9)


2.0 + t
0,T
1.2
9.0


= 4.0 * [ + 1.0 ]
0
2.0 + 4.0
1.2
= 4.0 day

(t
0
) = 1/(0.1+t
0
0.2
) Expression (B.5)
= 1/(0.1+4.0
0.2
)
= 0.70446

c
(t,t
0
) = 1.0 for time t =
hence from (B.1) and (B.2):
(t,t
0
) = 1.17777*2.42487*0.70446
= 2.01193


Check for creep non-linearity EN 1992-1-1 clause 3.1.4(4)

At the level of the centroid of the tendons, the compressive stress in the concrete at time t
0
= 0.0 MPa.
This does not exceed 0.45*f
ck
(t
0
), i.e. 18.0 MPa, so non-linear creep is not considered




Shrinkage Strain for concrete - EN 1992-1-1 clause 3.1.4(6)

Total Shrinkage:

cs
=
cd
+
ca
(3.8)

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Drying Shrinkage - Expression (3.9):

cd
(t) =
ds
(t,t
s
).k
h
.
cd,0


ds
(t,t
s
) = 1.0 for t =
From Table 3.3:
k
h
= 0.80018
From Annex B, Expression (B.11):

cd,0
= 0.85[(220+110.
ds1
).(exp(-
ds2
.f
cm
/f
cm0
)].10
-6
.
RH

RH
= 1.55[1.0-(RH/100)] (B.12)
= 0.7564
For cement class N,

ds1
= 4

ds2
= 0.12
hence,

cd,0
= 0.85[(220+110*4.0)*exp(-0.12*48.0/10.0)]*10
-6
*0.7564
= 238.54*10
-6
and,

cd
(t) = 1.0*0.80018*238.54*10
-6
= 190.877*10
-6


Autogenous Shrinkage - Expression (3.11):

ca
(t) =
as
(t).
ca
()

as
(t) = 1.0 for t =

ca
() = 2.5*(f
ck
-10.0)*10
-6
= 75.0*10
-6
hence,

ca
(t) = 1.0*75.0*10
-6
= 75.0*10
-6


Total Shrinkage:

cs
=
cd
(t) +
ca
(t)
= 190.87688 + 75.0
= 265.87688*10
-6



Further Relaxation Clause 5.10.6(1)(b)

Loss is calculated from clause 3.3.2(7)
For tendon property Grade 1600 Ep 195.0
relaxation loss at 1000 hours,
1000
= 8.0 %
time after tensioning = 500000.0 hours
= 0.75921 (as calculated for initial
relaxation loss above)
for Class 1 relaxation, use Expression (3.28)
5.39 .
1000
. e
6.7
. [t/1000]
0.75(1-)
. 10
-5
= 5.39 * 8.0 * 161.863 * 3.07185 * 10
-5
= 0.21440
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With the initial relaxation deducted, the variation in tendon stress from relaxation becomes:


pr
/
pi
= 0.21440 - 0.04571
= 0.16868

Summary of the above for Expression (5.46):
Estimated shrinkage strain
cs
= 265.877 x10
-6
Creep coefficient at t for loading at t
0
(t,t
0
) = 2.01193
Relaxation,
pr
= 238.212 MPa
Modulus of elasticity for prestressing steel E
p
= 195.0 GPa
Modulus of Elasticity for concrete E
cm
= 37.9636 GPa
Area of all prestressing A
p
= 0.0 mm
Area of concrete section A
c
= 9.051E5 mm
Second moment of area of concrete section I
c
= 2.33E11 mm

E
p
/E
cm
= 195.0/37.9636 = 5.1365
E
p
/E
cm
.A
p
/A
c
= 5.1365*0.0/9.051E5 = 0.0
A
c
/I
c
= 9.051E5/2.33E11 = 3.8904


In the table below the following vary with tendon height:

c,QP
= Stress in concrete adjacent to tendons
z
cp
= Section centre of gravity to tendons
(t,t
0
) = Creep Coefficient (if non-linear creep is considered)

shrink relax creep denom
height
cs
.E
p
(t,t
0
) E
p
/E
cm
..
A
p
0.8
pr

c,QP
z
cp
P
c+s+r
mm mm MPa MPa MPa MPa mm kN
Total force loss: 0.0
Total moment loss: 0.0

M
csr
= 0.0-(0.0*0.8997047)
= 0.0 kN.m

Corresponding stresses - before composite:
top stress = ( 0.0/5.372E5+0.0/1.284E8 )* 0.3
= ( 0.0+0.0 )* 0.3
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = ( 0.0/5.372E5+0.0/-1.61E8 )* 0.3
= ( 0.0+0.0 )* 0.3
= 0.0 MPa

- after composite:
top stress = ( 0.0/9.051E5+0.0/5.812E8 )*(1.0- 0.3)
= ( 0.0+0.0 )*(1.0-0.3)
= 0.0 MPa
bottom stress = ( 0.0/9.051E5+0.0/-2.59E8 )*(1.0-0.3 )
= ( 0.0+0.0 )*(1.0-0.3)
= 0.0 MPa

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Traffic gr1a TS - for Bending design 1 Loading
M
Applied
= 78.74031 kN.m
P
Applied
= -19.96643 kN
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = -19.96643/905051.1 + 78.74031/5.8116E8
= -0.0221 + 0.13548
= 0.11342 MPa
bottom stress = -19.96643/905051.1 + 78.74031/-2.586E8
= -0.0221 + -0.304
= -0.3265 MPa


Traffic gr1a UDL - for Bending design 1 Loading
M
Applied
= 32.7097 kN.m
P
Applied
= -10.9063 kN
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = -10.9063/905051.1 + 32.7097/5.8116E8
= -0.0121 + 0.05628
= 0.04423 MPa
bottom stress = -10.9063/905051.1 + 32.7097/-2.586E8
= -0.0121 + -0.126
= -0.1385 MPa


Traffic gr1a Footway - for Bending design 1 Loading
M
Applied
= 25.29156 kN.m
P
Applied
= -3.118579 kN
Corresponding stresses:
top stress = -3.118579/905051.1 + 25.29156/5.8116E8
= -0.0034 + 0.04352
= 0.04007 MPa
bottom stress = -3.118579/905051.1 + 25.29156/-2.586E8
= -0.0034 + -0.098
= -0.1012 MPa


TOTAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS SUMMARY
Initial stressing force = 0.0 kN
Prestress after all losses at t = = 0.0 kN

Corresponding loss = 100 %


LIMITING STRESSES IN PRECAST BEAM
Compression
EN 1992-2 Clause 7.2(102)
k
1
.f
ck
= 0.6*40.0
= 24.0 MPa
In the presence of confinement or increase in cover this may be increased by up to 10%, i.e
to:
= 26.4 MPa
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Tension
Tension is governed by crack width considerations, and reinforcement provided for crack
width control.

Exposure Class is XD1, XD2, XD3, XS1, XS2, XS3 ...
... for which decompression is checked for the Frequent combination of loads.
Decompression requires all of the tendon to be at least 65.0 mm above the level of the
neutral axis.



LIMITING STRESSES FOR IN SITU CONCRETE
Compression
EN 1992-2-2 Clause 7.2(102)
To avoid longitudinal cracking, compressive stress is limited to:

c
= k
1
.f
ck
= 0.6*31.875
= 19.125 MPa

Tension
Tension is governed by crack width considerations, and reinforcement provided for crack
width control.
EN 1992-1_1 Clause 7.3



TRANSMISSION LENGTH
Bond stress at release, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(1)
f
bpt
=
p1
.
1
.f
ctd
(t) Expression (8.15)
where
f
ctd
(t) =
ct
.0.7f
ctm
(t)/
c
f
ctm
(t) = -2.3253 MPa
[2]

ct
= 1.0 - from EN 1992-1-1/3.1.6(2)

tendon type coefficient,
p1
= 3.2
bond condition coefficient,
1
= 1.0

hence
f
ctd
(t) = 1.0*0.7*-2.3253/1.5
= -1.0851 MPa

and
f
bpt
= 3.2*1.0*-1.0851
= -3.4724 MPa

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Basic transmission length, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(2)
l
pt
=
1
.
2
..
pm0
/f
bpt
Expression (8.16)
where
speed of release coefficient,
1
= 1.0
tendon surface coefficient,
2
= 0.19
nominal diameter of tendon, = 16.0 mm
tendon stress after release,
pm0
= 1440.0 MPa

hence
l
pt
= 1.0*0.19*16.0*1440.0 / 3.47242
= 1.26068 m


Design value of transmission length, EN 1992-1-1 Clause 8.10.2.2(3)
l
pt1
= 0.8*l
pt
= 0.8*1.26068
= 1.00854 m



STRUCTURAL EFFECTS OF TIME DEPENDENT BEHAVIOUR
EN 1992-2 Annex KK.7


Age of concrete at first loading, t
0
= 4.0 days
Age of concrete when first composite, t
c
= 60.0 days
Age of concrete at time considered, t =
Creep coefficient when first composite, (t
c
,t
0
) = 0.89250
Final creep coefficient, (,t
0
) = 2.00881
Creep coefficient increment, (,t
c
) = 1.20422
Specified value of Ageing coefficient, = 0.8

From Expression (KK.119):
(,t
0
) - (t
c
,t
0
) 2.00881-0.89250
=
1 + .(,t
c
) 1.0 + 0.8*1.20422

= 0.56856

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SLS STRESS SUMMARY TABLE
Concrete Stresses (MPa)
force moment In situ Precast
kN kN.m top bottom top bottom

CHARACTERISTIC PERMANENT ACTIONS AND PRESTRESS
Prestress
[3]
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Self Weight 0.0 0.0 0.0

Prestress + Self Weight 0.0 0.0

Elastic Def 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TRANSFER 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Cr+Sh+Rlx B 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Erection 0.0 0.0 0.0
In situ 1A 0.0 0.0 0.0
In situ 1B 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL PERMANENT EFFECTS, S
0
0.0 0.0
Cr+Sh+Rlx A 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL PERMANENT EFFECTS, S
0,
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

CREEP REDISTRIBUTION according to EN 1992-2 Annex KK.7
Construction On Centering, S
c
= G + P
1
+ P
2
Permanent G 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Prestress P
1
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
[4]
Prestress P
2
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
[5]

(S
c
- S
0
)*0.56856 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hence from KK.119,
TOTAL CONSTRUCTION EFFECTS, S

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


SDL 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Diff. Shr. 1 605.383 286.182 -0.2604 -0.4932 1.16132 -0.4378
Diff. Shr. 2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
[Differential shrinkage is included when adverse ]
TOTAL PERMANENT EFFECTS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
[including diff. shrinkage -0.2604 -0.4932 1.16132 -0.4378]
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VARIABLE ACTIONS - CHARACTERISTIC COMBINATION

Traffic
Selected case:
0
Traffic gr1a TS 1 78.7403 0.18258 0.11855 0.13548 -0.3045 0.75
-19.966 -0.0209 -0.0209 -0.0221 -0.0221
Traffic gr1a UDL 1 32.7097 0.07585 0.04925 0.05628 -0.1265 0.75
-10.906 -0.0114 -0.0114 -0.0121 -0.0121
Traffic gr1a FT 1 25.2916 0.05865 0.03808 0.04352 -0.0978 0.4
-3.1186 -0.0033 -0.0033 -0.0034 -0.0034
Total (Leading) : 0.28154 0.17035 0.19773 -0.5663
Total (in Combination) : 0.19177 0.11557 0.13427 -0.3893

Other traffic cases for comparison:
Traffic gr1a TS 2 -330.15 -0.7655 -0.4970 -0.5680 1.27682 0.75
51.2513 0.05356 0.05356 0.05663 0.05663
Traffic gr1a UDL 2 -136.32 -0.3161 -0.2052 -0.2345 0.52720 0.75
23.2038 0.02425 0.02425 0.02564 0.02564
Traffic gr1a FT 2 25.2916 0.05865 0.03808 0.04352 -0.0978 0.4
-3.1186 -0.0033 -0.0033 -0.0034 -0.0034
Total (Leading) : -0.9484 -0.5896 -0.6803 1.78504
Total (in Combination) : -0.7307 -0.4544 -0.5242 1.37422
Temperature Restraint
None defined
Differential Temperature - Heating
Diff. Tmp H1 -1016.0 -413.84 2.47603 -0.8853 -0.8625 1.35841
Diff. Tmp H2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6
Differential Temperature - Cooling
Diff. Tmp C1 976.559 143.384 -1.4373 0.52916 0.24758 -1.7606
Diff. Tmp C2 2.0E-4 4.63E-7 3.01E-7 3.44E-7 -7.7E-7 0.6
Other Variable Action
None defined

The following combinations of variable actions are evaluated in accordance with EN 1990
Equation 6.14b:
a) Traffic as leading action +
0
(Thermal + Other)
b) Thermal as leading action +
0
(Traffic + Other)
c) Other as leading action +
0
(Traffic + Thermal)

For thermal actions the following cases are considered:
i) temperature restraint alone
ii) differential temperature: Heating
iii) differential temperature: Cooling
iv) temperature restraint + differential temperature: Heating
v) temperature restraint + differential temperature: Cooling

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The most adverse case is with Traffic as leading action

Traffic 0.28154 0.17035 0.19773 -0.5663

0
x Thermal 1.48562 -0.5312 0.14855 -1.0564

0
x Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL VARIABLE ACTIONS 1.76716 -0.3608 0.34628 -1.6228
TOTAL PERMANENT (from above) 0.0 -0.4932 1.16132 -0.4378

TOTAL COMBINATION 1.76716 -0.8540 1.50761 -2.0607

VARIABLE ACTIONS - FREQUENT COMBINATION

Traffic
Selected case:
2

1
= 0.75
Traffic gr1a TS 1 59.0552 0.13693 0.08891 0.10161 -0.2283 0.0
-14.975 -0.0157 -0.0157 -0.0165 -0.0165

1
= 0.75
Traffic gr1a UDL 1 24.5323 0.05688 0.03694 0.04221 -0.0949 0.0
-8.1797 -0.0085 -0.0085 -0.009 -0.009

1
= 0.4
however, EN 1991-2 Clause 4.5.2 excludes the footway loading from the frequent action of LM1
Traffic gr1a FT 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total (Leading) : 0.16962 0.10164 0.11824 -0.3488
Total (in Combination) : 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Other traffic cases for comparison:

1
= 0.75
Traffic gr1a TS 2 -247.61 -0.5741 -0.3728 -0.4260 0.95761 0.0
38.4385 0.04017 0.04017 0.04247 0.04247

1
= 0.75
Traffic gr1a UDL 2 -102.24 -0.2370 -0.1539 -0.1759 0.39540 0.0
17.4029 0.01819 0.01819 0.01923 0.01923

1
= 0.4
however, EN 1991-2 Clause 4.5.2 excludes the footway loading from the frequent action of LM1
Traffic gr1a FT 2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total (Leading) : -0.7528 -0.4683 -0.5402 1.41472
Total (in Combination) : 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Temperature Restraint
None defined
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Differential Temperature - Heating

1
= 0.6
Diff. Tmp H1 -1016.0 -413.84 2.47603 -0.8853 -0.8625 1.35841
Diff. Tmp H2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5
Differential Temperature - Cooling

1
= 0.6
Diff. Tmp C1 976.559 143.384 -1.4373 0.52916 0.24758 -1.7606
Diff. Tmp C2 2.0E-4 4.63E-7 3.01E-7 3.44E-7 -7.7E-7 0.5
Other Variable Action
None defined

The following combinations of variable actions are evaluated in accordance with EN 1990
Equation 6.15b:
a)
1
(Traffic) as leading action +
2
(Thermal + Other)
b)
1
(Thermal) as leading action +
2
(Traffic + Other)
c)
1
(Other) as leading action +
2
(Traffic + Thermal)

For thermal actions the following cases are considered:
i) temperature restraint alone
ii) differential temperature: Heating
iii) differential temperature: Cooling
iv) temperature restraint + differential temperature: Heating
v) temperature restraint + differential temperature: Cooling

The most adverse case is with Traffic as leading action


1
x Traffic 0.16962 0.10164 0.11824 -0.3488

2
x Thermal 1.23801 -0.4426 0.12379 -0.8803

2
x Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
TOTAL VARIABLE ACTIONS 1.40764 -0.3410 0.24203 -1.2292
TOTAL PERMANENT (from above) 0.0 -0.4932 1.16132 -0.4378

TOTAL COMBINATION 1.40764 -0.8342 1.40336 -1.6671




SLS FLEXURE
Precast Curvature Deflection
Stress E Strain (x10
-6
) (mm)
(MPa) (x10
-6
) (rad/m) Here Max.

After Transfer
T
0.04918 E
T
1.57982 2.16062 0.0 15.0561

B
-0.0383 -1.229

After Erection
T
-0.2676 E
I
-14.415 -32.784 0.0 19.6107

B
0.52367 28.2042

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After in situ 1A
T
-0.2562 E
I
-13.799 -31.933 0.0 6.14087

B
0.51456 27.7139
After in situ 1B
T
-0.2562 E
I
-13.799 -31.933 0.0 5.84195

B
0.51456 27.7139

Long-term Dead
T
1.16132 E
L
99.2094 105.09 0.0 -4.8888

B
-0.4378 -37.408

Diff. Temp H1
T
-0.5175 E
S
-14.695 -29.104 0.0 1.59073

B
0.81504 23.1413
Diff. Temp H2
T
1.1E-6 E
S
3.12E-5 7.79E-5 0.0 -1.1726

B
-2.5E-6 -7.0E-5
Diff. Temp C1
T
0.14855 E
S
4.2178 26.3161 0.0 -1.4413

B
-1.0564 -29.993
Diff. Temp C2
T
2.06E-7 E
S
5.86E-6 1.46E-5 0.0 0.40625

B
-4.6E-7 -1.3E-5

Traffic gr1a 1
T
0.19773 E
S
5.61411 16.6888 0.0 -6.7548

B
-0.5663 -16.081
Extreme in-service 92.6748 0.0 -12.688

Curvatures here are derived from precast section height: 1300.0mm

E
T
= Elastic Modulus at Transfer = 31130.7MPa
[EN1992-1-1 Clauses 3.1.3-(3) and 3.1.2-(6) with age 4 days]

E
I
= Intermediate Term Elastic Modulus = 18567.1MPa
[EN1992-1-1 Clause 7.4.3-(5) at 60.0 days (=0.89693)]

E
L
= Long Term Elastic Modulus = 11705.8MPa
[EN1992-1-1 Clause 7.4.3-(5) at infinite time (=2.00881)]

E
S
= Short Term Elastic Modulus [E
cm
] = 35220.5MPa



________
[1] Refer to EN 1991-1-1 Table A.1 Note 1)
[2] For the derivation of this value refer to the limiting stress calculations for transfer
[3] includes draw-in and initial relaxation
[4] With immediate losses and shrinkage / creep / relaxation losses until time at which insitu is cast.
[5] Secondary effects arising from prestress in continuous section.
134

135










Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


16. Verification: ULS Shear - Pier



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Design code: EN 1992-2:2005 with UK National Annex (modified)
Analysis: Shears
EN 1990 Equation 6.10 ULS Persistent / Transient
Load case: Traffic gr1a TS - for Shear design 1
Section Ref 2 at 21m from left end of beam


WARNING - This analysis assumes that all tension steel (A
s
) is adequately anchored to resist the
required tensile forces.
(Refer to clause 6.2.1(7), Figure 6.3, and clause 6.2.3(7) of EN1992-1-1).


Section details:
Ref 2 "Section 2"
at 1 x span = 21 m from left end of beam

Analysis:
Traffic Actions: Shear for gr1a, loading I.D. 1
Ultimate Limit State: Persistent / Transient - EN 1990 Equation 6.10


SUMMARY OF ACTIONS
PERMANENT ACTIONS
ACTION TYPE SHEAR MOMENT AXIAL
kN kN.m kN
Beam erection before composite = -190.3096 0.0 0.0
Construction stage 1A = -101.1947 0.0 0.0
Construction stage 1B = -36.56457 0.0 0.0
Surfacing = -45.26953 -156.7871 0.0
Differential Shrinkage / creep = 0.0 0.0 0.0
[1]
TOTAL PERMANENT ACTIONS,
G
x G
k
-373.3384 -156.7871 0.0
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VARIABLE ACTIONS
ACTION TYPE
[2]
SHEAR MOMENT AXIAL
kN kN.m kN
0

1

2
Traffic gr1a TS - for Shear design = -479.47 -407.05 37.0081 0.75 0.75 0.0
Traffic gr1a UDL - for Shear desig = -193.03 -710.42 105.33 0.75 0.75 0.0
Traffic gr1a Footway - for Shear d = -6.0115 -46.95 -15.717 0.4 0.4 0.0
[3]

TOTAL VARIABLE ACTIONS,
Q,1
x Q
k,1
"+"
Q,i
x
0,i
x Q
k,i
Traffic leading: Traffic -678.5098 -1164.427 126.62151

0
x Other 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total -678.5098 -1164.427 126.62151
Other leading:
0
x Traffic -506.7783 -856.888 100.46704
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total -506.7783 -856.888 100.46704

Critical case is with traffic leading


TOTAL COMBINATION
-1051.848 -1321.214 126.62151


This section is within a distance d from the face of a support. The following clauses
therefore apply:


Clause 6.2.1(8)
The design shear reinforcement is taken as that which is required at the section a distance d
from the face of the support.
A check is carried out below that V
Ed
does not exceed V
Rd,max
.


Clause 6.2.2(6) and 6.2.3(8)
The load reduction factor is not readily applicable to typical bridge loading, and it is
conservative to ignore this clause.

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Clause 6.2.3(103) and 6.2.3(4)
Shear Resistance with design shear reinforcement

characteristic strength of shear rft, f
ywk
= 500.0 MPa
material partial factor
s
= 1.15
design strength of shear rft f
ywk
/
s
, f
ywd
= 434.783 MPa
characteristic strength of concrete f
ck
= 40.0 MPa
material partial factor
c
= 1.5
design strength of concrete f
ck
/
c
, f
cd
= 26.6667 MPa
angle between compression strut & beam axis, = 35.0
cot = 1.42815
angle between shear rft and beam axis, = /2 rad
axial force in cross section, N
Ed
= 126.622 kN
area of concrete cross section, A
c
= 9.283E5 mm
concrete compressive stress N
Ed
/A
c
,
cp
= 126.622/9.283E5
= 0.13640 MPa
effective depth, d = 1407.5 mm
distance from edge of support, a = 0.0 mm


Maximum Shear Force Value
The maximum value of shear resistance is given by:

V
Rd,max
=
cw
.b
w
.z.
1
.f
cd
(cot + cot)/(1 + cot) Expression (6.14)

compression chord stress coefficient,
cw
: (Note 3)

cp
/f
cd
= 0.13640 / 26.6667
= 0.00512
hence from Expression (6.11aN)
cw
= 1.00512

minimum width between tension and compression chords,
b
w
= 216.0 mm
inner lever arm, z = 1231.81 mm
[4]
strength reduction factor,
1
:
= 0.6[1.0-f
ck
/250] Expression (6.6N)
= 0.6*(1.0-40.0/250.0)
= 0.504

1
= (1-0.5cos)
= 0.504


cw
.b
w
.z.
1
.f
cd
= 1.00512*216.0*1231.81*0.504*26.6667
= 3594.3 kN
since = /2, the expression (6.14) reduces to:

V
Rd,max
=
cw
.b
w
.z.
1
.f
cd
/(cot + tan) Expression (6.9)
= 3594.3/(1.42815 + 0.70020)
= 1680.17 kN
which is greater than V
Ed
- V
ccd
- V
td
(1051.85 kN) and therefore OK.

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Summary of link requirements along the beam:
dimension from A
sw
/ s M
Rd
/ M
Ed
[5]
Spacing in mm
left beam end m mm/mm for link diameter
10.0mm
[6]
0.0 0.21857 718.648
1.17 0.21857 718.648
1.35167 0.21857 718.648
1.51281 0.21857 718.648
2.0 0.21857 718.648
2.01204 0.21857 718.648
2.5 0.21857 718.648
2.86364 0.21857 718.648
3.51281 0.21857 718.648
4.01204 0.21857 718.648
4.51204 0.21857 718.648
4.77273 0.21857 718.648
6.68182 0.57756 1.7 271.969
8.59091 0.21857 718.648
10.5 0.21857 718.648
12.4091 0.59500 1.69 263.998
14.3182 0.21857 718.648
16.2273 0.21857 718.648
16.488 0.21857 718.648
16.9872 0.21857 718.648
17.4872 0.21857 718.648
18.0 0.21857 718.648
18.0 0.21857 718.648
18.1364 0.21857 718.648
18.5 0.21857 718.648
18.988 0.21857 718.648
19.0 0.21857 718.648
19.4872 1.30135 17.9 120.705
19.5925 1.31204 11.9 119.722
20.0454 1.31204 11.9 119.722
21.0 1.31204 11.9 119.722

The interface shear requirement may be critical.
Warning: At the locations indicated in the table above, additional longitudinal reinforcement is
required to carry the shear in the tension chord of the truss.
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The reinforcement requirements are calculated in the results for the relevant design
location.

________
[1] Shrinkage effects are excluded at ULS in accordance with EN1992-1-1/2.3.2.2(2)
[2] Thermal effects are not considered for ULS Shear in accordance with EN 1992-1-1 clause 2.3.1.2(2)
[3] EN 1991-2 Clause 4.5.2 excludes the footway loading from the frequent action of LM1
[4] The inner lever arm is derived by analysing the section for the resistance moment and dividing the moment by
the reinforcement tension force. (Using the resistance moment gives a conservative result).
[5] The reduced resistance moment M
Rd
is calculated for locations where design shear reinforcement is required.
M
Rd
/M
Ed
must be greater than 1.0.
[6] Based on 2 legs (double this value if using 4 legs)
141

142

143










Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


17. Verification: ULS Interface Shear




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Design code: EN 1992-2:2005 with UK National Annex (modified)
Analysis: Longitudinal Shear
EN 1990 Equation 6.10 ULS Persistent / Transient
Load case: Traffic gr1a TS - for Shear design 1
Section Ref 2 at 21m from left end of beam



Section details:
Ref 2 "Section 2"
at 1 x span = 21 m from left end of beam

Analysis:
Interface and web/flange shear for gr1a, loading I.D. 1
Ultimate Limit State: Persistent / Transient - EN 1990 Equation 6.10


SUMMARY OF ACTIONS
PERMANENT ACTIONS
ACTION TYPE SHEAR
kN
Beam erection before composite = -190.3096
Construction stage 1A = -101.1947
Construction stage 1B = -36.56457
Surfacing = -45.26953
Differential Shrinkage / creep = 0.0
[1]
TOTAL PERMANENT ACTIONS,
G
x G
k
-373.3384


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VARIABLE ACTIONS
ACTION TYPE
[2]
SHEAR
kN
0

1

2
Traffic gr1a TS - for Shear design = -479.468 0.75 0.75 0.0
Traffic gr1a UDL - for Shear desig = -193.0303 0.75 0.75 0.0
Traffic gr1a Footway - for Shear d = -6.011462 0.4 0.4 0.0
[3]

TOTAL VARIABLE ACTIONS,
Q,1
x Q
k,1
"+"
Q,i
x
0
x Q
k,i
Traffic leading: Traffic -678.5098

0
x Other 0.0
Total -678.5098
Other leading:
0
x Traffic -506.7783
Other 0.0
Total -506.7783

Critical case is with traffic leading

TOTAL COMBINATION
-1051.848


Clause 6.2.5
INTERFACE SHEAR CALCULATIONS

This section is within a distance d from the face of a support. The following clause therefore
applies:


Clause 6.2.1(8)
The design shear is taken as that which is present at the section which is a distance d from
the face of the support.


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Summary of link requirements along the beam:
dimension from Flexural Shear Interface Shear Spacing in mm
left beam end A
sw
/ s A
sw
/ s 6.2.5(3) for link diameter
m mm/mm mm/mm suggestion 10.0mm
[4]
0.0 0.21857 2.5653 2.33209 67.3557
1.17 0.21857 2.5653 2.33209 67.3557
1.35167 0.21857 2.5653 2.33209 67.3557
1.51281 0.21857 2.54248 2.33209 67.3557
2.0 0.21857 2.47351 2.33209 67.3557
2.01204 0.21857 2.47181 2.33209 67.3557
2.5 0.21857 2.40275 2.33209 67.3557
2.86364 0.21857 2.3513 2.33209 67.3557
3.51281 0.21857 2.17865 2.33209 67.3557
4.01204 0.21857 2.04589 1.98059 79.3095
4.51204 0.21857 1.91325 1.98059 79.3095
4.77273 0.21857 1.84411 1.98059 79.3095
6.68182 0.57756 1.37475 1.67646 93.697
8.59091 0.21857 0.70216 1.24977 125.687
10.5 0.21857 0.96417 1.2875 122.003
12.4091 0.59500 1.41625 1.68008 93.4954
14.3182 0.21857 1.84809 2.07448 75.7201
16.2273 0.21857 2.28193 2.36788 66.3377
16.488 0.21857 2.34875 2.36788 66.3377
16.9872 0.21857 2.47674 2.36788 66.3377
17.4872 0.21857 2.60467 2.83907 55.3279
18.0 0.21857 2.73586 2.83907 55.3279
18.0 0.21857 2.73586 2.83907 55.3279
18.1364 0.21857 2.77085 2.83907 55.3279
18.5 0.21857 2.85884 2.83907 55.3279
18.988 0.21857 2.97693 2.83907 55.3279
19.0 0.21857 2.97984 2.83907 55.3279
19.4872 1.30135 3.09753 2.83907 55.3279
19.5925 1.31204 3.12298 2.83907 55.3279
20.0454 1.31204 3.12298 2.83907 55.3279
21.0 1.31204 3.12298 2.83907 55.3279

________
[1] Shrinkage effects are excluded at ULS in accordance with EN1992-1-1/2.3.2.2(2)
[2] Thermal effects are not considered for ULS Shear in accordance with EN 1992-1-1 clause 2.3.1.2(2)
[3] EN 1991-2 Clause 4.5.2 excludes the footway loading from the frequent action of LM1
[4] Based on 2 legs (double this value if using 4 legs)
147

148

149










Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


18. Verification: Web Shear Cracking




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Design code: EN 1992-2:2005 with UK National Annex (modified)
Analysis: Shears at time t=infinity
EN 1990 Equation 6.15 SLS Frequent
Exposure Class: XD1, XD2, XS1, XS2, XS3
Load case: Traffic gr1a TS - for Shear design 1
Section Ref 2 at 21m from left end of beam


WARNING - This analysis assumes that all tension steel (A
s
) is adequately anchored to resist the
required tensile forces.
(Refer to clause 6.2.1(7), Figure 6.3, and clause 6.2.3(7) of EN1992-1-1).


Section details:
Ref 2 "Section 2"
at 1 x span = 21 m from left end of beam

Analysis:
Traffic Actions: Shear for gr1a, loading I.D. 1
At time considered, t =
Serviceability Limit State: Frequent - EN 1990 Equation 6.15


SUMMARY OF ACTIONS
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PERMANENT ACTIONS
ACTION TYPE SHEAR MOMENT AXIAL
kN kN.m kN
Beam erection before composite = -140.97 0.0 0.0
Construction stage 1A = -74.95901 0.0 0.0
Construction stage 1B = -27.08487 0.0 0.0
Surfacing = -37.72461 -130.6559 0.0
Differential Shrinkage / creep = 9.715637 -203.8871 0.0
TOTAL PERMANENT ACTIONS, G
k
-271.0229 -334.543 0.0

VARIABLE ACTIONS
ACTION TYPE SHEAR MOMENT AXIAL
kN kN.m kN
0

1

2
Traffic gr1a TS - for Shear design = -355.16 -301.52 27.4134 0.75 0.75 0.0
Traffic gr1a UDL - for Shear desig = -142.99 -526.24 78.0224 0.75 0.75 0.0
Traffic gr1a Footway - for Shear d = -4.4529 -34.778 -11.642 0.4 0.4 0.0
[1]

TOTAL VARIABLE ACTIONS,
1,1
x Q
k,1
"+"
2,i
x Q
k,i
Traffic leading:
1
x Traffic -373.6102 -620.8208 79.076887

2
x Other 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total -373.6102 -620.8208 79.076887
Other leading:
2
x Traffic 0.0 0.0 0.0

1
x Other 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total 0.0 0.0 0.0

Critical case is with traffic leading


TOTAL COMBINATION
-644.633 -955.3638 79.076887

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WEB SHEAR CRACKING
EN 1992-2 Annex QQ

Characteristic strength of concrete in web, f
ck
= 40.0 MPa
Characteristic tensile strength 5% fractile, f
ctk;0,05
= -2.4562 MPa
Design shear on precast section before composite, V
Ed,1
= 243.01388 kN
Total design shear on precast section, V
Ed
= 654.34866 kN
Design shear on precast section after composite, V
Ed,2
= 411.33479 kN

Stress in precast from Prestress P and bending M
Ed
:
at the top of the precast section,
a
= -1.1362 MPa
at the bottom of the precast section,
b
= 3.32705 MPa

Height of precast section, h = 1300.0 mm

Principal tensile stress is checked at the level of the centroid, and in addition at 100 points
through the depth of the section to find the critical level.


First check at the composite section centroid:
At the composite section centroid, z
f,max
= 912.41288 mm

At this height:
width of precast section, b = 354.58722 mm
direct stress,
c1
=
b
+ z
f,max
/h*(
a
-
b
)
= 3.32705 + 912.413/1300.0*(-1.1362-3.32705)
= 0.19452 MPa


For precast section:
area beyond level z
f,max
A
1
= 1.547E5 mm
first moment of area (A.z)
1
= 8.269E7 mm
second moment of area I
yy,1
= 9.2977E10 mm

Shear stress at height z
f,max

yz,Ed,1
= V
Ed,1
* (A.z)
1
/(I
yy,1
.b)
= 243.014 * 8.269E7 / (9.2977E10*354.587)
= 0.60953 MPa


For composite section:
area beyond level z
f,max
(transformed) A
2
= 3.825E5 mm
first moment of area (A.z)
2
= 2.113E8 mm
second moment of area I
yy,2
= 2.3848E11 mm

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Shear stress at level z
f,max

yz,Ed,2
= V
Ed,2
* (A.z)
2
/(I
yy,2
.b)
= 411.335 * 2.113E8 / (2.3848E11*354.587)
= 1.02807 MPa

total shear stress,
yz,Ed
= 0.60953 + 1.02807
= 1.63761
From Mohr's circle:
centre,
c0
= 0.5*(0.19452+0.0) = 0.09726 MPa
radius,
r
= [
yz,Ed
2
+ (
c1
-
c0
)
2
] = 1.64049 MPa


3
= 0.09726 + 1.64049 = 1.73776 MPa

1
= 0.09726 - 1.64049 = -1.5432 MPa

From Expression QQ.101, and using Annex QQ sign convention,

1
= 1.54323 MPa
f
ctb
= [1 - 0,8.(
3
/f
ck
)].f
ctk;0,05
= 0.96524 * 2.45617
= 2.37081 MPa


Now checking through the depth of the section:
Level at which critical tension stress occurs, z
f,max
= 442.0 mm
[2]
At this height:
width of precast section, b = 218.2 mm
direct stress,
c1
=
b
+ z
f,max
/h*(
a
-
b
)
= 3.32705 + 442.0/1300.0*(-1.1362-3.32705)
= 1.80956 MPa


For precast section:
area beyond level z
f,max
A
1
= 2.489E5 mm
first moment of area (A.z)
1
= 9.905E7 mm
second moment of area I
yy,1
= 9.2977E10 mm

Shear stress at height z
f,max

yz,Ed,1
= V
Ed,1
* (A.z)
1
/(I
yy,1
.b)
= 243.014 * 9.905E7 / (9.2977E10*218.2)
= 1.18646 MPa


For composite section:
area beyond level z
f,max
(transformed) A
2
= 2.489E5 mm
first moment of area (A.z)
2
= 1.828E8 mm
second moment of area I
yy,2
= 2.3848E11 mm

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Shear stress at level z
f,max

yz,Ed,2
= V
Ed,2
* (A.z)
2
/(I
yy,2
.b)
= 411.335 * 1.828E8 / (2.3848E11*218.2)
= 1.44478 MPa

total shear stress,
yz,Ed
= 1.18646 + 1.44478
= 2.63124
From Mohr's circle:
centre,
c0
= 0.5*(1.80956+0.0) = 0.90478 MPa
radius,
r
= [
yz,Ed
2
+ (
c1
-
c0
)
2
] = 2.78246 MPa


3
= 0.90478 + 2.78246 = 3.68724 MPa

1
= 0.90478 - 2.78246 = -1.8777 MPa

From Expression QQ.101, and using Annex QQ sign convention,

1
= 1.87767 MPa
f
ctb
= [1 - 0,8.(
3
/f
ck
)].f
ctk;0,05
= 0.92625 * 2.45617
= 2.27505 MPa

which is greater than
1
, so minimum reinforcement in accordance with 7.3.2 should be provided.


________
[1] EN 1991-2 Clause 4.5.2 excludes the footway loading from the frequent action of LM1
[2] Nearest multiple of depth/100
155

156

157









Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Beam
Bridge Design Example


Appendix - National Annex NDP Values




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NATIONALLY DETERMINED PARAMETERS
European Standard EN1990
Description Current United
Kingdom
NDPs
Annex A1 (Buildings)
Clause A1.2
A1.2.2(1) Table A1.1
0
Combination factors
Imposed loads in buildings, category
Category A: domestic; residential area 0.7 0.7
Category B: office areas 0.7 0.7
Category C: congregation areas 0.7 0.7
Category D: shopping areas 0.7 0.7
Category E: storage areas 1 1
Category F: traffic area; vehicle weight <=30kN 0.7 0.7
Category G: traffic area; vehicle weight <=160kN 0.7 0.7
Category H: roofs 0.7 0.7
Snow Load
Snow: for sites at altitude H>1000m 0.7 0.7
Snow: for sites at altitude H<=1000m 0.5 0.5
Wind forces 0.5 0.5
Thermal 0.6 0.6
A1.2.2(1) Table A1.1
1
Frequent reduction factors
Imposed loads in buildings, category
Category A: domestic; residential area 0.5 0.5
Category B: office areas 0.5 0.5
Category C: congregation areas 0.7 0.7
Category D: shopping areas 0.7 0.7
Category E: storage areas 0.9 0.9
Category F: traffic area; vehicle weight <=30kN 0.7 0.7
Category G: traffic area; vehicle weight <=160kN 0.5 0.5
Category H: roofs 0 0
Snow Load
Snow: for sites at altitude H>1000m 0.5 0.5
Snow: for sites at altitude H<=1000m 0.2 0.2
Wind forces 0.2 0.2
Thermal 0.5 0.5
A1.2.2(1) Table A1.1
2
Quasi-Permanent factors
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Imposed loads in buildings, category
Category A: domestic; residential area 0.3 0.3
Category B: office areas 0.3 0.3
Category C: congregation areas 0.6 0.6
Category D: shopping areas 0.6 0.6
Category E: storage areas 0.8 0.8
Category F: traffic area; vehicle weight <=30kN 0.6 0.6
Category G: traffic area; vehicle weight <=160kN 0.3 0.3
Category H: roofs 0 0
Snow Load
Snow: for sites at altitude H>1000m 0.2 0.2
Snow: for sites at altitude H<=1000m 0 0
Wind forces 0 0
Thermal 0 0
Clause A1.3
A1.3.1(1) Table A1.2(A) EQU (Set A)
Permanent actions

G,sup
1.1 1.1

G,inf
0.9 0.9
Variable actions

Q
1.5 1.5
A1.3.1(1) Table A1.2(B) STR/GEO (Set B)
Reduction factor - buildings, 0.925 0.925
Permanent actions

G,sup
1.35 1.35

G,inf
1 1
Variable actions

Q
1.5 1.5
A1.3.1(1) Table A1.2(C) STR/GEO (Set C)
Permanent actions

G,sup
1 1

G,inf
1 1
Variable actions

Q
1.3 1.3
Annex A2 (Bridges)
Clause A2.2
Road Bridges
A2.2.6(1) Table A2.1
0
Combination factors
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Traffic and pedestrian actions
LM1 gr1a Tandem System, gr1a TS 0.75 0.75
UDL, gr1a UDL 0.75 0.75
Pedestrian + cycle-track loads, gr1a Footway 0.4 0.4
Single axle, gr1b 0 0
Horizontal forces, gr2 0 0
Pedestrian loads, gr3 0 0
LM4 - Crowd loading, gr4 0 0
Vertical forces - LM3 Special vehicles, gr5 0 0
Horizontal forces - LM3 Special vehicles, gr6 0 0
Wind forces
Wind: - persistent, F
Wk
0.5 0.5
Wind: - execution, F
Wk
0.8 0.8
Wind: F
wk
*
, F
Wk
*
1 1
Thermal actions, T
k
0.6 0.6
A2.2.6(1) Table A2.1
1
Frequent reduction factors
Traffic and pedestrian actions
LM1 gr1a Tandem System, gr1a TS 0.75 0.75
UDL, gr1a UDL 0.75 0.75
Pedestrian + cycle-track loads, gr1a Footway 0.4 0.4
Single axle, gr1b 0.75 0.75
Horizontal forces, gr2 0 0
Pedestrian loads, gr3 0.4 0.4
LM4 - Crowd loading, gr4 0 0
Vertical forces - LM3 Special vehicles, gr5 0 0
Horizontal forces - LM3 Special vehicles, gr6 0 0
Wind forces
Wind: - persistent, F
Wk
0.2 0.2
Wind: - execution, F
Wk
0 0
Wind: F
wk
*
, F
Wk
*
0 0
Thermal actions, T
k
0.6 0.6
A2.2.6(1) Table A2.1
2
Quasi-Permanent factors
Traffic and pedestrian actions
LM1 gr1a Tandem System, gr1a TS 0 0
UDL, gr1a UDL 0 0
Pedestrian + cycle-track loads, gr1a Footway 0 0
Single axle, gr1b 0 0
Horizontal forces, gr2 0 0
Pedestrian loads, gr3 0 0
LM4 - Crowd loading, gr4 0 0
Vertical forces - LM3 Special vehicles, gr5 0 0
Horizontal forces - LM3 Special vehicles, gr6 0 0
Wind forces
Wind: - persistent, F
Wk
0 0
161
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Wind: - execution, F
Wk
0 0
Wind: F
wk
*
, F
Wk
*
0 0
Thermal actions, T
k
0.5 0.5
Footbridges
A2.2.6(1) Table A2.2
0
Combination factors
Traffic actions
Gr1 0.4 0.4
Qfwk 0 0
Gr2 0 0
Wind: persistent, F
wk
0.3 0.3
Thermal actions, T
k
0.6 0.6
A2.2.6(1) Table A2.2
1
Frequent reduction factors
Traffic actions
Gr1 0.4 0.4
Qfwk 0 0
Gr2 0 0
Wind: persistent, F
wk
0.2 0.2
Thermal actions, T
k
0.6 0.6
A2.2.6(1) Table A2.2
2
Quasi-Permanent factors
Traffic actions
Gr1 0 0
Qfwk 0 0
Gr2 0 0
Wind: persistent, F
wk
0 0
Thermal actions, T
k
0.5 0.5
Rail Bridges
A2.2.6(1) Table A2.3
0
Combination factors
Individual components of traffic actions
LM71 0.8 0.8
SW/0 0.8 0.8
SW/2 0 0
Unloaded train 1 1
HSLM 1 1
Nosing forces 1 1
Non-public footpath loads 0.8 0.8
Real trains 1 1
Horizontal earth pressure 0.8 0.8
Aerodynamic effects 0.8 0.8
Main traffic actions
Gr11-Gr17 0.8 0.8
Gr21-Gr24; Gr26; Gr27 0.8 0.8
Gr31 0.8 0.8
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Other operating actions
Operating: Aerodynamic effects 0.8 0.8
Non-public footpath maintenance 0.8 0.8
Wind Forces
Wind: persistent, F
wk
0.75 0.75
Thermal actions
Thermal, T
k
0.6 0.6
A2.2.6(1) Table A2.3
1
Frequent reduction factors
Individual components of traffic actions
LM71 0.8 0.8
SW/0 0.8 0.8
SW/2 1 1
Unloaded train 0 0
HSLM 1 1
Nosing forces 0.8 0.8
Non-public footpath loads 0.5 0.5
Real trains 1 1
Horizontal earth pressure 0.8 0.8
Aerodynamic effects 0.5 0.5
Main traffic actions
Gr11-Gr17 0.8 0.8
Gr21-Gr24; Gr26; Gr27 0.7 0.7
Gr31 0.6 0.6
Other operating actions
Operating: Aerodynamic effects 0.5 0.5
Non-public footpath maintenance 0.5 0.5
Wind Forces
Wind: persistent, F
wk
0.5 0.5
Thermal actions
Thermal, T
k
0.6 0.6
A2.2.6(1) Table A2.3
2
Quasi-Permanent factors
Individual components of traffic actions
LM71 0 0
SW/0 0 0
SW/2 0 0
Unloaded train 0 0
HSLM 0 0
Nosing forces 0 0
Non-public footpath loads 0 0
Real trains 0 0
Horizontal earth pressure 0 0
Aerodynamic effects 0 0
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Main traffic actions
Gr11-Gr17 0 0
Gr21-Gr24; Gr26; Gr27 0 0
Gr31 0 0
Other operating actions
Operating: Aerodynamic effects 0 0
Non-public footpath maintenance 0 0
Wind Forces
Wind: persistent, F
wk
0 0
Thermal actions
Thermal, T
k
0.5 0.5
Clause A2.3
A2.3.1 Table A2.4(A) EQU (Set A)
Permanent actions
Bridges
Weight of soil,
G,sup
1.05 1.05

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Dead load,
G,sup
1.05 1.05

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Concrete,
G,sup
1.05 1.05

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Steel,
G,sup
1.05 1.05

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Surface,
G,sup
1.05 1.05

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Ballast,
G,sup
1.05 1.05

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Other,
G,sup
1.05 1.05

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Variable actions
Road Bridges
Traffic and pedestrian actions,
Q
1.35 1.35
Wind forces
Wind: - persistent,
Q
1.7 1.7
Wind: - execution,
Q
1.7 1.7
Wind: F
wk
*
,
Q
1.7 1.7
Wind: NOTE5 - persistent,
Q
1.55 1.55
Wind: NOTE5 - execution,
Q
1.55 1.55
Wind: NOTE5 - F
wk
*
,
Q
1.55 1.55
Thermal actions
Thermal,
Q
1.55 1.55
Thermal: NOTE6,
Q
1.45 1.45
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Footbridges
Traffic and pedestrian actions,
Q
1.35 1.35
Wind forces
Wind: persistent,
Q
1.7 1.7
Wind: NOTE5 - persistent,
Q
1.55 1.55
Thermal actions
Thermal,
Q
1.55 1.55
Thermal: NOTE6,
Q
1.45 1.45
Rail bridges
Individual components of traffic actions
LM71,
Q
1.45 1.45
SW/0,
Q
1.45 1.45
SW/2,
Q
1.4 1.4
Unloaded train,
Q
1.45 1.45
HSLM,
Q
1.45 1.45
Nosing forces,
Q
1.45 1.45
Non-public footpath loads,
Q
1.35 1.35
Real trains,
Q
1.7 1.7
Horizontal earth pressure,
Q
1.45 1.45
Aerodynamic effects,
Q
1.45 1.45
Main traffic actions
Groups with LM71; SW/0; HSLM,
Q
1.45 1.45
Groups associated with SW/2,
Q
1.4 1.4
Other operating actions,
Q
1.5 1.5
Wind forces
Wind: persistent,
Q
1.7 1.7
Wind: NOTE5 - persistent,
Q
1.55 1.55
Thermal actions
Thermal,
Q
1.55 1.55
Thermal: NOTE6,
Q
1.45 1.45
A2.3.1 Table A2.4(B) STR/GEO (Set B)
Reduction factor - bridges, 0.85 0.85
Permanent actions
Bridges
Weight of soil,
G,sup
1.35 1.35

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Dead load,
G,sup
1.2 1.2

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Settlement: linear analysis,
G,sup
1.2 1.2

G,inf
0 0
Settlement: non-linear analysis,
G,sup
1.35 1.35

G,inf
0 0
Shrinkage,
G,sup
1 1
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G,inf
1 1
Creep,
G,sup
1 1

G,inf
1 1
Concrete,
G,sup
1.35 1.35

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Steel,
G,sup
1.2 1.2

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Surface,
G,sup
1.2 1.2

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Ballast,
G,sup
1.35 1.35

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Other,
G,sup
1.35 1.35

G,inf
0.95 0.95
Variable actions
Road Bridges
Traffic and pedestrian actions,
Q
1.35 1.35
Wind forces
Wind: - persistent,
Q
1.7 1.7
Wind: - execution,
Q
1.7 1.7
Wind: F
wk
*
,
Q
1.7 1.7
Wind: NOTE5 - persistent,
Q
1.55 1.55
Wind: NOTE5 - execution,
Q
1.55 1.55
Wind: NOTE5 - F
wk
*
,
Q
1.55 1.55
Thermal actions
Thermal,
Q
1.55 1.55
Thermal: NOTE6,
Q
1.45 1.45
Footbridges
Traffic and pedestrian actions,
Q
1.35 1.35
Wind forces
Wind: persistent,
Q
1.7 1.7
Wind: NOTE5 - persistent,
Q
1.55 1.55
Thermal actions
Thermal,
Q
1.55 1.55
Thermal: NOTE6,
Q
1.45 1.45
Rail bridges
Individual components of traffic actions
LM71,
Q
1.45 1.45
SW/0,
Q
1.45 1.45
SW/2,
Q
1.4 1.4
Unloaded train,
Q
1.45 1.45
HSLM,
Q
1.45 1.45
Nosing forces,
Q
1.45 1.45
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Non-public footpath loads,
Q
1.35 1.35
Real trains,
Q
1.7 1.7
Horizontal earth pressure,
Q
1.45 1.45
Aerodynamic effects,
Q
1.45 1.45
Main traffic actions
Groups with LM71; SW/0; HSLM,
Q
1.45 1.45
Groups associated with SW/2,
Q
1.4 1.4
Other operating actions,
Q
1.45 1.45
Wind forces
Wind: persistent,
Q
1.7 1.7
Wind: NOTE5 - persistent,
Q
1.55 1.55
Thermal actions
Thermal,
Q
1.55 1.55
Thermal: NOTE6,
Q
1.45 1.45
A2.3.1 Table A2.4(C) STR/GEO (Set C)
Permanent actions
Bridges
Weight of soil,
G,sup
1 1

G,inf
1 1
Dead load,
G,sup
1 1

G,inf
1 1
Settlement: linear analysis,
G,sup
1 1

G,inf
0 0
Settlement: non-linear analysis,
G,sup
1 1

G,inf
0 0
Concrete,
G,sup
1 1

G,inf
1 1
Steel,
G,sup
1 1

G,inf
1 1
Surface,
G,sup
1 1

G,inf
1 1
Ballast,
G,sup
1 1

G,inf
1 1
Other,
G,sup
1 1

G,inf
1 1
Variable actions
Road Bridges
Traffic and pedestrian actions,
Q
1.15 1.15
Wind forces
Wind: - persistent,
Q
1.45 1.45
Wind: - execution,
Q
1.45 1.45
Wind: F
wk
*
,
Q
1.45 1.45
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Wind: NOTE5 - persistent,
Q
1.3 1.3
Wind: NOTE5 - execution,
Q
1.3 1.3
Wind: NOTE5 - F
wk
*
,
Q
1.3 1.3
Thermal actions
Thermal,
Q
1.3 1.3
Thermal: NOTE6,
Q
1.2 1.2
Footbridges
Traffic and pedestrian actions,
Q
1.35 1.35
Wind forces
Wind: persistent,
Q
1.45 1.45
Wind: NOTE5 - persistent,
Q
1.3 1.3
Thermal actions
Thermal,
Q
1.3 1.3
Thermal: NOTE6,
Q
1.2 1.2
Rail bridges
Individual components of traffic actions
LM71,
Q
1.25 1.25
SW/0,
Q
1.25 1.25
SW/2,
Q
1.2 1.2
Unloaded train,
Q
1.45 1.45
HSLM,
Q
1.25 1.25
Nosing forces,
Q
1.45 1.45
Non-public footpath loads,
Q
1.15 1.15
Real trains,
Q
1.45 1.45
Horizontal earth pressure,
Q
1.25 1.25
Aerodynamic effects,
Q
1.25 1.25
Main traffic actions
Groups with LM71; SW/0; HSLM,
Q
1.45 1.45
Groups associated with SW/2,
Q
1.25 1.25
Other operating actions,
Q
1.5 1.5
Wind forces
Wind: persistent,
Q
1.45 1.45
Wind: NOTE5 - persistent,
Q
1.3 1.3
Thermal actions
Thermal,
Q
1.3 1.3
Thermal: NOTE6,
Q
1.2 1.2
A2.3.1(5) Design of Structural Members, Approach 1 1
Clause A2.4
A2.4.1, 1 1

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European Standard EN1991-2
Description Current United
Kingdom
NDPs
Clause 4
4.3.2(3) LM1 Tandem System adjustment factors

Q1
1 1

Q2
1 1

Q3
1 1
4.3.2(3) LM1 UDL adjustment factors

q1
0.61 0.61

q2
2.2 2.2

q3
2.2 2.2

qn
2.2 2.2

qr
2.2 2.2
4.3.3(2) LM2 adjustment factor,
Q
1 1
4.6.4(3) Fatigue LM3 second vehicle proportion 0.3 0.3
Clause 5
5.3.2.2(1) Footway concentrated load, Q
fwk
10 10
5.6.3(2) Footbridge accidental vehicle axle load, Q
sv1
115 115
5.6.3(2) Footbridge accidental vehicle axle load, Q
sv2
65 65
Clause 6
6.3.2(3), 6.3.3(5) Rail traffic adjustment factor for LM71 a... 1.1 1.1
6.4.5.2 Quality of track maintenance, Standard Standard
Clause A.3
A.3(6) Unloaded lane length for user-defined vehicle 5m 5m

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European Standard EN1992
Description Current United
Kingdom
NDPs
EN1992-1-1
Clause 2
2.4.2.2 Partial factor for Prestress - favourable,
P,fav
0.9 0.9
2.4.2.2 Partial factor for Prestress - unfavourable,
P,unfav
1.1 1.1
2.4.2.4(1) Table 2.1N Partial factors for materials for ULS
Persistent & Transient - Concrete,
C
1.5 1.5
Persistent & Transient - Reinforcing steel,
S
1.15 1.15
Persistent & Transient - Prestressing steel,
S
1.15 1.15
Accidental - Concrete,
C
1.2 1.2
Accidental - Reinforcing steel,
S
1 1
Accidental - Prestressing steel,
S
1 1
Clause 3
3.1.2(2) Maximum concrete class, C
max
90MPa 90MPa
3.1.2(2) Maximum concrete class, C
max,cube
105MPa 105MPa
3.1.6(1) ULS concrete strength coefficient,
cc
0.85 0.85
3.1.6(2) ULS concrete tensile strength coefficient,
ct
1 1
3.2.7(2) Design strain limit factor (Reinforcement),
ud
/
uk
0.9 0.9
3.3.4(5) Prestress tendon ductility factor, k 1.1 1.1
3.3.6(7) Design strain limit factor (Prestress),
ud
/
uk
0.9 0.9
Clause 5
5.10.2.1(1) Maximum stressing force factor, k
1
0.8 0.8
5.10.2.1(1) Maximum stressing force factor, k
2
0.9 0.9
5.10.2.2(5) Increase of stress at transfer factor, k
6
0.7 0.7
5.10.3(2) Initial prestress force factor, k
7
0.75 0.75
5.10.3(2) Initial prestress force factor, k
8
0.85 0.85
5.10.9(1) Prestress upper load factor - pre-tension, r
sup
1 1
5.10.9(1) Prestress lower load factor - pre-tension, r
inf
1 1
5.10.9(1) Prestress upper load factor - post-tension, r
sup
1 1
5.10.9(1) Prestress lower load factor - post-tension, r
inf
1 1
Clause 6
6.2.3(2) minimum limit for compression strut angle, cot 1 1
6.2.3(2) maximum limit for compression strut angle, cot 2.5 2.5
6.2.4(4) minimum limit for strut angle in compression flan... 1 1
6.2.4(4) maximum limit for strut angle in compression flan... 2 2
6.2.4(4) minimum limit for strut angle in tension flange o... 1 1
6.2.4(4) maximum limit for strut angle in tension flange o... 1.25 1.25
6.2.4(6) factor for flange / web shear reinforcement, k 0.4 0.4
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Clause 7
7.2(2) SLS concrete stress limit factor, k
1
0.6 0.6
7.2(5) SLS reinforcement stress limit factor, k
3
0.8 0.8
7.2(5) SLS prestress stress limit factor, k
5
0.75 0.75
7.3.4(3) Crack calculation factor, k
3
3.4 3.4
7.3.4(3) Crack calculation factor, k
4
0.425 0.425
Clause 9
9.2.2(5) Numeric part of expression (9.5N),
w,min
0.08 0.08
EN1992-2
Clause 3
3.1.2(102) Minimum concrete class, C
min
25MPa 25MPa
3.1.2(102) Minimum concrete class, C
min,cube
30MPa 30MPa
3.1.2(102) Maximum concrete class, C
max
70MPa 70MPa
3.1.2(102) Maximum concrete class, C
max,cube
85MPa 85MPa
3.1.6(101) ULS concrete strength coefficient,
cc
0.85 0.85
Clause 6
6.2.2(101) Value for C
Rd,c
is hard-wired. Details are in the printout.
6.2.2(101) Shear stress / k
3/2
.f
ck
1/2
, v
min
0.035 0.035
6.2.2(101) factor, k
1
0.15 0.15
6.2.2(6) Value for v is hard-wired. Details are in the printout.
6.2.3(103) Values for v
1
and
cw
are hard-wired. Details are in the printout.
Clause 7
7.2(102) SLS concrete stress limit factor, k
1
0.6 0.6
7.2(102) Max increase in stress limit above k
1
f
uk
10% 10%
7.3.1(5) Prestressed decompression cover 65mm 65mm
Decompression cover should be set to c
min,dur
from 4.4.1.2(5)

171
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court
Princess Street
Knutsford
WA16 6BW
Job: Sample Reports
Job No.: 6.5d
Calc. By: dlg
Beam: Prestress Beam - Inner span 1 Checked:
Eurocode + UK NA
Data File: J:\...\6.50d Data Files\inner beam span 1.sam 02/02/2012 09:39:44
SAM v6.50d 06/02/2012 09:33:32 Page: 14
2012 Bestech Systems Ltd
European Standard EN1993
Description Current United
Kingdom
NDPs
EN1993-1-1
EN1993-1-5
Clause 5
5.1(2) factor for shear buckling, steel grade <= S460, 1 1
5.1(2) factor for shear buckling, steel grade > S460, 1 1
EN1993-2
Clause 6
6.1(1) Partial factor for excessive yielding,
M0
1 1
6.1(1) Partial factor for instability,
M1
1.1 1.1
6.2.2.5 Effects of local buckling for class 4, Method 1 1
Clause 7
7.3(1) Partial factor for Serviceability,
M,ser
1 1

172
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court
Princess Street
Knutsford
WA16 6BW
Job: Sample Reports
Job No.: 6.5d
Calc. By: dlg
Beam: Prestress Beam - Inner span 1 Checked:
Eurocode + UK NA
Data File: J:\...\6.50d Data Files\inner beam span 1.sam 02/02/2012 09:39:44
SAM v6.50d 06/02/2012 09:33:32 Page: 15
2012 Bestech Systems Ltd
European Standard EN1994
Description Current United
Kingdom
NDPs
EN1994-2
Clause 6
6.6.3.1(1) Partial factor for shear connector resistance,
V
1.25 1.25
6.8.1(3) factor for headed stud shear connectors, k
s
0.75 0.75

173
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court
Princess Street
Knutsford
WA16 6BW
Job: Sample Reports
Job No.: 6.5d
Calc. By: dlg
Beam: Prestress Beam - Inner span 1 Checked:
Eurocode + UK NA
Data File: J:\...\6.50d Data Files\inner beam span 1.sam 02/02/2012 09:39:44
SAM v6.50d 06/02/2012 09:33:32 Page: 16
2012 Bestech Systems Ltd
174

175
Bestech Systems Limited
2 Slaters Court, Princess Street
Knutsford, WA16 6BW
United Kingdom

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