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SPREADSHEETS

FOR
CONCRETE
DESIGN
TO BS 8110 and
EC2
User Guide to Excel spreadsheet files
for contemporary reinforced concrete
design to BS 8110: Part 1, 1!
and E"# $E%& 1#' (ith commentary
C H Goodchild BSc, CEng, MCIOB, MIStructE
R M Webster CEng, FIStructE
%B )his *ersion of the User Guide may ha*e +een
superseded +y the pu+lication Spreadsheets for
concrete design to BS 8110 and EC2 and +y the file
UserGuid,pdf
Foreword
)his pu+lication (as produced +y the -einforced "oncrete "ouncil $-""' as part of its pro.ect /Spreadsheets for
concrete design to BS 8110 and E"#/, )his pro.ect (as .ointly funded +y the -"" and the 0epartment of the
En*ironment, )ransport and the -egions $0E)-' under its Partners in )echnology scheme and (as made
possi+le +y mem+ers of industry (ith their contri+utions in 1ind,
)he -"" (as set up to promote +etter 1no(ledge and understanding of reinforced concrete design and +uilding
technology, 2ts mem+ers are 3llied Steel 4 5ire, representing the ma.or suppliers of reinforcing steel in the U6,
and the British "ement 3ssociation, representing the ma.or manufacturers of Portland cement in the U6, "harles
Goodchild is Senior Engineer for the -einforced "oncrete "ouncil, 7e (as responsi+le for the concept and
management of this pro.ect and this pu+lication,
-od 5e+ster of "oncrete 2nno*ation 4 0esign is principal author of the spreadsheets, 7e has +een (riting -"
spreadsheets since 188 and is expert in the design of tall concrete +uildings and in ad*anced analytical
methods,
Acknowledgements
)he ideas and illustrations come from many sources, )he help and guidance recei*ed from many indi*iduals are
gratefully ac1no(ledged,
)han1s are due to mem+ers of the pro.ect9s 3d*isory Group for their time and effort in helping to ma1e the pro.ect
feasi+le and in +ringing it to fruition:
S 3lexander, S 3lhayderi, 0r 7 3l:;uarra, 2 Bald(in, " Bar1er, < Beamish, 3 Beasley, ) Bedford,
G Belton, - Bhatt, - Bic1erton, P Blac1more, 0 Blac1(ood, < Brady, " Buc=1o(s1i, 3 "amp+ell,
0r P "hana, G "harles(orth, > "heng, <r "hichger, - "ollison, 3 "raddoc1, < <orton, ? "urry,
? 0ale, 7 0i1me, " P Edmondson, ? Elliott, 2 @eltham, G @ernando, < @ernando, 2 @rancis, 3 @ung,
P Gardner, ? Gay, P Green, 3 7all, % 7arris, G 7ill, 0 5 7o++s, - 7ulse, < 7utcheson, 3 2drus,
% 2mms, P ?ennings, 0 6ennedy, G 6ennedy, - ?othira., 0r ShaiA 6han, 3 6ing, G 6ing, S 6ing,
6 6us, >oc1hart, < >ord, B >orimer, < >o*ell, 0r >u1er,? >upton, < >ytrides, Prof 2 <acleod,
@ <ale1pour, 3 <c3tear, 3 <c@arlane, @ <ohammad, 3 <ole, < <orton, - <oss, B <unton,
" B/Boyle, 0r 3 B1orie, ) B/%eill, B Bsafa:6(aa1o, 0 Patel, 0 Penman, < Perera, B ;uic1, C -afiA,
3 -ath+one, < -a(linson, P -eynolds, 7 -iley, % -ussell, U P Sar1i, ) Schollar, 3 Stal1er, 3 Starr,
< Ste*enson, B Sto1er, B )read(ell, 3 )ru+y, - )urner, ) &iney, 0r P 5al1er, B 5atson,
? 5hit(orth, " 5il+y, S 5ilde, 3 5ong and E Carimer
)he -"" extends its special appreciation to:
-ichard "heng, BSc, "Eng, Eur 2ng, @2StructE, author of the retaining (all and +asement (all spreadsheets,
Peter %o+le for con*ersions and chec1ing, and to
3ndy Pullen for initial studies into compati+ility of spreadsheet soft(are,
3lso the late Sami 6han for help (ith post:tensioning spreadsheets,
)han1s also to 3lan )o*ey $)ecnicom' and Gillian Bond $5ords 4 Pages' for editing, design and production,
!,D!0 *0,# UserGuid,doc
@irst pu+lished #000
2SB% 0 !#10 1E8E F
Price group @
G British "ement 3ssociation #000
Pu+lished +y the British "ement 3ssociation on +ehalf of the
industry sponsors of the -einforced "oncrete "ouncil,
British "ement 3ssociation
"entury 7ouse, )elford 3*enue
"ro(thorne, Ber1shire -G8E HCS
)elephone $01D88' !H#H!H @ax $01D88' !H1#18
(((,+ca,org,u1
3ll ad*ice or information from the British "ement 3ssociation andIor -einforced "oncrete "ouncil is intended for those (ho (ill
e*aluate the significance and limitations of its contents and ta1e responsi+ility for its use and application, %o lia+ility $including
that for negligence' for any loss resulting from such ad*ice or information is accepted +y the B"3, -"" or their su+contractors,
suppliers or ad*isors, Users should note that all B"3 soft(are and pu+lications are su+.ect to re*ision from time to time and
should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest *ersion,
SPREADSHEETS FOR CONCRETE DESIGN TO
BS 8! "nd EC#
Contents
P"ge
2ntroduction D
General notes
<anaging the spreadsheets E
@amiliarisation !
Using the spreadsheets 18
3ssumptions made 1
Spreadsheets to BS 8110
Elements RCC Element 0esign,xls ##
RCC# Bending and 3xial @orce,xls #E
RCC$ Punching Shear,xls #H
RCC% "rac1 5idth,xls #!
3nalysis RCC# Su+frame 3nalysis,xls #8
Sla+s RCC$ Bne:(ay Solid Sla+s $3 4 0',xls
J
#
RCC$# -i++ed Sla+s $3 4 0',xls D1
RCC$$ @lat Sla+s $3 4 0',xls DD
Beams RCC% "ontinuous Beams $3 4 0',xls DE
RCC%# Post:tensioned Sla+s 4 Beams $3 4 0',xls D!
"olumns RCC& "olumn >oad )a1e:do(n 4 0esign,xls 8#
RCC&# "olumn "hart generation,xls 8E
RCC&$ "olumn 0esign,xls 8H
5alls RCC' Basement 5all,xls 8!
RCC'# -etaining 5all,xls 8
Stairs RCC( Stair @light 4 >anding : Single,xls E#
RCC(# Stairs 4 >andings : <ultiple,xls ED
@oundations RCC8 @oundation Pads,xls E8
)a+ular *ersions RCC) Bne:(ay Solid Sla+s $)a+les',xls EH
RCC)# -i++ed Sla+s $)a+les',xls E8
RCC)$ @lat Sla+s $)a+les',xls H0
RCC)% )(o:(ay Sla+s $)a+les',xls H#
RCC)& "ontinuous Beams $)a+les',xls HD
Spreadsheets to E"# $E%& 1#'
Eurocode # H8
%otes regarding E"# H8
Elements RCCe Element design,xls HH
3nalysis RCCe# Su+frame analysis,xls H8
Beams RCCe% "ontinuous +eams $3 4 0',xls H
3dministrati*e files !1
-eadme,doc 4 ,txt Essential information for initial use
Printreg,xls 7elpI informationI formatting
UserGuid,doc 5ord file of User Guide
)he@onts @older containing fonts used in the spreadsheets:
<ar1er,ttf
)e1tonKn,ttf
)e1tonKi,ttf
-eferences and further reading !D
Sym+ols !E
1

#
Notes
in the text of this pu+lication, spreadsheets are often referred to +y their initial reference
num+er rather than the full names gi*en a+o*e
J 3 4 0 L 3nalysis and 0esign
INTROD*CTION
)his pu+lication has +een produced under the -einforced "oncrete "ouncil9s pro.ect, MSpreadsheets
for concrete design to BS 8110 and E"#9, 2t pro*ides:
3 User Guide for the spreadsheets produced under the a+o*e pro.ect
Examples of current commercial reinforced concrete design
3 consensus of current commercial reinforced concrete design practice
3 consensus of opinion concerning reinforced concrete design to E"#,
)he spreadsheets are intended to follo( normal design practice and cater for the design of lo(: to
medium:rise multi:storey concrete framed +uildings,
B*er a num+er of years, the -einforced "oncrete "ouncil has de*eloped spreadsheets to produce
cost:optimised spanIdepth charts
$1'
, 2t (as recognised that the spreadsheets could pro*e to +e a *ery
useful tool for all designers N eAually useful to the single practitioner, larger organisations and
educational esta+lishments, )hus in 1H a pro.ect (as set up to commit reinforced concrete design to
computer spreadsheet files, )he pro.ect (as .ointly funded +y the -"" and the 0epartment of the
En*ironment, )ransport and the -egions $0E)-' under its Partners in )echnology scheme, 2t (as
made possi+le +y the support and contri+utions of time gi*en +y indi*idual mem+ers of industry, )he
pro.ect (as managed +y the -einforced "oncrete "ouncil and guided +y an 80:strong 3d*isory Group
of interested parties, including consulting engineers and soft(are houses,
)he spreadsheets (ere to +e issued (ith pu+lications co*ering their use, complete (ith model designs
and commentary, )(o issues (ere originally en*isaged: one to BS 8110: Part 1, 1!, Structural use
of concrete
$#'
, and one to Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, Part 1
$D'
, B(ing to current
uncertainties (ith the final detailed content of E"#, the num+er of spreadsheets to the current E%&
has +een curtailed, %onetheless, it has +een possi+le to maintain a comprehensi*e co*erage and
present the spreadsheets to E"# (ith those to BS 8110 in this single:*olume user guide,
)he design of concrete structures has +een descri+ed as time consuming and costly, "omputer
programs are used extensi*ely +ut designers are often reluctant to rely on M+lac1 +ox9 technology o*er
(hich they ha*e little 1no(ledge or control, "omputer spreadsheets, on the other hand, are user:
friendly, completely transparent and *ery po(erful, and are +ecoming increasingly popular in all
aspects of engineering, )hey ha*e po(erful graphical presentation facilities and esta+lished lin1s (ith
other soft(are, nota+ly (ord processors, 2n structural engineering, they suit concrete design ideally, in
that they can carry out a series of mathematical calculations and, as in design, can chec1 (hether
certain conditions are met, )hey are an ideal medium to deal (ith the intricacies of concrete design,
3nd this is (here it is hoped the pu+lication and spreadsheets (ill help students and inexperienced
engineers grasp an understanding of reinforced concrete design, @or the experienced engineer,
spreadsheets allo( the rapid production of clear and accurate design calculations, 2t is hoped that the
spreadsheets (ill allo( younger users to understand concrete design and help them to gain
experience +y studying their o(n M(hat if9 scenarios, )he indi*idual user should +e a+le to ans(er their
o(n Auestions +y chasing through the cells to understand the logic used, "ells (ithin each
spreadsheet can +e interrogated, formulae chec1ed and *alues traced,
2n producing the spreadsheets se*eral issues ha*e had to +e addressed, @irstly, (hich spreadsheet
pac1age should +e usedO Excel appeared to hold a+out !0P of the mar1et amongst structural
engineers and (as thus adopted, <ore specifically, Excel 9! (as adopted as +eing de facto the most
(idely a*aila+le spreadsheet in the field, )o a*oid complications, it (as decided not to produce
corresponding *ersions using other spreadsheet pac1ages,
2n trying to emulate current practice, a consensus of opinion (as sought and used on se*eral design
issues, @or instance, (ith flat sla+s, should deflection chec1s consider the (hole +ay (idth as
opposed to chec1ing column strips and middle stripsO Should retaining (alls conform to BS 800#
$8'
,
800!
$E'
or "E"P#
$H'
, 2t is anticipated that through use and continuing de*elopment more standardised
design methods (ill emerge, Students and young engineers may follo( the Mmodel9 calculations
presented in the spreadsheets to form an understanding of current reinforced concrete design,
D
)he introduction of Eurocode # is ine*ita+le, Students and +oth inexperienced and experienced
engineers (ill all need to grasp an understanding of design to this code, )here are differences
+et(een E"# and BS 8110, )he spreadsheets should help (ith the transition, )he introduction of
Eurocode # (ill pro*ide commercial opportunities for those (ho are prepared to use it,
2t is +elie*ed that +oth no*ices and experienced users of spreadsheets (ill +e con*inced that
spreadsheets ha*e a great potential for teaching BS 8110 and Eurocode #, impro*ing concrete design
and, a+o*e all, impro*ing the concrete design and construction process,
8
GENERA+ NOTES
,"n"g-ng t.e s/re"ds.eets
*se
Spreadsheets can +e a *ery po(erful tool, )heir use (ill +ecome increasingly common in the
preparation of design calculations, )hey can sa*e time, money and effort, )hey pro*ide the facility to
optimise designs and they can help instill experience, 7o(e*er, these +enefits ha*e to +e (eighed
against the ris1s associated (ith any endea*our, )hese ris1s must +e recognised and managed, 2n
other (ords appropriate le*els of super*ision and chec1ing, including self:chec1ing, must, as al(ays,
+e exercised (hen using these spreadsheets,
Ad0"nt"ges
@or the experienced engineer, it is hoped that the spreadsheets (ill help in the rapid production of
clear and accurate design calculations for reinforced concrete elements, )he contents are intended to
+e sufficient to allo( the design of lo(:rise multi:storey concrete framed +uildings,
Spreadsheets allo( users to gain experience +y studying their o(n M(hat if9 scenarios, Should they
ha*e Aueries, indi*idual users should +e a+le to ans(er their o(n Auestions +y chasing through the
cells to understand the logic used, "ells (ithin each spreadsheet can +e interrogated, formulae
chec1ed and *alues traced, <acleod
$!'
suggested that, in understanding structural +eha*iour, do-ng
calculations is pro+a+ly not a great ad*antageQ +eing close to the results pro+a+ly is,
Engineers are often accused of ha*ing little idea of the costs of their designs, 5ith spreadsheets, it is
a *ery simple matter to multiply the Auantities of reinforcement, concrete and form(or1 reAuired +y
current rates to gi*e an idea of material costs, By considering these costs along (ith time costs,
different forms of concrete construction can +e compared Auic1ly and si=es or depths of elements can
+e sensi+ly optimised,
Bther +enefits include Auic1er and more accurate reinforcement estimates, and the possi+ilities for
electronic data interchange $E02', 3lready, +ending schedules in the form of 3S"22 files deri*ed from
spreadsheets are the +asis of some E02 and the control of +ar:+ending machines, Standardised, or at
least rationalised, designs (ill ma1e the chec1ing process easier and Auic1er,

A//ro/r-"te 1se
2n its deli+erations
$8'
the Standing "ommittee on Structural Safety $S"BSS' noted the increasingly
(idespread a*aila+ility of computer programs and circumstances in (hich their misuse could lead to
unsafe structures, )hese circumstances include:
People (ithout adeAuate structural engineering 1no(ledge or training may carry out the structural
analysis,
)here may +e communication gaps +et(een the design initiator, the computer program de*eloper
and the user,
3 program may +e used out of context,
)he chec1ing process may not +e sufficiently fundamental,
)he limitations of the program may not +e sufficiently apparent to the user,
@or unusual structures, e*en experienced engineers may not ha*e the a+ility to spot (ea1nesses
in programs for analysis and detailing,
)he committee9s report continued: RSpreadsheets are, in principle, no different from other soft(areST
5ith regard to these spreadsheets and this pu+lication, the -"" hopes to ha*e addressed more
specific concerns +y demonstrating Rclear e*idence of adeAuate *erificationT +y documenting the
principles, theory and algorithms used in the spreadsheets, )he spreadsheets ha*e also had the
+enefit of the 3d*isory Group9s o*er*ie( and inputs, 2ne*ita+ly, some unconscious assumptions,
inconsistancies etc
$'
, (ill remain,
E
+-"2-l-t3
A 41nd"ment"l cond-t-on o4 1se t."t t.e 1ser "cce/ts res/ons-2-l-t3 4or t.e -n/1t "nd o1t/1t o4
t.e com/1ter "nd .ow -t -s 1sed5
3s (ith all soft(are, users must +e satisfied (ith the ans(ers these spreadsheets gi*e and +e
confident in their use, )hese spreadsheets can ne*er +e fully *alidated +ut ha*e +een through +eta
testing, +oth formally and informally, through mem+ers of the 3d*isory Group, 7o(e*er, users must
satisfy themsel*es that the uses to (hich the spreadsheets are put are appropriate,
)he initial spreadsheets (ere put through (hat (as termed Midiot:proofing9 to try and guard against
strange num+ers +eing used, By its *ery nature, this exercise could not +e all:encompassing, @uture
de*elopments, such as adoption of European standards, might lead to use of concrete strengths of
D! %Imm
#
$fc1 L D0, fcu L D!' and other material properties strange to U6 eyes, 3nother example is
reinforcement diameters of 18 mm that are used o*erseas,
Control
Users and managers should +e a(are that spreadsheets can +e changed and must address change
control and *ersions for use, )he flexi+ility and ease of use of spreadsheets, (hich account for their
(idespread popularity, also facilitate ad:hoc and unstructured approaches to their su+seAuent
de*elopment,
;uality 3ssurance procedures may dictate that spreadsheets are treated as controlled documents and
su+.ect to comparison and chec1s (ith pre*ious methods prior to adoption, Users/ ;uality 3ssurance
schemes should address the issue of changes, )he possi+ilities of introducing a company/s o(n
pass(ord to the spreadsheets andIor extending the -e*ision history contained (ithin the sheet
entitled %otesU might +e considered,
A//l-c"t-on
)he spreadsheets ha*e +een de*eloped (ith the goal of producing c"lc1l"t-ons to sho( compliance
(ith codes, 5hilst this is the primary goal, there is a school of thought
$10'
that designers are primarily
paid for producing specifications and dra(ings (hich (or1 on site and are appro*ed +y clients andIor
chec1ing authorities, Producing calculations happens to +e a secondary exercise, regarded +y many
experienced engineers as a hurdle on the (ay to getting the pro.ect appro*ed and completed, @rom a
+usiness process point of *ie(, the emphasis of the spreadsheets might, in future, change to
esta+lishing compliance once mem+ers, loads and details are 1no(n, "ertainly this may +e the
preferred method of use +y experienced engineers,
)he spreadsheets ha*e +een de*eloped (ith the a+ility for users to input and use their o(n preferred
material properties, +ar si=es and spacings etc, 7o(e*er, user preferences should recognise mo*es
for efficiency through standardisation,
3nother long:term o+.ecti*e is automation, )o this end, spreadsheet contents might in future +e
arranged so that input and output can +e copied and pasted easily +y macros andIor lin1ed +y the
end:user, )here are counter:arguments a+out users needing to +e closer to the calculations and
results in order to ensure they are properly considered N see Appropriate use a+o*e,
5e emphasise that it is up to the user ho( heIshe uses the output, )he spreadsheets ha*e +een
produced to cater for +oth first:time users and the *ery experienced (ithout putting the first:time user
off, %onetheless, their potential applications are innumera+le,
S1mm"r3
5ith spreadsheets, long:term ad*antage and sa*ings come from repeated use +ut there are ris1s that
need to +e managed, Spreadsheets demand an initial in*estment in time and effort N +ut the re(ards
are there for those (ho ta1e ad*antage, Good design reAuires sound .udgement +ased on
competence deri*ed from adeAuate training and experience N not .ust computer programs,
H
F"m-l-"r-s"t-on
O1tl-ne descr-/t-on
)here are many different (ays to present structural concrete calculations, M"alcs9 should demonstrate
compliance (ith rele*ant design codes of practice, +ut different designers (ant to in*estigate different
criteria and (ant to set out calculations in different (ays, Spreadsheets cannot satisfy e*eryone, )he
spreadsheets presented here ha*e +een set out to co*er the criteria that may +e deemed Musual9, 2t is
incum+ent on the user to .udge (hether these criteria are pertinent and sufficient for the actual case in
hand, 2t is also incum+ent on the user to ensure that the inputs are correct and that outputs are of the
correct order of magnitude,
)he spreadsheets are intended to follo( normal design practice and cater for the design of lo(: to
medium:rise multi:storey concrete framed +uildings, Each type of element may +e designed in se*eral
different (ays, e,g, hori=ontal frame elements may +e designed using:
Element design: design of simple elements to BS 8110: Part 1
$#'

M)a+ular design9: design of elements +ased on moments and shears deri*ed from BS 8110: Part 1
)a+les D,1# and D,E
3nalysis and design: design of elements +ased on moments and shears from analysis, e,g, su+:
frame analysis, em+odied (ithin the spreadsheets,
Element des-gn
)he element design spreadsheets illustrate the +asic principles of reinforced concrete design from
input material properties, dimensions, moments, shears and axial loads, etc, )hey form the +asis of
element design used in succeeding spreadsheets, )he moments, shears and axial loads used should
+e deri*ed from separate analysis $e,g, hand calculations, su+:frame analysis spreadsheet or other
analysis pac1age', @or further explanation the user is referred to BS 8110 or a num+er of standard
reference (or1s
$11, 1#, 1D'
,
T"21l"r des-gn
)he ta+ular design spreadsheets use )a+les D,1# and D,E from BS 8110: Part 1 to automate the
deri*ation of design moments and shears, )he use of these ta+les is, ho(e*er, restricted,
@or sla+s, BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,E,#,8, restricts the use of )a+le D,1# to (here:
2n a one:(ay sla+, the area of a +ay $one span x full (idth' exceeds D0 m
#
)he ratio of characteristic imposed loads, A1, to characteristic dead loads, g1 does not
exceed 1,#E
)he characteristic imposed load, A1, does not exceed E 1%Im
#
, excluding partitions
3dditionally, for flat sla+s, there are at least three ro(s of panels of approximately eAual span in
the direction +eing considered,
@or +eams, "lause D,8,D, )a+le D,E is *alid only (here:
"haracteristic imposed loads, ;1, do not exceed characteristic dead loads, G1
>oads are su+stantially uniformly distri+uted o*er three or more spans
&ariations in span length do not exceed 1EP of the longest span
2f design parameters stray outside these limits, the spreadsheets should +e used (ith caution,
An"l3s-s "nd des-gn
)o pro*ide for more general application, these *ersions com+ine su+:frame analysis (ith design,
Spreadsheets for one:(ay sla+s, ri++ed sla+s, flat sla+s and +eams pro*ide po(erful design tools,
Su+:frame analysis is used in the post:tensioned concrete design spreadsheet,
!
)he flat sla+ spreadsheet is intended to +e used one:direction at a time, )he post:tensioned concrete
design spreadsheet follo(s "oncrete Society )-8D
$18'
and in*ol*es su+:frame analysis at *arious limit
states, )he principles used are applica+le to +oth +eams and sla+s (ith either +onded or un+onded
tendons, )he examples of the retaining (all and +asement (all spreadsheets are +ased on common
practice,
)he su+:frame analysis spreadsheet, -""#1,xls, may of course +e used alone $and the elements
designed +y other means such as -""11,xls',
Col1mn des-gn
"olumn design is presented in, essentially, t(o different (aysQ either an amount of reinforcement is
determined or the capacity of a section is chec1ed N t(o *alid design approaches,
Under -""11 Element 0esign,xls $or -""11,xls for short', the amount of reinforcement is calculated
$+y iterating to find the neutral axis depth in order to sol*e t(o simultaneous eAuations',
Under -""E#,xls for single axis +ending and -""ED,xls for t(o axis +ending, %:< interaction charts
are deri*ed from presumed reinforcement arrangements, 2ndi*idual load cases are chec1ed against
the capacity of the column (ith the *arious reinforcement arrangements,
-""E1,xls is set out so that the user may underta1e a traditional column load ta1e do(n, assess
design moments and critical axis +efore calculating the amount of reinforcement reAuired,
-""1#,xls determines the capacity of an unsymmetrical reinforced column $or +eam',
Ot.ers
Bther spreadsheets pro*ide for the design of pad foundations catering for one or t(o columns,
punching shear, stairs $either as single flights and single landings or flights and landings as in a stair
core', small retaining (alls and +asement (alls, <ore detail and further references are gi*en (ithin
the spreadsheets themsel*es,
+"3o1t
3s (ith all soft(are, spreadsheets ha*e their o(n .argon, )he +asic terminology for layout is sho(n on
the follo(ing screen dump:
Excel file name "ell 0rop do(n menus
)ool+ars
$use &ie(I)ool+ars
to s(itch on and off
@ormula +ar
"ell reference
Scroll +ar
5or1sheet area
Sheet ta+s
)ool+ar
Bther soft(are
8
Each spreadsheet may contain se*eral lin1ed sheets $i,e, layers or pages' that deal (ith different
aspects of design, )he sheet9s name on the sheet ta+ gi*es an indication of the content, @or the more
in*ol*ed spreadsheets, indi*idual sheets are de*oted to a full explanation of the design $(ith
references for educational and *alidation purposes' or analysis, etc, and other sheets gi*e an a+ridged
*ersion more in 1eeping (ith the reAuirements of experienced practising engineers, @urther sheets
may contain analysis calculations, data for graphs and calculation of reinforcement (eight, 3ll
spreadsheets ha*e a %otesU sheet (here disclaimers, status and re*ision histories relating to each
spreadsheet are incorporated $sheet names are differentiated +y the use of an appended exclamation
mar1',
Sheet ta+s
$from -""81,xls'
)hose sheets (ith names in capitals are intended for printing out as design calculations: it is these
sheets that are printed out as examples in this guide, Bther sheets are a*aila+le to *ie( in the
spreadsheets, )hese may need to +e printed for chec1ing purposes and parts of them, such as simple
design routines, may +e pasted into (ord:processed calculations $see Printing, p1H',
)he spreadsheets are intended to +e as consistent as possi+le, Generally, upper sheets consist of
calculations, notes and (or1ings as illustrated in the example +elo(, (hich gi*es an indication of the
contents of a typical spreadsheet, )he first sheet consists of input, follo(ed +y results of analysis,
design, (eight of reinforcement, analysis, detailed design (ith references, graph data and finally a
re*ision history,
T3/-c"l s/re"ds.eet 6RCC%57ls8
<32%U
<ain sheet
3")2B%SU
<ain graphical output of
Bending <oment 0iagrams,
and shear force diagrams, +ut
also input for redistri+ution

SP3%SU
0esign for sections of each span, Spans D, 8, E
and H follo( onQ extraneous spans +lan1ed out,
2nput of +ar si=e and lin1 si=e reAuired,
5eightU
"alculation of reinforcement
3nalysisU
5or1ings of the su+:frame analysis
carried out using moment distri+ution,
B3-U
Sho(ing design of reinforcement (ith reference
to code reAuirements, Spans D, 8, E and H follo(
on from 1 and #,
GrafU
0ata for graphs in charts
weight
10
%otesU
0isclaimers, status and re*ision history of the
spreadsheet,
T3/-c"l screen l"3o1ts
*//er s.eets
)he calculations are intended to mimic hand:(ritten calculations as far as possi+le (ith a little more
explanation +y (ay of references to codes and deri*ation of num+ers than (ould usually +e the case
in normal su+missions, Sheets intended for printing out are di*ided into three sections, calculations,
operating instructions and (or1ings, )he output is intended to +e sufficient to allo( detailing, although
the designer should al(ays consider and allo( for rationalising reinforcement +oth (ithin and +et(een
elements, )he example +elo( is from -""11,xls, 2n this case, the sheet designs solid sla+s from
moments, shears, material data etc that are input +y the user, 2nput cells are in +lue and are
underlined $so they can +e recognised in +lac1 and (hite *ersions',
)he cells under Operating Instructions contain help and error messages that are intended to help the
user (ith the correct operation of the spreadsheet, )hey also contain *ariously chec1s, print +oxes
and com+o:+oxes, Box mar1ers indicate (here chec1s ha*e +een carried out and ha*e pro*ed
satisfactory, Print +uttons $+uttons (ith macros assigned to them' automatically print out the
calculation sheets pro*iding macros ha*e not +een s(itched off, "om+o:+oxes allo( choices +et(een
specified options,
)o the right hand side of many spreadsheets are intermediate calculations, data for graphs, etc, )hese
M(or1ings9 are not considered *ital to understanding the calculation: they may nonetheless +e *ie(ed
and in*estigated, M5or1ings9 may also +e contained on supplementary sheets,
11
Spreadsheet
file name
Sheet ta+
$Spreadsheet
"oncurrent
soft(are +eing
used
Generally references to
BS 8110 etc
Co!o"!o# used for
automated choices
2nput cells are in +lue and
are underlined $so they can
+e recognised in +lac1 and
(hite *ersions'
C"lc1l"t-ons
)his is the area that (ill
print out using the
automatic print +utton
O/er"t-ng
-nstr1ct-ons
Gi*es messages, options,
help messages, etc, pertinent
to the design
9ork-ngs
<ay not +e intelligi+le to
the layman (ithout loo1ing
at at the (or1ings of the
cells,
5or1ings can +e extensi*e
and (hole sheets may +e
de*oted to them, 2n the
normal course of printing
these (or1ings are not
printed,
-esults in +old
"ontents of cells
are in*estigated here
Excel tool+ar
menus
T3/-c"l screen l"3o1t
1#
Ot.er s.eets
)hese sheets are not necessarily intended for printing out and may not +e understanda+le (ithout
reference to the printed calculations, @or instance, in this case $from -""E#,xls "alcsU' the %:<
relationship for D# mm diameter +ars in this particular column is +eing calculated for increments of
neutral axis depth, <any iterations are reAuired in order to construct the %:< graph, )here are
therefore many calculations and these are set out in ta+les, )he *olume of calculations ma1es it
difficult to produce legi+le print:outs on a limited num+er of sheets,
32 Bar diaeter
d! " #$ d " 2$% &sc " $'2#(# $
)"* +uadratic a "$22,(*** b "#-$,'-(.* c " /-(E0*.
n a1 " %#.(# Inter2al " 2(%%# (24 intervals between N=0 and Nbal)
) "* (solve for zero N)
n )eutral a1is -2(#- -#(2# -.(-2 ,**(#' ,*3(2# ,*#(-, ,*'(#' ,,,(2$ ,,3(-,
Fc Conc co3 4orce 3-*'2, $*2*%- $,33,. $2$#%# $3#',$ $$.*%2 $#'3,* $%-##' $'*'*.
c strain Steel co3 strain *(**,$% *(**,#2 *(**,#. *(**,%2 *(**,%. *(**,.2 *(**,.% *(**,'* *(**,'$
t strain Steel tens strain *(**#'* *(**##$ *(**#2- *(**#*% *(**$'$ *(**$%3 *(**$$3 *(**$2$ *(**$*%
4sc Steel co3 stress 2.%(,, 2'.(#3 2-'(33 3*'(#% 3,'(2% 32.($. 33%(23 3$$(#. 3#2(#2
4st Steel tens stress $3'(, $3'(, $3'(, $3'(, $3'(, $3'(, $3'(, $3'(, $3'(,
Fsc Steel co3 4orce %%%,-, %-3.$. .,-'*$ .$$$'* .%.''2 .-*,*. ',,2$* '3,3%2 '#*#$,
Fst Steel tens 4orce ,*#.*,, ,*#.*,, ,*#.*,, ,*#.*,, ,*#.*,, ,*#.*,, ,*#.*,, ,*#.*,, ,*#.*,,
5 Conc le2er ar 2*$(33 2*3(,$ 2*,(-$ 2**(.$ ,--(#$ ,-'(3$ ,-.(,$ ,-#(-$ ,-$(.$
N Fc 0Fsc / Fst *(** 3'('* .%(,, ,,2(*3 ,$%(%' ,'*(,% 2,2(#$ 2$3(-, 2.$(3$
, M O R 2*.(.. 2,,(,# 2,$(3% 2,.($, 22*(3, 223(*' 22#(., 22'(2, 23*(%*
6abels 4or chart
) di44 3'('* 3.(3* 3#(-2 3$(%# 33($. 32(3' 3,(3. 3*($3 2-(##
M di44 3(3' 3(2, 3(*# 2(-* 2(.% 2(%3 2(#, 2(3- 2(2'
Notes:
)he %otesU sheet sho(s the disclaimer, status and re*ision history of each spreadsheet, )he
disclaimer and status should +e read and understood, )he re*ision history pro*ides a record of the
spreadsheet +eing used and may pro*ide a +asis for users9 ;3 procedures, )he re*isionI*ersion and
name of the spreadsheet shoud appear on all print:outs, )his example is ta1en from -""E#,xls %otesU
Disclaimer
Stats !" s#reads$eet
7ublic release 2ersion(
Re%isi!n $ist!r& RCC'2 C!lmn C$art (enerati!n
8ate 9ersion &ction Si5e :;B<
*%/&ug/-- RCC#22,(*
First 3ublic release(
Includes 2ersion coents
2*32
&ll ad2ice or in4oration 4ro the British Ceent &ssociationand=or Rein4orcedConcrete
Council is intended4or those >ho >ill e2aluatethe signi4icanceandliitations o4 its contents
andta;eres3onsibilit?4or its useanda33lication( )o liabilit?:includingthat4or negligence<4or
an? loss resulting 4ro such ad2ice or in4oration is acce3ted b? the BC&, RCC or their
subcontractors, su33liers or ad2isors( @sers should note that all BC& so4t>are and
3ublications are subAect to re2ision 4ro tie to tie and should there4ore ensure that the? are
in 3ossession o4 the latest 2ersion(
Bhis s3readsheet should be used in co3liance >ith the acco3an?ing 3ublication
!Spreadsheets for concrete design to BS 8110 and !2" a2ailable 4ro British Ceent
&ssociation, Bel4ord &2enue, Cro>thorne, Ber;shire RG$# %CS(
1D
*s-ng t.e s/re"ds.eets
*s-ng t.e s/re"ds.eets 4or t.e 4-rst t-me ; Fre<1entl3 Asked =1est-ons
B"se 0ers-ons
2nitially, al(ays start from the +ase *ersions on the "0:-B<, 2f in dou+t, go +ac1 to the *ersion on the
"0:-B<, )hese safeguards are to a*oid using corrupted or +espo1e files, E*entually, familiarity (ith
the spreadsheets and ;uality 3ssurance procedures may o*erta1e this +asic precaution,
Please note that (hilst all spreadsheet cells, apart from input cells, are co*ered +y nominal protection,
it is possi+le to change the contents of cells, Briginal *ersions +y -"" can +e sourced from the -""9s
"0:-B< or (e+site, 3lso, please note conditions of use and disclaimers associated (ith the use of
the spreadsheets contained (ithin the sheet titled %otesU and else(here in this user guide,
E7cel
)he spreadsheets are normal Excel 9! files, Excel 9! $G <icrosoft "orporation' is a standalone
pac1age or may +e included as part of the <icrosoft Bffice 98 pac1age on P"s or <acs, )he files are
compati+le (ith Excel #000, part of Bffice #000, and are li1ely to +e compati+le (ith future *ersions of
Excel, )hose not familiar (ith Excel are directed to the 7elp functions (ithin Excel and rele*ant
literature a*aila+le at +oo1 and computer shops,
Please note that the spreadsheets (ill not necessarily (or1 (ith pre*ious *ersions of Excel $e,g, 9E,
E,x etc' or other spreadsheet programs, )his is due to incompati+ility +et(een soft(are and +ac1(ard
incompati+ility +et(een *ersions, $)o chec1 (hich *ersion of Excel you are running see sign:on
screen, or 7elpI3+out <icrosoft Excel or see Printreg,xls under 3dministrati*e files,', )hose running
Excel #000 are ad*ised to use the Sa*e 3sI,xls function to a*oid inordinately large file si=es,
+ong 4-le n"mes
)he +ase *ersions of the spreadsheets are sa*ed (ith long file names to aid familiarity (ith each
spreadsheet/s purpose, Some soft(are and net(or1s only recognises eight characters for a file name,
2n use, users may +e reAuested +y the system to allo( a++re*iated names eg -""11,xls ,
3s shorthand, the spreadsheets are generally referred to +y their num+er rather than their name in full,
i,e, -""11,xls is used as shorthand for -""11 Element 0esign,xls,
+o"d-ng " s/re"ds.eet 4or t.e 4-rst t-me
Under 5indo(s 9E, 98 or %) insert the spreadsheet "0:-B< into the "0 dri*e $dri*e 0: assumed',
3 spreadsheet can +e loaded using one of the follo(ing methods:
a' @rom M<y "omputer9, dou+le clic1$II' on <y "omputer, dou+le clic1 on 0 $assumed "0 dri*e'
IIdou+le clic1 on spreadsheet of one9s choice II, Excel (ill +oot up and most pro+a+ly (arn a+out
macros +efore loading the spreadsheet fully, 2n order to proceed, ena+le macros $see +elo(',
+' Successi*ely clic1 StartI ProgramsI <icrosoft ExplorerI dou+le clic1 mouse on "0 0ri*e $0'II ,
0ou+le clic1 the mouse pointer on the spreadsheet of your choice, e,g,-""11,xlsII, 2f not already
loaded and a*aila+le, Excel (ill +oot up and load up (ith -""11,xls,
c' Successi*ely clic1 Start I Programs I <icrosoft Excel, Bnce Excel has +ooted up, clic1 mouse
pointer on @ile in top menu +ar I clic1 mouse on Bpen I clic1 mouse on the M>oo1 in9 +ox and scroll
through to the "0 0ri*e
d' "lic1 mouse on the "0 0ri*e $0'II, 0ou+le clic1 mouse on the spreadsheet of your choice, e,g,
-""11,xlsII,
%o installation program per se is included, Under file managers such as <icrosoft Explorer, the "0:
-B< *ersions of the spreadsheets can +e dragged and dropped into an appropriate folder specified
+y the user, 3lternati*ely, from (ithin Excel, the spreadsheets can +e loaded directly from the "0:
-B< N +ut should users (ish to sa*e the modified spreadsheet, it has to +e sa*ed to an alternati*e
dri*e,
18
,"cros
5hen loading the indi*idual spreadsheets, Excel may (arn you a+out the presence of macros, 3ll the
macros pro*ided in the files are either to allo( automated printing of the Mcalculations9 or to pro*ide
choices +y (ay of com+o:+oxes, )he printing macros ha*e +een assigned to +uttons, )urning the
macros off (ill not affect the actual function of the spreadsheets +ut (ill ma1e printing of the sheets as
configured more difficult and ma1e the choice of options *ery much more difficult,
Fonts
Unless the appropriate fonts Be;ton and Mar;er $supplied in the "0:-B<' ha*e +een installed +y
the user, the appearance on screen (ill +e different from that in the pu+lication and from that intended,
)hese upright fonts ha*e +een used to emulate a designer9s hand(riting and to allo( adeAuate
information to +e sho(n across the page and in each cell,
2f pro+lems are experienced it is most li1ely that the fonts on your computer screen (ill ha*e defaulted
to the closest approximation of the fonts intended $e,g, the tool+ar may say )e1ton +ut a default font
such as 3rial (ill ha*e +een used', )he spreadsheets (ill (or1 +ut not as intended N ends of (ords
may +e missing, num+ers may not fit cells resulting in a series of hashes, JJJJJ, "olumn (idth and
cell o*erlap pro+lems only occur (hen the correct fonts are not loaded,
2t is strongly suggested that the Be;ton and Mar;er fonts are copied into your computer/s font li+rary,
)his may +e done in the follo(ing manner, either:
StartISettingsI"ontrol PanelI@ontsI @ileI 3dd @onts and (hen as1ed Rcopy fonts to system
directoryT say yes,
or
)hrough <icrosoft Explorer and copying $or dragging' the font files into your font li+rary, usually
contained in 5indo(sI Set:upI @onts,

De4"1lt 4ont s->e
E*en (ith the correct fonts installed, the appearance of the sheets might +e different from those in this
pu+lication, )his may +e due to the default font si=e on the user/s computer +eing different from the
font si=e 1# used in the de*elopment of the spreadsheets, @or instance if the user/s default font si=e is
10, pages (ill appear and print narro(er than intended $as unformatted cells (ill re*ert to a narro(er
cell (idth than intended',
Please ensure that the default font si=e is set at 1#, $)oolsI BptionsI GeneralI Standard font and si=e',
2f standard font or si=e is changed it (ill +ecome effecti*e only after re+ooting Excel, 5hile the
spreadsheets (ere de*eloped using )e1ton 1#, many )rue )ype font si=e 1# $e,g, 3rial or prefera+ly
)imes %e( -oman 1#' may gi*e adeAuate presentation,
2f a series of hashes $JJJJJ' still appears, it may +e necessary to resi=e the column (idth,
Screen 0-ew
)he spreadsheets ha*e +een de*eloped assuming that part, if not the (hole, of the Operating
Instructions column is in *ie(, )his column contains comments, instructions, chec1s, explanations etc,
and is important to the correct operation of the spreadsheets,
Generally, a screen =oom of !EP has +een used as a default si=e on the sheets, Bccasionally, other
=oom si=es ha*e +een used in order to aid comprehension,
In/1t
2n the spreadsheets, input data is +lue and underlined, %e( data may +e input +y o*er(riting default
*alues or +y entering *alues in Mgreyed out9 cells, Entering data in far:left greyed:out cells (ill also
remo*e the grey conditional +ac1ground to other cells, (hich (ill then reAuire data entry, Some input
cells refer +ac1 to data on pre*ious sheets (ithin a (or1+oo1, )hese are coloured magenta, +ut
change +ac1 to +lue if other data are entered,
1E
Do not co/3 "nd /"ste -n/1t 4rom one cell to "not.er "s t.-s m"3 c"1se 4orm"tt-ng "nd ot.er
errors5 Do not 1se S/"ce, Enter 6t.e s/"ce e<1"ls te7t85 2f similar input is reAuired in other cells
then use ML cell reference9 (ith caution, e,g, ML B1H9 in the appropriate input cell,
3ll non:input cells should ha*e nominal protection and the contents of these cells can +e o*er(ritten
only if the user has ta1en positi*e steps to o*er(rite original contents,
2n the page headers the M<ade +y9 and M"hec1ed9 +oxes should +e completed or cleared +y using a
+lan1 or hyphenQ clearing the cell completely (ould produce M09 on su+seAuent sheets,
?"l1es -n red or red 2"ckgro1nds
0uring operation, *alues in red or cells (ith red +ac1grounds flag either incorrect data to +e changed
or excess data to +e cleared $manually', E*en space as an entry might generate red +ac1grounds,
I4 3o1 m"ke " mess o4 -t
Start again from the +ase *ersion of the spreadsheet on the "0:-B<,
Pr-nt-ng
)he sheets may +e printed out in se*eral (ays:
)hrough the automated print +uttons in the spreadsheets $using these print macros (ill o*er:(rite
print areas defined else(here'
Using the Print icon on Excel9s standard tool+ar
Using @ileIPrint (ithin Excel
"opying and pasting $special' parts of the spreadsheets to a (ord processor or other pac1age,
$Pasting $special' into a (ord processor file as a +itmap produces a (ysi(yg image, Pasting as
other formats (ill pro+a+ly reAuire some pre:copying formatting of the spreadsheet andIor post:
formatting of recei*ing cells'
Print areas may +e defined +y:
7ighlighting area then clic1ing @ileIPrint 3reaISet Print 3rea
"lic1ing &ie(IPage Brea1 Pre*ie( and ad.usting +oundaries to suit
Print pre*ie(ing can +e achie*ed using the Print Pre*ie( icon on the standard tool+ar,
Pr-nt 4orm"tt-ng
0ifferent hard(are and soft(are are configured in many different (ays, )his situation leads to many
*ariations on the actual print from indi*idual printers, Best results are li1ely to +e o+tained from
5indo(s printers +ut e*en these may not produce printing that is identical to that in this pu+lication,
Some manipulation for printing (ith your configuration may +e ine*ita+le, See also printreg,xls under
3dministration files,
A1to com/lete
Excel9s facility for 3uto"ompleting cells $e,g, entering M)9 might auto complete to M)ype9' can +e a
mixed +lessing, 2n most spreadsheets it should +e turned off *ia )oolsI Bptions I Edit and clearing the
Ena!le AutoCoplete for cell %alues +ox,
Hel/
7elp is a*aila+le at the follo(ing places:
5ithin Excel under 7elp
5ithin the spreadsheet under BPE-3)2%G 2%S)-U")2B%S
5ithin the 5ord document UserGuid,doc a*aila+le on the "0:-B<
;ueries should +e e:mailed to rccV+ca,org,u1, 7o(e*er, the -"" cannot guarantee to reply +ut
preference (ill +e gi*en to those (ho register and Auote their pass(ord, See Share(are
registration +elo(, )he -"" regrets that telephone enAuiries cannot +e dealt (ith,
1H
Cont-n1ed 1se
S."rew"re
)hese spreadsheets are offered as share(are, )his can +e considered a Rtry +efore you +uyT system
(here you are expected to pay the program authors a registration fee if you find the program useful or
if the programs are used for commercial design, 2n general you may pass on copies of share(are
programs to colleagues (ithin the U6, although commercial $for a fee' distri+ution reAuires special
(ritten permission from the pu+lisher,
S."rew"re reg-str"t-on
0esigners (ho use this soft(are in the course of their (or1 are reAuested to pay a registration fee of
WE0 X &3) per office (here the spreadsheets are used, )he registration (ill co*er spreadsheets to
+oth BS 8110 and E"#, 2n order to register please either use a print:out of printreg,xls $see
3dministrati*e files p!# or ta1e a copy of this page, fill it in and return (ith payment to the -"",
Separate conditions apply for use outside Britain and for educational esta+lishments : please apply in
(riting,
Reg-stered *ser
%ame:
Brganisation:
3ddress 1:
3ddress #:
)o(n:
"ounty:
Postcode $4 "ountry':
Phone:
@ax:
E:mail:
%ature of +usiness:
%o, of employees

"heAues paya+le to: /)he -einforced "oncrete "ouncil/
"entury 7ouse, )elford 3*enue,
"ro(thorne, Ber1shire -G8E HCS
Bene4-ts o4 reg-str"t-on
-egistrants (ill recei*e:
3 receipt
3 pass(ord
By Auoting their pass(ord, preferential treatment (ith regard to support
By using their pass(ord, free access to do(nload any ne( or updated spreadsheets that may +e
made a*aila+le on the -""9s (e+site at (((,-"":info,org,u1,
-egistration (ill +e *alid for at least one year +ut +eyond one year, the -"" reser*es the right to
charge for do(nloading updates in order to co*er costs,
1!
S1//ort
E:mailed Auestions, comments, de*elopments and suggestions are (elcomed, Send them to
rccV+ca,org,u1, )he -"" regrets that it cannot guarantee to reply or to enter into correspondence,
Preference (ill +e gi*en to those (ho register and Auote their pass(ord, )elephone enAuiries cannot +e
dealt (ith,
*/d"tes
2t is intended that the -""9s (e+site $(((,-"":info,org,u1' (ill include updated *ersions of the
spreadsheets, )hese (ill +e do(nloada+le +y registrants (ho can supply their *alid pass(ord,
Cond-t-ons o4 1se@ d-scl"-mers
A 41nd"ment"l cond-t-on o4 1se t."t t.e 1ser "cce/ts res/ons-2-l-t3 4or t.e -n/1t "nd o1t/1t o4
t.e com/1ter "nd .ow -t -s 1sed5
5hilst, the spreadsheets ha*e +een chec1ed (ith all reasona+le care and diligence, they cannot +e
guaranteed for e*ery e*entuality,
&alidation (as held to +e extremely important +ut these spreadsheets can ne*er +e fully *alidated,
7o(e*er, they +ut ha*e +een through +eta testing, +oth formally and informally, through mem+ers of
the 3d*isory Group and others, Users must satisfy themsel*es that the uses to (hich the
spreadsheets are put are appropriate, Users must ha*e read, understood and accepted the disclaimer
contained on the inside front co*er of this pu+lication $and repeated in the sheet named %otesU in each
spreadsheet',
Please inform the -"" of any ma.or discrepancies found,
C."nge control
Nom-n"l /rotect-on
Users and managers should +e a(are that the spreadsheets can +e changed, Beyond nominal cell
and sheet protection, the files are open and can +e changed, )here are se*eral reasons for this:
)he files can +e customised +y users to their o(n preferred methods of presentation and design
$e,g, deflections might +e calculated to part # of BS 8110Q indi*idual firms or pro.ect logos might
replace the -""9s logo',
)he protection should stop inad*ertent changes and corruption of cells,
0e*elopments and impro*ements can +e made and fed +ac1 to the -"", Such feed+ac1 is
encouraged and allo(s a (ider consensus to +e gained,
Protection can al(ays +e o*ercome +y determined users
@ully protected files can hide cell contents
Spreadsheet emulators are at present unsuita+le for this application,
0ifferent designers (ant different facilities a*aila+le to them and should not +e restricted,
)he spreadsheets are all protected +ut (ith no pass(ord, in other (ords users ha*e to do something
positi*e if they are to change any formulae, and must therefore ta1e responsi+ility for any deli+erate or
accidental changes, )he pro.ect9s 3d*isory Group held this to +e a sensi+le position,
Users and managers must address change control and *ersions for use, )he -"" can
only control the +ase *ersions issued on "0:-B< $and (e+ page', )he pu+lished
examples can +e used as record copies to help identify changes, Users ;uality
3ssurance procedures may dictate the use of more sophisticated protection measures,
De0elo/ment
)he protection may +e o*er:ridden to allo( customisation and indi*idual de*elopment, 3ny
de*elopment of the spreadsheets should +e underta1en +y experienced staff (ho ha*e a good
18
understanding of the pro+lems and pitfalls of +oth design and spreadsheets, 2t may ta1e an
experienced engineer four or fi*e times longer to prepare a spreadsheet than it (ould to produce the
eAui*alent manual calculation: ro+ust, commercially accepta+le spreadsheets may ta1e E0 times as
long, )hey can ta1e e*en longer to test, chec1 and correct, Bnly repetition of use ma1es the
in*estment of time (orth(hile,
5ith relati*ely open files, designers are at li+erty to alter the spreadsheets as they (ish, 7o(e*er,
they must satisfy themsel*es that any alterations are correct and do not interfere (ith any other aspect
of the spreadsheet in Auestion and conform to any ;3 procedures,
%ot(ithstanding the a+o*e, copyright of the spreadsheet contents remains (ith the B"3 for the -"",
3ltered or amended *ersions of the spreadsheets may not +e sold or hired (ithout the (ritten
permission of the -"",
Please inform the -"" of any ma.or discrepancies found or impro*ements made,
S"0-ng 4-les;4-le m"n"gement
<any users sa*e spreadsheets to a directory andIor folder of their choice, )his is particularly true
(here spreadsheets pertaining to a particular pro.ect are sa*ed to a folder gi*en the pro.ect/s name,
Ass1m/t-ons m"de
0uring the course of de*elopment of these spreadsheets, a num+er of structural and computing
assumptions ha*e +een made, )hese are discussed +elo(
As en."ncement
Se*eral of the spreadsheets contain automatic routines that increase 3s in order to reduce ser*ice
stress fs and therefore increase modification factors in order to satisfy deflection chec1s, )he /3s
enhancement/ *alues are the percentages +y (hich 3s reAuired for +ending are increased in order to
satisfy deflection criteria,
Red-str-21t-on
)he spreadsheets (ith analysis allo( redistri+ution in accordance (ith BS 8110: Part 1, "lause
D,#,#,1, )he user may choose +et(een three options, )hese options do not affect redistri+ution at
supports +ut do determine ho( span moments are calculated, as sho(n in the follo(ing ta+le,
Re-n4orcement dens-t-es
Some spreadsheets gi*e an indication of (eight of reinforcement in the margin under MBperating
2nstructions9, )hese densities should +e used (ith great caution, <any factors can affect actual
reinforcement Auantities on specific pro.ects, )hese include different methods of analysis, non:
rectangular layouts, large holes, actual co*ers used, detailing preferences $curtailment, laps and
(astage', and the unforeseen complications that ine*ita+ly occur, 3s may +e examined in the sheets
entitled M(eight9, the densities gi*en relate to simple rectangular layouts and the -""9s interpretation
of BS 8110, )hey ma1e no specific allo(ance for (astage,
)he densities assume that the areas or *olumes of sla+s are measured gross, e,g, sla+s are
measured through +eams, Beam reinforcement densities relate to (e+ (idth multiplied +y o*erall
depth
R"t-on"l-s"t-on o4 re-n4orcement
3lthough it may appear that many of the spreadsheets gi*e least solutions (eight $hence more +ars,
more (or1', the amounts of reinforcement deri*ed are actually accurate $and not necessarily
rationalised', 2t is intended, therefore, that the amounts of reinforcement deri*ed from the spreadsheet
should +e considered as minima,
T.e 1ser s.o1ld s/ec-43 more r"t-on"l-sed re-n4orcement l"3o1ts to t.e det"-ler5 -ationalisation
should +e done manually N there (ould seem to +e too many *aria+les and personal preferences to
1
ena+le automatic rationalisation, 3 detailer can al(ays close up spacing andIor reduce +ar diameters
if desired,
S/re"dA
s.eet
o/t-on
n1m2er
Des-gn
s1//ort
moment
Des-gn s/"n moments
Support moment from
(hich span moment
is calculated
"omments
! Y+< Y+< 0esign span moments (ill pro+a+ly +e
less than elastic moment $minimum of !0P
of elastic moment',
)his option may lead to a 1in1ed +ending
moment diagram as the !0P 1ic1s:in in the
spans,
2n the case of thin sections such as sla+s,
consideration of span deflection and
ser*ice stress often leads to reinstatement
of any reinforcement theoretically sa*ed,
Y+< <inimum of
Y+< and <altIY+
0esign span moments might +e less than
elastic moment +ut less li1ely than (ith
option 0,
2ncreasing the minimum support moment
for the calculation of span moment from
<alt to <altIY+ is seen as a sensi+le
compromise +et(een options 0 and #,
# Y+< <inimum of
Y+< and <alt
0esign span moments cannot +e less than
elastic moment,
<ost often used +ut, if, typically, #0P
redistri+ution is specified at supports,
design span moments (ill increase +y
a+out 10P o*er elastic span moments,
3gain, in thin sections, consideration of
deflection and ser*ice stress can limit
additional amounts of reinforcement due to
increased span moment,
5here
Y+ L $moment after redistri+ution'I$moment +efore redistri+ution'
L 100P : P redistri+ution reAuested
< L elastic moment at support, all spans loaded
<alt L maximum elastic <oment at support, alternate spans loaded
<ost often the spreadsheets reAuire +ar si=e as input, rather than +ar spacing, )his can lead to
unusual, +ut correct, spacings, 5here +ar diameter input is a*aila+le, it may +e (orth in*estigating
larger +ars $at larger centres', @or instance, in the design of a flat sla+ it (ould pro+a+ly +e prefera+le
to use 88#8 larger +ars at greater centres rather than H880 smaller +ars at small centres $(eight is
marginally different, 8#,E 1gIm
D
c,f, 80,8 1gIm
D
', )his results in D0P fe(er +ars compared (ith #P
extra steel, -ationalised arrangements (ith least num+er of +ars (ithout +rea1ing the spacing rules
and least num+er of +ar mar1s are al(ays prefera+le, E*entually, it may +e possi+le to automate this
process, +ut for the time +eing it is +et(een the program user $i,e, the designer' and the detailer to
decide ho( to rationalise +ar arrangements, 3ny estimates of reinforcement must ta1e this process
into account,
Bther spreadsheets tend to si=e +ars in such a (ay that minimum centres $or clear spacings' are not
exceeded,
#0
2t is assumed that issues of detail (ill +e considered +y the engineer and detailer, 2ssues such as
radius of +ottom +ars and +eam +earings, space +et(een +ars in narro( +eams, spliced +ars at
supports of +eams, connection details, etc,, need to +e considered,
Imposed c545 live lo"ds
>oosely, Iposed load is ta1en to +e the characteristic load input +y the user, &i%e load is ta1en to +e
that part of the ultimate load that is not characteristic dead load $i,e, &i%e load L n : g1',
BDI?;!: 6D-0-de 23 >ero errors8
2n some spreadsheets, J02&I0U results may arise and +e displayed, 2n sheets intended for printing out,
J02&I0U indicates an error in or in*alid input, 2n sheets of (or1ings, they ha*e no rele*ance to the
*alidity of the sheet or the spreadsheet as a (hole,
Please note that in many cases, +ut not all, a *ery small *alue has +een used rather than =ero in order
to a*oid J02&I0U $di*ide +y =ero' pro+lems in Excel, e,g, Z-""ED,xls[ "asesUBD:B8 (here
2@$E--B-$GD',0,000001,GD' has +een used,
+-nk-ng s/re"ds.eets
)o a*oid complications, lin1s +et(een different spreadsheets ha*e not +een used, %onetheless, for
the experienced user, lin1ing pro*ides a po(erful tool, )he results of one spreadsheet can +e lin1ed
through to +ecome the input for another, or pro.ect data can +e auto:loaded, )his minimises the
amount of input reAuired and at the same time reduces the scope for error in data transfers, @or
example, the results of a +eam analysis can +e carried through to +eam design, 3ny lin1s created +y
the user are at his or her discretion,
De4lect-ons
0eflection chec1s are +ased on span:depth criteria in the codes, Estimates of actual deflections are
not yet a*aila+le (ithin the spreadsheets,
An"l3s-s@ c"nt-le0er de4lect-ons "nd s1//ort rot"t-on
Support rotations are ignored, Support rotation cannot +e determined except as part of a rigorous
deflection analysis, -otations cannot +e easily deri*ed from moment distri+ution, and in any case,
gross section slopes are of little or no *alue, 2t is assumed that BS 81109s usual deemed:to:satisfy >Id
chec1s $Rrule of thum+T' are adeAuate,
2f support rotations are expected to +e critical additional chec1s should +e underta1en,
Screen resol1t-on
)he spreadsheets ha*e +een de*eloped in 10#8 x !H8 resolution, so that their appearance (ill +e
accepta+le +et(een S&G3 $800 x H00' and 1#80 x 10#8, )hey (ill o+*iously (or1 in &G3 $H00 x 880',
+ut higher resolutions are recommended,
C#D
)he spreadsheets rely on Excel and the users/ systems +eing year #000 compliant,
#1
SPREADSHEETS TO BS 8!
RCC Element Des-gn57ls
-""11,xls includes sheets for designing
Solid sla+s,
-ectangular +eams,
) +eams $and ri++ed sla+s' for +ending,
Beam shear and
"olumns (ith axial load and +ending a+out one axis,
-""11,xls designs elements to BS 8110: Part 1, 1!, 2t is assumed that loads, moments, shears,
etc, are a*aila+le for input from hand calculations or analysis from else(here, 3 go*erning criterion
can +e deflectionQ span:to:depth ratios are used as per BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,8,H,
S+AB:
)his sheet allo(s for the design of a section of solid sla+ in a single simply:supported span, in a
continuous span, at supports or in a cantile*er, )hese choices ha*e a +earing on deflection limitations
and the user should choose the appropriate location from the com+o:+ox to the right hand side, )he
user may also choose to allo( for no or nominal compression steelQ this again affects deflection
factors, )o an extent the spreadsheet (ill automatically increase reinforcement in order to lo(er
ser*ice stresses and enhance allo(a+le span to depth ratios, )he spreadsheet allo(s a certain
amount of theoretical o*er:stress as defined +y the user in cell <!, Engineering .udgement is reAuired
to ensure that any o*er:stress is accepta+le and that specified reinforcement is sensi+ly rationalised,
)he example is ta1en from Designed and detailed
$1E'
, )he slight *ariance in reinforcement
reAuirements is due to the spreadsheet allo(ing marginal o*er:stress and allo(ing centres in
increments of #E mm,
RECTEBEA,:
)his sheet designs rectangular +eams, )he location of the +eam may +e either in a single simply:
supported span, in a continuous span, at supports or in a cantile*er , )hese choices ha*e a +earing on
deflection limitations and the user should choose the appropriate location from the com+o:+ox to the
right hand side,
5hen considering span reinforcement, the spreadsheet (ill, (here necessary, automatically increase
reinforcement in order to lo(er ser*ice stresses and enhance allo(a+le span:to:depth ratios, 2n
chec1ing deflection, the sheet entitled -E")KBE3<U includes t(o +ars of the specified reinforcement
diameter to deri*e a modification factor for compression reinforcement, )he facility to specify
additional compression reinforcement to enhance span:to:depth ratios is contained (ithin
)EEKBE3<U
)he example is ta1en from Designed and detailed
$1E'
, )he expression for area of tension steel
reAuired may +e unfamiliar to some and is explained +elo(:
As ' ()*+,E-.)*0+0 / 202+,E-.)81+11.0)8+1
' (23 " 3u4.2d " d54 / 3u.61.(f7.( 1
' As5 / 3u( .6f7
' 1-80 $
TEEEBEA,:
)EEKBE3< designs ) +eams and > +eams in single simply:supported span, end span, internal span
or cantile*er locations, 3gain, these choices ha*e a +earing on deflection limitations and the user
should choose the appropriate location from the com+o:+ox to the right hand side, 5ith respect to the
##
effecti*e (idth of the flange, the user may also choose that the section is considered as a tee: or an
in*erted > +eam,
3 default *alue for the (idth of the flange +f is calculated and displayed as input, )his cell may +e
o*er(ritten if, for instance, say the user (ishes to allo( for openings etc, )he default is calculated as
+eing:
(e+ (idth X 0,18 span for ) +eams, internal span
(e+ (idth X 0,1H span for ) +eams, end span
(e+ (idth X 0,0! span for > +eams, internal span
(e+ (idth X 0,08 span for > +eams, end span
2n the determination of compression steel, (here the neutral axis lies +elo( flange, the concrete in
(e+, +(, +elo( flange has +een ignored, )his is seen as a *alid alternati*e to the approach in
"lause D,8,8,E ,
2n order to calculate the appropriate deflection factor for compression reinforcement, there is a facility
to specify compression reinforcement, 5hen considering deflection, the spreadsheet (ill, (here
necessary, automatically increase span reinforcement in order to lo(er ser*ice stresses and enhance
allo(a+le span:to:depth ratios,
)he example is ta1en from Designed and detailed
$1E'
, )he span could ha*e +een defined as an end
span rather than interior span: the part of the span in hogging (ould ha*e +een greater than the !0P
assumed and the (idth of the flange could ha*e +een ta1en as +eing (ider $1E80 mm', leading to
some economy,
SHEAR:
)his sheet chec1s +eams or sla+s for shear and calculates any shear reinforcement reAuired, 2t is
hoped that the input is self:explanatory,
Pro*iding the applied load is fundamentally a U0>, or (here the principal load is located further than
#d from the face of the support, BS 8110: "lause D,8,E,10 allo(s shear to +e chec1ed at d from the
face of support, "hec1s for maximum shear $either E,0 %Imm
#
or 0,8fcu
0,E
' are carried out
automatically, 3 maximum lin1 spacing of H00 mm is usedQ this is seen as a sensi+le maximum,
)he example is ta1en from Designed and detailed
$1E'
, )he *alue of shear used is that at d from the
face of support $i,e, D00,0 N $0,8E X 0,D0I#' x H8,1# L #E 1%', )he designed lin1s (ould +e necessary
for a distance of 1E00 mm from this position +efore re*erting to nominal lin1 arrangements, 2t may
ha*e +een more appropriate to ha*e used )10s and the full D00,0 1% shear at centre of support, )his
(ould ha*e lead to )10 V1#E for 1!E0 mm from the centre of support, $)he difference in length of
designed lin1s is due to the different capacity of the nominal lin1s,'
3part from punching shear, shear in sla+s is rarely critical, $See -""1D,xls,'
CO+*,N:
)his sheet designs symmetrical rectangular columns (here +oth axial load, %, and maximum design
moment, <x are 1no(n $see BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,8,#, D and 8', 2t iterates xIh to determine (here
the neutral axis lies, )he sheet includes stress and strain diagrams to aid comprehension of the final
design,
@or simplicity, (here three or more +ars are reAuired in the top and +ottom of the section, it is
assumed that a $rotationally' symmetrical arrangement (ill +e reAuired for the side faces, )his
appears to +e common practice, for small to medium si=ed columns,
@or more detailed consideration see -""E#,xls, 2n particular, see -""ED,xls regarding the issue of
side +ars,
"B>U<%U 3ssumes that the moment entered has already +een ad.usted, if necessary, for +i:axial
+ending, @or many side and all corner columns, there is no other choice than to design for +i:axial
#D
+ending, and the method gi*en in "lause D,8,8,E must +e adhered to, i,e,, -""ED,xls or sheets # and
D of -""E1,xls should +e used,
)heoretical shortfalls in area of up to #P are considered to +e accepta+le, 2n theory, negati*e amounts
of reinforcement reAuired can +e o+tained +ut these are superseded +y reAuirements for minimum
amounts of reinforcement in columns, %o ad.ustment is made in the area of concrete occupied +y
reinforcement,
<aximum lin1 centres are gi*en, )he routine in the area >H1:U81 in*estigates shear (hen, in
accordance (ith "lause D,8,8,H, <I% \ 0,Hh, 2n such cases either a maximum allo(a+le shear is
sho(n (here shear is critical, or input of shear and num+er of legs in lin1s allo(s the lin1s to +e
designed for the applied shear, E*en in un+raced structures shear is rarely li1ely to +e critical,
)he example is ta1en from Designed and detailed
$1E',
#8
RCC# Bend-ng "nd A7-"l Force57ls

)his spreadsheet gi*es an interaction chart for moment against axial load for rectangular sections (ith
asymmetrical reinforcement arrangements, 2nitially intended for +eams (ith axial load it is also
applica+le to asymmetrically reinforced columns,
,AIN:
<oments are considered to +e a+out the x:x axis, 3ll applied loads and moments should +e ultimate
and positi*e, as positi*e moments induce tension in the +ottom reinforcement,
5ith asymmetrical arrangements of reinforcement the diagram indicates that negati*e moments are
theoretically possi+le, 3fter much consideration, the diagram is considered to +e correct +ut strictly is
*alid only for load cases (here the mem+er is operating a+o*e 0,1fcu and (ith at least minimum
eccentricity, )hese limits are sho(n on the graph, 3 reciprocal diagram is generated automatically
(hen top and +ottom steels are re*ersed in the input,
C"lcs:
"alcsU Sho(s the deri*ation of the chart (here moment capacity is calculated at inter*als of neutral
axis depth from n,a, depth for % L 0 to n,a, depth for % L %+al, then in inter*als from n,a, depth for
% L %+al to n,a, depth for % L %u=, )his sheet sho(s (or1ings and is not necessarily intended for
printing out other than for chec1ing purposes,
#E
RCC$ P1nc.-ng S.e"r57ls

)his spreadsheet designs punching shear lin1s, Essentially it is intended to +e used (ith simple
rectangular flat sla+s to BS 8110 i,e, (ith -""DD,xls, EAually it can +e used in con.unction (ith
-""81,xls or to chec1 (ide +eams in, say, troughed sla+s,
)he spreadsheet is presented as four pairs of sheets dealing (ith internal, edge, $external' corner and
re:entrant corners,
2t should +e remem+ered that in sla+s these traditional lin1s are time:consuming to fix on site N
proprietary systems are generally much Auic1er to fix on site and this far out(eighs first cost,
INTERNA+: 6S-m-l"rl3 EDGE:, CORNER "nd REENTRANT:8
)hese sheets constitute the input and main output, 2nput is fairly self:e*ident +ut, as e*er, care must
+e exercised in ensuring correct *alues are used, )he top diagram acts as a legend and the chart at
the +ottom of the sheet sho(s the column, any holes and lin1 perimeters, and should act +oth as a
chec1 for input and help explain output, )he x:x axis is across the page,
)o the right is a com+o:+ox that allo(s either:
2nput of +oth &t $design shear transferred to column' and &eff $design effecti*e shear including allo(ance
for moment transfer' is reAuired, )hese figures should +e a*aila+le from su+:frame analysis e,g, output
from -""DD,xls under 8eactions $see p E8', 3 *alue of &eff, computed from &t and the factor according
to location of the column $see BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,!,H' is suggested under Operating Instructions:
in general this figure may +e regarded as a maximum: calculating effecti*e shear from moment transfer
generally results in lo(er figures,
or
2nput of &t alone, &eff defaults to the *alues gi*en in BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,!,H
)he areas of steel in the t(o directions should +e a*erages in each direction, i,e,, ensure that it
reflects the actual reinforcement in the sides of the perimeter, an a*erage of column strips and middle
strips as appropriate,
Except (hen chec1ing column face shear, holes under half the sla+ depth or ] column side are
ignored as in the second paragraph of BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,!,!,!, <ultiple holes should +e
aggregated pro:rata as if they (ere one hole at one position,
)he shear at 1,E d and at the first perimeter reAuiring no reinforcement is sho(n under 8esults,
)he examples emulate the example used for -""DD,xls, i,e, emanating from the in:situ +uilding of the
European "oncrete Building Pro.ect $E"BP' at B-E "ardington, &eff is gi*en as an input,
-einforcement has +een increased to )1H V 1E0 $1D80 mm
#
Im' +oth (ays to increase *c to o*ercome
pro+lems (ith rules regarding * \ #*c $see "lause D,!,!,E', 3s (ill +e seen &eff is less than 1,8&t, 2n the
case of edge columns, a factor of 1,#E can +e used if +ending is a+out an axis parallel to edge and 1,8
if perpendicular $"lause D,!,H,D', 3 (orse case has therefore +een ta1en,
Int Dets: 6Edge Dets:, Corner Dets "nd ReAent Dets: s-m-l"r8
)hese sheets sho( design calculations, determination of critical perimeters, enclosed areas and lin1
reAuirements complete (ith references to BS 8110, )hey are not necessarily intended for printing out
other than for chec1ing purposes, )he area load is deducted from &t, +efore &t is enhanced,
)hese sheets use the relationship &effI&t to calculate shear at successi*e perimeters, 0eductions for
holes in the calculation of shear perimeters are calculated +y finding the angle defined +y the
extremities of the hole, )he pro.ection of this angle is deducted from the appropriate perimeter,
#H
RCC% Cr"ck 9-dt.57ls
Cr"ck 9-dt.:
2n the design of reinforced concrete structures, it is assumed that the tensile capacity of concrete does
not contri+ute to the strength of the structure, and steel reinforcement is pro*ided to resist the internal
tensile forces that de*elop, Because steel reinforcement can de*elop the resisting tensile force only +y
extension $i,e, steel needs to extend to de*elop stress', and hence causes crac1s to form in the
surrounding concrete, crac1s in reinforced concrete structures cannot +e a*oided, 2n day:to:day
practical design, crac1 (idths are controlled +y limiting the maximum spacings of the tension
reinforcement, 7o(e*er there are times (hen the engineer (ill need to carry out more rigorous
analysis and calculations, e,g, in the design of (ater:retaining structures, and design for se*ere
exposure (here estimationIprediction of crac1 (idth is important, )his spreadsheet calculates crac1
(idths in accordance (ith BS 8110 and BS 800!,
"rac1 (idth limits are set as:
BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,1#,11,#,1 0,D mm N 2n Mnormal9 reinforced concrete structures
BS 800! 0,# mm N 2n (ater:retaining structures under se*ere or *ery se*ere exposure
BS 800! 0,1 mm N 2n (ater:retaining structures (ith critical aesthetic appearance
2n calculation of crac1 (idth, elastic theory (ith /crac1ed section/ is adopted, Both BS 8110: Part # and
BS 800! appendix B gi*es the crac1 (idth formula,

+

=
x h
c a
# 1
^ a D
5
cr
m cr
2n calculating crac1 (idth, (, the a*erage strain, m, at the le*el (here crac1ing is +eing considered
allo(s a stiffening effect,
2
, of concrete +et(een crac1s
#
^ ^ ^
1 m
=
(here 1 is the theoretical strain at the le*el considered, calculated on the assumption of a crac1ed
section using half the concrete modulus Ec to allo( for creep effects
,
( )
( ) x d 3 E D
x h +
s s
#
#


=
BS 800! allo(s an additional enhancement factor of 1,E in calculating # for structures designed (ith
a crac1 (idth limit of 0,1 mm, )he spreadsheet pro*ides an option to adopt this enhanced factor if
design crac1 (idth is limit to 0,1 mm, )o choose this option, select the +lue /chec1 +ox/ on the right
hand margin,
acr is the distance from the point considered to the surface of the nearest longitudinal +ar, )he input
*alue is defaulted to the distance at the point on the tension face mid(ay +et(een t(o +ars, 7o(e*er
other *alues can +e entered to suit other locations, e,g, corner +ars, )he default *alue can +e reset +y
pressing the +lue +utton on the right hand margin,
#!
RCC# S124r"me An"l3s-s57ls

-""#1 Su+frame3nalysis,xls analyses su+:frames in accordance (ith BS 8110 using moment
distri+ution, 2nputs are reAuired on t(o sheets,
,AIN:
)his single sheet consists of the main inputs, most of (hich should +e self:explanatory, 3s in other
spreadsheets, a*oid pasting input from one cell to another as this may cause formatting and other
errors,
)he dimension of the flange (idth, +f, is automated to +e either +( X 0,0! x span for > +eams or +( X
0,18 x span for ) +eams,
Un(anted data cells are Mgreyed out9, )he use of ", 6, or E can alter the characteristics of a support
from cantile*er to 1nife:edge to encastre, -emote ends of supports may +e @ for fixedQ other(ise they
default to pinned, Extraneous data is highlighted in red or +y messages in red, Under Operating
Instructions a num+er of chec1s, mainly for missing entries, are carried out and any pro+lems are
highlighted, 3t the +ottom of the sheet a simplistic +ut to:scale arrangement and loading diagram is
sho(n, )his is gi*en to aid data chec1ing, 2t may pro*e prudent to (rite do(n expected *alues for
+ending moments at each support do(n +efore progressing to 3")2B%SU
3lso, under Operating instructions, the user should in:put the type of redistri+ution reAuired as
explained more fully under 8edistri!ution $see page #0',
0 means full redistri+ution,
1 limits alternate span up(ard redistri+ution to the percentage specified,
# means no span moment redistri+ution,
U0>s are input as line loads e,g, 81 %Im
#
for a E,0 m (ide +ay (ould +e input as #0 1%Im,
Ultimate and characteristic support reactions are gi*en at the +ottom of the sheet
ACTIONS:
)his sheet includes charts sho(ing the elastic +ending moment diagram, redistri+uted moment
en*elope, elastic shear forces and en*elope of redistri+uted shear forces, )hese diagrams are +ased
on data from the analysis underta1en in 3nalysisU at 1I#0 span points, <aximum span and support
moments are gi*en,
)he user is reAuired to input desired amounts of redistri+ution to the initial moments in line #H, "ell
>18 allo(s three types of distri+ution according to the user/s preference for calculating span moments
$see 3ssumptions made: redistri+ution', -edistri+ution input is included close to the +ending moment
diagrams in order to gi*e the user control rather than relying on +lan1et redistri+ution,
)he sheet also ta+ulates elastic and redistri+uted ultimate shears and column moments according to
the *arious load cases,
An"l3s-s:
)his sheet details the moment distri+ution analysis carried out +ut is not necessarily intended for
printing out other than for chec1ing purposes
Gr"4:
)his sheet comprises data for graphs used on other sheets, particularly in 3")2B%SU 2t is not
necessarily intended for printing out other than for chec1ing purposes
#8
RCC$ OneAw"3 Sol-d Sl"2s 6A F D857ls

)his spreadsheet analyses and designs $3 4 0: 3nalysis and design' up to six spans of one:(ay solid
sla+s to BS 8110 using continuous +eam analysis, )here is user input on each of the first four sheets
and choice of reinforcement for each span is implicit,
,AIN:
)his single sheet consists of the main inputs, most of (hich should +e self:explanatory,
)he num+er of spans is altered +y entering or deleting data under > $m', Un(anted data cells are
Mgreyed out9, )he use of ", 6 or E can alter the characteristics of the end supports from cantile*er to
1nife:edge to encastre, Extraneous data is highlighted in red or +y messages in red, Under Operating
Instructions a num+er of chec1s are carried out and pro+lems are highlighted,
@or the purposes of defining load, the section is assumed to +e 1,00 m (ide, 3t the +ottom of the
sheet a simplistic loading diagram is gi*en to aid data chec1ing, Great care should +e ta1en to ensure
this sheet is completed correctly for the case in hand, 2t may pro*e prudent to (rite do(n expected
*alues of +ending moments at each support do(n +efore progressing to 3")2B%SU
Support reactions are gi*en at the +ottom of the sheet,
ACTIONS:
)his sheet sho(s +ending moment and shear force diagrams from the analysis underta1en in
3nalysisU )he user is reAuired to input the desired amount of redistri+ution to the initial moments in line
#E, "ell ?18 allo(s three types of distri+ution according to the user/s preferences, -eAuesting
redistri+ution at a cantile*er produces a (arning message in the remar1s column,
SPANS:
2n SP3%SU the user is reAuired to choose top, +ottom and lin1 reinforcement for each span, )he
amounts of +ending and shear reinforcement reAuired and chec1s are deri*ed from detailed
calculations in BarU Un(anted cells are Mgreyed9 out,
Unless o*er(ritten, reinforcement diameter specified for a support carries through +oth sides of the
support, i,e, the diameter specified for the right hand support of a span carries o*er to the left hand
support of the next span, 2t may +e possi+le to o+tain different num+ers of +ars each side of the
support due to differences in depth or to comply (ith minimum E0P span steelQ practicality should
dictate that the maximum num+er of +ars at each support should +e used,
5ith regard to deflection, the area of steel reAuired, 3s mm
#
Im, sho(n under 9eading, may ha*e +een
automatically increased in order to reduce ser*ice stress, fs, and increase modification factors to
satisfy deflection criteria, )he percentage increase, if any, is sho(n under Deflection, 5ith respect to
cantile*ers, neither compression steel enhancement nor consideration of rotation at supports is
included,
7ogging moments at ] span are chec1ed and used in the determination of top steel in spans, "areful
examination of the Bending <oment 0iagram and GrafU should help to determine (hether any
curtailment of this reinforcement is (arranted,
)o a*oid undue sensiti*ity, especially (ith regard to deflection, reinforcement may +e o*er:stressed +y
up to #,EP
9e-g.t:
5eightU gi*es an estimate of the amount of reinforcement reAuired in one direction of the sla+ per +ay
and per cu+ic metre, Bay and support (idths are reAuired as input,
Simplified curtailment rules, as defined in BS 8110 "lause D,1#, are used to determine lengths of +ars,
)he figures should +e treated as approximate estimates only as they cannot deal (ith the effects of
#
designers/ and detailers/ preferences, rationalisation, etc, etc, )hey do not allo( for reinforcement in
supporting +eams or for mesh,
An"l3s-s:
)his sheet details the moment distri+ution analysis carried out +ut is not necessarily intended for
printing out other than for chec1ing purposes,
B"r:
)his sheet sho(s design calculations, complete (ith references to BS 8110, 2t is not necessarily
intended for printing out other than for chec1ing purposes, 2n many instance ser*ice stress, fs, has
+een set to 1,0 or 0,0001 %Imm
#
to a*oid pro+lems (ith di*ision +y =ero,
Gr"4:
)his sheet comprises data for graphs used on other sheets, particularly in 3")2B%SU 2t is not
necessarily intended for printing out other than for chec1ing purposes,
D0
RCC$# R-22ed Sl"2s 6A F D857ls

Using continuous +eam analysis, this spreadsheet analyses and designs up to six spans of ri++ed sla+
to BS 8110, )here is user input on each of the first three sheets and choice of reinforcement for each
span is implicit,
,AIN:
)his single sheet consists of the main inputs (hich should +e self:explanatory,
)he num+er of spans is altered +y entering or deleting data under > $m', Un(anted data cells are
Mgreyed9 out, )he use of ", 6 or @ can alter the characteristics of the end supports from cantile*er to
1nife:edge to fixed, Extraneous data is highlighted in red or +y messages in red, Under Operating
Instructions a num+er of chec1s are carried out and any pro+lems are highlighted,
@or the purposes of defining load the section under consideration is assumed to +e 1,00 m (ide, 2t (ill
+e seen from BarU that moments per metre are con*erted to moments per ri+, and calculations of
reinforcement areas reAuired etc,, are +ased on moments and shear per ri+, Great care should +e
ta1en to ensure this sheet is completed correctly for the case in hand, 2t may pro*e prudent to (rite
expected *alues of +ending moments at each support do(n +efore progressing to 3")2B%SU
"om+o:+oxes to the right under Operating Instructions define minimum +ar si=es to +e used $e,g, at
supports +et(een ri+s' and (hether the user (ants to use lin1s or not, 2f lin1s are reAuired these may
+e either designed or nominal lin1sQ the centres of nominal lin1s can +e changed,

)o(ards the +ottom of the sheet a simplistic loading diagram is gi*en to aid data chec1ing, 3t the
+ottom of the sheet, support reactions are gi*en,
ACTIONS:
)his sheet sho(s +ending moment and shear force diagrams from the analysis underta1en in
3nalysisU )he user is reAuired to input desired amount of redistri+ution to the initial moments in line #H,
"ell >18 allo(s three types of distri+ution according to the user/s preferences, See 8edistri!ution
under Assuptions ade on page 1,
At soe future stage ight it !e possi!le in the spreadsheet to suarise reinforceent and :here
and :h7 failures ha%e occurred,
SPANS:
2n SP3%SU the user is reAuired to choose top, +ottom and lin1 reinforcement for each span, )he
amounts of +ending and shear reinforcement reAuired and chec1s are deri*ed from detailed
calculations in BarU Un(anted cells are Mgreyed9 out,
)he reinforcement diameter specified for a support carries through +oth sides of the support, i,e, the
diameter specified for the right hand support of a span carries o*er to the left hand support of the next
span, 2t should +e noted that hogging moment is chec1ed +oth at the centre of support $solid section'
and the solidIri+ intersection $ri++ed section', 3s the moments at the solidIri+ intersection each side of
the support may differ, it may +e possi+le to o+tain a design gi*ing different num+ers of +ars each side
of the support, Practicality should dictate that the maximum num+er of +ars at each support is used for
detailing,
7ogging moments at ] span positions (ithin a span are chec1ed and are used in the determination of
top steel in spans,
9EIGHT:
5E2G7)U Gi*es an estimate of the amount of reinforcement reAuired in one direction of the sla+ per
ri+ and per sAuare metre, Simplified curtailment rules, as defined in BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,1#, are
used in the determination of lengths of +ars, )he figures should +e treated as approximate estimates
D1
only as they cannot deal (ith the effects of designers/ and detailers/ preferences, rationalisation, etc,
etc, )hey do not allo( for reinforcement in supporting +eams or for mesh,
An"l3s-s:
)his sheet details the moment distri+ution analysis carried out, 2t is not necessarily intended for
printing out, other than for chec1ing purposes,
B"r:
)his sheet sho(s design calculations, complete (ith references to BS 8110, 2t is not necessarily
intended for printing out other than for chec1ing purposes, 2n spans, ser*ice stress, fs, may +e reduced
to satisfy deflection criteria, 2n many instances, minima of 1,0 or 0,0001 ha*e +een used to a*oid
pro+lems (ith di*ision +y =ero,
Gr"4:
)his sheet comprises data for graphs used on other sheets, particularly in 3")2B%SU 2t is not
necessarily intended for printing out other than for chec1ing purposes,
D#
RCC$$ Fl"t Sl"2s 6A F D857ls
-""DD,xls analyses and designs +ays of simple rectangular flat sla+s to BS 8110: Part 1, )he
spreadsheet uses su+:frame analysis (ith pattern loading to calculate a +ending moment en*elope,
)his en*elope may +e su+.ected to redistri+ution,
@or a complete rectangular flat sla+ the user is expected to use the spreadsheet at least four times
$internal +ay$s' x : x, internal +ay$s' y : y, edge +ay$s' x : x and edge +ay$s' y : y', Punching shear
should +e chec1ed using -""1D,xls,
)he spreadsheet does not currently allo( for holes or drops $may+e next timeU', 2f holes are
considered critical then the user is directed to(ards using -""#1,xls $su+:frame analysis' and
allo(ing for holes in +readths used, See also "lause D,!,E, )he single load case of all spans loaded
$"lause D,E,#,D' is not used, Beyond panel aspect ratios of 1,E consideration might +e gi*en to the
appropriateness of using other forms of analysis $e,g, grillage or finite element',
)he example emulates the design used on the in:situ +uilding of the European "oncrete Building
Pro.ect $E"BP' at B-E "ardington, $al+eit that on the E"BP fc1 L D0 %Imm
#
and fy L E00 %Imm
#
(ere
used',
,AIN:
)his sheet pro*ides the main inputs to the spreadsheet $although other inputs occur in other sheets',
<ost inputs are $(e hope' self:explanatory, >EGE%0U should help (ith definition of dimensions, e,g,
edge distance " is actually from centreline of column to edge of sla+, "o*er is defined as +eing to the
layer under design, )he layering is set at )1 : B1 $4 )# : B#' although )1 : B# might +e deemed more
appropriate $e,g, (ith prefa+ricated mats',
)he num+er of spans is altered +y entering data in the appropriate cells, Un(anted data cells are
Mgreyed9 out, )he use of ", 6, @ or P can alter the characteristics of a support from "antile*er to 6nife:
edge to @ixed to Pinned, Extraneous data is highlighted in red or +y messages in red, Under
Operating Instructions a num+er of chec1s are carried out and pro+lems found are highlighted, 3t the
+ottom of the sheet a simplistic loading diagram is gi*en to aid data chec1ing, Great care should +e
ta1en to ensure that this sheet is completed correctly for the case in hand, 2t may pro*e prudent to
estimate *alues for +ay (idth +ending moments at each support +y hand +efore progressing to
3")2B%SU
"antile*ers less than 1,00 m should +e descri+ed as end distances $rather than cantile*ersQ other(ise
certain logic regarding +readth of effecti*e moment transfer strip, +e $see BS 8110: Part 1, @igure
D,1D', goes (rong', End distances eAui*alent to the half (idth of the column should +e used to define
sla+s (hose edge is flush (ith the outside of the column, Bn edge columns, +e restricts <t max (hich in
itself restricts the amount of moment transferred into columns a+o*e and +elo(,
>oad input should define the loads on the sla+ only, 3 com+o:+ox is used to s(itch +et(een the
internal or edge +ays, 2f E0GE is chosen, cells 718:218 and E1H:G1H +ecome operati*e and
information a+out the perimeter load along the edge and the distance of the edge from the centreline
is reAuired as input, Perimeter loading is assumed to +e dead load,
"ell >E1 gi*es an estimate of reinforcement reAuirements for the element considered in the direction
considered $not +oth directions',
2t (ill +e noted that the example assumes the reinforcement is in the second layerQ therefore (arnings
concerning co*er greater than 80 mm should not +e of too much concern,
)he spreadsheet ta1es automatic measures to ensure deflection criteria are met, 2t may +e argued
that in this instance, (ith eAual spans in the t(o directions, these measures are un(arranted in that
deflection criteria (ill ha*e +een met in the orthogonal )1IB1 layer,
DD
)o the right under Operating instructions a num+er of chec1s are carried out, Box mar1ers indicate
(here chec1s ha*e +een carried out and pro*ed satisfactory,
ACTIONS:
)his sheet sho(s +ending moment and shear force diagrams from the analysis underta1en in
3nalysisU )he user is reAuired to input the desired amount of redistri+ution to the initial moments in line
#H, "ell >18 allo(s three types of distri+ution according to the user/s preference,
)he sheet also pro*ides output reactions and column moments, Using the *alue of &eff for punching
shear o+*iates the need to use the 1,1E, 1,#E and 1,8 factors in "lause D,!,H,# to determine &eff from &t,
SPANS:
SP3%SU details the amounts of reinforcement reAuired deri*ed from detailed calculations in BarU
+EGEND:
>EGE%0U gi*es an explanation of the dimensions used in <32%U and for the analysis and design,
9EIGHT:
5E2G7)U gi*es an estimate of the amount of reinforcement reAuired in one direction of the sla+ for the
internal or end +ays considered, Simplified curtailment rules, as defined in "lause D,1#, are used to
determine lengths of +ars, )he figures should +e treated as approximate estimates only as they
cannot deal (ith the effects of designers/ and detailers/ preferences, Mrationalisation9, the effects of
holes etc, etc, )hey do not allo( for punching shear lin1s or lin1 carrier +ars,
An"l3s-s:
)his sheet details the moment distri+ution analysis carried out +ut is not necessarily intended for
printing out other than for chec1ing purposes, 2t is deri*ed from -""#1,xls,
B"r:
)his sheet sho(s design calculations, complete (ith references to BS 8110, 2t is not necessarily
intended for printing out other than for chec1ing purposes,
7ogging moments at ] span positions (ithin a span are chec1ed and are used in the determination of
top steel in spans,
Gr"4:
)his sheet comprises data for graphs used on other sheets, particularly in 3")2B%SU
D8
RCC% Cont-n1o1s Be"ms 6A F D857ls
)he spreadsheet designs multiple:span rectangular or flanged +eams using su+:frame analysis to
deri*e moments and shears, )he intention is to pro*ide the design and analysis of up to six spans of
continuous +eams (ith columns a+o*e and +elo(, Spans may incorporate cantile*ers, fixed ends or
1nife:edge supports, )here are three main sheets: <32%U, 3")2B%SU and SP3%SU
,AIN:
)his sheet contains user input of materials, frame geometry and load data,
2nput data is +lue and underlined, %e( data may +e input +y o*er(riting default *alues or +y entering
*alues in Mgreyed out9 cells, Entering a *alue of E,0 in cell "18 (ill clear a line of data in +oth the span
and support data ready for input, Guidance on input for the type of section and type of end condition of
the support is gi*en under Operating Instructions,
)he sheet has +een set up (ith as many Mcarry throughs9 as possi+le, i,e, input cells are made eAual to
preceding input cells to ma1e the inputting of regular +eams easier, 2nputting "18 as RL "1!T (ill insert
-+00 in the remaining spans: it (ill also remo*e the grey conditional +ac1ground to the remaining
spans, supports and loads and allo( data entry, 0eleting "18, indeed "1, (ill +lan1 out remaining
spans, etc, Generally, *alues in red or red +ac1grounds indicate either incorrect or excess data, @or
instance, if 1nife:edge supports are reAuired, entering M69 in cell "#8 (ill elicit red data to the right,
(hich needs to +e cleared manually,
0o not copy and paste input *alues as this can corrupt formatting $copy and Rpaste *alues onlyT is B6',
M-e+ar layering9 refers to (hether there are +eams in the other direction, 3ns(ering yes drops +y one
+ar diameter the steel at the supports, @or instance (hen using splice +ars at the support +ars in the
other direction ha*e to +e a*oided : and allo(ed for in the design,
5ith respect to cantile*ers, design for +ending caters for moments at the face of supportQ design for
deflection considers the cantile*er from the centre line of support, 2n +eam:to:+eam situations the
(idth of support can +e input as +eing *ery small to a*oid under:design in +ending,
)he example is ta1en from Designed and detailed
$1E',
2n order to reflect this pu+lication, the
spreadsheet has +een set up (ith the +eams +eing considered as rectangular in +oth the analysis and
design, )he analysis in the spreadsheet mimics Designed and detailed, +ut as the spreadsheet
considers the rectangular section for design, more reinforcement is reAuired particularly in the span,
Some economy (ould ha*e +een gained +y considering the +eams as ) sections rather than
rectangular $1# 1gIm
D
c,f, ### 1gIm
D
', )he spreadsheet notes that co*er to the top exceeds 80 mm, 2n
this case, the crac1 (idth should normally +e chec1ed,
ACTIONS:
3")2B%SU 2ncludes +ending moment and shear force diagrams, summaries of moments and shears
and user input for amounts of redistri+ution, users should ensure that the amounts of redistri+ution are
al(ays considered as there are no default *alues,
SPANS:
)his sheet designs reinforcement for +ending in spans and supports and for shear in the spans, User
input is reAuired for reinforcement si=es N some intuition may +e reAuired to o+tain sensi+le
arrangements of reinforcement, %on:existent spans are +lan1ed out, Support moments $including
cantile*er moments' are considered at the face of the support, )his may lead to uneAual amounts of
reinforcement +eing designed for each side of the support, See BarU
Besides the limit of maximum modification factor for deflection L #,0, an additional limit of maximum
allo(a+le area of steel to comply (ith deflection criteria, 3sdef, L # x 3sreAd has +een imposed,
DE
9e-g.t:
)his sheet estimates the (eight of reinforcement in the +eam (hen designed according to normal
curtailment rules as defined in BS 8110, 5or1ings are sho(n on the right hand side of the sheet, )he
estimate may +e printed out using @ileIprint or the print +utton on the normal tool+ar, 2t should +e
recognised that different engineers/ and detailers/ interpretations of these clauses, and different pro.ect
circumstances and reAuirements (ill all ha*e a +earing on actual Auantities used,
An"l3s-s:
)his sheet sho(s the moment distri+utions used in the analysis of the +eam: it is not intended for
formal printing, 2t (ill +e seen that the loads are considered initially as 1,0g1 o*er all spans then as
$ fg : 1,0'g1 X fAA1 o*er alternate spans,
B"r:
2ntended mainly for first time users and young engineers, this sheet gi*es further details of the
calculations summarised in SP3%U Support moments are considered at faces of supportsQ chec1s at ]
span relate to hogging and any top steel reAuired is pro*ided in the span,
Gr"4:
)his sheet pro*ides data for the charts in <32%U and 3")2B%SU: it is not intended for formal printing,
DH
RCC%# PostAtens-oned Sl"2s F Be"ms 6A F D857ls

)his spreadsheet designs post:tensioned sla+ and +eam elements in accordance (ith BS 8110:
Part 1, 1!, 2n essence the spreadsheet chec1s a num+er of parameters: stresses at transfer,
stresses in ser*ice, moments of resistance at U>S, shear, *i+ration, deflection, neutral axis depth, and
reinforcement ser*ice stress, )hese chec1s are sho(n in SU<<3-CU
)he spreadsheet is set out in se*eral layers,
,ATDATA: 0efines load cases, *arious options and material properties,
S*,,ARC: Summarises the design, analysis, chec1s and outputs from the rest of the
spreadsheet,
DETAI+S: Sho(s the (or1ings for the moment distri+ution for the *arious load cases, profiles,
prestress losses and chec1s in some detail,
DEF+ECT: Sho(s (or1ings for deflection at
1
I#0 points along each span,
Gr"4: Pro*ides the data for the graphs, and *alues generated are used for chec1ing,
Users are referred to Post"tensioned concrete floors ; Design 9and!oo<
$18'
, and Post"tensioned
concrete floors
$1H'
for further details of methods and *alues used,
3 maximum of three spans may +e considered, "antile*ers are not a*aila+le, Shortening is calculated
in the losses section, +ut is not used to modify column moments, )he effects of restraint to +oth
columns and prestress in the mem+er must +e considered, )he spreadsheet considers one direction
at a time only,
,ATDATA:
)he first sheet includes all the general and material input data used in the su+seAuent sheets, >oad
com+inations and load factors are defined, )he input under Options should +e self:explanatory, )he
choices ha*e implications on the design as sho(n +elo(,
Stressing ends determines (here prestressing losses occur
Prestressing system N Specifying un+onded or +onded changes prestress loss calculations,
Prestress losses tend to +e higher (ith +onded tendons as (o++le factors and coefficients of
friction are higher +ut using se*eral strands in a single duct can lead to o*erall economy,
especially in more hea*ily loaded +eams,
"ommonly !0P to !EP is ta1en for initial estimates for .ac1ing forceIfinal force, )his Auantity is
calculated at 0etailsU%H8:%H and has to +e re:specified in 0etailsU line H8 to +e (ithin E P of that
calculated,
5ith respect to allo(a+le flexural tensile stresses in prestressed +eams $and sla+s', BS 8110:
Part 1, defines three classes $see "lause 8,D,8,D', )hese classes determine the limits of tensile
stress, @or example see BS 8110: Part 1, "lause 8,1,D, (hich also allo(s E,0 %Imm
#
tensile
strength for "80 concrete, @or "lass D, (hich is generally used for internal en*ironments,
crac1ing is allo(ed either up to 0,1 mm or, more usually, to 0,# mm,
Sla! or Bea *aries shear reAuirements and determines (hether nominal top +onded
reinforcement is included in the spans or not, %ominal top steel is included in mid:span of +eams,
2f sla+s are specified, the user may choose to use nominal top steel to o*ercome hogging
moments in the spans, 2n*o1ing the nominal +onded reinforcement in mid:span should o*ercome
most pro+lems (ith hogging in, say, dissimilar spans of sla+s, Sla!s reAuires a second inputQ type
of sla+ alters parameters used in chec1ing *i+ration,
%ormal curtailment rules for +onded reinforcement are not necessarily satisfactory for post:
tensioned sla+s and +eams, %onetheless the spreadsheet assumes that curtailment occurs at
0,D x span,
5ith regard to concrete, the usual minimum strength used in prestressing is 80 %Imm
#
, )he minimum
allo(a+le strength at transfer $i,e, (hen the tendons are initially stressed', fci, is #E %Imm
#
, 3m+ient
temperatures during curing may +e ta1en as 1E
o
" for a U6 summer, +ut other(ise may +e dependent
upon curingIinsulation regimes, )ypically, long:term -elati*e 7umidity may +e ta1en as 8EP indoors,
D!
or 8EP outdoors for the U6, Bther data used in the determination of *arious concrete factors, e,g,
determination of creep factors, is sho(n on the right hand side of the sheet, )hese factors are case
specific and ha*e +een deri*ed from the +est a*aila+le data for the *arious parameters sho(n, )he
formulae for calculating creep factors and free shrin1age strain are from "4"3 paper )07 #D1
$1!'
,
and use the follo(ing factors,
6+ is a factor depending on the composition of the concrete,
6c is an en*ironmental factor,
6d is a maturity factor,
6e is an effecti*e mem+er thic1ness factor, and
6t co*ers the de*elopment of the deferred deformation (ith time,
@actors used in the deri*ation of material data are used in this screen dump from the
spreadsheets,
BS ',,* Bable$(2
3* 3(' * 3(2*$'
$* # # *
#* #(' * *
,(2., ,(2%. ,(2#' ,(2$- ,(2$# ,(23# ,(22# ,(2,*
,"t1r-t3 C1r0e 3 $ # % . ' - ,*
! !58 5& # #5& $ % &
0,8 0,# 0,E 0,E 0,E 0,E 1 1 1
$! 0 #,H 8,E !, 10,D 1#,# 1D,! 1H,# 18
%! 0 E,# !,8 1#,# 1E,E 18,1 #0,1 #D,# #E,E
&! 0 11,8 1#,! 18,1 ##,# #E,1 #!,D D1,1 DD,!
'! 0 1D,! 1E,# #1,! #H,H D0,1 D#,8 D!,D 80,8
$* * #(2 .(' ,2(2 ,#(# ,'(, 2*(, 23(2 2#(#
#* * ,,($ ,2(. ,'(, 22(2 2#(, 2.(3 3,(, 33(.
$* * #(2 .(' ,2(2 ,#(# ,'(, 2*(, 23(2 2#(#
+ongterm 4c1 -n4 Et -n4
%! #85!!
EAR+C STRENGTH +ATE STRENGTH
1 8 0,8 E,8 80 H0 0 100
%! #D,# #E,E #,D #&5!% %! D8, 80 1,1
Dc G Rel"t-0e H1m-d-t3 4"ctor
3* 3# $* $# #* ## %* %# .* .#
3(2 3(,3 3(*# 2(-# 2('# 2(.. 2(%# 2(# 2(3 2(,3
E0 EE #,8E #,!! 0,08 0 #58&!
Dd G Am2-ent 4"ctor
3* -* 2,* $2* '$* 2.** #$** ,*'**
%* ,2* 2,* $2* ,'%* 2.** #$**
,(' ,(% ,($ ,(2 , *(.# *(%# *(#
1#0 1#0 1,H 1,8 0,# D0 5&&!
1E00 18H0 1 0,!E 0,#E HH0 !5) 5!!!
,(,%* ,(,$# ,(,,* ,(*.#
,$ ,# ,% ,.
) ! $ '
1 D D 8
##,H #D,# #E,# #H,E
D1,D D#,# D8,E DH,1
80,D 81,D 8D, 8E,E
88,8 8,H E#,! E8,H
3,(3 32(2 3$(# 3%(,
$*(3 $,(3 $3(- $#(#
3,(3 32(2 3$(# 3%(,
-# ,**
,(2# ,
De G E44ect-0e T.-ckness 4"ctor $*%(# $*%(# D8I9=*E
* #* ,** ,#* 2** 2#* 3** 3#* $** $#*
,* ,(2 , *(-$ *('# *(.-# *(.# *(.33 *(.2 *(.*-
S3an , 800 8E0 0,!# 0,!0 0,011 H,E !5()
S3an 2 800 8E0 0,!# 0,!0 0,011 H,E !5()
S3an 3 J02&I0U J02&I0U J02&I0U J02&I0U J02&I0U J02&I0U BDI?;!:
c G Free S.r-nk"ge Str"-n
$* $# #* ## %* %# .* .# '* '#
$2* $*# 3'* 3%* 33* 3*# 2.# 2$3 2*# ,%2
E0 EE D80 DH0 #0 0 $8!
De 4"ctor 4or S.r-nk"ge
* #* ,** ,#* 2** 2#* 3** 3#* $** $#*
,* ,(3 ,(*# *(-*. *(' *(., *(%# *(#'. *(## *(#,3
S3an , 800 8E0 0,EE 0,E1D 0,0D! H,E !5&%8
S3an 2 800 8E0 0,EE 0,E1D 0,0D! H,E !5&%8
S3an 3 J02&I0U J02&I0U J02&I0U J02&I0U J02&I0U J02&I0U BDI?;!:
*lt-m"te S.r-nk"ge Str"-n A Bend-ng
! !5 !5# !5$ !5% !5& !5' !5( !58
F *(2% *(2% *(2% *(2% *(2% *(2% *(2% *(2% *(2%
G3 *(-$,' *(-$,' *(-$,' *(-$,' *(-$,' *(-$,' *(-$,' *(-$,' *(-$,'
cs 2*'(- 2*'(- 2*'(- 2*'(- 2*'(- 2*'(- 2*'(- 2*'(- 2*'(-
23(3*3- Ec 2' 2' H 2(3$%2 Ec '(3%..
*lt-m"te S.r-nk"ge Str"-n A Prestress
S3an, S3an2 S3an3
F *(3 *(3 *(3
G3 *(-33# *(-33# *(-33#
cs 2*.(, 2*.(, D8I9=*E
D8
0etails of strand used in the U6 are gi*en at the +ottom of the sheet, Users should ensure that their
chosen strand is readily a*aila+le, Post"tensioned concrete floors
$1H'
gi*es typical *alues for
$coefficient of friction', 6 $(o++le factors', -elP $relaxation' and dra(:in $mm' in )a+les #,H and !,1,
2t is usually assumed that (or1ing loads are applied at a concrete age of H0 days $user input', )he
Auasi:permanent imposed load should +e assessed from the # factor in E"#, (hich is usually #0P of
imposed load for d(ellings, D0P for offices and stores, and H0P for par1ing, $One ne%er ta<es 100=,
as # ad>usts for the %er7 different creep %alues+ 9ence )0= is appropriate for a ore or less
peranentl7 loaded structures? the high %alue for par<ing is to copensate for long"ter d7naic
effects+'
S*,,ARC:
)he first page $top part of the sheet entitled SU<<3-CU' sho(s input for the su+:frame analysis, i,e,
dimensions and loads,
2nput should +e fairly self explanatory, 2t should +e noted that 7 is in the plane of the screen and +, +(
etc, at right angles to the plane of the screen, Se*eral (arnings are gi*en under Operating Instructions
and (ith conditional formatting should data +e incorrect,
Supports can +e made to +e 1nife:edge +y inputting 6 in column 0: remote ends of columns can +e
either @ for fixed, or P for pinned, )he line can +e left +lan1, 3 support (idth $h +elo(' can +e used in
con.unction (ith a M69 support so that design moments are used at the support face,
0ata under /%ormal 0irection/ is used for the *i+ration chec1s, )he num+er of +ays affects possi+le
modes of *i+ration, (hich is chec1ed in accordance (ith "S )-8D
$18'
, )he *i+ration response factors
calculated are accordance (ith Steel "onstruction 2nstitute
$18'
and "oncrete Society guidelines,
&i+ration should not +e a pro+lem in post:tensioned sla+s and +eams, %ormally, *i+ration response
factors of 1# are used for *ery +usy offices, 8 for normal offices, or 8 for high specification offices or
la+oratories (here *i+ration is critical,
>oads are characteristic and are for the (hole +ay (idth $not expressed as 1%Im
#
N unless a 1 m +ay
(idth is +eing analysed', )he self:(eight is a user input, )he construction load is intended to +e that
reAuired to +e applied during transfer $usually 1,E 1%Im
#
', 7o(e*er, designers should consider the
load history of the sla+ to ensure (orst cases are chec1ed, e,g, temporary loads (hile casting floors
a+o*e, Bay (idths in the normal direction do not affect the loading unless, of course, the user chooses
to introduce a suita+le relationship $in the loads input',
)he current configuration is sho(n in a chart, )his gi*es a scale representation of the spans, supports,
loads and an idealised cross section of each mem+er, "harts also sho( representations of the tendon
profiles and eAui*alent loads used in the analysis, @or the tendons, a re*ersed para+olic profile is used
+ut minimum lengths of straight tendon are used at the supports as recommended +y 6han
$1H'
,
Ser*ice eAui*alent loads are sho(n: those at transfer may +e *ie(ed at 0E)32>SUBDH1:%D!#,
)he next page $SU<<3-C ii' is the nu+ of the spreadsheet: it has a num+er of 1ey inputs and
outputs, )hese include inputs of P2 I P. $initial forceI .ac1ing force', Pf I P. $final forceI .ac1ing force',
num+er and height of tendons, and amounts of +onded reinforcement $some of the inputs are
necessary to a*oid circular arguments',
3s it is the nu+ of this spreadsheet the source of any failures or missing information $e,g, no tendons
or no tendon height specified' (ill +ecome apparent in SU<<3-C ii, 2t is suggested that users may
(ish to create a second (indo( of this part of the spreadsheet $5indo(I %e( 5indo(I 3rrange',
D
E7tr"ct 4rom S*,,ARC --
S@MM&RC iiI Bendons Jbonded rein4orceent
:a< BE)8O)S 7A ",3* ;) 74=7i " -*(*F 74=7A " '*(*F ;)
)o o4 SBR&)8S Su3t , S3an, Su3t 2 S3an2 Su3t 3 S3an3 Su3t $
Recoended 23 23 23 2# 2# 2# * * *
@se 2$ 2$ 2$ 2$ 2$ 2$ * * *
Recoend!d height 2-# $* $* *
Height 3** $* $'* $'* $* 3** 3** *
6ength Straight ,#* ,#* ,#* * * *
1to a1Sag #3,, .**% *
7i ;) 2.%# 2.#- 2.#. 2.#. 2.#- 2.%# * * *
Balance6oad ;) 2.'(* 3.,(3 3#$(2 2%,(2 *(* *(*
74 ;) 2#*, 2$-% 2$-3 2$-3 2$-% 2#*, * * *
Balance6oad ;) 2#,(# 33#(' 32*($ 23%(2 *(* *(*
CHECGS !EFFICIE)CC!
Bendons :a< OG
Stresses at trans4er :b< OG
Stresses in ser2ice:c< OG
@6S MOR :d< OG
Shear :e< OG
9ibration :4< OG
8e4lection :g< OG
)eutral a1is de3th OG
Rebar stress OG
G6OB&6 SB&B@S
2-#
9&6I88ESIG)
$'#
33F
-F
3%F
-'F
-#F
'*F
-,F
.$F
-*F
0) *2) 8+) 12')
(
"
e
d
c,T-
c,C-
.,T-
.,C-
a
33F
-F
3%F
-'F
-#F
'*F
-,F
.$F
-*F
0) *2) 8+) 12')
(
"
e
d
c,T-
c,C-
.,T-
.,C-
a
5ith regard to @endons the spreadsheet automatically calculates the num+er of tendons for each span
using an algorithm, )he algorithm uses either the maximum of the median stress le*els, or the
maximum permitted, )he spreadsheet calculates the minimum num+er of strands reAuired so that
permissi+le concrete tensions are not exceeded at either the initial or final stage, )hus the num+ers of
tendons are then sho(n as recommended *alues, and the user can o*erride them if reAuired, Bnce
the num+er of tendons for each span has +een fixed, the program attempts to find an optimum single
le*el of initial prestress for all strands $this often appears to +e the maximum permissi+le', 2f the
minimum force reAuired generates excessi*e compressi*e stresses, the section is deemed to ha*e
failed,
)endons are assumed to +e le*el through supports and follo( a para+olic profile +et(een, )he points
of inflection are ta1en to +e at
1
I10 of the clear span points,
Besides num+er of tendons, the main user control is to ad.ust the *alue of Pf I Pi, )his ad.usts the
num+er of tendons, Bne (ould rarely need to ad.ust tendon heights,
)he chec1s carried out are listed +elo(,
)endons $a'
Stresses at transfer $+'
Stresses in ser*ice $c'
U>S <B- $d'
Shear $e'
&i+ration $f'
0eflection $g'
%eutral axis depth
-e+ar stress
2n the spreadsheet, those that are unsatisfactory are highlighted and directions are gi*en for further
information,
)here are also t(o charts, )he Mefficiency9 chart gi*es the user an idea of ho( hard the section is
(or1ing or ho( far it is out, )he second chart, ultimate limit state moment en*elope and moments of
resistance $capacity', should +e used in con.unction (ith choosing amounts of +onded reinforcement,
80
)he third page $SU<<3-C iii' sho(s stresses at transfer and in ser*ice in +oth ta+ular and chart
form, 2t should +e noted that, in 1eeping (ith current practice, moments are considered at the face of
columns, )hus pea1 moments are not necessarily at column centrelines and moments might +e
different each side of an internal column, 0efinition of tendon height is theoretically for the (hole of the
profile at supports, )he con*ention used in the stress charts is:
-ed sAuares N tension, +lue circles N compression
Solid mar1ers N +ottom, hollo( mar1ers N top
0otted lines N permissi+le stresses
)he fourth page $SU<<3-C i*' gi*es details of shear en*elopes, *i+ration and deflection together
(ith support reactions and column moments,
DETAI+S:
B*er nine pages, 0E)32>SU sho(s detailed calculations regarding section properties, distri+ution
factors, moment distri+ution used for the su+:frame analysis, profiling constants, pre:stressing losses,
+alanced loads, U>S moment and shear chec1s, and finally *i+ration,
DEF+ECT:
)he deflection sheet gi*es details of calculations dealing (ith defections, )he sheet entitled GrafU
sho(s graph data extracted from each sheet,
TCPICA+C:
)his sheet is intended to illustrate typical calculations for a particular point in a span in order to sho(
ho( all the criteria are satisfied, )he sheet illustrates the transfer and ser*ice stress chec1s and the
calculation of <oment of -esistance carried out in ta+ular form in GrafU )he point chosen is at ] span
and is highlighted in GrafU
Gr"4:
GrafU pro*ides the data for the charts of the configuration and loads, tendon profile, eAui*alent loads,
U>S moments and capacities, shear en*elopes, deflections, stresses at transfer and stresses in
ser*ice (ithin SU<<3-CU Each chart is plotted at
1
I#0 points along each span, <any *alues (ithin
GrafU are used and chec1ed for +eing minima or maxima for the *arious criteria, @or instance it may +e
here that pro+lems (ith hogging moments are found,
81
RCC& Col1mn +o"d T"keAdown F Des-gn57ls

"on*entional column load ta1e do(ns +y hand can +e time:consuming, )his spreadsheet emulates
con*entional column design to BS 8110
$#'
+y pro*iding on separate sheets: load ta1e do(n from inputs
of location, dimensions, le*els and loads to gi*e design axial loads and moments per floor, -""E1,xls
is intended as a stand:alone column design spreadsheet for use (hen a su+:frame analysis is not
a*aila+le or is un(arranted, 3s in "B>U<%U (ithin -""11,xls, this spreadsheet determines the area
of steel reAuired $3s',
)he spreadsheet is set up in such a (ay that one column si=e $input in "0ESU' is used throughout the
height of the column location and that the critical section for design occurs (here axial load is at its
maximum,
)he example is +ased on Designed and detailed
$1E'
+ut differs in se*eral respects:
Se*en storeys used in the example rather than three $in order to demonstrate automatic input
adeAuately'
%o special account ta1en of roof loadings $in order to demonstrate automatic input adeAuately'
3ll columns are ta1en as 8,00 m long $again, in order to demonstrate automatic input adeAuately'
>oad distri+ution according to BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,8,#,D, i,e, reaction factors of _ are used
for loads from ad.acent spans rather than results of analysis or using shear force factors from
BS 8110: Part 1 )a+les D,E andIor D,1#,
%o dou+le counting of floor sla+s due to allo(ances for floor sla+s in design of, therefore
reactions from, edge +eams spanning parallel to floor sla+ span,
3s a default the le*el (ith maximum axial load (ith concurrent maximum moment, i,e, the +ottom
le*el, is chosen for consideration in 0ES<<%)SU $deri*ation of design moments' and "0ESU $design',
)he user may in*estigate other le*els +y choosing the appropriate le*el in the com+o:+ox on the right
hand side of "0ESU,
Un+raced columns may +e designed, +ut the spreadsheet demands some input of applied moment in
>B30)0U in the appropriate axis, 2f the column is un+raced then it must +e part of a sta+ility frame N if
only nominally N (ith moments that should +e input as applied moments in >B30)0U
+OADTD:
2nput is self explanatory +ut, in order to facilitate use of this spreadsheet, some degree of automation
has +een introduced, 2t is *ital that input data is hand chec1ed to ensure the loads are descri+ed
properly, 2t is also ad*ised that a clean *ersion of the spreadsheet should +e used for each column
analysed and designed $i,e, reload the +ase spreadsheet each time',
Please note (hen inputting a location for num+ered gridlines to start (ith an apostrophe, i,e, use U# : D
$other(ise # : D (ill gi*e the result of :1U', "antile*ers may +e dealt (ith +y inputting no +eam on the
appropriate axis +ut inputting additional loads and moments $under MAt colun position, other applied
loads :e,g, loads from cantile*ers<K', %ote that, so far as the column is concerned, cantile*er moments
(ill relie*e $or e*en exceed fixed end' +eam moments and should +e specified as negati*e moments,
3s explained under Operator Instructions deleting a le*el (ill /grey out/ su+seAuent columns and set
spans to 0,0 m, Enter data $and delete any su+seAuent hatches, JJJJJ' or eAuate cells to pre*ious
cells $a*oid copying cells across' to get up to 10 le*els of load ta1e do(n, 0eleting or setting a *alue
of 0 in columns G to P (ill /grey out/ *alues to the right, (hich (ill +e set at 0,0, Generally, input *alues
are carried through to the right, -ed figures or red +ac1grounds mean inconsistent or incorrect data
entries, B*er(rite if incorrect,
Sla+ spans may +e parallel to x or y, or t(o:(ay spanning, )roughed sla+s may +e modelled +y using
the topping thic1ness for the sla+ and adding (idths of ri+s (ithin a +ay to the (idth of the +eam,
8#
Some input $highlighted in magenta' defaults to *alues from other sheets, @or instance column
dimensions are input in "0ESU )he user may immediately see (hether the design is *ia+le or not and
change dimensions accordingly, )hese cells are not protected so can +e o*er(ritten: 2ew"re,
@or troughed sla+s use topping thic1ness and aggregate (idth of ri+s (ith (idth of +eam,
-eduction factors for li*e load to according to BS HD: Part 1
$1'
"lause E,# are automatically applied
to axial load unless specified other(ise,
DES,,NTS:
)he +asic design procedure is co*ered in BS 8110: Part 1 "lause D,8, 2n order to determine design
moments se*eral inputs are reAuired:
&alues of for +raced and un+raced columns, see "lause D,8,1,H and )a+les D,1 and D,#0 as
sho(n +elo(
T"2le $5) ?"l1es o4 4or 2r"ced col1mns
End cond-t-on
"t to/
End cond-t-on "t 2ottom
# $
0,!E 0,80 0,0
# 0,80 0,8E 0,E
$ 0,0 0,E 1,00
T"2le $5#! ?"l1es o4 4or 1n2r"ced
col1mns
End cond-t-on
"t to/
End cond-t-on "t 2ottom
# $
1,#0 1,D0 1,E0
# 1,D0 1,E0 1,80
$ 1,H0 1,80 :
% #,#0 : :
5hether the column is +raced or un:+raced N see BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,8,1,E,
2n order to e*aluate %u= and thus 6 accurately, an initial assessment of the area of reinforcement,
3s, is reAuired, 3n indication of the pro+a+le percentage of reinforcement is gi*en $automation of
this figure (ould cause a circular reference error in the spreadsheet', 2f 3s is set at 0P then
effecti*ely 6 L 1, (hich is conser*ati*e $see BS 8110: Part 1, eAuation DD and definitions under
"lause D,8,1,1',
CDES:
3s in "B>U<%U (ithin -""11,xls, this sheet designs symmetrical rectangular columns (here +oth
axial load, %, and design moment, <x or <y $see BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,8,#, D and 8' ha*e +een
calculated from pre*ious sheets, "0ESU iterates xIh to determine (here the neutral axis lies, )he
sheet includes stress and strain diagrams to aid comprehension of the final design $please refer to
notes regarding "B>U<%U in -""11,xls',
)he spreadsheet is set up in such a (ay that one column si=e $input in "0ESU' is used throughout the
height of the column location and that the critical section for design occurs (here axial load is at its
maximum, Bther le*els can +e in*estigated +y choosing the appropriate le*el from the com+o:+ox
located under Operating Instructions, 3l(ays ensure that the si=e of column designed is correct for the
le*el under consideration,
8D
Essent-"ll3:
Condition 1 N column
monolithically connected to
+eam at least as deep as the
column in the plane considered
$or foundation specifically
designed for moment'
Condition 2 N column
monolithically connected to
+eams or sla+s shallo(er than
the column in the plane
considered
Condition ) N column
connected to mem+ers (hich
(ill pro*ide some nominal
restraint
Condition 0 N column
unrestrained
@or simplicity, (here three or more +ars are reAuired in the top and +ottom of the section, a
$rotationally' symmetrical arrangement of reinforcement is proffered, i,e, top and +ottom reinforcement
(ith additional side +ars, )he argument goes that using the critical axis method of BS 8110 to
determine areas of steel in +i:axially +ent columns implies that the +ars are in the corners of the
element, )herefore Madditional9 side +ars help ensure this is so, "ounter:arguments suggest these
additional +ars are unnecessary, Bresaler/s load contour chec1 Z$<x . <ux'

/ $<y . <uy'

` 1,0, (here
' #ID / E%.D%u=[, used in "P 110
$#0'
is not adopted in this spreadsheet +ut may +e in*estigated
using -""ED,xls,
)he use of )80s in such small columns (ould not normally +e ad*ocated, 7o(e*er, the choice of
)D#s (ould lead to the use of either H)D#s $E,HP, B6' or, using the $rotationally' symmetrical
arrangement, 8)D# $!,!P, no good', -eference to -""ED,xls, suggests that H)D# (ould satisfy
Bresaler/s load contour chec1, )he use of "8E concrete (ould ma1e 8)D#s sufficient,
Some input $highlighted in magenta' defaults to *alues from other sheets, )hese cells are not
protected so can +e o*er(ritten: 2ew"re,
+tdc"lcs:
)his sheet sho(s (or1ings for the load ta1e:do(n and is not necessarily intended for printing out other
than for chec1ing purposes, >oad distri+ution (or1s according to BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,8,#,D N
ABa#ial force in a colun a7 !e calculated on the assuption that !eas and sla!s transitting
force into it are sipl7 supportedC+
St-44s:
)his sheet sho(s (or1ings for +eam and column stiffnesses and is not necessarily intended for
printing out other than for chec1ing purposes,
2n the determination of section properties, +eams are considered full height N +eam (idths are
deducted from sla+ (idths, <oment distri+ution (or1s according to BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,#,1,#,E
N AB !eas possess half their actual stiffnessD+
88
RCC&# Col1mn C."rt gener"t-on57ls
)his spreadsheet generates axial load:design moment interaction charts for symmetrically reinforced
rectangular columns, 2t chec1s the capacity of the columns (ith *arious arrangements of
reinforcement against input load cases of axial load and 1n-"7-"l +ending
5ithin -""11,xls, "B>U<%U allo(s the user to determine the area of steel reAuired from inputs of
axial load and moment a+out the x : x axis, 3nother approach, adopted in BS E800
$#1'
and "P 110
$#0'
and more suited to the grouping of columns on particluar pro.ects and adopted here +y -""E#,xls, is
to gi*e an interaction chart, )his sho(s axial load against moment for symmetrical sections of
specified si=e, strength and reinforcement, 2t (or1s on the premise of calculating the moment and axial
load capacities of a section (ith assumed amounts of reinforcement and assumed neutral axis depth,
2terations of neutral axis depth gi*e data for the 3xial load:<oment interaction chart for the specified
section, )he spreadsheet also chec1s the reinforcement reAuired for input load cases, )he user may
try different arrangements of reinforcement,
-""E#,xls assumes that the moments input in the load cases ha*e already +een ad.usted, if
necessary, for +i:axial +ending, @or many side and all corner columns, there is no choice +ut to design
for +i:axial +ending, and the method gi*en in "lause D,8,8,E must +e adhered to, i,e, -""ED,xls
should +e used,
,AIN:
<ainU contains all input and output data,
Bending is assumed to +e a+out the x : x, i,e, hori=ontal axis, and the input moment is assumed to +e
the a#iu design oent as defined in BS 8110 i,e, including <add etc and in the correct
orientation,
5here more than t(o +ars are reAuired per face, the user may choose to specify a similar
arrangement of +ars on the side faces in order to a*oid confusion in detailing and fixing, 2n this
respect, there is also a Auestion regarding design, )o an extent all columns are +i:axially +ent and
BS 8110 directs that +i:axially +ent columns are effecti*ely designed a+out one axis only $+y adding
moment in the critical direction to account for moment in the non:critical direction', By implication the
second axis is not designed specifically, Bne reason for adding side +ars $(hen three, four or more
+ars are reAuired ) 4 B' in sAuare$ish' sections, is to ensure that the second axis is catered for,
2deally (ith BS 8110, the resultant axis should +e found and calculations done accordingly, But this
presumes that the arrangement of +ars is 1no(n to start (ith, 5ith BS E800 and "P 110 chec1s are
carried out on a chosen section a+out +oth axes, Bi:axially +ent columns are dealt (ith in -""ED,xls
)he chart sho(s lines for 0,1fcu3c and <min, )he user should +e a(are that all load cases should +e
(ithin the +oundaries of these lines,
C"lcs:
"alcsU Sho(s the deri*ation of the charts (here moment capacity is calculated at inter*als of neutral
axis depth from n,a, depth for % L 0 to n,a, depth for % L %+al, then at inter*als from n,a, depth for
% L %+al to n,a, depth for % L %u=,
C"ses:
"asesU identifies the smallest +ar diameter that satisfies each of the load cases,
8E
RCC&$ Col1mn Des-gn57ls
-""ED,xls generates column design charts for symmetrically reinforced rectangular columns +ent
a+out two axes and chec1s input load cases,
-""ED,xls also gi*es interaction charts, sho(ing axial load against moment for the critical axis for
symmetrical rectangular sections of specified si=e, strength and reinforcement arrangement, )he user
may try different arrangements of reinforcement, 2t also pro*ides designs for input load cases, (hich
are plotted on the rele*ant x: or y: axis chart,
-""ED,xls ta1es account of any side:+ars,
Bres"lerHs lo"d conto1r c.eck@ P.-loso/.3 o4 des-gn 4or 2-A"7-"ll3 2ent col1mns
5hen preparing this spreadsheet, there (as some discussion a+out the interpretation of BS 8110 (ith
respect to +i:axially +ent columns and the pro*ision of side +ars,
@or simplicity, (here three or more +ars are reAuired in the top and +ottom of the section, it appears to
+e common practice, in small: to medium:si=ed columns at least, to pro*ide a $rotationally' symmetrical
arrangement of reinforcement, i,e, to pro*ide additional side +ars, )he argument goes that using the
critical axis method of BS 8110 to determine areas of steel in +i:axially +ent columns implies that the
+ars are in the corners of the element, )herefore Madditional9 side +ars help ensure that this is so,
)here is a counter argument to suggest that the design procedure for +i:axially +ent columns in
BS 8110 ma1es the precaution of adding additional side +ars unnecessary,
-afiA
$##'
argues that the Bresaler/s load contour chec1, as used in "P 110
$#0'
should +e adopted to
ensure a safe design for +iaxially +ent columns other(ise designed to BS 8110, as sho(n +elo(,
$<xI<ux'

X $<y I<uy'

` 1,0, (here ' #ID X E%ID%u=


)he pro.ect/s 3d*isory Group reAuested that this chec1 should +e included in the spreadsheets for
+iaxially +ent columns,
,AIN:
<32%U contains all input data and gi*es designs for the input load cases,
Guidance for the input is gi*en (ithin the spreadsheet +ut users should +e familiar (ith BS 8110:
Part 1, "lause D,8, )he input moments are the initial end oents due to ultiate design loads as
defined in BS 8110 a+out the appropriate axes, <add, the critical direction for +i:axial +ending and
design moments are calculated,
CHARTS:
"73-)SU sho(s t(o charts, one chart for (hen <xx is critical and one for (hen <yy is critical, )hese
3xial load:<oment interaction charts for the specified section also sho( rele*ant input load cases, )he
load cases are identified +y axial load only $a Auir1 of ExcelU',
)he charts sho( lines for 0,1 fcu3c and <min $i,e, emin%', )he user should +e a(are that all load cases
should +e (ithin the +oundaries of these lines, 0ue to a Auir1 in Excel, load cases can any +e
identified +y axial load, %, on the charts,
Ic"l: "nd Cc"l:
)hese sheets sho( the deri*ation of the charts (here moment and axial load capacity is calculated at
inter*als of neutral axis depth $in inter*als from n,a, depth for % L 0 to n,a, depth for % L %+al, then in
inter*als from n,a, depth for % L %+al to n,a, depth for % L %u=,',
C"ses:
"asesU identifies the smallest +ar diameter that satisfies each of the load cases, "lause D,8,D,# is
included for +oth directions $columns 6 4 >' and the spreadsheet decides (hich axis is dominant,
8H
RCC' B"sement 9"ll57ls
)his spreadsheet designs simple retaining +asement (alls and is intended for (alls up to D,E m high,
2t is +ased on complying (ith BS 800#: 18
$8'
and BS 8008: 18H
$#D'
, 2t may also +e used to design
(alls to comply (ith "E"P #
$H'
and BS 800!
$E'
, )he spreadsheet has +een de*eloped (ith +oth the BS
800# and the con*entional $"E"P #' methods in mind, Bn +alance, the spreadsheet pro*ides
reasona+le flexi+ility and in doing so, encourages the designer to employ hisIher o(n engineering
.udgement and interpretation of the codes,
)he spreadsheet is intended to co*er only short (alls and to help /general/ engineers (ho, from time
to time, design retaining (alls as part of a (ider interest in structures, rather than the specialists, )he
D,E m (all height is an ar+itrary limit set for a short (all (hich is intended to co*er o*er 0P of the
cases encountered in /general/ structural designs, 3lthough many of the design principles still apply to
higher (alls, criteria such as (all mo*ements and the *alidity of the assumptions made $e,g, no (all
friction' reAuire further consideration and in*estigation,
)he effects of compaction pressures can +e generated using idealised imposed I surcharged loads,
-esidual lateral pressure calculations (ere considered to +e too complicated to +e co*ered in the
spreadsheet,
<any cells are referred to in formulae +y naesQ for example, 03)3U"#8 is gi*en the name 7 (hich is
used in formulae at <E0:%E0, 0iagramsU018H:01E0, etc, 3 list of names and (here they are defined
can +e seen +y referring to 2nserta %amea 0efine in Excel,
2nput is reAuired on three sheets,
)he spreadsheet is laid out in a *ery similar manner to -""H#,xls,
DATA:
)his single sheet consists of the main inputs,
<ost inputs, (hich are in +lue and underlined, should +e self:explanatory, )he top diagram defines
most input parameters, 3 simplistic diagram sho(s the geometry of a section of the (all and +ase,
)he spreadsheet is +ased on a num+er of assumptions, (hich should +e assessed as +eing true or
erring on the safe side in each case, )hese assumptions are:
5all friction is =ero
<inimum acti*e earth pressure L 0,#EA7
Granular +ac1fill is used
)he spreadsheet is not intended for (alls o*er D,E m high
S)3B2>2)CU details other assumptions, i,e:
)he (all idealised as a propped cantile*er $i,e, pinned at top and fixed at +ase'
)he (all is +raced
<aximum slenderness of (all is limited to 1E, i,e, Z 0, x $7e : )+I#'I)( ` 1E [
<aximum ultimate axial load on (all is limited to 0,1fcu times the (all cross:sectional area
0esign span L Effecti*e (all height L 7e : $)+I#'
:*e moment is hogging $i,e, tension at external face of (all'
X*e moment is sagging $i,e, tension at internal face of (all'
M 5all <) M is maximum X*e moment on the (all
Estimated lateral deflections are used for chec1ing the P effects,
@actors for f can +e set at 1,8 or 1,H in accordance (ith BS 8110 or may +e set to 1, )he designer
has, and should ha*e, the final decision and responsi+ility to select the load factors he or she feels are
8!
suita+le to the design conditions, Under Operating Instructions a num+er of chec1s are carried out and
pro+lems highlighted,
3n estimate of reinforcement per metre length of (all and +ase is gi*en,
@urther details a+out 03)3U can +e seen under the description for -""H#,xls,
STABI+ITC:
S)3B2>2)CU calculates the o*erturning and restoring moments, sliding and resisting forces on a
section together (ith ground +earing pressures and factors of safety, @ailures are highlighted,
@actors of safety against o*erturning and sliding are reAuired as input, 3s noted in the sheet, (all andI
or surcharge loads may ha*e sta+ilising effects, By using the +oxes in column > the user should toggle
+et(een maximum and minimum *alues to ascertain (orst case$s' $perhaps this (ill +e automated
some time',
2n the case of sliding, (here sliding resistance of the +ase alone is insufficient, the user may choose,
outside of the spreadsheet, to rely on a propping force through the +asement sla+,
DESIGN:
)he first page of this sheet ta+ulates moments and shears,
2nput of eccentricity of *ertical load, reinforcement diameters and centres is reAuired for main +ending
steel on +oth internal and external faces and for trans*erse reinforcement, )he spreadsheet (or1s on
the principle of chec1ing a proposed section and reinforcement arrangement rather than proposing an
arrangement of reinforcement,
)he second page details the design of +oth outer and inner parts of the +ase, 3gain, the spreadsheet
(or1s on the principle of chec1ing a proposed section, and input of +oth reinforcement diameter and
centres is reAuired for +oth main +ending and trans*erse reinforcement,
9EIGHT:
)his sheet sho(s the +uild up to the estimate of reinforcement (eight gi*en, )he figures should +e
treated as approximate estimates only as they cannot deal (ith the effects of designers/ and detailers/
preferences, rationalisation, etc,
D-"gr"ms:
0iagramsU sho(s data for the charts used in other sheets +ut is not necessarily intended for printing
out other than for chec1ing purposes,
Cr"ck w-dt.:
)his sheet sho(s calculations to determine crac1 (idths in the (all, 2t is not necessarily intended for
printing out, other than for chec1ing purposes,
88
RCC'# Ret"-n-ng 9"ll57ls
-""H#,xls designs simple retaining (alls (ith stems up to D,0 m high, )he spreadsheet has +een
de*eloped (ith +oth the BS 800# and the con*entional $"E"P #' methods in mind, Bn +alance, the
spreadsheet pro*ides reasona+le flexi+ility and, in doing so, encourages the designer to employ their
o(n engineering .udgement and interpretation of the codes, 2t is +ased on complying (ith BS 800#:
18
$8'
and BS 8008: 18H
$#D'
, 2t may also +e used to design retaining (alls to complying (ith "E"P
#
$H'
and BS 800!
$E'
,
)he spreadsheet is intended to co*er only short (alls and to help /general/ engineers (ho, from time
to time, design retaining (alls as part of a (ider interests in structures rather than the specialists, )he
D,0 m (all height is an ar+itrary limit set for short (all (hich is intended to co*er o*er 0P of the
cases encountered in general structural designs, 3lthough many of the design principles still apply to
higher (alls, criteria such as (all mo*ements and the *alidity of the assumptions made $e,g, no (all
friction' reAuire further consideration and in*estigation, @or instance, (ith reference to pressures, the
engineer is expected to .udge +et(een using the default of 1a $acti*e coefficient' or inputting a larger
figure relating to 1o $at rest coefficient',
)he effects of compaction pressures can +e generated using idealised imposedI surcharged loads,
-esidual lateral pressure calculations (ere considered to +e too complicated to +e co*ered in the
spreadsheet,
Sta+ility analysis is done a+out the toe of the +ase, $Sta+ility analysis ta1en a+out toe of ni+ is ignoredQ
the ni+ is a section stic1ing do(n from general le*el of the +ase, and sta+ility analysis a+out its toe
gi*es strange ans(ers', Glo+al slope sta+ility chec1s are not underta1en in the spreadsheet and
should +e addressed using other means,
2nput is reAuired on three sheets,
<any cells are referred to in formulae +y namesQ for instance 03)3U"#D is gi*en the name 7 (hich is
used in formulae at "EH:0H0, 0iagramsU088:01D!, etc, )he spreadsheet is laid out in a *ery similar
manner to -""H1,xls,
DATA:
)his single sheet consists of the main inputs, <ost inputs, (hich are in +lue and underlined, should +e
self:explanatory, )he top diagram defines most input parameters,
)he designer should determine the /0esign Soil Parameters/ +ased on the com+inations in BS 800#
(hich (ill gi*e the (orst credi+le loads i,e, the design *alues should +e the lo(er of $a' the pea1
strength reduced +y a mo+ilisation factor or $+' the critical state strength,
3s default *alues, the earth pressure coefficients are calculated using the simplified -an1ine9s formula
for smooth *ertical (alls +ased on *alues of the design soil parameters, 3lternati*ely, the engineer can
enter his or her o(n coefficients to suit the conditions of the design +y o*er(riting the default *alues,
<aximum earth pressure occurs during ser*ice and not at ultimate limit state, as at ultimate limit state
the actual earth pressure (ill +e less, BS 800#
$8'
also uses a mo+ilisation factor on soil parameters,
increasing load on the acti*e side of the (all and reducing soil resistance on the passi*e side, 2n so
doing, the code recommends that no further partial load factors are necessary in design of the
structure, )he a+o*e are not entirely compati+le (ith BS 8110: Part 1, )a+le #,1, nor to our 1no(ledge
ha*e they +een fully accepted +y the general practising engineer, <any designers do seem to use the
BS 800# mo+ilisation factor as (ell as the traditional safety factors, )herefore the +uilt:in partial load
factors may +e changed, @actors can +e set at 1,8 or 1,H in accordance (ith BS 8110 or may +e set to
1,0, )he designer has, and should ha*e the final decision and responsi+ility to select the load factors
he or she feels are suita+le to the design conditions,
BS 800# suggests that no additional factors of safety are reAuired in chec1ing of external sta+ility $i,e,
o*erturning and sliding' pro*ided that the structure is in eAuili+rium and the M(orst credi+le loads9 are
used in the design,
8
@or the calculation of +earing pressures, all partial load factors are s(itched to unity and the design
chec1s are +ased on allo(a+le ground +earing pressure, i,e, the permissi+le stress approach, )he
+earing pressure is then factored up (ith the partial load factors adopted from a+o*e for the design of
concrete +ase, Bearing pressure is calculated using the concept of Mno tension9 eAuili+rium, i,e,
triangular stress +loc1s are used (hen eccentricity is outside the middle third,
BS 800# has minimum surcharge and minimum unplanned exca*ation depth reAuirements, 7o(e*er
in the spreadsheet, the surcharge loads are set as input data, )he minimum 10 1%Im
#
limit in BS 800#
has not +een used (ith the understanding that the BS 800# committee is considering reducing the 10
1%Im
#
to H 1%Im
#
for D m high (alls,
)he spreadsheet is +ased on a num+er of assumptions (hich should +e assessed as +eing true or
erring on the safe side in each case, )hese are:
5all friction is =ero
<inimum acti*e earth pressure L 0,#EA7, 3 minimum acti*e pressure of 0,#E7 $made to +e a
function of soil property rather than an ar+itrary *alue eAui*alent to approx, E 1%Im
D
per m height
to co*er conditions regarding tension crac1s, 7o(e*er, this does not comply (ith BS 800#, (hich
recommends that full hydrostatic pressure is used, 3s the ma.ority of small retaining (alls ha*e
granular +ac1fills, the cohesion *alue of retaining soil has +een /loc1ed/ to =ero,
Granular +ac1fill is used, E*en a small *alue of effecti*e cohesion, cb, can significantly reduce
acti*e pressures, 7o(e*er, to ac1no(ledge the fact that many retaining (alls are +uilt (ith
granular +ac1fill for drainage and to err on the side of caution, the spreadsheet assumes only
cohesionless materials,
)he spreadsheet does not include chec1s on rotational slideIslope failure,
)he spreadsheet does not include chec1s on the effects of seepage of ground (ater +eneath the
(all,
)he spreadsheet does not include chec1s on deflection of the (all due to lateral earth pressures,
)he spreadsheet is not intended for (alls o*er D,0 m high,
<any engineers ha*e reser*ations a+out including the effect of passi*e pressure in front of the (all
and a (arning message has +een used to help ensure that passi*e pressure is considered only if it
can +e guaranteed that there (ill +e no future exca*ation in front of the (all,
Under Operating Instructions a num+er of chec1s are carried out and pro+lems are highlighted,
6p is calculated using +ase material properties, >e*er arm of passi*e reaction is measured from
+ottom +ase le*el do(n(ard, 2n the calculation of passi*e force, cohesion of the +ase material is also
ta1en into consideration,
STABI+ITC:
S)3B2>2)CU calculates the o*erturning and restoring moments, sliding and resisting forces on a
section together (ith ground +earing pressures and factors of safety, @ailures are highlighted,
-eAuired @actors of safety against o*erturning and sliding are reAuired as input, 2n some
circumstances, some loads may ha*e sta+ilising effects, By using the chec1 +oxes to s(itch loads off
and on, (orse cases should +e in*estigated +y hand,
@or sta+ility calculations, o*erall factor of safety is used instead of partial safety factors "nd 4-ll on t.e
e7tern"l 4"ce o4 t.e w"ll -s -gnored5
3ll loads are assumed to +e static loads, 0ynamic loads I *i+ration are not co*ered, 7o(e*er, at the
discretion of the designer, dynamic effects may +e modelled +y factoring up static loads,
)he eAuation for sliding assumes that passi*e pressure acts (ithout mo*ement, )he user may
consider that the situation is +etter modelled +y applying a partial safety factor to passi*e pressure at
cell 6D,
E0
2dealisation, rounding errors and assuming a triangular pressure diagram $(hich is not strictly correct'
may lead to theoretical inaccuracies, <oments at the top of the (all may +e small to the point of +eing
indistinguisha+le on the Bending <oment 0iagram N a pro+lem of scale,
3n estimate of reinforcement per metre length of (all is gi*en,
DESIGN:
)he first page of this sheet summarises the chec1s carried out for moment resistance, shear
resistance, crac1 (idth and minimum reinforcement reAuirements,
2nput of +oth reinforcement diameter and centres is reAuired +oth for main +ending steel and for
trans*erse and secondary reinforcement: the spreadsheet (or1s on the principle of chec1ing a
proposed section and reinforcement arrangement rather than proposing an arrangement of
reinforcement,
)he second page details the design of +oth outer and inner parts of the +ase, 3gain, the spreadsheet
(or1s on the principle of chec1ing a proposed section and input of +oth reinforcement diameter and
centres is reAuired for +oth main +ending and trans*erse reinforcement,
9EIGHT:
)his sheet sho(s the +uild up to the estimate of reinforcement (eight gi*en, )he figures should +e
treated as approximate estimates only as they cannot deal (ith the effects of designers and detailers
preferences, Mrationalisation9, etc,
D-"gr"ms:
0iagramsU sho(s data for the charts used in other sheets +ut is not necessarily intended for printing
out other than for chec1ing purposes,
Cr"ck w-dt.:
)his sheet sho(s calculations to determine crac1 (idths in the (all,
)his chec1 is included, so the spreadsheet can also +e used for design of (ater:retaining structures to
BS 800!, @or example a (ater tan1 may +e loo1ed at +y setting 7( (ithin 03)3U to the (ater le*el of
the tan1, s(itching soil properties to 0 and crac1 (idth, at 03)3U@D1, to 0,D mm, )he crac1 (idth
chec1 to BS 800! is the same as that to BS 8110,
E1
RCC( St"-r Fl-g.t F +"nd-ng A S-ngle57ls

-""!1,xls designs simply supported flights and landings to BS 8110, 2nput is reAuired on t(o sheets,
F+IGHT:
)his single sheet consists of the input and main output, 2nputs are in +lue and underlined and most
should +e self:explanatory,
Bnly simply supported spans are catered for, 2f flights are continuous (ith floors, the user should
specify continuity steel o*er supports as appropriate, "alculations are done per metre (idth of flight,
2nput loads are assumed to +e characteristic and acting *ertically, )hey should account for any
undercuts, Self:(eight, moments and reactions are calculated automatically, )he area of steel
reAuired, 3sreA, may +e automatically increased to increase modification factors and satisfy deflection
criteria, 5here the stair flight occupies more than H0P of the span an increase in allo(a+le span to
depth ratios of 1EP is included in accordance (ith "lause D,10,#,#, %ominal top reinforcement may +e
specified in order to help o*ercome deflection pro+lems, 0imensions are not chec1ed for compliance
(ith Building -egulations,
Ultimate, characteristic dead and characteristic imposed reactions are gi*en +elo( the indicati*e
diagram,
+ANDING:
3gain, this single sheet consists of the input and main output, 2nput defauls in magenta ha*e +een
deri*ed from @>2G7)U +ut may +e o*er(ritten, "alculations are done per metre (idth of landing,
2nputs are underlined and most should +e self:explanatory, 3s defaults, (hich can +e o*er(ritten, the
material data and characteristic flight reactions carry o*er from @>2G7)U Self:(eight, moments and
reactions are calculated automatically, )he maximum (idth of landing o*er (hich flight loads can +e
dispersed has +een restricted to 1,8 m in the spirit of "lause D,10,1,D, -eactions are ultimate, +oth
total and per metre run, )he area of steel reAuired, 3s, can +e automatically increased to satisfy
deflection criteria,
D-"s:
0iasU calculates the reinforcement si=es and reinforcement percentages for deflection modification
factors used in @>2G7)U and >3%02%GU
E#
RCC(# St"-rs F +"nd-ngs A ,1lt-/le57ls

)his spreadsheet designs the flights and landings of a staircase in a stair core to BS 8110, 2t is
assumed that flights are supported on the landings and that the landings are simply supported on
+earings at each end,
STAIRCORE:
)his single sheet consists of the input and main output, 2nputs are in +lue and underlined and most
should +e self:explanatory, 0imensions are not chec1ed for compliance (ith Building -egulations,
Simple supports are assumed, "alculations are done per metre (idth of flight and landing, 2nput loads
are assumed to +e characteristic and acting *ertically, )hey should account for any undercuts, 3ll
stairs are assumed to start from flight 1, Superfluous flights and landings are +lan1ed out, Self:(eight,
moments and reactions are calculated automatically, 5here the stair flight occupies more than H0P of
the span an increase in allo(a+le span to depth ratios of 1EP is included in accordance (ith "lause
D,10,#,# and, as (ith other spreadsheets, the area of steel reAuired may +e automatically increased to
satisfy deflection criteria, Ultimate reactions per metre are gi*en,
D-"s:
0iasU calculates the reinforcement si=es and reinforcement percentages for deflection modification
factors used in S)32-"B-EU
ED
RCC8 Fo1nd"t-on P"ds57ls
)his spreadsheet designs simple pad foundations from input of material properties, dimensions and
characteristic loads and moments, Single column +ases and com+ined, dou!le +ases are catered for
on separate sheets,
3 diagram is pro*ided to illustrate the dimensions: a chart sho(ing scale plan *ie(s is pro*ided to help
ensure gross errors are a*oided, )he Mefficiency9 diagrams are pro*ided so that the user may gauge
ho( hard the +ase is (or1ing in respect to allo(a+le increase in ground +earing pressure, +ending
and shear in the t(o axes together (ith a measure on punching shear capacity, 2f the design is in*alid,
this chart should help identify the pro+lem,
)he spreadsheet does not allo( for punching shear lin1s N +ending reinforcement is increased to
ensure allo(a+le shear, *c, is adeAuate, )he user should note that punching shear perimeters can
.ump from +eing rectangular to +eing t(o: or three:sided, leading to unexpectedly large increases in
reinforcement for increases in +ase thic1ness, 2nformation from BS 8110: Part 1, "lause D,!,!,8 and
@igure D,1 has yet to +e fully incorporated in this spreadsheet,
5arnings are gi*en if columns encroach (ithin 100 mm of an edge,
SING+E:
Suggestions are made, under the Operating Instructions column, for the optimum plan si=e of the
+ase,
5here t(o centres are gi*en, e,g, 18 )1H V #00 4 D#E B#, the reinforcement is su+.ect to BS 8110:
Part 1, "lause D,11,D,# and different centres are reAuired, +ars need to +e grouped closer in the
central part of the +ase,
Det:
)his sheet sho(s (or1ings and is not necessarily intended for printing out other than for chec1ing
purposes,
3llo(a+le +earing pressure is ta1en as an allo(a+le -ncre"se in +earing pressure and density of
concrete N density of exca*ated material $i,e, soil' is used in the calculations, )he program assumes
that pads are em+edded to depth 7 in the soil, 3 #EP o*er:stress is allo(ed (here load cases include
(ind loads,
0esign moments are generally those at the face of the column, Both sides of the column are chec1ed
for moment in each direction to ensure maxima are identified, Shear enhancement is allo(ed for +oth
+eam and punching shear,
%either crac1 (idths, factors of safety against sliding, nor (ater ta+les are catered for, 5here resultant
eccentricities are outside the +ase a (arning message is gi*enQ the general status message is
updated as (ell, @actors of safety against o*erturning are chec1ed $minimum 1,E', 5arnings are also
gi*en at the onset of an uplift situation,
DO*B+E:
2n addition to graphs sho(ing plan layout and Mefficiency9, this sheet gi*es moment diagrams for the
t(o principal axes, 0esign moments are ta1en at the edge of +oth column sections
Suggestions are made, under the Operating Instructions column, for the optimum plan si=e of the +ase
and eccentricities gi*en the column offsets from one another,
)he user/s attention is dra(n to the fact that the analysis is done in t(o orthogonal directions, 5hen
column eccentricities are large in +oth directions the analysis may not account adeAuately for local
effects $e,g, +ottom cantile*er moments on t(o sides of each column N loads in opposite corners gi*es
+ottom moments of 0 1%m', 2n such cases, it may +e +etter to change the orientation of the +ase in
such a (ay that eccentricity in one direction is minimal, 5arnings a+out dou+le eccentricities are gi*en
E8
(hen the distances +et(een column centrelines exceed 1EP of the rele*ant +ase dimension in each
orthogonal direction, "omparison (ith @E analysis suggests this is reasona+le so long as the +ase is
thic1 and rigid,
Det#:
)his sheet sho(s (or1ings and is not necessarily intended for printing out other than for chec1ing
purposes,
)he notes for 0etU a+o*e also apply,
+egends:
)his sheet sho(s dimensions, axes, corners and notation used,
Gr"4:
)his sheet comprises data for graphs for +oth S2%G>EU and 0BUB>EU
EE
RCC) OneAw"3 Sol-d Sl"2s 6T"2les857ls

0esign is often underta1en using the moment and shear factors ta1en from BS 8110: Part 1, )a+les
D,E andIor D,1#, )his series of spreadsheets uses factors for moment and shear +ased on these
ta+les,
-""1,xls designs simple one:(ay solid sla+s to BS 8110, @or three or more spans they use moment
and shear factors from )a+le D,1#, )he use of these factors is go*erned +y "lause D,!,#,! $single load
case and the conditions of "lause D,E,#,D are met c+ays \ D0 m
#
, A1 \ 1,#E g1, A1 \ E,0 1%Im
#
d and at
least three +ays of approximately eAual span $the corresponding factors for +eams also restrict use of
the factors to (here spans differ +y no more than 1EP of the maximum span'', 5here the rele*ant
conditions are not met, users are directed to(ards -""D1,xls (here continuous +eam analysis
o*ercomes many of these ca*eats,
)he design of single: and t(o:span sla+s is also possi+le, )he factors used for t(o:span sla+s should
+e considered su+.ect to the same conditions as for using the factors from )a+le D,1# of BS 8110,
,AIN:
)his single sheet consists of the input and main output, 2n itself it should pro*e adeAuate for the design
of the simplest one:(ay solid sla+ designs, 3 nominal 1 m (ide strip of sla+ is considered,
2nputs are underlined and most should +e self:explanatory, End support condition determines the
factors applied for +ending, Simple charts sho( the spans, loads and indicati*e +ending moments,
)he factors from )a+le D,1# gi*e rise to a single load case that has +een su+.ect to #0P redistri+ution:
a +ending moment en*elope is inappropriate and the diagram is therefore indicati*e only, )he factors
used are gi*en in the ta+le +elo(,
Coe44-c-ent End
s1//orts
End
s/"ns
F-rst -nt
s1//orts
Inter-or
s/"ns
Intern"l
s1//orts
Bend-ng
Simple support 1 span 0,00 0,1#E K K K
# span 0,00 0,08H 0,100 K K
D span etc 0,00 0,0!E 0,08H 0,0HD $0,0HD'
"ontinuous support 1 span 0,080 0,10E K K K
# span 0,080 0,0HH 0,100 K K
D span etc 0,080 0,0!E 0,08H 0,0HD $0,0HD'
S.e"r
1 span 0,E0 K K
# span 0,8H 0,H0 K
D span etc 0,8H 0,H0 0,E0
)he factors used are +ased on continuous end supports, )he t(o:span factors (ere deri*ed +y
modelling the appropriate num+er of spans (ith a single loadcase of 8 1%Im dead and E 1%Im
imposed and allo(ing any one span to +e 1EP less than the input length $strictly according to BS 8110
this is applica+le to +eams only',
)he area of steel reAuired, 3s, may +e automatically increased to reduce ser*ice stress, fs, and to
increase modification factors to satisfy deflection criteria, )he option in line 8# to ha*e top steel in
spans influences modification factors used in deflection calculations,
3s most contractors prefer prefa+ricated reinforcement mats might +e considered,
EH
)o the right of the sheet are calculations, 3n approximate reinforcement density is gi*en,
9e-g.t:
5eightU gi*es an estimate of the amount of reinforcement reAuired in a sla+, Simplified curtailment
rules, as defined in "lause D,1# are used to determine lengths of +ars, )he figures should +e treated
as approximate estimates only as they cannot deal (ith the effects of designers/ and detailers/
preferences, rationalisation, the effects of holes etc, etc, 2t excludes supporting +eams, trimming to
holes etc, )o the right of the sheet are calculations of length, etc,
Gr"4:
)his sheet comprises data for graphs used in <32%U 2t is not necessarily intended for printing out other
than for chec1ing purposes,
E!
RCC)# R-22ed Sl"2s 6T"2les857ls

)his spreadsheet designs simple single:, t(o:span and multiple:span ri++ed sla+s to BS 8110: Part 1
using the moment and shear factors in, or in the case of single and t(o spans, consistent (ith )a+le
D,1# of BS 8110, )he use of factors from )a+le D,1# is go*erned +y "lause D,!,#,! as follo(s
3 single load case is assumed and the
"onditions of D,E,#,D are met
+ays \ D0 m
#
,
A1
>
/
1,#Eg1,
A1
>/
E,0 1%Im
#
and
at least three +ays are of approximately eAual span
)he corresponding factors for +eams also restrict use of the factors to (here spans differ +y no
more than 1EP of the maximum span,
)he factors used for t(o:span sla+s should +e considered su+.ect to these same conditions, )hey
(ere deri*ed +y modelling the appropriate num+er of spans (ith a single load case of 8 1%Im
#
dead
and E 1%Im
#
imposed, and allo(ing any one span to +e 1EP less than the input length $strictly
according to BS 8110 this is applica+le to +eams only', )he factors used are +ased on continuous end
supports,
5here the rele*ant conditions are not met, users are directed to(ards -""D#,xls (here continuous
+eam type analysis o*ercomes many of these ca*eats,
,AIN:
)his single sheet consists of the input and main output, 2n itself it should pro*e adeAuate for the
simplest ri++ed sla+ designs, 2nputs are underlined and most should +e self:explanatory,
)he option to ha*e top steel in spans or not has +earings on (hether shear lin1s can +e
accommodated and on deflection calculations, )he option to ha*e lin1s, minimal $or nominal' lin1s or
no lin1s is a matter of choice for the designer, <ost contractors prefer to prefa+ricate reinforcement for
ri++ed sla+s on the ground or off:site: this means at least nominal lin1s and nominal top steel are
usually reAuired,
Designed lin1s are ta1en to +e those pro*ided (here $*c X 0,8' ` * ` 0,8 fcu
0,E
Q
3inial lin1s are ta1en to +e those that are reAuired to pro*ide shear resistance for
*c ` * ` $*c X 0,8'
Eoinal lin1s are those used if reAuired for temporary support only in areas (here * ` *c
Under Bending, the Fidth of solid fro C& refers to the distance +et(een centre line of support and
the ri+Isolid intersection, 2t determines (here shear and, at internal supports, hogging moment in ri+s
are chec1ed, )he user inputs preferred diameters of reinforcement in the ri+, 3t supports, these +ars
usually need to +e supplemented +y intermediate +ars to comply (ith either spacing rules or (ith
hogging moments in the solid section of sla+,
2n spans, the area of steel reAuired, 3s, may +e automatically increased to reduce ser*ice stress, fs,
and to increase modification factors to satisfy deflection criteria,
3n approximate reinforcement density is gi*en, 2t excludes mesh, supporting +eams, trimming to holes
etc,
Please note that the +ending moment diagrams are indicati*e only, )he factors from )a+le D,1# gi*e
rise to a single load case that has +een su+.ect to #0P redistri+ution: a +ending moment en*elope is
inappropriate, )he factors used are gi*en in the ta+le +elo(,
E8
Coe44-c-ent End
s1//orts
End
s/"ns
F-rst -nt5
s1//orts
Inter-or
s/"ns
Intern"l
s1//orts
Bending 1 span 0,080 0,1#E K K K
# span 0,080 0,08H 0,100 K K
D span etc 0,080 0,0!E 0,08H 0,0HD 0,0HD
Shear 1 span 0,E0 K K
# span 0,8H 0,H0 K
D span etc 0,8H 0,H0 0,E0
)he factors used are +ased on continuous end supports, )he t(o:span factors (ere deri*ed +y
modelling the appropriate num+er of spans (ith a single load case of 8 1%Im dead and E 1%Im
imposed and allo(ing any one span to +e 1EP less than the input length $strictly according to BS 8110
this is applica+le to +eams only',
DETAI+S:
0E)32>SU gi*es t(o pages of detailed calculations and references to BS 8110 .ustifying the output in
<32%U )his sheet is intended as an explanation for the less experienced engineers and may pro*e
useful for chec1ing purposes,
<aximum spacing, Smax, at supports is +ased on ri+ centres: usually t(o large +ars are reAuired in the
top of the ri+ for moment at the ri+Isolid intersection and one, t(o or e*en three smaller +ars $minimum
)10' are reAuired +et(een to o*ercome spacing rules, "oncentrating reinforcement (ith larger +ars in
the top of the ri+ raises the percentage steel in the ri+ at the ri+Isolid interface, there+y maximising *c
and reducing shear reAuirements,
2n terms of curtailment, E0P of reinforcement for maximum sagging is ta1en as +eing 3s reA9d for
+ending, i,e, excluding any extra for deflection, etc, @igure D,#E refers to Greinforceent for a#+
oent5, -i++ed sla+s are ta1en as +eing Asla!sT so the 80P rule is applied, 2t is usually assumed
that Mri+s9 +ecome M+eams9 (hen they are at centres \ 1,E m
)apered lin1s are assumed, 5here reAuired for shear resistance, lin1s should +e at maximum 0,!Ed
centres,
9e-g.t:
5eightU gi*es an estimate of the amount of reinforcement reAuired in a sla+, Simplified curtailment
rules, as defined in "lause D,1# are used to determine lengths of +ars, )he figures should +e treated
as approximate estimates only as they cannot deal (ith the effects of designers/ and detailers/
preferences, rationalisation, the effects of holes etc, etc, )o the right of the sheet are calculations of
length etc,
Gr"4:
)his sheet comprises data for graphs used in <32%U
E
RCC)$ Fl"t Sl"2s 6T"2les857ls
)his spreadsheet designs simple rectangular flat sla+s to BS 8110: Part 1 using moment and shear
factors from )a+le D,1#, )he use of these factors is also go*erned +y "lause D,!,#,! as sho(n +elo(,
3 single load case is assumed
)he conditions of D,E,#,D are met
+ays \ D0m
#
,
A1
>
/
1,#Eg1,
A1
>/ E,0 1%Im
#
and
at least three +ays of approximately eAual span
)he corresponding factors for +eams also restrict use of the factors to (here spans differ +y no
more than 1EP of the maximum span,
5here the rele*ant conditions are not met, users are directed to(ards -""DD,xls (here su+:frame
analysis o*ercomes many of the ca*eats made in the code restricting the use of +ending moment and
shear factors from )a+le D,1#,
)he spreadsheet does not currently allo( for holes or drops, 2f holes are considered critical then the
user is directed to(ards using -""#1,xls $su+:frame analysis' and allo(ing for holes in +readths
used, %ote should also +e made of "lause D,!,E, Punching shear can +e chec1ed using -""1D,xls,
2t does not cater for single or t(o:span cases,
,AIN:
)his single sheet consists of the input and main output, 2n itself it should pro*e adeAuate for the
simplest flat sla+ designs,
<ost inputs should +e self:explanatory, 3 location plan helps (ith definition of dimensions, )he
num+er of spans is altered +y changing the num+er of grid line inputs: deleting the end grid line name
(ill decrease the num+er of spans, 3 com+o:+ox is used to s(itch +et(een the continuous and simply
supported end supportIsla+ connection factors, %ote the effect on column transfer moments, Edge
distance, ", is actually from centreline of column to edge of sla+,

M0ou+le penult9 means penultimate in +oth directions, i,e, internal column of corner +ay,
Please note that the +ending moment diagrams are indicati*e only, )he factors from )a+le D,1# gi*e
rise to a single load case that has +een su+.ect to #0P redistri+ution: a +ending moment en*elope is
therefore inappropriate,
DETAI+S:
0E)32>SU gi*es detailed calculations and references to BS 8110 .ustifying the output in <32%U )his
sheet is intended as explanation for the less experienced engineers and may pro*e useful for chec1ing
purposes,
"olumn transfer moments are limited to <t max see "lause D,!,8,# and eAuation #8
3 +asic deflection ratio of #H x 0, $see "lauses D,8,H,1 and D,!,8' is used in line 18 etc, Some
engineers li1e to use a higher +asic deflection ratio $rather than #H in the code' to offset any potential
pro+lems (ith deflection of partitions and especially of cladding,
)raditional shear lin1s can +e *ery time consuming on site, so in order to minimise the num+er of lin1s
the centres are maximised at 0,!Ed $see line ##H et seA', 3dditional +ars may +e necessary to act as
carriers to these lin1s if top and +ottom +ars cannot +e arranged at the preferred spacings,
"onsideration should also +e gi*en to using proprietary systems,
H0
9e-g.t:
5eightU gi*es an estimate of the amount of reinforcement reAuired in a sla+, Simplified curtailment
rules, as defined in "lause D,1# are used to determine lengths of +ars, )he figures should +e treated
as approximate estimates only as they cannot deal (ith the effects of designers/ and detailers
preferences/, rationalisation, the effects of holes etc, etc, 3dditional lin1 carrier +ars are not included
Id-": And Cd-":
2n these sheets each +ending moment is designed using a different si=e +ar $(ith different effecti*e
depths, d', )he largest +ar $i,e, minimum num+er of +ars' consistent (ith maximum specified diameter
and maximum spacing rules is identified and used in 0E)32>SU )hus a least +ars solution is gi*en,
)he FdiaU and CdiaU pages find the maximum diameter that can +e used (hile complying (ith spacing
rules, )he sheet finds (hich of "lause D,1#,11,#,! $a' or $+' applies, )his has Auite a dramatic effect
on rationality of the +ars and spacings, 3 detailer can al(ays reduce +ar diameters andIor close:up
spacing if he or she (ishes pro*ided that o*erall areas of steel are at least maintained,
H1
RCC)% TwoAw"3 Sl"2s 6T"2les857ls

)his spreadsheet designs restrained t(o:(ay solid sla+s in accordance (ith BS 8110: Part 1 using
moment and shear factors from eAuations 18 to #0 $i,e, )a+les D,18 and D,1E', 2nput is reAuired on the
first t(o sheets,
,AIN:
)his single sheet consists of the input and main output, 2n itself it should pro*e adeAuate for the design
of restrained t(o:(ay sla+s, 2nputs are underlined and most should +e self:explanatory,
Self:(eight, moment and shear factors are calculated automatically, )he use of the factors is also
go*erned +y "lause D,E,D,E $similar loads on ad.acent spans, similar spans ad.acent', 5here the
rele*ant conditions are not met, users are directed to(ards "lause D,E,D,H or alternati*e methods of
analysis $e,g, su+:frame analysis', 5hilst ultimate reactions to +eams are gi*en, shear per se is not
chec1ed as it is *ery rarely critical,
)he dimension ly must +e greater than lx: +ays (here lx \ ly are in*alid, 2t is recognised that B1 can +e
parallel to ly and the user should specify in (hich layers the top and +ottom reinforcement are located
$see 0DD and 7DD', 2n line D# the user is as1ed to specify the diameter of reinforcement to +e used,
)his reinforcement should +e pro*ided at the reAuired centres in accordance (ith "lause D,E,D,E $1' to
$H', $<iddle strips and column strips, torsion reinforcement at corners (here an edge or edges isIare
discontinuous,' )he spreadsheet highlights (hether additional reinforcement for torsion is reAuired or
not, 3s noted under Deflection, the area of steel reAuired, 3sreA, may +e automatically increased in
order to reduce ser*ice stress, fs, and increase modification factors to satisfy deflection criteria,
3n approximate reinforcement density is gi*en, )his is approximate only and excludes supporting
+eams, trimming to holes, etc,
9e-g.t:
5eightU gi*es an estimate of the amount of reinforcement reAuired in a sla+, Simplified curtailment
rules, as defined in "lause D,1#, are used to determine lengths of +ars, )he figures should +e treated
as approximate estimates only as they cannot deal (ith the effects of designers/ and detailers/
preferences, rationalisation, the effects of holes, etc, etc, )o the right of the sheet are calculations of
length, etc,
Support (idths are reAuired as input as they affect curtailments and lengths,
H#
RCC)& Cont-n1o1s Be"ms 6T"2les857ls
)he spreadsheet designs multiple:span rectangular or flanged +eams, 2t uses design ultimate +ending
moment and shear force factors from )a+le D,E of BS 8110: Part 1, 3s such its use should +e limited,
as defined +y "lause D,8,D, to (here:
;1
>
/
G1
Uniform loads are placed
&ariations in span ` 1EP lmax,
)he intention is to pro*ide the design of a simple continuous +eam on one sheet of 38,
,AIN:
)he input reAuirements are self:explanatory, 3ns(ering RCT to Support in alt la7er (ill incur additional
co*er to top +ars at supports $of the same si=e as those +eing designed at that location' to allo( for
+eams in the other direction, Users should ensure effecti*e depths, d, are correct $see 0E)32>U01E,
etc,',
)he choice +et(een rectangular, > or ) +eam is made *ia a com+o:+ox to the right hand side,
5hen considering span reinforcement, the spreadsheet (ill, (here necessary, automatically increase
reinforcement in order to lo(er ser*ice stresses and enhance allo(a+le span to depth ratios, )he
diagrams for loading and for +ending moment are indicati*e only $the moment factors in )a+le D,E do
not gi*e rise to a moment en*elope',
)he example is ta1en from Designed and detailed
$1E'
,
DETAI+:
@or first time users and young engineers, further detail of the calculations underta1en is gi*en on the
sheet named 0E)32>U, pages # and D of the print:out,
9e-g.t:
)his sheet estimates the (eight of reinforcement in the +eam (hen designed according to normal
curtailment rules as defined in BS 8110, )he estimate is repeated at the +ottom of <32%U, 5or1ings
are sho(n on the right hand side of the sheet, )he estimate may +e printed out using @ileIprint or the
print +utton on the normal tool+ar,
2t should +e recognised that different engineers/ and detailers/ interpretations of these clauses,
different pro.ect circumstances and reAuirements (ill all ha*e a +earing on actual Auantities of
reinforcement used,
Gr"4:
)his sheet pro*ides data for the charts in <32%U and is not intended for formal printing,
HD
SPREADSHEETS TO EC#
E1rocode #
3t the time of (riting $3ugust 1', (e are ad*ised that the +ase document, Eurocode #: Design of
concrete structures, Part 1 Heneral rules and rules for !uildings, 00 E%& 1#:1:1: 1#
$D'
is due for
re*ision into an E% in the near future, )he spreadsheets presented here are in accordance (ith this
document +ut de*elopment of other spreadsheets has not perhaps +een as extensi*e as first
en*isaged, %onetheless, the spreadsheets presented here co*er all the fundamental elements of in:
situ concrete and should gi*e users a good understanding of the current E%& and pro*ide the +asis for
an understanding of the final E% document,
2t is hoped that the production of spreadsheets to the final *ersion of E"# (ill +e possi+le at some later
date,
Eurocode #, Design of concrete structures, has not +een (idely adopted +y U6 industry, )he process
of con*erting to a ne( design "ode of Practice is slo( and expensi*e, and E"# (ill +e adopted only
(hen there is commercial ad*antage in doing so, <ainland Europeans, in contrast, are more
enthusiastic, and there is a danger of the U6 +ecoming isolated and uncompetiti*e in Europe, 5hile
se*eral +oo1s on the su+.ect ha*e +een pu+lished, there are *ery fe( design aids, )he a*aila+ility of
these spreadsheet files (ill help address this need,
)hese spreadsheets ha*e called for some interpretation of the E%&, )he pro*ision for +oxed *alues
and the %ational 3pplication 0ocument mean that many factors hidden a(ay in the BS 8110 *ersions
are documented on a separate sheet allo(ing later amendment,
Notes reg"rd-ng EC#
2n his Coparison of design reIuireents in EC2 and BS 8110, %arayanan
$#8'
ga*e the follo(ing
outline description of E"#,
Gener"l l"3o1t
E%& 1#:1:1$D': Part 1 is +roadly compara+le to BS 8110: Parts 1 and #, E"# comprises principles
and rules of application, Principles are general statements, definitions, other reAuirements, and
analytical models for (hich no alternati*e is permitted, )he rules of application are generally
recognised rules that follo( the principles and satisfy their reAuirements, 2n E"#, a num+er of
numerical *alues appear (ithin +oxes, )hese num+ers are for guidance only as each EU mem+er sate
is reAuired to fix the *alues that (ill apply in its .urisdiction, )hes M+oxed9 *alues are determined +y
%ational 3pplication 0ocuments $or %30, part of reference D' and are sho(n in a separate sheet
(ithin the spreadsheets,
)erminology employed (ill +e generally familiar to U6 engineers, although there are some ne(
(ords, )hus Mloads9 are referred to as Mactions9Q M+ending moments9 and Mshear forces9 are called
Minternal forces and moments9Q Msuperimposed loads9 are M*aria+le loads9Q and Mself:(eight9 and Mdead
loads9 are referred to as Mpermanent loads9,
"oncrete strength in E"# refers to the cylinder strength $fc1', (hich is used throughout the E"#
spreadsheets, )he relationship +et(een cylinder and cu+e strengths is sho(n +elo(,
Strengt. cl"ss
Pro/ert3 C#!;#& C#&;$! C$!;$( C$&;%! C%!;&! C%&;&! C&!;'!
4ck 6c3l-nder8 #0 #E D0 DE 80 8E E0
4c1 6c12e8 #E D0 D! 80 E0 E0 H0
Ecm # D0,E D# DD,E DE DH D!
H8
Fr"me "n"l3s-s
)here are slightly differences in the partial safety factors for loads, E%& 1# uses factors of 1,DE for
dead loads and 1,E for imposed loads, "orresponding *alues in BS 8110 are 1,8 and 1,H,
Sect-on "n"l3s-s
)he spreadsheets ta1e a pragmatic approach to the design of sections to E%& 1#, )hus a simplified
rectangular stress +loc1, @igure 8,8, is used $and particularly in the case of columns, not the more
complicated consideration of strains in @igure 8,11',
>e*er arm, = is restricted to 0,E x effecti*e depth, )his limit is deri*ed from BS 8110 and a*oids
dangers associated (ith theoretically o*er:shallo( neutral axis depths,
Red-str-21t-on o4 moments -n cont-n1o1s str1ct1res
E"# permits redistri+ution of moments in non:s(ay structures su+.ect to the maintenance of
eAuili+rium +et(een the distri+uted moment and applied loads, )he maximum redistri+uted moment to
the moment +efore the distri+ution is limited to !0P, 3fter distri+ution the limit is 8EP,
S.e"r
3pplied shear force $&sd' is compared (ith three *alues for the resistance $&-d',
&-d1 represents the shear capacity of concrete aloneQ &-d# is the shear resistance determined +y the
capacity of the notional concrete strutsQ and &-dD is the capacity of a section (ith shear reinforcement,
De4orm"t-on
)he E%& 1# span depthIratio chec1 is similar to that in BS 8110, @or each type of mem+er, it
pro*ides t(o *alues, one for highly stressed mem+ers and another for lightly stressed mem+ers, 2n
this context, mem+ers (ith less than 0,EP reinforcement are considered lightly stressed mem+ers,
and mem+ers (ith 1,EP reinforcement are considered highly stressed, <ore rigorous approaches may
+e used if reAuired,
Det"-l-ng
@ormulae for calculating +asic lap lengths are similar to those in BS 8110, +ut E%& 1# uses
marginally lo(er +ond stress,
,-n-m1m /ercent"ges o4 re-n4orcement
)here is hardly any difference +et(een the t(o "odes in the minimum longitudinal reinforcement in
+eams and sla+s, 7o(e*er for criteria for minimum reinforcement to control crac1ing is different,
F"m-l-"r-s"t-on@ o1tl-ne descr-/t-on
)he layout and (or1ings of the spreadsheets to E"# are in line (ith those in the pre*ious section,
Spreadsheets to BS 8110+ 0escriptions of the spreadsheets to E"# are gi*en in the follo(ing pages,
)he Introduction $page D1, and Heneral notes $page E' are common to the use of all spreadsheets in
this pu+lication,
HE
RCCe Element Des-gn57ls
-""e11,xls includes sheets for designing
Solid sla+s
-ectangular +eams and
) +eams $and ri++ed sla+s' for +ending
Beam shear
"olumns (ith axial load and +ending a+out one axis,
-""e11,xls designs elements to Eurocode #: Part 1: 1#
$D'
, 2t is assumed that loads, moments,
shears, etc, are a*aila+le for input from hand calculations or from analysis from else(here, Span:to:
depth ratios and other /+oxed/ *alues are ta1en from the U6 %ational 3pplication 0ocument $part of
reference D',
S+AB:
)his sheet designs a section of solid sla+ in a single simply supported span, in a continuous end or
internal span, at supports or as a cantile*er, 5or1ings and references to clause num+ers are gi*en to
the right hand side of the sheet,
2nput should +e self:explanatory, )erminology may differ from the BS 8110 *ersion: for instance the
term is the redistri+ution factor $i,e, 1 N redistri+ution percentageI100', "oncrete cylinder strength,
fc1, is changed using the com+o:+ox to the right hand side,
2n spans, the location of the section +eing designed has a +earing on deflection limitations, and the
appropriate location should +e chosen from the com+o:+ox to the right hand side, Similarly, the user
should choose from the list of usage (d:elling, office.store, par<ing etc+1, (hich go*erns the proportion
of imposed load affecting long:term deflection, E"# reAuires the input of the relationship +et(een
dead and imposed loading, )his is done at cells G and G10, 5hen appropriate the sheet (ill
automatically increase amounts of reinforcement in order to lo(er ser*ice stresses and enhance
allo(a+le span:to:depth ratios,
)he example is ta1en from For<ed e#aples for the design of concrete !uildings
$#E'
$to E"#' (hich
itself is +ased on the 18E *ersion of Designed and detailed, 0iscrepancies in num+ers may +e
ascri+ed to differences in fc1 and differences +et(een ta+ular and calculated *alues of xId,
RECTEBEA,:
)his sheet designs a rectangular +eam in a single simply supported span, in a continuous end or
internal span, at supports or as a cantile*er, )hese choices ha*e a +earing on deflection limitations
and the user should choose the appropriate location from the com+o:+ox to the right hand side, )he
user should similarly choose from the list of usage (d:elling, office.store, par<ing, etc+1, (hich go*erns
the proportion of imposed load affecting long:term deflection, )his sheet (ill, (here necessary,
automatically increase reinforcement in order to lo(er ser*ice stresses and enhance allo(a+le span to
depth ratios, 3gain, input of the relationship +et(een dead and imposed loading is reAuired in cells
01# and 01D,

2

is the Auasi:permanent load factor applied to imposed loads in calculations of deflection, )he
factors are 0,# for d(ellings, 0,D for offices, 0,H for par1ing areas and 0,0 for sno( and (ind,
)he example is ta1en from For<ed e#aples for the design of concrete !uildings
$#E'
$to E"#' (hich
itself is +ased on the 18E *ersion of Designed and detailed,
TEEEBEA,:
)his sheet designs a rectangular +eam in a single simply supported span, in a continuous end or
internal span, at supports or as a cantile*er, )hese choices ha*e a +earing on deflection limitations
and the user should choose the appropriate location from the com+o:+ox to the right hand side,
"hoosing +et(een end and interior spans alters maximum allo(a+le flange (idth, )he user should
HH
similarly choose from the list of usage (d:elling, office.store, par<ing1 (hich go*erns the proportion of
imposed load affecting long:term deflection, )his sheet (ill, (here necessary, automatically increase
reinforcement in order to lo(er ser*ice stresses and enhance allo(a+le span:to:depth ratios, 3gain,
input of the relationship +et(een dead and imposed loading is reAuired in cells 01# and 01D, )he
user may also choose +et(een a ) +eam and an in*erted > +eam,
)he example is ta1en from For<ed e#aples for the design of concrete Buildings

$to E"#' (hich itself
is +ased on a 18E *ersion of Designed and detailed ,
SHEAR:
)his sheet designs +eams for shear,
2nput is $(e hope' self:explanatory, )he *alue of shear force, &sd, used can, pro*ided there is diagonal
compression and continuity of tension reinforcement for at least #,E d from the face of support, +e
e*aluated at d from the face of support $see "lause 8,D,#,#$10'', )he U0> is the rele*ant ultimate
uniformly distri+uted load,
)he sheet designs the lin1s reAuired at the section considered, 2f the +eam loading is considered to +e
uniformly distri+uted, the ultimate U0>, n, can +e entered under n to gi*e the distance for (hich this
arrangement is reAuired +efore re*erting to nominal lin1 arrangement,
CO+*,N:
)his spreadsheet designs symmetrically reinforced rectangular columns +ent a+out one axis (here
+oth axial load, %, and maximum design moment, <x, are 1no(n, 2t is +ased on E"# @igure 8,8 and
"lause 8,#,1,D$1#', 2t iterates xIh to determine (here the neutral axis lies, )he sheet includes stress
and strain diagrams to aid comprehension of the final design, 5or1ings and references are sho(n to
the right hand side of the sheet,
@or simplicity, (here three or more +ars are reAuired in the top and +ottom of the section, it is
assumed that a symmetrical arrangement (ill +e reAuired for the side faces $see the argument
included (ithin the commentary for the BS 8110 *ersion, page #D',
2nput is self:explanatory, )he sheet assumes that the moment entered has already +een ad.usted, if
necessary, for +i:axial +ending $: see For<ed e#aples for the design of concrete !uildings
(2,1
p1D!1,
Under "alculations, is a stress +loc1 shape factor, similar to the 0,H! factor used in BS 8110,
)heoretical shortfalls in area of up to #P are considered to +e accepta+le,
)he example is ta1en from For<ed e#aples for the design of concrete !uildings
$#E'
$to E"#' (hich
itself is +ased on the 18E *ersion of Designed and Detailed, 0iscrepancies in num+ers may +e
ascri+ed to differences in fc1 and differences +et(een ta+ular and calculated *alues of xId,
BOI:
)his sheet is for reference only, 2t lists those *alues specific for the U6 use of E"#, and gi*es their
descriptions,
H!
RCCe# S124r"me An"l3s-s57ls
-""e#1,xls analyses su+:frames in accordance (ith Eurocode #: Part 1: 1#
$D'
,
Spans may +e of t(o different profiles to simulate *arying section inertia,
2nputs are reAuired on t(o sheets,
,AIN:
)his single sheet consists of the main inputs,
<ost inputs should +e self:explanatory, 2n cell 0 etc, Msegment9 refers to the length of the section
measured from the left:hand support, 2f this is less than the span length, the cell +elo( (ill sho( the
remainder of the span as a second segment, )he dimension of the flange (idth, +f, is automated to +e
either +( X 0,0! x span for > +eams or +( X 0,18 x span for ) +eams,
Un(anted data cells are /greyed out9, )he use of ", 6, or E can alter the characteristics of a support
from cantile*er to 1nife:edge to encastre, -emote ends of columns at supports may +e J for fixed,
other(ise and +y default, P for pinned, Extraneous data is highlighted in red or +y messages in red,
Beneath Operating Instructions a num+er of chec1s, mainly for missing entries, are carried out and
any pro+lems are highlighted, 3t the +ottom of the sheet there is a simplistic +ut scale arrangement
and loading diagram, )his is gi*en to aid data chec1ing, Great care should +e ta1en to ensure that this
sheet is completed correctly for the case in hand, 2t may pro*e prudent to (rite do(n expected *alues
for +ending moments at each support +efore progressing to 3")2B%SU
Ultimate and characteristic support reactions are gi*en at the +ottom of the sheet
ACTIONS:
)his sheet sho(s +ending moment and shear force diagrams from the analysis underta1en in
3nalysisU )he user is reAuired to input desired amount of redistri+ution to the initial moments in line #!,
"ell >18 allo(s three types of distri+ution according to the user9s preferences,
)he sheet also pro*ides elastic and redistri+uted ultimate shears and column moments according to
the *arious load cases,
An"l3s-s:
)his sheet details the moment distri+ution analysis carried out +ut is not necessarily intended for
printing out other than for chec1ing purposes,
Gr"4:
)his sheet comprises data for graphs used on other sheets, particularly in 3")2B%SU 2t is not
necessarily intended for printing out other than for chec1ing purposes
Segs:
)his sheet calculates non:prismatic @ixed End <oments used in other sheets nota+ly in 3nalysisU,
Separately, for each load type and for unit load, it calculates the simply supported +ending moments at
1I#0

points then numerically integrates the 3rea <oment diagram to find the @ixed End <oments, )his
sheet is not necessarily intended for printing out other than for chec1ing purposes,
H8
RCCe% Cont-n1o1s Be"ms 6A F D857ls
)he spreadsheet allo(s for the design of multiple:span rectangular or flanged +eams using su+:frame
analysis to deri*e moments and shears according to the current *ersion of Eurocode #: Part 1: 1#
$D',
)he intention is to pro*ide the design and analysis of up to six spans of continuous +eams (ith
columns a+o*e and +elo(, )here are three main sheets: <32%U, 3")2B%SU and SP3%SU 2nput is
reAuired on each of these three sheets,
,AIN:
)his sheet contains user input of materials, frame geometry and load data, for up to six spans, Users
should note that (ith *alues of concrete strength of fc1 \ DE %Imm
#
$eAui*alent to fcu \ 8E %Imm
#
',
limiting *alues of xId and conseAuently lim $limiting applied moment ratio' are affected dramatically,
)he example is ta1en from For<ed e#aples for the design of concrete !uildings
$#E'
$to E"#' (hich
itself is +ased on the 18E *ersion of Designed and detailed, 2n order to reflect the latter pu+lication,
the spreadsheet has +een set up (ith the +eams +eing considered as rectangular in +oth the analysis
and design,
Users should note that the maximum permitted flange (idths are calculated from points of
contraflexure on the B< diagrams, and may therefore change (ith modifications in loading,
ACTIONS:
3")2B%SU includes +ending moment and shear force diagrams, summaries of moments and shears
and user input for amounts of redistri+ution, Users should ensure that the amounts of redistri+ution are
al(ays considered, as there are no default *alues,
SPANS:
)his sheet designs reinforcement for +ending in spans and supports and for shear in the spans, User
input is reAuired for reinforcement si=es, )he si=e used at a right support is carried through to the left
support of the next span, 7o(e*er different num+ers of +ars may +e designed, as support moments
$including cantile*er moments' are considered at the face of the support $see BarU', %on:existent
spans are greyed out,
)he reinforcement areas reAuired for ultimate span moments can +e automatically increased in order
to enhance span:to:depth ratios, E"# "lause 8,8,D,#P$8', appears to gi*e the unlimited possi+ility to
reduce ser*ice stress and increase span:to:depth ratios, +ut the spreadsheet does not allo( any
increase in span:to:depth ratios greater than 100P, )he effecti*eness of increasing the area of
reinforcement depends on the extent of crac1ing, )he effect is marginal if the section is su+stantially
uncrac1ed, i,e, sla+s, +ut is more significant for +eams, Bee+y and %arayanan/s Designers hand!oo<
to EC2, p18#'
$#H'
gi*es some modification factors +ased on parametric studies,
9e-g.t:
)his sheet estimates the (eight of reinforcement in the +eam as designed according to curtailment in
E"#, 5or1ings are sho(n on the right hand side of the sheet, )he estimate may +e printed out using
@ileIprint or the print +utton on the normal tool+ar, 2t should +e recognised that different engineers9 and
detailers9 interpretations of these clauses, different pro.ect circumstances and reAuirements, (ill all
ha*e a +earing on actual Auantities used, 3 print:out of this sheet is reproduced,
An"l3s-s:
)his sheet sho(s the moment distri+utions used in the analysis of the +eam: it is not intended for
formal printing,
H
B"r:
@or first time users and young engineers, further detail of the calculations underta1en and E"#
references are gi*en, <oments at ] span points are used to determine the top reinforcement in
spans, 3 print:out of this sheet is reproduced,
Gr"4:
)his sheet pro*ides data for the charts in <32%U and 3")2B%SU: it is not intended for formal printing,
Bo7:
<any *alues used in E"# are su+.ect to national ratification, )his is signified +y them appearing (ithin
+oxes in the main document, )hese /+ox/ *alues are defined in the %ational 3pplication 0ocument
$part of 00 E%& 1#:1:1 1#'
$D'
and those used (ithin the spreadsheet are presented (ithin BoxU
!0
AD,INISTRATI?E FI+ES
Under the 3dmin folder (ill +e found se*eral files associated (ith the use of the spreadsheets,
Re"dme5doc F re"dme5t7t
Essential for initial users of the spreadsheets in +oth 5ord and text formats,
Pr-ntreg57ls
)his spreadsheet is included to pro*ide:
3 means for finding set:up I printing discrepancies +et(een computers
3n initial chec1 on users9 set:ups
3 print:out for registration
3 copy is sho(n o*er leaf, 2ts use should +e self explanatory,
*serG1-d5doc@ J9ordH 4-le o4 *ser G1-de
)his file formed the +asis of the printed User Guide, 2t may +e loaded, read and printed out +y using
5ord ! or su+seAuent releases, )he file is included to pro*ide help and to allo( printing of parts of
the document, 2t may also +e used as a +asis for comment,
*ser G1-de5/d4@ JAdo2e Acro2"tH 4-le o4 t.e *ser G1-de
)his User Guide (ill +e made a*aila+le as an 3cro+at file on futur editions of the accompanying "0:
-B<, 2t (ill present the full User Guide in colour, 3do+e 3cro+at -eader * D,0 or later (ill +e reAuired
to read and interrogate the ,pdf file, 3cro+at -eader (ill +e made a*aila+le on the "0:-B< and (ill +e
installa+le separately, )he file (ill +e included to pro*ide help and to allo( $colour' printing of parts of
the document,
T.eFonts
)his folder contains the font files:
)e1tonKi,ttf
)e1tonKn,ttf
<ar1er,ttf
)hese fonts ha*e +een included in order to gi*e users access to the fonts intended for the
spreadsheets,
)hese upright fonts (ere used in the spreadsheets in order to emulate a designer9s hand(riting and to
allo( an adeAuate amount of information to +e sho(n across the page and in each cell, 3s descri+ed
under &oading a spreadsheet for the first tie see $p 18', unless the appropriate fonts and default font
si=e ha*e +een installed, the appearance on screen (ill +e different from the pu+lication and from that
intended, "olumn (idth and cell o*erlap pro+lems may occur unless the correct fonts and default font
si=e are installed,
)o the +est of our 1no(ledge these fonts are copyright:free,
!1
Pr-ntreg57ls

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De"r *ser,
)his spreadsheet has +een included for three main reasons:
1 a means for finding set:up I printing discrepancies :
# an initial chec1 on users/ set:ups
/
D a printout for registration
/
many than1s
C H Goodc.-ld
Cour name A B See
"o N G Neer F P"rtners
3ddress 3ddress 1 2n Excel, default font name
3ddress # eg 3rial
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"ounty eg 1#
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Phone eg 01D88 !H#H!H 2s this 3rialO 3rial
@ax eg 01D88 !H1#18
Is this Be;tonN Be;ton
E:mail eg ngneerVhome,co,u1
#s this $e%tonitalic& $e%ton
Is this Mar;erN Mar;er
%ature of +usiness eg "onsulting Engineers Excel release
%o of employees eg 1# 8,0e 8,0a
Bperating System
Cour computer eg 0ell Bptiplex GFi 5indo(s $D#:+it' 8,00 5indo(s $D#:+it' 8,00
<onitor eg Samsung 1!G> -ecalculation mode
Printer eg 7P >aser.et 22 3utomatic 3utomatic
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2f registering, remittance
enclosed,
-egistration includes acceptance
of the /"onditions of Use/ as
defined in User <anuals
Spreadsheets for concrete
design to BS 8110 and + EC2
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Please chec1 one of the +oxes a+o*e and complete the information +elo( +y o*er(riting +lue text as far as you are a+le, Please do
not change anything else,
2n the case of 1 or # a+o*e, compare (ith printed *ersion in accompanying commentary and in the case of difficulty print and fax a
copy, 2n the case of D, registration, please print out and send this completed form (ith your remittance,
Ma;eche+ues 3a?ableto !BC&!
send together >itha co3?o4 this
3rintoutto
RCC,
Bel4ord &2enue, Cro>thorne,
Ber;shire, RG$# %CS
eg WE8,!E
$LWE0,00 X &3)'
I4 not autoatic seeBoolsO O3tionsO
Calculation
I4 P'(*a users a?e13eriencedi44iculties
REFERENCES AND F*RTHER READING
Re4erences

1 Goodchild, ",7, Econoic concrete frae eleents, British "ement 3ssociation,
"ro(thorne, 1!, 1#8 pp,
# B-2)2S7 S)3%03-0S 2%S)2)U)2B%, BS 8110: 1!+ Structural use of concrete, Part
1+ Code of practice for design and construction, British Standards 2nstitution, >ondon,
1!,
D B-2)2S7 S)3%03-0S 2%S)2)U)2B%, 00 E%& 1#:1:1: 1#+ Eurocode 2? Design
of concrete structures+ Part 1? Heneral rules and rules for !uildings, 2ncludes the U6
%ational 3pplication 0ocument, British Standards 2nstitution, >ondon, 1#,
8 B-2)2S7 S)3%03-0S 2%S)2)U)2B%, BS 800#: 18+ Code of practice for earth
retaining structures, British Standards 2nstitution, >ondon, 18,
E B-2)2S7 S)3%03-0S 2%S)2)U)2B%, BS 800!: 18!+ Code of practice for design of
concrete structures for retaining aIueous liIuids, British Standards 2nstitution, >ondon,
18!,
H 2%S)2)U)2B% B@ S)-U")U-3> E%G2%EE-S E) 3>, Earth retaining structures,
$"i*il Engineering "ode of Practice %o, #,' 2nstitution of Structural Engineers, >ondon,
1!E, ##8 pp,
! <3">EB0, 2,3, E) 3>, 2nformation technology for the structural engineer+ @he
Structural Engineer, &ol, !!, %o, D, # @e+ruary 1, pp, #D : #E,
8 S)3%02%G "B<<2))EE B% S)-U")U-3> S3@E)C, Standing Coittee on
Structural Safet7, 10th report, Kul7 1**2 ; Kune 1**0, SE)B >td, >ondon, 18, D# pp,
3%S>EC, <, >ia+ility concerns reAuire adapta+le soft(are, Concrete International, &ol,
1, %o, 1#, 0ecem+er 1!, pp, D!, D8,
10 673%, S, )echno "onsultants >td, <anchester, "orrespondence (ith authors, <ay
1,
11 <BS>EC, 5,7, 4 BU%GEC, ?,7, 8einforced concrete design $8
th
edition', <acmillan,
Basingsto1e, 10, D# pp,
1# -EC%B>0S, ",E, 4 S)EE0<3%, ?,", 8einforced concrete designerLs hand!oo< $10
th
edition', E4@% Spon, >ondon, 18, 888 pp,
1D 3>>E%, 3,7, 8einforced concrete design to BS 8110 " sipl7 e#plained, E4@% Spon,
>ondon, 188, #EH pp,
18 )7E "B%"-E)E SB"2E)C, Post"tensioned concrete floors ; Design 9and!oo<,
)echnical -eport %o 8D+ )he "oncrete Society, Slough $no( "ro(thorne', 18, 1H#
pp,
1E 72GG2%S, ?,B, 4 -BGE-S, B,-, Designed and detailed (BS 8110?1**M1, British
"ement 3ssociation, "ro(thorne, 18, #8 pp,
1H 673%, S, 4 52>>23<S, <, Post"tensioned concrete floors, Butter(orth 7einnemann,
Bxford, 1E, D1# pp,
1! "E<E%) 3%0 "B%"-E)E 3SSB"23)2B%, Basic data for the prediction of shrin<age
and creep, )raining note )07 #D1, "ement and "oncrete 3ssociation $no( British
"ement 3ssociation', Slough $no( "ro(thorne', 11 pp,
18 5C3)), ) 3, Design guide on the %i!ration of floors, Pu+, %o, 0!H, Steel "onstruction
!D
2nstitute, 3scot, 18, 8D pp,
1 B-2)2S7 S)3%03-0S 2%S)2)U)2B%, BS HD: Part 1: 1H, &oading for !uildings+
Code of practice for dead and iposed loads+ British Standards 2nstitution, >ondon,
1H,
#0 B-2)2S7 S)3%03-0S 2%S)2)U)2B%, "P 110: 1!#+ Code of practice for the
structural use of concrete, British Standards 2nstitution, >ondon, 1!#,
#1 B-2)2S7 S)3%03-0S 2%S)2)U)2B%, BS ,000? 1*88+ Steel, concrete and coposite
!ridges, British Standards 2nstitution, >ondon, 188,
## -3@2;, <,C, 3%0 SBU)7"B<BE, ", Genetic algorithms in optimal design and
detailing of reinforced concrete +iaxial columns supported +y a declarati*e approach
for capacity chec1ing, International Kournal of Coputers and Structures, H $18', pp
88D : 8E!,
#D B-2)2S7 S)3%03-0S 2%S)2)U)2B%, BS 8008: 18H+ Code of practice for
foundations, British Standards 2nstitution, >ondon, 18H,
#8 %3-3C3%3%, - S, "omparison of design reAuirements in E"# and BS 8110+ @he
Structural Engineer, &ol, H!, %o 11, H ?une 18, pp, #18 : ##!,
#E BEEBC, 3,5, E) 3>, For<ed e#aples for the design of concrete !uildings+ British
"ement 3ssociation, "ro(thorne, 18, #EH pp,
#H BEEBC, 3,5, 4 %3-3C3%3%, -,S, Designers hand!oo< to Eurocode 2 Part 1+1?
Design of concrete structures, )homas )elford >td, >ondon, 18, #8# pp,
F1rt.er re"d-ng
1 2%S)2)U)2B% B@ S)-U")U-3> E%G2%EE-SQ 2%S)2)U)2B% B@ "2&2> E%G2%EE-S,
3anual for the design of reinforced concrete !uilding structures, >ondon, 2SE, >ondon,
18E, 88 pp,
# -EC%B>0S, ",E, 4 S)EE0<3%, ?,", E#aples of the design of reinforced concrete
!uildings to BS 8110 $8
th
edition', E4@% Spon, >ondon, 1#, D#0 pp,
D <BS>EC, 5,7, Et 3l, 8einforced concrete design to Eurocode 2 (EC21, <acmillan,
>ondon, 1H, 8#H pp,
!8
SC,BO+S
Please note that definitions relating to retaining and +asement (alls and many of those relating to
post:tensioned design are contained (ithin the rele*ant spreadsheets,
A22reA
0-"t-on
*n-t E7/l"n"t-on
$B or S' Beam or sla+ $re P)'
$>, -, B' Stressing ends left, right and +ottom $re P)'
$B, U' Prestressing system +onded or un+onded $re P)'
K %ot applica+leI no result
KKK or
KKKKK
%o input reAuired
Q
"oefficient of friction
3c mmf 3rea of concrete section
acr mm 0istance from point considered to nearest longitudinal +ar $"rac1 (idths:
usually from surface half (ay +et(een +ars to +ar'
3p mmf 3rea of prestressing strandItendon
3s mmf 3rea of $tension' steel
3s/ mmf 3rea of compression steel
3s min mmf <inimum area of steel reAuired
3s pro* mmf 3rea of steel pro*ided
3s reA/d mmf 3rea of steel reAuired
3s* mmf 3rea of shear reinforcement
+ mm 5idth, effecti*e (idth, +readth $in -""E1,xls +oth or t(o:(ay spanning'
+f mm Bredth of flange
B, Btm Bottom
+e mm Breadth of effecti*e moment strip
+* mm Breadth of section
+( mm 3*erage (e+ (idth of a flanged +eam
char "haracteristic $load'
"l "entreline $of support'
"B mm "o*er $crac1 (idths'
"omp "ompression
d mm Effecti*e depth
d/ mm 0epth to compression reinforcement
dc mm 0epth of compression =one $column design'
0ef 0eflection
0ia 0iameter
EIB Extra o*er
Ec#8 %Immf <odulus of elasticity of concrete $at #8 days'
Eci %Immf <odulus of elasticity of concrete at initial stressing $re P)'
!E
Ep %Immf <odulus of elasticity of prestressing strandItendon $re P)'
e mm Eccentricity
emin mm <inimum eccentricity
@ 1% total design ultimate load on the full (idth of panel
fci %Imm
#
"haracteristic concrete strength at initial stressing $re P)'
fc1 %Imm
#
"haracteristic concrete cylinder strength $E"#'
fcu %Immf "haracteristic concrete strength
@E< @ixed end moment
fs %Immf $Estimated in:' ser*ice stress of reinforcement in a section
fsc %Immf $2n:' ser*ice stress of reinforcement in a section: compression
fst %Immf $2n:' ser*ice stress of reinforcement in a section: tension
fy %Immf "haracteristic steel strength $+ending reinforcement'
fy* %Immf "haracteristic steel strength $lin1 reinforcement'
G1 1% "haracteristic dead load
g1 1% "haracteristic dead load per unit area,
7, 7 mm 7eight
hc mm Effecti*e diameter of column $design of flat sla+s'
hf mm )hic1ness of flange
hf mm 7eight of flange
6 <I+d
#
fcu : used to determine (hether compression reinforcement is
reAuired or not
6 5o++le factor $re P)'
6/ @actor determining (hether compression reinforcement is reAuired
> m, mm Span
>Id Span:depth
lx m, mm >ength along x axis, length of shorter side $t(o:(ay sla+ panel or flat sla+
panel'
>x m, mm Span in x direction
ly m, mm >ength along y axis, length of longer side $t(o:(ay sla+ panel or flat sla+
panel'
<B- 1%m <oment of resistance
<$e' all 1%m Elastic moment all spans loaded
<$r' e*en 1%m -edistri+uted moment e*en spans loaded
<oment,
<
1%m 0esign ultimate moment at a section
<add 1%m 3dditional design ultimate moment induced +y deflection of column
<min 1%m <oment due to axial load acting at minimum eccentricity
<res 1%m <oment of resistance
<s 1%m Ser*ice moment $crac1 (idths'
msx 1%mIm <aximum design ultimate moments in span or at support in strips of unit
(idth and length lx, >i1e(ise msy
!H
<t 1%m 0esign moment transferred +et(een sla+ and column
<x 1%m 0esign moment a+out x : x
% 1% 0esign ultimate axial load
n 1%Imf )otal design ultimate load per unit area
n, a, %eutral axis
nIa %ot applica+le
%o %um+er
H
mm Bar diameter, maximum +ar diameter
oIa B*erall
Perim Perimeter
P> Point >oad
P) Post tensioned $concrete'
;1 1% "haracteristic imposed load
A1 1% "haracteristic imposed load per unit area
- Grade #E0 reinforcement, mild steel
-I7 P -elati*e 7umidity $re P)'
-elP P -elaxation $re P)'
s mm Spacing $of lin1s or +ars'
S>S Ser*icea+ility limit state
s* mm Spacing of lin1s
) )op, Grade 8H0 reinforcement
)ens )ension
U0> Uniformly distri+uted load
U>S Ultimate limit state
ult Ultimate
uno Unless noted other(ise
& 1% 0esign ultimate shear force
* %Immf Shear stress at a section
*c %Immf $3llo(a+le' design shear stress
*c/ %Immf $3llo(a+le' design shear stress corrected for axial load $e,g, column
design'
&eff 1% 0esign effecti*e shear including allo(ance for moment transfer $flat sla+s,
punching shear'
&-d1 1% <aximum design shear force w-t.o1t reinforcement $E"#'
&-d1 1% <aximum design shear force w-t. reinforcement $E"#'
&Sd 1% 0esign shear $E"#'
*sx 1%mIm <aximum design shear in strips of unit (idth and length lx,
&t 1% 0esign ultimate shear transferred to column $flat sla+s, punching shear'
( mm "rac1 (idth
5I" ratio 5ater:cement ratio $re P)'
!!
51 1% "haracteristic (ind load
(1 1% "haracteristic (ind load per unit area,
x mm 0epth to neutral axis
x or y Spanning parallel to x or y,
CI% CesI no
= mm >e*er arm
<odular ratio $usually EsIEc, approximately 1E'
R
b
-edistri+ution factor : the ratio: $moment at a section after redistri+ution I
moment at the section +efore redistri+ution'
Strain
m
3*erage strain $crac1 (idths'
c
Partial safety factor for strength of material: concrete,
m
Partial safety factor for strength of material, $See rele*ant "ode'
s
Partial safety factor for strength of material: steel
Proportion of steel reinforcement
c
%Immf 3llo(a+le compressi*e $long term' stress in concrete $re P)'
ic
%Immf 3llo(a+le compressi*e stress in concrete at initial stressing $re P)'
it
%Immf 3llo(a+le tensile stress in concrete at initial stressing: $re P)'



%Immf 3llo(a+le $long term' tensile stress in concrete $re P)'
-d
%Imm
#
Basic shear strength $E"#'

2
;uasi:permanent load factor applied to imposed loads in calculations of
deflection $E"#'

P 0amping, $usually #P to 8P' $re P)'

"oefficient of friction

min
>imiting *alue of applied moment ratio for singly reinforced sections
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