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THERMODYNAMICS II

DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY


EMD5M5A

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1.0 Title




MEC 554-THERMALFLUIDS LAB
THERMODYNAMICS II LAB

DRAG IN FORCE LAYER OVER A
BODY

LECTURER: Siti Noor Azizzati Mohd Noor

THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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2.0 Abstract

In this experiment the most important parameter is Reynolds number, where for the
present, we considered how external flow and its associated lift and drag vary as a function of
Reynolds number. Sharp edges always cause flow separation and high drag that is insensitive
to the Reynolds number. This experiment can be summarising by comparing the drag force
between both orientations. The body base facing upstream have the higher value of drag force
than facing downstream even though they are having same geometry shape.












THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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List of Symbols
A Area over which force (F) acts (m2)
E Elastic modulus (GPa)
F Force (N)
(

Initial dimension in direction i (mm)


T Specimen thickness (m)


Rate of chart displacement (mm/min)

Rate of sample displacement (mm/min)


w Specimen width (m)

Displacement of chart (mm)


Displacement of sample (mm)


Strain

=0 Predicted strain at zero stress

Normal strain in direction i


E Error in the predicted elastic modulus (GPa)
F Error in the force (N)

Change in dimension in direction i (mm)


t Error in the specimen thickness (m)
w Error in the width (m)

=0 Error in the predicted strain at zero stress


Error in the predicted intercept of stress-stain data (MPa)
Error in the stress (MPa)
Predicted intercept of stress-strain data (MPa)
Engineering stress (MPa)

Yield point (MPa)

Ultimate strength (MPa)






THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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Table of Contents
1.0 Title............................................................................................................................................. 1
2.0 Abstract ...................................................................................................................................... 2
List of Symbols ........................................................................................................................................ 3
List of figure ......................................................................................................................................... 5
List of table ........................................................................................................................................... 5
3.0 Introduction And Applications .................................................................................................. 6
4.0 Objectives .................................................................................................................................... 7
5.0 Theory ......................................................................................................................................... 7
6.0 Experimental Procedures .............................................................................................................. 9
6.1 Apparatus and experiment set up ................................................................................................ 9
6.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................... 10
7.0 Results ....................................................................................................................................... 11
7.1 Data recorded ............................................................................................................................. 11
7.2 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 12
7.3 Sample Calculation ...................................................................................................................... 13
8.0 Discussion ................................................................................................................................. 14
9.0 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 14
10.0 References and appendices ..................................................................................................... 15












THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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List of figure
Figure 1: Schematic diagram of drag force for Boat hulls ...................................................................... 6
Figure 2: Boat hulls ................................................................................................................................. 6
Figure 3: Rigid rod and Hemisphere with body base facing downstream and upstream ...................... 9
Figure 4: Weight balance ........................................................................................................................ 9
Figure 5: Speed control ........................................................................................................................... 9
Figure 6: Sub sonic wind tunnel .............................................................................................................. 9
Figure 7: Graph of Drag Coefficient, CD against Rey. No ...................................................................... 12

List of table
Table 1: Tabulated data ........................................................................................................................ 11





















THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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3.0 Introduction And Applications

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid
resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) refers to forces acting opposite to the
relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid. This can exist
between two fluid layers (or surfaces) or a fluid and a solid surface. Unlike other resistive
forces, such as dry friction, which are nearly independent of velocity, drag forces depend on
velocity.
Drag forces always decrease fluid velocity relative to the solid object in the
fluid's path. Example of drag include the component of the net aerodynamic or hydrodynamic
force acting opposite to the direction of movement of the solid object relative to the Earth as
for cars, aircraft and boat hulls, or acting in the same geographical direction of motion as the
solid, as for sails attached to a downwind sail boat, or in intermediate directions on a sail
depending on points of sail. In the case of viscous drag of fluid in a pipe, drag force on the
immobile pipe decreases fluid velocity relative to the pipe.





The drag coefficient (commonly denoted as: c
d
, c
x
or c
w
) is a dimensionless
quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment,
such as air or water. It is used in the drag equation, where a lower drag coefficient indicates
the object will have less aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag. The drag coefficient is always
associated with a particular surface area. The drag coefficient of any object comprises the
effects of the two basic contributors to fluid dynamic drag: skin friction and form drag. The
drag coefficient of a lifting air foil or hydrofoil also includes the effects of lift-induced drag.
The drag coefficient of a complete structure such as an aircraft also includes the effects
of interference drag.
Figure 2: Boat hulls Figure 1: Schematic diagram of drag force for Boat hulls
THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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4.0 Objectives

The purpose of this experiment is to:

1. To measure the drag coefficient C
D
, over a range of velocities in the test section for
hemispherical (open end facing flow or upstream and open end facing down the
stream).
2. To understand the uses of drag force.
5.0 Theory
According to http://www.grc.nasa.gov, drag is a mechanical force. It is generated by
the interaction and contact of a solid body with a fluid (liquid or gas). It is not generated by a
force field, in the sense of a gravitational field or an electromagnetic field, where one object
can affect another object without being in physical contact. For drag to be generated, the solid
body must be in contact with the fluid. If there is no fluid, there is no drag. Drag is generated
by the difference in velocity between the solid object and the fluid. There must be motion
between the object and the fluid. If there is no motion, there is no drag. It makes no
difference whether the object moves through a static fluid or whether the fluid moves past a
static solid object.
Drag is a force and is therefore a vector quantity having both a magnitude and a
direction. Drag acts in a direction that is opposite to the motion of the aircraft. Lift acts
perpendicular to the motion. There are many factors that affect the magnitude of the drag.
Generally, types of drag are divided into the following categories:
1. parasitic drag, consisting of
form drag,
skin friction,
interference drag,
2. lift-induced drag, and
3. wave drag (aerodynamics) or wave resistance (ship hydrodynamics).
(source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_(physics)
THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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Mathematically, drag coefficient can be written as follow:


This was derived from the equation:

, where, F
D
= drag force
= mass density of the fluid
v = velocity of the object relative to the fluid
A = reference area
C
D
= drag coefficient (dimensionless)

The drag coefficient depends on the shape of the object and on the Reynolds number:








THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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6.0 Experimental Procedures
6.1 Apparatus and experiment set up



Figure 6: Sub sonic wind tunnel
Figure 4: Weight balance Figure 3: Rigid rod and Hemisphere with body base facing
downstream and upstream
Figure 5: Speed control
THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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6.2 Procedure

1. Diameter of hemisphere is measured.
2. First, the rigid rod is fitted to the balance arm.
3. The arm is balanced to zero.
4. The blower fan then switched ON to flow velocity 8 m/s.
5. The arm is balanced once again and the reading is recorded.
6. The velocity is increased with decrement of 2 m/s until 20 m/s. The arm is balanced
for each reading.
7. Step 1 until step 6 are repeated by changing the rigid rod with hemisphere body with
open end facing the flow and then open end facing down the stream.













THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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7.0 Results
7.1 Data recorded
No
Velocity
(m/s)
Rey. No.
(x10
3
)
Rigid
Rod
Drag
Force,
F
D
(N)


Body base surface facing
upstream
Body base surface facing
downstream
Net Drag
Coefficient,
C
D

Drag
Force,
F
D
(N)
Net
Drag
Force,
F
D
(N)
Drag
Coefficient,
C
D
(N)
Drag
Force,
F
D
(N)
Net
Drag
Force,
F
D
(N)
Drag
Coefficient,
C
D
(N)
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 8 34.305 0.02 0.21 0.19 1.1672 0.08 0.06 0.3686 0.7986
3 10 42.882 0.02 0.31 0.29 1.1402 0.10 0.08 0.3145 0.8257
4 12 51.459 0.02 0.48 0.46 1.2559 0.15 0.13 0.3549 0.9010
5 14 60.035 0.06 0.66 0.60 1.2036 0.21 0.15 0.3009 0.9027
6 16 68.612 0.06 0.86 0.80 1.2287 0.28 0.22 0.3379 0.8908
7 18 77.188 0.08 1.09 1.01 1.2256 0.35 0.27 0.3276 0.8980
8 20 85.764 0.10 1.36 1.26 1.2385 0.44 0.34 0.3342 0.9043
Table 1: Tabulated data












THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 20 40 60 80 100
D
r
a
g

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,

C
D


Rey. No
Graph of Drag Coefficient, CD against Rey. No
Body base facing
upstream
Body base facing
downstream
7.2 Data Analysis














Figure 7: Graph of Drag Coefficient, CD against Rey. No
THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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7.3 Sample Calculation
Air density, = 1.204 kg/m
3

Given diameter of circular cylinder, d= 0.065 m
Air viscosity, = 1.825 x

(T = 20 C)

No 4, Velocity, V = 12 m/s

Rey. No. =


=
()()()


= 51.459 k

Rigid Rod Drag Force, F
D
= 0.02 N

Body base surface facing upstream
Drag Force, F
D
= 0.48 N

Net Drag Force, F
D
= -

= 0.48 0.02
= 0.46 N

Drag Coefficient, C
D
=

()()

()


= 1.2559
Body base surface facing downstream

Drag Force, F
D
= 0.15 N

Net Drag Force, F
D
= -

= 0.15 0.02
= 0.13 N

Drag Coefficient, C
D
=

()()

()


= 0.3549


Net Drag Coefficient, C
D
= 1.2559 0.3549
= 0.9010
THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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8.0 Discussion
This part of report is individually hand written. The result of each member is attached
with this report.
9.0 Conclusion
This part of report is individually hand written. The result of each member is attached
with this report.


THERMODYNAMICS II
DRAG FORCE IN FLOW OVER A BODY
EMD5M5A

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10.0 References and appendices

Books
1) Cengel, Y. A. & Cimbala, J. M. (2006). Fluid Mechanics. (First Edition). New York:
McGraw Hill.
2) Frank M. White, Fluid Mechanics, 5
th
Edition, Mc Graw Hill, New York, USA, 2003.

Websites
1. Drag equation :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_equation [Accessed 30/10/14]
2. Definition of drag :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_(physics) [Accessed 30/10/14]
3. Applications of drag force :
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15715124.2006.9635283#.VFIXcfmUcwI
[Accessed 30/10/14]