The Motor_Pot Assembly. PID Control Motor. Add Derivative Error. Add Integral.

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The Motor_Pot Assembly. PID Control Motor. Add Derivative Error. Add Integral.

© All Rights Reserved

- Linear Integrated Circuit by M. Senthil Sivakumar_ S. Chand & Co. Ltd
- PID Controller for DC Motor
- HD Audio Opamp
- Sample Objective
- Differential Amplifier
- opa380 datasheet
- 3. sensors dan actuator.ppt
- Exercise Chapter 2
- Data Sheet
- 111406 2110016 Basic Electronics
- 1sem Cse Syllabus
- Wave Shaping and Swiching Circuits
- Syllabus
- Opa 2132
- Multiplier Tutorial
- Tube to Jfet
- SUNDAY 3-4-11_Conditioning Circuits
- aeisyllabus
- Module 02
- LMC6081 sheet

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REV 2

1

; October 1, 2013

Time: 130 min.: 2

hours, 10 min.

Contents

10LLab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control 1

10L.1Introduction: Why Bother with the PID Loop? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

10L.1.1Todays Feedback Loop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

10L.1.2. . . And why it interests us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

10L.2PID Motor Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

10L.2.1The Motor-Pot Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

10L.2.2The Motor Control Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

10L.2.3Motor Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

10L.2.4Pseudo Op Amp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

10L.2.5Drive the Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

10L.2.6Close the Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

10L.3Add Derivative of the Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

10L.3.1Derivative Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

10L.4Add Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

10L.4.1...but Too Much I again brings Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1

Revisions: small rewordings (2/13); insert photo of motor pot (10/10); insert better drawings; renumber gures to 11pid... (8/07);

try to cut repetition (3/07).

1

2 Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control

10L.1 Introduction: Why Bother with the PID Loop?

10L.1.1 Todays Feedback Loop. . .

Todays circuit looks straightforward: a potentiometer sets a target position; a DC motor tries to achieve that

position, which is measured by a second potentiometer. Lags cause the difculty: the correction signal is

likely to arrive too late to solve a problem that the circuit senses. If that happens, the remedy can make things

worse.

This motor control circuit is a classic feedback network called a PID circuit: the circuit response ulti-

mately will include three functions of the circuit error signal, P, I, and D: proportional, integral, and

derivative. Stability is the central issue.

10L.1.2 . . . And why it interests us

This feedback problem holds two sorts of interest, for our course.

Pedagogical Appeal:

It gives us a chance to applyand to apply in concerta collection of circuits that you have seen

either only as fragments, or only on paper:

differential amplier, made of op amps (this we have met only on paper)

differentiator

integrator

summing circuit

high-current driver (with motor as load)

PID confronts a classic control problem; it provides a scheme with many practical applications

10L.1.2.1 Putting the pieces together

Students often tell us that they like to build circuits that do somethingin contrast to circuits that produce just

images on a scope screen. Todays circuit qualies: it guarantees to make a little DC motor squirm (squirm

when its unstable; tamely spin, then stop, when its stable).

This PID circuit is by far the most complex in this course to date. That makes it a good setup for improving

your debugging skills (this is a glass-half-full way to say that youre very likely to make some wiring errors

today). We often boast that in this course, bugs are our most important product. This boast becomes most

convincing near the end of the course, when you may choose to put together a computer from ICs; but even

today the circuit is complex enough to make it a challenge. (The debugging will be especially challenging if

your sloppy lab partner fails to keep leads short and color-coded, and forgets to bypass power supplies. We

know you wouldnt make such errors.)

Finally, were happy to let this lab reinforce a concern rst discussed in the fourth op amp lab: stability.

Although todays circuit problem is singularintegrator within the loopand the remedy more subtle than

usual, the general stability problem is one that confronts us in almost every circuit that has gain.

Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control 3

10L.2 PID Motor Control

The task we undertake here is one we have described in the class notes for Op Amps 5. We will repeat some

of what appears in those notes, to save you the trouble of consulting those as you do the lab. But those notes

are more thorough than what we will write in this lab.

Our goal, most simply stated, is just to use a feedback loop to get one DC voltage to match another; and since

both voltages come from potentiometers, the goal can also be described (maybe sounding more exciting) as

making the position of one potentiometer shaft mimic that of another. We want to be able to use our ngers

to turn a potentiometer by hand and see a motor-driven pot mimic our action. Such controls are sometimes

offered on fancy audio equipment, so that the equipment can be controlled either by twisting a knob, or by

using a remote that controls the knob from across the room.

10L.2.1 The Motor-Pot Assembly

The motor-pot gadget is nicely made, with an extreme gear-reduction box driving the pot slowly at high

torquebut mediated by a nylon clutch that can slip:

Figure 1: Motor-potentiometer assembly, exposed

The clutch serves two purposes: it permits a human hand to control the potentiometer directly, when the

motor is stopped. It also protects the motor against stalling and overheating, if the motor drives the pot to one

of its limits.

10L.2.2 The Motor Control Loop

Heres a minimal sketch of todays circuit:

Figure 2: Basic Motor-Position Control Loop: Very Simple!

The special difculty, today, comes from the fact that the motor-to-potentiometer block, our circuits load,

4 Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control

integrates voltages. So, we cant use an ordinary op amp as the triangle in the feedback loop of g.2.

The extra -90 degree shift, or integration, in todays circuit forces us to alter our methods. Since we cannot

afford the phase shift of an ordinary op amp, we build ourselves a custom amplier: one that provides modest

gain and no phase shift. We will apply the radical remedy, in other words of altering not the load in the loop

but the op amp itself.

And heres a reminder of todays circuitredrawn to suggest that we now will be able to tinker with the

ampliers gain. Later, we will alter also its phase behavior.

Figure 3: Proportional-only drive will cause some overshoot; gain will affect this

We will rst try this circuit with its gain adjusted low, and we expect to nd the circuit fairly stable. Then, as

we increase gain, we should begin to see overshoot and ringing; if we push on to still higher gains, we should

see the circuit oscillate continuously.

At the end of these notes we attach some scope images describing just such responses to variations in simple

proportional gain.

10L.2.3 Motor Driver

Time: 25 min.

Lets start with a subcircuit that is familiar: a high-current driver, capable of driving a substantial current (up

to a couple of hundred milliamps). Well use the power transistors youve met before: MJE3055 (npn) and

MJE2955 (pnp). The motor presents the kind of troublesome load likely to induce parasitic oscillations, as

in the last exercise of Lab Op Amps 4. We need, therefore, the protections that we invoked there: not only

decoupling of supplies, but also both a snubber and high-frequency feedback that bypasses the troublesome

phase-shifting elements.

We are trying hard, here, to decouple one part of the circuit fromthe others: the 15F caps should prevent sup-

ply disturbances from upsetting the target signal. Similar caps at the ends of the motor-driven potentiometer

aim to stabilize the feedback signal.

You may also want to use an external power supply to provide the motors 15V supplies, if you have

such an extra supply handy. We suggest this not for decoupling, but because the motors maximum current

exceeds the breadboards 100mA rated output, and might disturb those supplies even if one inserted plenty of

decoupling caps. The external supply, unlike the breadboard supply, can provide the necessary current. (But

we have also built this lab happily without this separate power supply.)

Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control 5

Figure 4: Motor-driver

Note that your motor pots resistance value may differ from the 10k shown in g. 4 on the facing page. If

so, scale the resistors appropriately. If your motors potentiometer has value 100k, for example, just scale the

target pot (labelled breadboard pot in g. 4 on the preceding page) and the 4.7k and 6.8k divider Rs up by

a factor of ten.

Note, also, that you must not use 411 op amps. The 411 has the nasty propertycommon to bi-fet

devicesthat it can ip its output phase if the input voltage goes below its specied common-mode input

range.

2

The result is that if an input to any of the ampliers in this loop momentarily swings to within about

a volt of the negative supply, the loop is very likely to get hung up by this nasty positive feedback.

3

Wire up the two potentiometers, as well as the motor-driver itself. The resistors at the ends of the two

potentiometers6.8k resistors on input, 4.7k resistors on the motor potrestrict input and output range to

a range of about 7V, so as to keep all signals well within a range that keeps the op amps happy. The

difference in R values makes sure that the input range cannot exceed the achievable output range.

You can test this motor driver by varying the input voltage, and watching the voltage out of the motor-driven

pot. Dont be dismayed if you see a good deal of hash on the scope screen. This hash may look very much

like a parasitic oscillation, familiar to you from the recent nasty oscillators lab. The image just below shows

what we saw, when watching the motor drive, with the motor moving:

Figure 5: Motor drive hash looks like a parasitic oscillation. . .

2

The op amp output is forced high in this event. If the input going too far negative is the non-inverting, this changes the avor of

feedback from negative to positive.

3

This hazard is not hypothetical; we rst breadboarded this circuit with 411sand were forcibly reminded of the parts nasty

phase-inversion by the occasional lock-up failure of the loop.

6 Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control

But if we look at this hash more closely, we nd some clues that it is not the usual parasitic oscillation at

work:

Figure 6: Motor drive hash seen in greater detail: not parasitic oscillation, after all

These spikes seem to be the effects of the DC motors brushes breaking contact periodically with the motors

commutator. One clue is the fact that noise is not continuous, but seems to be a set of narrow spikes at a

low repetition rate. The other cluepretty conclusiveis the fact that the spike voltages exceed the power

supply: this effect looks a lot like the behavior of an inductor (the motor winding), angry each time the

commutator switches the current off. So, dont let this hash worry you. Its ugly, but well live with it.

Any V

IN

more than a few tenths of a volt should evoke a change of output voltage. You will hear the motor

whirring, and will see the shaft slowly turning (the motor drive is geared down through a two-stage worm-

and conventional- gearing scheme

4

). After perhaps 20 seconds, the pot will reach its limit and will cease

turning. But thats all right: a clever clutch scheme, mentioned back in 1 on page 3, allows the motor to

slip harmlessly when the pot reaches either end of its range. If the signs of V

IN

and the change in V

OUT

do

not match, then be sure to interchange leads of one of the pots, so as to make them match. We dont want a

hidden inversion, here. It would upset our scheme when we later close the loop.

10L.2.4 Pseudo Op Amp

Time: 25 min.

Now we do a strange thing: we use three op amps to make a rather-crummy op-amp like circuit.

Figure 7: Differential Amp Followed by Gain Stage and an inversion

4

See photo of motor-pot innards, g. 1 on page 3.

Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control 7

The rst stage you recognize as a standard differential amp. It shows unity gain. The second stage simply

inverts;

5

the third stage seems to be doing no more than undoing the inversion of the preceding circuit, along

with permitting adjustment of gain. That is true, at this stage; but we include this circuit because soon we

will use it, fed by two more inputs, as a summing circuit. So used, it will put together the three elements of

the PID controller: Proportional, Integral, and Derivative. In the present P-only circuit

6

we also use the third

amplier to vary the overall gain of our home-made op amp.

The entire circuit, then, is simply a differential amplier with adjustable gain. And this gain is always low

relative to the very-high values we are accustomed to in op amps. We need the modesty of this gain, and we

need an associated virtue of this simple circuit: no appreciable phase-shift between input and output. Both

characteristics contrast with those of an ordinary op amp, as you know. The xed, high gain of an ordinary

op amp, along with its integrator behavior beginning at 10 or 20 Hz would get us into trouble today, turning

negative feedback into positive.

10L.2.4.1 Check Common-mode and Differential Gains

Common-mode gain. . . We suggest that you use a resistor substitution box to set the summing circuits

gain. Set the gain at ten, and see whether a common-mode signala volt or so applied from the input pot,

applied to both inputsevokes the output you would expect. (Do you expect zero output?)

. . . (Pseudo-) Differential Gain Then ground one input (the 100k that feeds the rst op amps inverting

input), using the level from the potentiometer as input. Watch that input, and the circuit output, with the R

substitution box value set to 100k: see if you get the expected gain of +10.

A couple of features of this test may bear explaining:

Yes, the gain is positive when the input pot drives the non-inverting input to this home-made op amp,

since two inverting stages followthe diff amp;

we are applying a pseudo-differential signal by grounding one input of the diff amp and driving the

other. (You did this also in Lab 5, as you drove the home-made op amp.) Since the differential gain is

so much higher than the common-mode, this pseudo-differential signal works almost as a true differen-

tial signal would: an applied signal of v appears as a differential signal of magnitude v, combined with

a common-mode signal of magnitude v/2. Given even a mediocre CMRR, this modest common-mode

signal mixed with the differential is harmless.

A DVM may be handier than a scope, at this point, to conrm that the output of this chain of three op-

amp circuits shows a pseudo-differential gain of +10, while you drive the input with the input potentiometer

voltage. When you nish this test, leave the output voltage close to zero volts.

10L.2.5 Drive the Motor

You have already tested the motor driver. Lets now check the three new stagesthose that form the pseudo

op ampby letting their output feed the motor-driver. Conrm that you can make the motor spin one way,

then the other, by adjusting the input pot slightly above and then below zero volts. (The motor-driven pot, as

we have said, fortunately can take the pot to its limit without damaging pot or motor.)

5

This inversion is included so as to let this signal share a polarity with the Derivative and Integral signals, soon to be generated;

these signals will come from circuits that necessarily invert.

6

We call this P, as we call the other signals, soon to be added, D and I, although all are inverted. Strictly, then, this is -P. We

omit the minus in these labels, thinking it easier to refer to P than to minus P.

8 Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control

Figure 8: Try making motor spin, to test the diff amp, gain stage, sum and motor drive

10L.2.6 Close the Loop

Time: 15 min.

Now reduce the gain, using the R substitution box: set gain to about 1.5 (R

gain

= 15k). Replace the ground

connection to the inverting input of our pseudo op amp with the voltage from the output potentiometer.

Figure 9: The loop closed, at last: Proportional only

Watch V

in

on one channel of the scope, V

outputpot

on the other channel. If a digital scope is available, this

is a good time to use it, because a very-slow sweep rate is desirable: as low as 0.5 second- or even 1 second

-per division.

Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control 9

Several ways to test the loop: Apply Voltage Steps, by Hand or from Function-Generator? Two or

three methods are available to you, to test the new setup:

Two ways to drive the input:

square wave from function generator: a function generator can provide a small square wave

(0.5V, say), at the lowest available frequency (about 0.2Hz on our generators). This input can

replace the manual input potentiometer, temporarily. This is probably the best choice, since it

provides consistency you cannot achieve by hand.

Manual step input: you may, however, prefer the simplicity of manually applying a step input

from the input pot: a step of perhaps a volt.

The output pot should followshowing a few cycles of overshoot and damped oscillation.

An alternative test: Disturb the output, and watch recovery: a second way to test the circuits

response is available, if you prefer (and you may want to try this in any case, after looking at the

response to a step input): leave the input voltage constant, then manually force the pot away from its

resting position, simply by turning the knob of the output pot. Let go, and watch the knob return to its

initial positionshowing some overshoot and oscillation, as when the change was applied at the input

pot.

You start with a very low gain (1.5), which should make the circuit stable, even in this P-only form. Now use

the substitution box to dial up increasing gain. At R

Sum

= 220k (|gain| = 22) we saw some overshoot and

a cycle or two of oscillation, evident in the motion of the motor and pot shaft. If this shaft were controlling,

say, the rudder of an airplane, this effect would be pretty unsettling. The circuit worksbut it would be nice

if we could get it to settle faster and to overshoot less.

Increasing the gain, at R

Sum

= 680k (|gain| = 68), we were able to make out several cycles of oscillation

(the bigger, uglier trace shows the motor drive voltage; there the oscillation is more obvious):

Figure 10: P only: gain is high enough to take us to the edge of oscillation

With a little more gain (R

Sum

= 1M, in our case |gain| = 100) and the application of either a step change

at the input, or a displacement of the output pot by hand we saw a continuous oscillation. Find the gain that

sets your circuit oscillating, and then note the period of oscillation, at the lowest gain that will give sustained

oscillation. We will call this the period of natural oscillation, and soon we will use it to scale the remedies

that well apply against oscillation.

10 Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control

10L.3 Add Derivative of the Error

Time: 40 min.

Well, of course we can get it to settle faster; we can improve performance. (If we couldnt, would the name

of this sort of controller include the I and D in its name, PID?)

We can speed up the settling markedly, and even crank up the P gain (proportional) a good deal, once

we have added this derivative. Thinking of the stability difculty as a problem of taming the phase shifts of

sinusoidsas we did for op amps generallywe can see that inserting a derivative into the feedback loop

will tend to undo an integration.

The integrations are the hazard, here: one is built in, the translation from motor rotation to motor position.

Additional integrations resulting from lagging phase shifts can carry us to the deadly minus-180-degree shift

that converts nice feedback into nastythe sort that brings on the oscillation you have just seen.

10L.3.1 Derivative Circuit

The standard op amp differentiator shown below can contribute its output to the summing circuit. Here, we

show the entire prior circuit, with the differentiator added. The differentiators gain is rolled off at about

1.5kHz. Again we recommend that you use a resistor substitution box to set the D gain, if such a box is

available.

Figure 11: Derivative added to Loop

Fig. 11 also shows a switch in the feedback path that permits you to kill the derivative when you choose to.

You may sometimes want to revert to the simpler P-only scheme, as a note in 10L.3.1.1 on the next page

suggests.

Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control 11

10L.3.1.1 How Much Derivative?

Our goal, in adding derivative, is to cancel the extra phase shift otherwise caused by a low-pass effect that

brings on instability. How do we know at what frequency this trouble occurs, and therefore how to set the

frequency-response or (equivalently) gain of the differentiator?

It turns out that you already have this information: you got it by measuring the frequency (or period) of

natural oscillation, back in section 10L.2.6. There, as you know, you gradually increased the P-only

gain till you saw that an input disturbance would evoke either an output that took a long time to settle, or a

continuous oscillation. (When we ran that experiment, for example, we got a natural oscillation period of

roughly 0.6 second).

We aim to make the derivative contribution, D, equal to the P contribution, at the corner frequency where

sustained oscillation would occur. The D should keep the loop stable, until yet another low-pass cuts in; at

that point, we should have arranged to make the loop gain safely low: less than unity, so that a disturbance

must die away.

RC denes the differentiators gain (youll nd an argument for this proposition in the Class Notes for Op

Amps 5, in case you need to be persuaded). Here, we reproduce the argument made in those Op Amps 5

notes, for setting the D gain.

How to Calculate the needed Derivative Gain

How do we calculate the necessary differentiator gain? To avoid complications, lets assume that the gain of the P path is unity. Then our goal

is to arrange things so that the derivative contribution, D, is equal to the P contribution, at the frequency where trouble otherwise would occur.

The D should keep the loop stable, until yet another low-pass cuts in; at that point, we should have arranged to make the loop gain safely low:

less than unity, so that a disturbance must die away.

Lets start by reminding ourselves what we mean by differentiator gain; then well calculate what RC we need for stability. Gain for a

differentiator, by denition is

Vout/(dV

in

/dt)

. We know that, for the op amp differentiator,

Vout = I R

Feedback

and this I is just

C dV

in

/dt.

So (neglecting the sign of the gain; the op amp version inverts)

Gain

(Deriv)

= Vout/(dV

in

/dt) =

RC dV

in

/dt

dV

in

/dt

= RC.

So, RC denes the differentiators gain.

a

If V

in

= Asin(t), then Vout

Deriv

= RCAcos(t). We want to nd the value of RC, the differentiators gain, that would set Vout

Deriv

equal Vout

Proportional

. Lets treat P gain as unity; then we want both P and D to equal V

in

.

If we set the D gain equal to unity, then

Vout

Deriv

= Vout

Proportional

= V

in

And, equivalently

RCAcos(t) = Asin(t)

Consider just the maximum amplitudes of V

in

and dV

in

/dt (where sin and cos terms equal one). We want to set these amplitudes equal to

each other, and both equal to the input amplitude, A. Then

RCA = A

and RC = 1, or RC = 1/

Or

RC = 1/(2f).

To paraphrase this equation in words: RC should be about 1/6 of the period of natural oscillation.

a

Perhaps you nd this a rehearsal of the obvious! Just a look at units make it very plausible that RC should be the differentiators gain:

input is volts/second; output is volts; the conversion factor needs units of seconds.

A Scaling Rule of thumb: frequency of natural oscillationdictatesD gain. If as this formula suggests,

RC should be about 1/6 of the period of natural oscillation, then for our T

oscillation

= 0.6s wed set RC to

12 Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control

about 0.1 s, or a bit less.

7

If we use a convenient C value of 0.1 F, the R we need is about 1M. Lets make this

value adjustable, thoughbecause we want to be able to try the effect of more or less than the usual derivative

weight: if you have a second resistor substitution box, use it to set the differentiators gain (RC). Otherwise,

use a 1M variable resistor. Watching the position of the rotator will let you estimate R to perhaps 20 percent;

the midpoint value certainly is 500k, and 750k is close to the 3/4-rotation position. The differentiators output

goes into the summing circuit installed earlier, through a resistor chosen to give this D term weight equal to

the Ps.

We hope you will nd this D to be strong and effective medicine. Once it has tamed your circuits response

eliminating the overshoot and ringingcrank up the P gain, to about twenty (R

SUM GAIN

= 220k) or more.

Is the circuit still stable? Try more D. Does an excess of D cause trouble? The scope image of the circuits

response will let you judge whether you have too much or too little D: too little, and youll see remnants of

the overshoot you saw with P-only; too much D, and youll see an RC-ish curve in the output voltage as it

approaches the target: it chickens out as it gets close. And if you keep increasing the D gain still further, as

we said in the PID Class Notes, the circuit goes unstable once again; it oscillates.

Switch The toggle switch across the feedback resistor will let us cut D in and out; the switch seems prefer-

able to relying, say, on a very-large variable R to feed the summing circuit. We nd it can be hard to keep

track of multiple pot settings, to know whether were contributing D or not. A switch makes the ON/OFF

condition easier to note.

10L.4 Add Integral

Time: 15 min.

Adding the third termthe I of PIDcan drive residual error (a difference between the input pot voltage

and the output pot voltage) to zero. Here is a diagram of the full PID circuit, with the integrator added.

7

See., e.g., Tietze and Schenk, Electronic Circuits: Design and Applications (1991). A less formal approach appears in

St.Clairs paperback tutorial, self-published (Controller Tuning and Control Loop Performance By David W. St. Clair ISBN

0-9669703-6 Straight-Line Controls, Inc.; from his website (members.aol.com/pidcontrol/) one can download a simulator that al-

lows one to try his rules. The easiest simulator, along with a good tutorial, appears in a University of Exeter, U.K., site

(http://newton.ex.ac.uk/teaching/CDHW/Feedback/). The simulation lets you try (as you would expect!) the effect of varying P gain and

of adding in D and Ijust as we do in todays lab.

Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control 13

Figure 12: Integral added, to complete the PID loop

Two details of the integrator may be worth noting:

two polarized caps placed end-to-end: this odd trick works to permit use of polarized capacitors in a set-

ting that can put either polarity across the capacitance. The effective capacitance is, of course, only one

half the value of each capacitor. We use polarized caps only because large-value caps like these 15F

parts are hard to nd in non-polarized form.

seeming absence of DC feedback: at rst glance, this integrator seems doomed to drift to saturation, since

the integrator includes neither of our usual protections against such driftfeedback resistor or momen-

tary discharge switch. But neither is necessary, here, because overall feedbackall the way around the

large loop, from input pot to output potmakes such unwanted drift impossible. In short, there is DC

feedback, despite appearances to the contrary.

Watching the effect of I: In todays circuit, the residual error is hard to see on the scope, so adding I will

not reward you as adding D did. Your best hope will come if you cut the P gain very low: try R

Sum

= 100k,

so that the circuit feedback ought to tolerate a noticeable residual error, when not fed an I of the error. If you

have been using a function generator to provide step inputs to your circuit, nowreplace that signal source with

the manually-adjusted pot input. Slow the scope sweep rate, to a rate that permits you to see the multi-second

effect of the integration.

14 Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control

If you are using a digital scope, you will be able to watch input (Target), output (Motor pot)and Integrator

signals, after a step input applied from your input potentiometer. If you are patient, you can even make out

the effects of the motor and pots sticktion (a cute term for static friction): the motor and pot do not move

smoothly in response to a slowly-changing input (here, the I term

8

). Instead, the motor fails to move till the

I voltage reaches some minimal level; then output voltage jumps to a new level, and waits for another shove.

You can see these effects in some of the scope images attached at the end of these lab notes.

10L.4.1 ...but Too Much I again brings Instability

It sounds dangerous, doesnt it?tacking in an integral term when integration, plus other lagging phase

shifts, are just what threatens the circuits stability. It is dangerous, as you can conrm by overdoing the I.

You should be able to evoke continuous oscillation, as in the dark days before you knew about the stabilizing

effect of D! Yet, remarkable though this fact is, some I does improve loop performance, and need not bring

on instability.

(end lab notes; scope images follow)

8

We dont want you to think we mean current, here, when we speak of I.

Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control 15

Scope Images: Effect of Increasing Gain, in P-only loop

Figure 13: Increasing P-only gain brings increasing overshoot

16 Lab 10: Op Amps V: PID Motor Control

Figure 14: Increasing P-only gain, taken to brink of oscillation; and effect of integration term

lb op5 pid july12.tex; October 1, 2013

Index

PID

P: proportional to error (lab), 8

derivative of error

calculating (lab), 1112

derivative of error (lab), 1012

integral of error (lab), 1214

17

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