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1.

Branch line coupler


f = 1 GHz
Substrate material: FR-4 (er = 4.3)
Substrate thickness: 1 mm
Trace thickness: 0.01 mm

Zo = 50 ohm, Electrical length = 90 degrees
W1 = 76.37 mil = 1.9398 mm
L1 = 1631.97 mil = 41.452 mm

Zo = 35.3554 ohm, Electrical length = 90 degrees
W2 = 130.17 mil = 3.3063 mm
L2 = 1592.69 mil = 40.4543 mm











2. Biconical antenna
a) 25 degree half cone angle
f = 1 GHz
Cone angle = 50 deg
Cone height = 1 wavelength
Feed gap = 1 cm
HFSS discrete sweep



b) 45 degree half cone angle
f = 1 GHz
Cone angle = 90 deg
Cone height = 1 wavelength
Feed gap = 1 cm
HFSS fast sweep. Note: Interpolation sweep will give same results if maximum number of
Solutions in increased



c) Input resistance vs. half cone angle
f = 1 GHz

* (

)+ ()

d) Monte Carlo simulation
Cone angle is a Gaussian random variable of mean 50 degree and standard deviation 5 degrees.
1500 samples used for MC.
Nonlinear transformation of a random variable.




2. Rectangular PEC cavity


3. PEC sphere RCS


4. Single ended via
Substrate material: FR4 (er = 4.4)
Substrate dimension: 200 mil x 200 mil x 69.7 mil
Via/Pad/Trace material: Copper