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AJEET SINGH(14216004)
ROHIT ARORA(14216019)
GAURAV GARG (14216020)






















There are five guiding principles for incorporating environmental concerns in to decision
making. These principles can be used to design environmental instruments and to raise funds to
finance environmental public investments plans in the sectoral and overall budget. They are
1. Polluter pays principle (PPP)
2. User pays principle (UPP) (or resource pricing principle).
3. Precautionary principle (PP).
4. Subsidiary principle (SP)
5. Intergenerational equity principle (IEP)

Polluter pays principle

The Polluter Pays Principle was first widely discussed in the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro of Brazil in June 1992. This principle was
endorsed by all the attending representatives of the countries. The PPP required that the polluter
has to bear the cost of complying with environmental standards, which are predetermined by
public authorities. If the polluters have to pay for the cost of any pollution they cause, market
forces will then encourage them to change their activities either by introducing new pollution
control technologies or by switching to more efficient production process. For instance every
day, individual households, firms and industries turn over million tons of tap water into
wastewater, which requires proper treatment before disposal. Prior to the introduction of sewage
charges (example of polluter pay principle), the cost of sewage collection and treatment came
entirely from the public revenue. The disadvantages of such an arrangement are that the public is
unaware of the cost of the sewage services and therefore has no incentive to reduce water
pollution. There are two objectives with PPP towards encouraging to more efficient production
process,they are:
i. To promote economic efficiency in the implementation of pollution control policies.
ii. To minimize potential trade distortions arising from environmental policies.
PPP was partly based on equity considerations (the polluter should pay the cost of any mitigation
measures), and partly ensure that countries do not provide competitive advantage for their
producers by subsidizing the pollution abatement measures. One more important point is that
PPP is not necessary to achieve an efficient solution to an environmental problem and it does not
require pollution to recede to zero levels, nor does it require reduction to optimal level even
though it is not excluded. PP required only that the environment is in an acceptable state, which
will evolve from a political process requiring inputs from local, national and international level.

User pays principle

The UPP states that the beneficiaries should pay for the full cost of using the resources and its
related service; the full cost included the cost of losses for future generations. Both PPP and UPP
principle considered as equitable and both offer the prospect of achieving efficiency. However,
UPP concept has conflict with certain social objections, example all the home should connected
to electricity supply, telephone service, sewage and be closed to public transport. The provision
of universal services to all or most location with high marginal costs beyond the reach of most
consumers is conflict with this principle. The resolution of these conflicting principles is a matter
of public policy. However, this principle is more easily applied to the consumer of public
services involving the collection and treatment of effluents.

Precautionary principle
The Precautionary Principle was adopted by the UN Conference on Environment and
Development (the Earth Summit) in 1992. According to Rio Declaration on Environment and
Development Precautionary Principle as meaning that where there are threats of serious or
irreversible damage to environment, lack of scientific certainty should not be used as s to
environment for postponing cost effective measures to prevent environmental degradation. This
principle is seeking present and ease environmental stress before conclusive evidence of damage
exists and adopts policy when raw evidence is available.

Subsidiary principle
Subsidiary principle (SP), was not designed for as an environmental principle, but it provides
useful guidance when applying the PPP and UPP and the PP. SP states that political decisions
should be taken by lowest possible level of public authority dependence with effective action. So
that setting standards and interpreting risk are politically involved process.The SP recommend
that these decisions are made by the authorities that are closed to the population concerned.

Intergenerational equity principle

The IEP is the central principle in the definition of sustainable development. According to the
Brundtland Report sustainability states that meeting needs of present generations without
compromising the needs of future generations. Generally this principle is considered with the
trilogy of economic, environmental and social objectives underlying sustainable development.
This principle is the basis of the environmental accounting measures of sustainable income.


There are many environmental issues in India. Air pollution, water pollution, garbage, and
pollution of the natural environment are all challenges for India. The situation was worse
between 1947 through 1995. According to data collection and environment assessment studies
of World Bank experts, between 1995 through 2010, India has made one of the fastest progress
in the world, in addressing its environmental issues and improving its environmental
quality. Still, India has a long way to go to reach environmental quality similar to those enjoyed
in developed economies. Pollution remains a major challenge and opportunity for India.
The major environment concerns in india are mention below:


India is witnessing a rising demand for forest-based products. This is causing

deforestation and encroachment into forest protected areas, which leads to a severe loss
of natural resources.
It is estimated that total industrial roundwood consumption in India could exceed 70
million m3 per year by the end of the decade (350,000 large shipping containers), while
domestic supply would fall short of this figure by an estimated 14 million m3.
As the nation will have to depend heavily on imports to meet this growing demand, there
is fear that this could result in loss of high conservation value forests and biodiversity


Perhaps the largest of the environmental issues in india is lack of access to vital fresh
water sources.
Years of exploitation and extraction of groundwater in India has caused the national
water table to suddenly and very dramatically drop.
Considering that 85% of rural drinking water and 55% of urban water comes from
underground sources, this seems to me a very urgent problem as literally hundreds of
millions of people could be left without water.
The rivers are on the front line of pollution in India. Millions of people depend on them
for their livelihoods but they are slowly being polluted and destroyed by sewage,
chemicals and other agricultural and industrial waste.
These are some of the most polluted rivers in the world but little seems to be to stem the
incessant destruction.


Trash and garbage is a common sight in urban and rural areas of India.
It is a major source of pollution.
Indian cities alone generate more than 100 million tons of solid waste a year.
Street corners are piled with trash. Public places and sidewalks are despoiled with filth
and litter, rivers and canals act as garbage dumps.
In part, India's garbage crisis is from rising consumption. India's waste problem also
points to a stunning failure of governance.
Some of the few solid waste landfills India has, near its major cities, are overflowing and
poorly managed. They have become significant sources of greenhouse emissions and
breeding sites for disease vectors such as flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, rats, and other
Municipalities in Indian cities and towns have waste collection employees.
However, these are unionised government workers and their work performance is neither
measured nor monitored.


Air pollution in India is a serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and
biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion.

Air pollution is also the main cause of the Asian brown cloud, which is causing
the monsoon to be delayed.

India is the world's largest consumer of fuelwood, agricultural waste and biomass for
energy purposes.

Traditional fuel (fuelwood, crop residue and dung cake) dominates domestic energy use
in rural India and accounts for about 90% of the total. In urban areas, this traditional fuel
constitutes about 24% of the total.

Fuel wood, agri waste and biomass cake burning releases over 165 million tonnes of
combustion products into India's indoor and outdoor air every year.

These biomass-based household stoves in India are also a leading source of greenhouse
emissions contributing to climate change.

The annual crop burning practice in northwest India, north India and eastern Pakistan,
after monsoons, from October to December, are a major seasonal source of air pollution.
Approximately 500 million tons of crop residue is burnt in open, releasing smoke, soot,

NOx, SOx, PAHs and particulate matter into the air. This burning has been found to be a
leading cause of smog and haze problems through the winter over Punjab, cities such as
Delhi, and major population centers along the rivers through West Bengal.

In other states of India, rice straw and other crop residue burning in open is a major
source of air pollution.

Vehicle emissions are another source of air pollution. Vehicle emissions are worsened by
fuel adulteration and poor fuel combustion efficiencies from traffic congestion and low
density of quality, high speed road network per 1000 people


The accumulated knowledge and the findings of the environmental investigations form
the basis for the prediction of impacts.
The requirements for exact predictions are not necessarily met because of uncertainties in
the data and a lack of baseline data.
Claims of exact predictions do not necessarily indicate assessments of high quality or
accuracy, in fact, detailed predictions may be misleading and direct attention and
resources away from central issues that are important to the assessment.
Hence, it is important that the predictions outli ne different scenarios and that the
underlying assumptions are presented transparently.
Once a potential impact has been determined during the scoping process, it is necessary
to identify which project activity will cause the impact, the probability of occurrence of
the impact, and its magnitude and extent (spatial and temporal).
This information is important for evaluating the significance of the impact, and for
defining mitigation and monitoring strategies.

What are the important considerations for impact prediction?

Baseline condition: The baseline condition of a resource, ecosystem, or community
without the potential effects of the proposed project must be established before the
impact prediction process begins.
Uncertainty: Uncertainties resulting from measurement error and absence of
information, particularly in the case of cumulative and sociocultural impacts. Qualitative
risk and scenario analyses may alleviate some of the problems caused by the
Spatial limits:Impact assessment, including cumulative impacts, must consider all

activities that affect environmental components, even those components that lie outside
the immediate area affected by the project. Because of the natural conditions in the
Arctic, the affected area often is larger than in temperate areas.
Temporal boundaries: Impact assessment, particularly for assessments of cumulative
impacts, may extend beyond the period of time required for the assessment of the project
activities. Assessments should take into account the impacts of past, existing and planned
activities as well as those activities associated with the present project.
Incremental condition:An impact prediction process should describe the incremental
contribution of the project to impacts on the environment. Thresholds and additional
criteria can be identified for some specific resources, which establish levels of impact
beyond which resources cannot be sustained. Interactions. Assessments of the
interactions between impacts, particularly when considering cumulative impacts, should
be included in the impact prediction process; for example, transfers of material between
ecosystems or ecosystem components, and connections between human culture, resource
use and the environment.
Quantitative and qualitative methods. : Qualitative impact descriptions, combined with
the consideration of key uncertainties and quantitative data where appropriate, may
provide a means for comparing alternatives.

The purpose of impact evaluation is to assign relative significance to predicted impacts
associated with the project, and to determine the order in which impacts are to be avoided,
mitigated or compensated.
The significance of impacts may be determined during many phases of an assessment; however,
determination usually occurs during impact prediction. Consideration of impact significance
could affect the scoping exercise, and monitoring results could lead to a reevaluation of impact
significance. Decisions on impact significance should be presented clearly, and in the case of
disagreement, the different points of view on significance should be presented.

How is impact significance determined?

Decisions on significance should be based on existing standards, discussions, judgement and
agreement. These decisions should take into account the characteristics of the impact such as the

number of affected persons, and the magnitude, extent, duration and reversibility of the impact.
The applied methods and the criteria used for ranking significance should be clearly presented.
level of public concern;
scientific and professional judgement;
measure of disturbance to ecological systems;
impacts on social values and quality of life;
existence of environmental standards, that is, international, national, provincial or local
availability of mitigation practice and technology to ameliorate impacts.


Economic Forecast
Social Forecast
Political Forecast
Technological Forecast

Economic Forecast : As a economic environment is a very critical determinant of business

prospects, economic forecasts is very important.The Economic factors considered include
general economic conditions, GDP growth rate, per capita income, structural changes in GDP,
Investment and output trends in different sectors and subsectors/industries, price trends, trade
and BOP trends etc.
Social Forecast : Social trends have significant implications for business strategy. It is,
therefore , very essential to forecast the possible changes in the relevant social
variables.Important factors include :

Population growth/decline
Ethnic composition
Life Styles
Social attitudes
Income levels

Political Forecasts : Political forecast has an important part in envisioning properly the future
scenario of business. Relevant factors include :
1. Changes in the Relative power of Political party.
2. Political alliances and political ideologies etc.

Political forecasts also cover industrial policy, commercial policy, and Fiscal policy,
International political developments are also important.
Technological Forecast : Innovation and other technological developments can drastically
alter the business environment.Technological forecasts, therefore , assumes great significance.
It encompass not only technological innovations but also the pace nd extent of diffusion and
penetration of technologies and their implications.

Setps in Environmental Forecasting

The following are the steps in Environmental Analysis:

Identification of relevant environmental variables

Collection of Information
Selection of Forecasting Technique
Techniques for Environmental Forecasting

Techniques can be classified under two heads:

1. Quantitative
2. Qualitative
Quantitative : It can be numberized i.e under this technique numerical data is used. The
following are the quantitative techniques :
a. Ecometric Technique : It involves casual models to predict major economic indicators.
When there is a well established relationship between two or more variables, that casual
relationship can be used to forecast future.For example : If demand is a function of
consumer income, the impact of an increase in consumer income on demand can be
predicted using the equation representing the relationship between these two variables.
b. Trend Extrapolation : Time series models assume that the past is a prologue to the
future and extrapolate the historical data to the future. We can say future is viewed in the
light ofpast under this technique
Qualitative Technique: Under this technique numerical datas are not used. The following are
the methods of qualitative technique
1. Brain Storming: Brian Storming is a creative method of generating ideas and forecasts.
Under this method, a group of knowledgeable people are encouraged to generate ideas,
discuss and to make forecasts on the basis of that.


2. Delphi Method: Its similar to brainstorming but its a more systematic technique. This
method uses a panel of expertss on the subject whom opinions are gathered by using semi
structured questionaire and/or interview. The opinions gathered are circulated among
panel members for their evaluation and comments and then the experts are requested to
review their opinion in the light feedback.
3. Strategic Issue Analysis: Its used for expressing strategic environment issues. It
consists of systematically monitoring of social, regulatory and political changes that can
affect corporate performance and identifying their impact on the company.


The environmental clearance process is required for 39 types of projects and covers aspects like
screening, scoping and evaluation of the upcoming project. The main purpose is to assess impact
of the planned project on the environment and people and to try to abate/minimise the same.

The process
consists of



Project proponent identifies the location of proposed plant after ensuring compliance with
existing siting guidelines. If project site does not agree with the siting guideline, the
proponent has to identify other alternative site for the project

The project proponent then assesses if the proposed activity/project falls under the
purview of environmental clearance. If it is mentioned in schedule of the notification, the
proponent conducts an EIA study either directly or through a consultant. If the project
falls in B category, the project goes to state government for clearance which further
categorise into B1 and B2 projects. B2 projects doe not require preparation of EIA

After the EIA report is ready, the investor approaches the concerned State Pollution
Control Board (SPCB) and the State Forest Department (if the location involves use of
forestland). The SPCB evaluates and assesses the quantity and quality of effluents likely
to be generated by the proposed unit as well as the efficacy of the control measures
proposed by the investor to meet the prescribed standards. If the SPCB is satisfied that
the proposed unit will meet all the prescribed effluent and emissions standards, it issues
consent to establish (popularly known as NOC), which is valid for 15 years.

The public hearing is a mandatory step in the process of environmental clearance for
certain developmental projects. This provides a legal space for people of an area to come
face-to-face with the project proponent and the government and express their concerns. .

The process of public hearing is conducted prior to the issue of NOC from SPCB. The
District Collector is the chairperson of the public hearing committee. Other members of
the committee includes the official from the district development body, SPCB,
Department of Environment and Forest, Taluka and Gram Panchayat representative,
and senior citizen of the district, etc. The hearing committee hears the
objections/suggestions from the public and after inserting certain clauses it is passed on
to the next stage of approval (Ministry of Forest and Environment).

The project proponent submits an application for environmental clearance with the MoEF
if it falls under Project A category or the state government if it falls under project B
category. The application form is submitted with EIA report, EMP, details of public
hearing and NOC granted by the state regulators.

Environmental appraisal: The documents submitted by an investor are first scrutinised

by a multi-disciplinary staff functioning in the Ministry of Environment and Forests who
may also undertake site-visits wherever required, interact with the investors and hold
consultations with experts on specific issues as and when necessary. After this

preliminary scrutiny, the proposals are placed before specially constituted committees of
experts whose composition is specified in the EIA Notification. Such committees, known
as Environmental Appraisal Committees have been constituted for each sector such as
River Valley, Industries, Mining etc. and these committees meet regularly to appraise the
proposals received in the Ministry. In case of certain very special/controversial projects,
which have aroused considerable public interest, the committee may also decide to
arrange for public hearings on those projects to ensure public participation in
developmental decisions. Announcements for such public hearing shall be made atleast
30 days before through newspapers. On the basis of the exercise described in the
foregoing paragraphs, the Appraisal Committees make their recommendations for
approval or rejection of particular projects. The recommendations of the Committees are
then processed in the Ministry of Environment and Forests for approval or rejection.

Issues of clearance or rejection letter: When a project requires both environmental

clearance as well as approval under the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980. Proposals for
both are required to be given simultaneously to the concerned divisions of the ministry.
The processing is done simultaneously for clearance/rejection, although separate letters
may be issued. If the project does not involve diversion of forest land, the case is
processed only for environmental clearance.

Once all the requisite documents and data from the project authorities are received and
public hearings (where required) have been held, assessment and evaluation of the project
from the environment angle is completed within 90 days and the decision of the ministry
shall be conveyed within 30 days thereafter. The clearance granted shall be valid for a
period of five years for commencements of the construction or operation of the project.


The social, economic, and environmental con sequences of lending are seldom incorporated into
lending decisions. To do so would require the use of techniques such as cost-benefit analysis or a
somewhat less rigorous, more intuitive Environmental Impact Assessment (EA).
The issue of environmental cost benefit accounting is currently the subject of considerable study
and debate. A number of different methodologies to incorporate environment factors into the
economic costs and benefits of a project have been put forward. No single current methodology
is universally accepted, nor is any single methodology applicable to all cases.
In some projects, especially those involving intensification of agricultural production, market
based methods are useful, when market prices can be assigned to production and productivity
changes arising from changes in environmental quality. Other market based methods include loss
of earnings, where projects affect human health, and changes in productivity, where environ


mental remediation affects production and productivity (i.e., soil conservation positively
affecting income streams)

A contingent valuation model of environmental cost-benefit analysis

The contingent valuation method can be used to illustrate how banks can apply environmental
cost-benefit analysis to their loan decision process.
The failure to cost environmental benefits and goods means that current development strategies
tend to be narrowly focused on maximizing short-term gains with very little regard being given
to proper resource management.
It is essential that financial institutions not only weigh up the immediate tangible economic
returns derived from projects, but also make a fuller assessment of the longer-term ecological
impact. Cost-benefit analysis
(CBA) overcomes market shortfalls by attributing monetary values to naturally occurring goods
which are directly related to the use value society bestows upon them.
The relevant criteria when looking at a decision-making process become the cost of a project, the
benefits of a project, and the total economic value that is lost by the development. On a very
simplistic level, the following rulings can be applied:
1) Banks proceed with investment if
(Bd - Cd - Bp) > 0
2) Banks do not proceed with investment if
(Bd - Cd - Bp) < 0
Bd refers to the benefits of the development
Cd refers to the costs of the development
Bp refers to the benefits of preserving the environment by not developing the area or by not
intensifying agricultural production.
This form of accounting can quite simply be taken a stage further by taking into consideration
the factor of time, so that project appraisals can be carried out with regard to future, as well as
present scenarios.
Bt - Ct - Et (1 + r) - t > 0 or < 0


Bt is the benefit in time t
Ct is the cost in time t
Et is the environmental damage done by the project (if there is an environmental improvement,
the -E is replaced by +E)
r is the discount rate




The India Constitution, as adopted in 1950, did not deal with the subject of
environment or prevention and control of pollution as such (until 1976 Amendment).
The original text of the Constitution under Article 372(1) has incorporated the earlier
existing laws into the present legal system and provides that notwithstanding the
repeal by this
Constitution of enactments referred to in Article 395, but subject to other provisions of
the other provisions of the Constitution, all laws in force immediately before the
commencement of the Constitution shall remain in force until altered, repealed or
amended by a competent legislature or other competent authority.
As a result, even after five decades of independence, the plethora of such laws is still in
operation without any significant charge in them.
The post-independence era, until 1970, did not see much legislative activity in the filed
of environmental protection. Two early post-independence laws touched on water
The Factories Act of 1948 required all factories to make effective arrangements for
waste disposal and empowered State Governments to frame rules implementing this
Under the River Boards Act of 1956, river boards established are empowered to prevent
water pollution of inter-state rivers. To prevent cruelty to animals, the Prevention of
Cruelty of Animals Act was framed in 1960.
Some States took initiative in the filed of environmental protection, viz., Orissa River
Pollution Prevention Act, 1953, and, Maharashtra Prevention of Water Pollution Act,
1969. While the Orissa Act was confined only to rivers, the Maharashtra Act extended to
rivers, watercourses, whether flowing or for the time being dry, inland water both
natural and artificial, and subterranean streams.

Thus, there were scattered provisions for checking pollution of air, water, etc., but there
was no unified effort in developing any policy concerning the pollution emanating from
these areas. This position went up to the seventies.
Meanwhile concern arose over, inter-alia, population increase, greater pollution levels;
human impact on animal populations and natural landscapes and other aspects of
resource depletion.
It was the Stockholm Declaration of 1972 which turned the attention of the Indian
Government to the boarder perspective of environmental protection. The government
made its stand well known through five year plans as well as the legislations enacted
subsequently to curb and control environmental pollution.

After 1970, comprehensive (special) environmental laws were enacted by the Central
Government in India.

The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, aimed at rational and modern wild life management.

The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, provides for the
establishment of pollution control boards at Centre and States to act as watchdogs for
prevention and control of pollution.

The Forest(Conservation) Act, 1980 aimed to check deforestation, diversion of forest

land for non-forestry purposes, and to promote social forestry.

The Air(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,1981, aimed at checking air pollution
via pollution control boards.

The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 is a landmark legislation which provides for
single focus in the country for protection of environment and aims at plugging the
loopholes in existing legislation. It provides mainly for pollution control, with stringent
penalties for violations.

The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991, provides for mandatory insurance for the
purpose of providing immediate relief to person affected by accidents occurring while
handling any hazardous substance.

The National Environment Tribunals Act, 1995, was formulated in view of the fact that
civil courts litigations take a long time (as happened in Bhopal case). The Act provides
for speedy disposal of environmental related cases through environmental tribunals.
Under the Act, four benches of the tribunal will be set up in Delhi, Calcutta, Madras and


Bombay and 8,000 of the most Hazardous industrial units in the country will be brought
under its security.

The National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997, provides for the established of
a National Environment Appellant Authority (NEAA) to hear appeals with respect to
restriction in areas in which any industries, operations or processes shall not be carried
out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards under the Environment
(Protection) Act, 1986.

The Biological Diversity Act, 2002, is a major legislation intervention effected in the
name of the communities supposed to be involved in the protection of biodiversity
around them. The Act intends to facilitate access to genetic materials while protecting
the traditional knowledge associated with them.


Environmental Regulations
The Wildlife (Protection) Act,
Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution Act) Amendments, 1988
The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Rules
The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Cess Act
The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Cess Rules
The Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, Amendments,
The Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Rules
The Environment (Protection) Act, Amendments
The Environmental (Protection) Rules
E (P) Act Notification Environment Statement
E (P) Act Notification Environmental Clearance
Amendments in the Environment Clearance, Notification
Public Hearing made mandatory
The Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules,
Amendments, 2000, Draft Amendments 2002
Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules,
Amendments, 1994, 2000
The Public Liability Insurance Act/Rules, 1992


The National Environment Tribunal Act

Prohibition on the Handling of Azo dyes
The National Environment Appellate Authority Act
The Bio-Medical Waste (M&H), Rules
Notification for making 100% Utilization of Fly-ash made
Municipal Solid Waste (M&H) Rules
Ozone Depleting Substance (R&C) Rules
Regulation on recycling of Waste Oil and Non-ferrous scrape
Noise Pollution (Regulations and Control)
Batteries (M&H) Rules



An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in

conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water
and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are
regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows As ecosystems are
defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and
their environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific, limited
spaces (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an ecosystem).
Ecosystem Ecology looks at energy transformations and biogeochemical cycling within
Energy is continually input into an ecosystem in the form of light energy, and some
energy is lost with each transfer to a higher trophic level.
Nutrients, on the other hand, are recycled within an ecosystem, and their supply normally
limits biological activity. So, "energy flows, elements cycle".
Energy is moved through an ecosystem via a food web, which is made up of interlocking
food chains.
Energy is first captured by photosynthesis (primary production).
The amount of primary production determines the amount of energy available to higher
trophic levels.

The study of how chemical elements cycle through an ecosystem is termed

A biogeochemical cycle can be expressed as a set of stores (pools) and transfers, and can
be studied using the concepts of "stoichiometry", "mass balance", and "residence time".
Ecosystem function is controlled mainly by two processes, "top-down" and "bottom-up"
A biome is a major vegetation type extending over a large area. Biome distributions are
determined largely by temperature and precipitation patterns on the Earth's surface.



A food chain is a linear sequence of links in a food web starting from a that are called
producers in the web and ends at a species that is called decomposers species in the web.
A food chain also shows how the organisms are related with each other by the food they

A simple diagram of one string of feeding relationships in an ecosystem, showing the

direction of the transfer of energy in that system.

Each organism within a food web can be classified by trophic level according to their position
within the web. Depending on an organism's location in a food web, it may be grouped into more
than one of these categories. Energy and nutrients move up trophic levels in the following order:
1. Primary producers
2. Primary consumers
3. Secondary consumers
4. Tertiary and other high-level consumers


Suns energy fuels grass

Grasss energy fuels the rabbit

Rabbit fuels the wolf

After it dies, the wolf fuels the bacteria to break down the parts of the wolf back into the

The nutrients in the soil fuel the grass



A scientist named Howard T. Odum demonstrated the loss of energy in each trophic level
in the Silver Springs, Florida, ecosystem in the 1940s . He found that the primary
producers generated 20,819 kcal/m2/yr (kilocalories per square meter per year), the
primary consumers generated 3368 kcal/m2/yr, the secondary consumers generated 383
kcal/m2/yr, and the tertiary consumers only generated 21 kcal/m2/yr. In each successive
trophic level, the energy available to the next level decreased significantly.



An energy pyramid is a graphical model of energy flow in a community. The different

levels represent different groups of organisms that might compose a food chain
An energy pyramids shape shows how the amount of useful energy that enters each level
chemical energy in the form of food decreases as it is used by the organisms in that
Scientists have calculated that an average of 90% of the energy entering each step of the
food chain is lost this way

Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable
development respects the limited capacity of an ecosystem to absorb the impact of human action.
Sustainable development implies economic growth together with the protection of environmental
quality, each reinforcing the other. The essence of this form of development is a stable
relationship between human activities and the natural world, which does not diminish the
prospects for future generations to enjoy a quality of life at least as good as our own. Many
observers believe that participatory democracy, undominated by vested interests, is a prerequisite
for achieving sustainable development



Integration of Environmental and Economic Decisions

(a) Economic decisions should adequately reflect environmental, human health and social
(b) Environmental and health initiatives should adequately take into account economic, human
health and social consequences.
2. Stewardship
(a) The economy, environment, human health and social well-being should be managed for the
equal benefit of present and future generations.
(b) We are caretakers of the economy, the environment, human health and social well-being for
the benefit of present and future generations.
(c) Todays decisions are to be balanced with tomorrows effects.
3. Shared Responsibility and Understanding
(a) We should acknowledge responsibility for sustaining the economy, the environment, human
health and social well-being, with each being accountable for decisions and actions in a spirit of
partnership and open cooperation.
(b) We share a common economic, physical and social environment.
(c) We should understand and respect differing economic and social views, values, traditions and
(d) We should consider the aspirations, needs and views of the people of the various
geographical regions and ethnic groups in Manitoba, including Aboriginal peoples, to facilitate
equitable management of Manitobas common resources.
4. Prevention
We should anticipate, and prevent or mitigate, significant adverse economic, environmental,
human health and social effects of decisions and actions, having particular careful regard to
decisions whose impacts are not entirely certain but which, on reasonable and well-informed
grounds, appear to pose serious threats to the economy, the environment, human health and
social well-being.
5. Conservation and Enhancement
We should
(a) maintain the ecological processes, biological diversity and life-support
systems of the environment;
(b) harvest renewable resources on a sustainable yield basis;
(c) make wise and efficient use of renewable and non-renewable resources;
(d) enhance the long-term productive capability, quality and capacity of
natural ecosystems.
6. Rehabilitation and Reclamation
We should

(a) endeavour to repair damage to or degradation of the environment; and

(b) consider the need for rehabilitation and reclamation in future decisions and actions.
7. Global Responsibility
We should think globally when acting locally, recognizing that there is economic, ecological and
social interdependence among provinces and nations, and working cooperatively, within Canada
and internationally, to integrate economic, environmental, human health and social factors in
decision making while developing comprehensive and equitable solutions to problems