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# OBJECTIVE(S)

This experiment was conducted in order to aim the evaluation and study the
measurement of density varied by different pressure or level transmitter. Secondly, the aim
was to check the calibration using:

## Hand Held Terminal (Model ABB 691HT)

SUMMARY
The main aim for this was experiment was for density measurement and calibration
systems. The experiments were varied by where one experiment was done with a heater and
another one without having the heater to heat it. Both experiments were done with open and
closed tank, couple sets of reading were taken to do calculate the average. Specific gravity
was considered and evaluated which affected the result when the temperature of water is
varied. It has been concluded that the higher the temperature of water, the lower the specific
gravity achieved, after running the experiment. Also, the values of density were to be
compared; the actual density with the density in the table which was obtained from the
temperature of water. Hence the reading and data recorded for both open and closed tank has
been discussed in the following report. Apart from that, this experiment gave advantages on
providing knowledge about calibrating the system by using various types of devices. All in
all, the objective was successfully achieved and data were provided in the result and to be
discussed later on. Unfortunately, a few errors occurred throughout the experiment and some
recommendations had been discussed to overcome it.

INTRODUCTION
Pressure and differential pressure transmitters are often used to measure the density of
a fluid. Both types of transmitters measure level based on the principle that pressure (P) is
proportional to the level (L) of the liquid multiplied by its specific gravity (S):
P = LS
Since specific gravity is the ratio of a fluids density to the density of water, any change in
density will result in a change in pressure. For example, if the height of the fluid is 100 inches
and the specific gravity changes from 0.9 to 1.3, the pressure reading changes
correspondingly from 90 to 130 in H2O. Since the density of water is 63.4 pounds per cubic
foot, the density of a material with a specific gravity of 0.9 is 57.1 lb/ft3, and the density of a
material with a specific gravity of 1.3 is 82.4 lb/ft3. Thus, the density of a material can be
determined using a variation of the basic level measurement.
The following information describes how to measure the density of a material for
constant and varying level applications, using basic level measurements. The equipment used
in this experiment was the plant model DMC200 which had been scaled-down real industrial
process built on a 5ft x 5ft steel platform with its own dedicated control panel. The process
equipment and instrumentation used were real industrial process type. The plant was
constructed readily in accordance to industrial process plant standards for safety features.
Pipes were used for the process flow rates which are known to be commercial production,
which of none using tubes.

RESULTS
Density measurement (water heater off)
Specific Gravity read from hydrometer: 0.97

## RUN 1: OPEN TANK

A

SET 1

Temperature (TG), C
3

SET 2

AVERAGE

30

30

30

950

950

950

Actual Density ( DI ), kg / m

## Density from table, kg / m3

995.647

995.647

995.647

Deviation B from C, kg / m3

45.647

45.647

45.647

0.9542

0.9542

0.9542

0.0158

0.0158

0.0158

## RUN 11: CLOSED TANK

SET 1

Temperature (TG), oC

Actual Density ( DI ), kg / m3

SET 2

AVERAGE

30.9

30.9

30.9

951

951

951

995.372

995.372

995.372

44.372

44.372

44.372

## Density from table, kg / m

Deviation B from C, kg / m

0.955

0.955

0.955

0.0146

0.0146

0.0146

## Density measurement (water heater on)

Specific Gravity read from hydrometer: 0.966

## RUN 1: OPEN TANK

A

SET 1

Temperature (TG), C
3

SET 2

AVERAGE

49.3

49.3

49.3

865

865

865

Actual Density ( DI ), kg / m

## Density from table, kg / m3

988.352

988.352

988.352

Deviation B from C, kg / m3

123.352

123.352

123.352

0.875

0.875

0.875

0.091

0.091

0.091

## RUN 1: OPEN TANK

A

SET 1

Temperature (TG), oC
3

SET 2

AVERAGE

49.1

49.1

49.1

Actual Density ( DI ), kg / m

823

823

823

988.441

988.441

988.441

165.445

165.445

165.445

## Density from table, kg / m

Deviation B from C, kg / m

0.833

0.833

0.833

0.133

0.133

0.133

## TABLE 2.2 Closed Tank with Water Heater On

DISCUSSION
Density is a way to measure how tightly packed an object is. Denser objects have less
empty space in them, they are less holey. Density is a physical property of matter, as each
element and compound has a unique density associated with it. Density defined in a
qualitative manner as the measure of the relative "heaviness" of objects with a constant
volume. This experiment is mainly conducted to evaluate and study the measurement of
density using the differential pressure or level transmitter. The term "differential pressure"
refers to fluid force per unit, measured in pounds per square inch (PSI).
Level transmitter on the hand functions to detect the level of substances including
liquids, slurries, granular material and powders. In the experiment that was conducted,
several parameters were taken into consideration. First, is the type of tank which is open tank
and closed tank. An open tank, is the tank with an open top and the content of the tank is
exposed to air. Closed tank on the other hand is fully closed and the content is not exposed to
air.
From the comparison of results in table 1.1 and table 1.2, it can be seen that the
calculated specific gravity is higher in open tank (0.9542) is lower than closed tank (0.955).
The actual density is also higher in closed tank (951) as compared to open tank (950). Thus,
the deviation from hydrometer is higher in open tank (0.0158) than closed tank (0.0146). The
second parameter is the condition of water heater whether it is on or off. By comparing the
results obtained in table 1 and table 2, it can be observed that a higher density is achieved
when the heater is turned on. The highest density (988.441) and highest calculated specific
gravity (0.833) can be observed in closed tank with the heater on whereas the lowest
deviation with hydrometer (0.0146) is achieved in open tank with heater off.

## CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

The objective of this experiment was achieved. The following parameters were
compared. The type of tank which is open tank and closed tank shows difference is density as
well as specific gravity measurement. Besides that, the condition of the water heater whether
its on or off also shows significant change in the results obtained. The highest density
(988.441) and highest calculated specific gravity (0.833) can be observed in closed tank with
the heater on whereas the lowest deviation with hydrometer (0.0146) is achieved in open tank
with heater off.
There were several problems that were identified in the experiment. The first, is the level of
overflow which was difficult to observe. Besides that, the position of certain valve out of
reach causes error while adjusting. The level of pressure entering is also difficult to monitor.
All this valves as well as measuring tool should be placed within reach to aid the experiment
to be conducted.

TUTORIAL
1. Density can be defined as mass per unit volume and it which relying on temperature
and pressure for gaseous material while and as for liquid, it is highly dependent on
temperature than pressure. The S.I Units used for density is kg/m.

## 2. Other units for density are g/cm and Ibm/ft

3. Specific gravity of a liquid can be defined as the ration of density of a substance to the
density of some standard substance at a specified temperature (Water at 4C; normal
temperature for which H2O is 1000 kg/m3)
4. Density of liquid is not constant because density of liquid will be affected by change
in temperature and pressure.
5. In a normal hydrometer, there is a calibrated glass tube ending in a weighted glass
sphere that makes the tube stand upright when placed in a liquid. The lower the
density of the liquid, the deeper the tube sinks.
6. Hydrostatic pressure is directly proportional to density. Therefore as density increases
the pressure increases as well
7. Hydrometer
8. Besides the method shown, the other method is by using density bottle method, where
it requires to fill the bottle with an unknown liquid and separately with water and
measuring the respective masses can be used, with constant temperature.
9. The calibration of pressure transmitter is necessary to the old power plant might
reduce its efficiency.
10. Errors that had been identified are parallax and technical errors. Hydrometer showed
inaccurate reading so the exact reading could not be reliable. This may due to the
refraction in the tube of hydrometer. Meanwhile, technical errors lied on the material
plant that was used for the experiment might be a material that had been used for a
long period so the accurate value of density as well could not be exactly identified.

REFERENCES
1. DIN51 757 (1994): Testing of mineral oils and related materials; determination of
density
2. Y.A. Cengel & M.A. Boles (2000) Thermodynamics: An Engineering
Approach Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, International Edition.
3. B.R. Munson, D.F. Young & T.H. Okishi (2002) Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics,
Wiley.
4. J.S Hough, et al., (1991) Malting and Brewing Science, Vol. II Hopped Wort and
Beer, p. 881, Chapman and Hall, London.

APPENDICES

## Deviation B from C, kg/m3

Density from table Actual density
995.647- 950 = 45.647

SG = 950
995.647
= 0.9542