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Journal Article Critique

Husin, H, Bunyarit, F. & Hussein, R. (2009). Instructional design and e-learning: Examining
learners perspective in Malaysian institutions of higher learning. Campus-Wide
Information Systems, 26(1), 4-18.



The title of the study is brief and informative. Moreover, it is completely clear. It clearly
show the learners perspective in Malaysian institutions of higher learning on instructional
design and e-learning . Furthermore, it mention these useful insights into some theoretical
issues and practical implications for instructors and e-learning implementers in designing
course materials that would be more effective for e-learning at the tertiary level of education.
The title make clear the population of interest which is students of higher institutions in
Malaysia. Other than that, the title avoids vague, ambiguous, and emotion-laden terms.


Statement of the Problem

The problem of the study clearly stated. According to the researcher, the availability of
interactive technology has enabled e-learning to move from textbook or classroom metaphor
to more experimental learning models. Furthermore, he add that instructional practice and
information gained from such a needs analysis enable the design of learning resources to be
tailored closely to the needs of the learners. Instructional designers customarily acknowledge
individual differences in their designs and plan to adopt instruction to the needs of individual
learners. This study aims to identify effective instructional design principles, that is, the
factors or elements of instructional design of e-learning systems that help the students to
intellectually engage with and develop a critical perspective on the material available to them
and could be used to enhance their learning.


Related Literature

This study provides two related literatures that relevant and sufficient to the study which are
e-learning in Malaysia and instructional design elements. Other than that, there are the
connections between the present study and the previous research and theory. Refer to Puteh
and Hussin (2007), OUM is using a blended e-learning approach in its program, where
students meet their facilitators once in two weeks. According to Siragusa (2000), various
authors have identified components of instructional design that they consider to be important
to online learning. This is coinciding with the present study to examine the learners
perspective on the effectiveness of instructional design in e-learning.



The population of interest defined. The sample for this research majored mainly on students
from three selected higher institutions in Malaysia, namely, the Open University Malaysia
(OUM), the University Tun Abdul Razak (UNITAR) and the International Islamic University
(IIUM). The data was obtained from the survey consists of two stages; pilot study and the
main survey (questionnaire) distributed to the students from three selected higher institutions
in Malaysia. A total number of 200 questionnaires were distributed and 174 or 87% was
retrieved back. The findings of the study were generalized on students from OUM, UNITAR
and IIUM. Therefore, it cannot be generalize to all university students.



In this study the students from OUM, UNITAR and IIUM were surveyed using a
questionnaire that was adapted from Jolliffe et al. (2001) for this study. It is coinciding with
the main objective of this research to investigate the elements of an effective instructional
design in e-learning study environment in selected Malaysian higher learning institutions and
e-learning use behaviour in these selected institutions. The procedures described well enough
to allow replication of the study. The respondents were made to indicate the degree of their
agreement with the statements on the questionnaire about themselves. They were required to
select from a five-point scale which include a category of most important, next most
important and so on.



The instruments adequately described. The researcher used a questionnaire that contained
five sections with fifty eight items. Five items centred demographic information, seven items
on internet use, ten items on e-learning use, twenty four on instructional design and eleven on
suggestions and improvements with an open-ended question for respondents to provide
additional information. The scales of measurement used in the questionnaire were as follows:
semantic differential scales it was used in part two (internet use) to determine whether the
respondents perception is positive or negative. Multiple-response was used in part three (elearning used), where a set of possible answers was offered to the respondent, who was asked
to choose one of the answers. A five point likert scale was used in part four (instructional


Analysis of the Data

In this study, descriptive statistics used appropriate for summarizing the data. An analysis was
also taken of the mean that was measured using a five-point Likert scale. The statistics been
interpreted appropriately for the level of measurement of the data.



In this study, the results were presented by researcher. The questionnaire survey results were
clearly presented and all tables and figures were appropriately used. The results showed that
the most important elements of instructional design in e-learning systems is students
involvement (average mean 3.4) and the least in important is interaction (average mean 2.70).
There was only a very small difference in the means of the different elements of instructional
design. This study indicated that students involvement (participation) was considered to be
very important, and interaction (or learning interaction) to be viewed as moderate in



This study has several implications. Among them include learners need to be pre-acquainted
with course content to achieve desired outcomes. Moreover, experts should authenticate the
course content and be held responsible in capturing the interest of the learners. Other than
that, e-learning system should deliver maximal learning in minimal time, yet learner-paced
and learner-centred. In addition, assessment and supervision should also be conducted on a
regular basis to ensure targets are achieved and maintained.



The conclusions clearly presented and follow logically from the results of the study.
According to the researcher, when instruction is delivered via distance learning, there are
effective ways that instructors can use to create a sense of community and establish a culture
that fosters collegiate and interaction. Moreover, most online course delivery systems include
a synchronous communications tool, such as the chat room, as well as interactive
asynchronous tools such as the e-mail, listserv, thread discussion and bulletin board. These
tools can be used to maintain high levels of communication among class and between the
class members and the lecturers to promote the desired levels of interactivity.

Chua Yan Piaw (2011). Kaedah Penyelidikan. Edisi Kedua. Malaysia: McGraw-Hill.
Noraini Idris (2010). Penyelidikan dalam Pendidikan. Malaysia: McGraw-Hill.

Internet Resource
Husin, H, Bunyarit, F. & Hussein, R. (2009). Instructional design and e-learning: Examining
learners perspective in Malaysian institutions of higher learning. Retrieved from the
web site:
Critical reviews of journal articles. Retrieved from the Library web site: