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pH of Saliva

Acetic Acid

The pH of fresh saliva is slightly acidic

(pH 6.6-6.9), later CO2 evaporates and the pH becomes slightly
alkalic (pH 7.1)

The detection of proteins

Acetic acid of 1% is added to the saliva, mixed, and the precipitate
developed is filtered.

University of Szeged
, Faculty of Medicine,
Department of Physiology
Title: Alimentary Canal
University of Szeged
, Faculty of Medicine,
Department of Physiology

a. The sulphosalicylic acid test is made with the filtrate.

b. If a sufficient amount of precipitate is seen in the acetic acid
reaction, it is boiled with 20%
HCl until it becomes brown. The HCl is then neutralized with
Na2CO3 and the Fehling's test is performed.

Iodine Test

Test for

Mucine precipitates in the form of flakes when reacting with acetic

acid. Dropping
sulfosalicylic acid to the filtrate results in precipitate again, which is
albumin. Hydrolysis with HCl decomposes mucine into its
components from which the glucose released from glycoprotein
gives the Fehling reaction.
How does starch indicate iodine?
What properties of starch (given its chemical structure) allow it
to be used as an indicator?
Davender Khera, Yale University
When starch is mixed with iodine in water, an intensely colored
starch/iodine complex is formed. Many of the details of the reaction
are still unknown. But it seems that the iodine (in the form of I5 ions)
gets stuck in the coils of beta amylose molecules (beta amylose is a
soluble starch). The starch forces the iodine atoms into a linear
arrangement in the central groove of the amylose coil. There is
some transfer of charge between the starch and the iodine. That
changes the way electrons are confined, and so, changes spacing
of the energy levels. The iodine/starch complex has energy level
spacings that are just so for absorbing visible light- giving the
complex its intense blue color.
The complex is very useful for indicating redox titrations that involve
iodine because the color change is very sharp. It can also be used
as a general redox indicator: when there is excess oxidizing agent,
the complex is blue; when there is excess reducing agent, the I5
breaks up into iodine and iodide and the color disappears.
Author: Fred Senese
Benedict's Reagent: A Test for Reducing Sugars
Carbohydrates are divided into two groups based on the
complexity of their structure. Simple carbohydrates can form
either asingle ring structure (monosaccharides) or
a double ring structure (disaccharides -- formed when a pair of
monosaccharides bond). Simple carbohydrates include
familiar sugars such the monosaccharides glucose (the basic
fuel of cells) and fructose (found in fruits). Common
disaccharides include sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (the
sugar in milk).
Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) are chains
Copyright 1997-2010 by Fred
Comments & questions
Last Revised
02/15/10.URL: http://antoine.frost
From, Northern Kentucky

of many bonded simple carbohydrates, and are often used for

energy storage. These include starch, cellulose, and glycogen.
One test for the presence of many simple carbohydrates is to
use Benedict's reagent. It turns from turquoise to yellow or
orange when it reacts with reducing sugars. These are
simple carbohydrates with unbound aldehyde or ketone
groups. In lab, we used Benedict's reagent to test for one
particular reducing sugar: glucose.
Interpreting Benedict's Reagent Results
Benedict's reagent starts out aqua-blue. As it is heated in the
presence of reducing sugars, it turns yellow to orange. The
"hotter" the final color of the reagent, the higher the
concentration of reducing sugar. In general, blue to blue-green
or yellow-green is negative, yellowish to bright yellow is a
moderate positive, and bright orange is a very strong positive.
(See below).

2: Benedict's
Reagent &
Negative rx
(No reducing

3: Benedict's
Reagent &
Positive rx
(Some reducing

4: Benedict's
Reagent &

Terminology review: Controls

Water plus Benedict's reagent is a negative control for the
sugar test. It demonstrates a negative test result (no sugar
present). See tube 1 above.
Glucose plus Benedict's reagent is a positive control for the
sugar test. It demonstrates what a strong positive result should
look like. It also proves that our reagents haven't gone bad
(they are capable of producing a positive result). See tube 4
The point of controls is twofold. They give you standards to
compare against, and they demonstrate that your reagents are
working correctly.
Class Benedict's Reagent Results
Aside from our controls, we tested three solutions for glucose:

starch, acid-treated starch, and amylase-treated starch. As

starch is a polysaccharide, it is unsurprising that the starch
solution tested negative for simple sugars.
We mixed HCl (an acid) into starch and re-tested for simple
sugars. First, we had to adjust the pH of the solutions back to
neutral before adding the Benedict's reagent. We used a pH
indicator and NaOH (a base) for this. We then added the
Benedict's reagent. We got moderately positive results
(orangish color). This is because HCl breaks starch back down
into its component monosaccharides (glucose, in this case).
Amylase is an enzyme that removes glucose molecules from
starch. Both plants and animals use amylase when digesting
starch. Unfortunately, amylase cannot break the beta-bonds
which hold the glucose molecules together in cellulose. (If it
could, we'd be able to eat hay). Based on this information, can
you figure out what our results should be if we tested amylasetreated starch and amylase-treated cellulose solutions for
reducing sugars?