Anda di halaman 1dari 28

c 

 c


c c 
 c
   cc


 
 



!"#$













 c
  cc
%c c
   cc
&
c
c 
'c ccc

c c 

()



  


! * +## "+, -! !#. *! + !* +"
!,*+/## - !#. 0.#+1 -!1 2+31 2, .+- +#
!+# -!  * + #+ .#+   #+++/ 0$""  4

!1 )563 +" -! .#+ *## *, !,+, -! 
.#+ 2, !!" !!.+# # * *! !* .# + !!.+#
" *! + .# 0
, 4
!*+1 )73 c #+++/
!#., "* . ",  "+, *## +# !,+ !+ .
", * !,+, " ",8+ 2, # *+"# "* .",
+.+0%*91)(3

c* .." ! !  +# !,# -! 1 +  *, +,
8 0plate count31 +, !##"# ,, 0direct microscopic count3 +
  0Most Probable Number3 0%*91 )(3 +" -! .#+ *"+
*## *, !,+, -!  .#+ 2, !!"!!.+# # *
*! !* .# + !!.+# " *! + .# 0
, *

!*+1)73

c*.." ",+,*!!1+
"+,!##" ,,
"+,!+:
",#+.*!+#+#",#+!
!+*"+, +#,,"* 82,!"+

: pour plates!"*+"* 8"+#!**+,!*, 


** !"
: spread plates !" *#. "* !* , "*+ #!* !"
*+#*,drig glass
: thin layer plates!" *!## "*+., . !* 1 #!*
*+,"* 8"+.,"*+
: layered plates   ! *,thin layer1 ++" +!.# ) " ,
+0$" 4
!1)563

)

(


+, !   ,, *  ",+, 2, "+ *
*"/!+!.++,#*.+#!#.2,*,*+,
* -!  2, *" !"+  2, *"*  2, !+ c#++"
!   ,, -, !!# #! 2+  2, !+ +*# *"+
*.*# *,  2, *"   2, .,!. +#*, *"+
!2+#*!!,#/##-#0
,4
!*+1)73

!*"+*##*,+,+##2+
irect Platting
"#+##"+,-!!#,! ,,*,.+
coloni counter + +  c* * ! ! 2+   ,, *, +
bacterial counting chamber !" *, !+* breed smears + Lepowitchweber +# !,+, -! !#. *!  c+ .# . "
!!/+#/+2,.##*#+,,+*#*"+ !,#+#
2, #!* # !,#+# +,, 2, * ++   * + *"+
!-##-!++1*!+**.+!+*electronic cell chamber
2 illution Platting
c** 2,*"+*+!"2+*,!,+,#!"#!**!
 "+ c + *, !,+, #, + #.*#* 2, *"
+*#!"+/!+$#*2+*,!,,#
"+, -! !#,!  +# ,, #+*# . !,+
-!!#,!!2.!,+ +aptical ensity*,
.+ "#+/+!+ ,#:,# 2,  *+!" * .,
.#+
 !#+!. !#,!  *+!., .2#  ,! *

* # * *! !2 *, ;* !" <!2  !
0", ):)3
#,!  ",  +.+ *!## *! +., # 2,

.!;*0", ):)3
#,! 2, + * # +.+ *!## # *! <+ *

*!###*!"#+/+!+*!**!2#**:

6

 +.+ # *.#  #!" !#,! * *! <+
,,*,#!"++++**!"#+/+!+*"+*#+ 
* +## ! * + !!# #! * #,, !,:!,1
!# ,# *#!.# ! "!.+ +. 2, . */+  *
"+,+##*+"++,*-!!#,!*"+,
+## direct platting #!*+.+.+ * !-* + ,/# * *"+
*#++!*!+!+#2,!8#,/#+.+,*!#.
*##,"+,!" 2,!*,!*!2,!12
+,, !,,# !* !+!+# +.+ +# !,+ -!
!#,!.*#+ +.#2
6 +,'!*"
.**, .!22,*"++#!,+,!+**"1
  # , *#+ -!  *"2 - '! *" #2
,+ " *#+ # *"+ !!", #+ "*# * ++ ,
!. *2 + *, #+  ",, !. *2  !!"+#
-! !#. * *! !. *2 +.+1 "+ !2 !. *2  *
+ ,#:,# 2,  *+!" +# !,#*# "+!.
!#,!,+!.+*# .,!. ++" # ,+"1
2+
 !#+!. !#,!  *+!., .2#  ,! *

* # * *! !2 *, ;* !" <!2  !
0", ):)3
#,!  ",  +.+ *!## # *! "+* *

*#.*+,*,  +


 ! .2# # 2, !,,!.1 !#!#,! 2, *

* # +* " * # , !" ",  )1 !" -!
# *"+ *+, .2# 6 !" 6 # *, !!# 
+

+ *#+ -! ",  * + 6 !" 6 # !#

-! !#,! *"+ *#+ .2#-! # *##+ "


)1*!)*/#+", 
0*#81)53

7



" * !+* +, 8 * .  !#. 2, ! *"
*+!.# "* !*! ,1 !# !#. +.+ # .#!., .# *
!!.+# # 2, *"+ *+ ,, * *+, *, !+ +"
!,,# !##" +*  !"#  2, ", +/ +#
!+#-!!#.1*,
2!#.*"2,*"+*+,
."!#.*"+*+,#,
"+ *,# +#  * *+/# !#.1 # # 2,

+.+# !,# . * !#. 2, !!"2 "!"## "/#


0=21(73

!!+*+, 8*"+,+*#!-##-!
 2, .2 # .."  2, .*#+ !,# !!.+# )
#1 !*! * #* #. 2, ..* !,# !,#  2,
..*1 -* # 2, *+!.#  *"+ +!. "* !*! "*+ *
!!.+##2,#!"#*-1+*#!2.1+!!#""
* 8#+ #. 2, #" ! ,, "+!. # *"+ *+,

*,##.!+*+, 8*2*"2,*+,1#+
*"+ ,, !,+, -! # 2,+*"+ *! 8 "+* 
,, *, !+ #+1 .." - -* # *"+ *+, #,1 *"+
*,# +#  * *+/# -* # # # 2, +.+#
!,# . * + -* # 2, !!"2 "!"# "+!.
"/#0%*91)(3

+* +, 8 **# "* +"  *"+ *" # .#!.,
!-* + # '* -! # 2, !  "* 8 !"# +
*# ., -! ,! 2, *"+ *" 2, +#*, *! !"
0*+!1 )5 3 ## 2,  *# * !, # !" *
! 8#  ",  +.+
+ #.1 -! # 8
*!+ $8 2, *" +# ",+, # * 2, !,*, 6:



6 # '! ,! 2, +*"+ "* !"  *++# *,
!,#-!#2,+.+#*,/#+", "* 82,
.,#+ 0*+!1 )63 '# .#+ *+!.# "* !* *
,#, 2,  !# #!"# .#+  # !,# + #
.#+0 21)73

+, *, !+* +, 8* -! !!! !#,!
  *..# # 2, +!. "* !", , !"# ,!.
!#,! 2, *"+ +!. * ..# *! !* *  #.
+++2,+!.+*#.*+!#,!1*!
.." !#. +++ *, +# .#!"#  *+!.# "*
!* *  ,#, 2,  #!"# .#+  2 # !,# )
# .#+
.#2 2 !", 2, !,*, 6> 6 # -
2, *,# *! "+, !", *, -! # 2, +,, 0?
6 #3 + +# *+, ,, #!,# # "+, ,+
. ,  !" !!.+ +# !!" "+, -! 2,
.1 ! ",  2, + +,, # !,# !", ,
*,-!#2,*0@6#30 21)73

! !+* "+, 8 . ", 2, *"## !,*, .
* 6  -* # " ! + " ,! + " !0-# ",!. +
*##"*"!#3 !!#"#", .! *+!.#
"* !*! , *! 8 "+
+ #.1 # +.+# # "*
8"+*!-!2,*"+*+,*!-!2,+.+#+6
!"6# , !!2*## *!2+))1))1
))1*+2+))1))1))*+2
"2+
*"+ + !" + "* + ", 1 !# !* , 2, # *,#
* # +. *1 *, !#  !" 7>7 A$ 0!* ,
!!.# "* 7A$3 ,, . * 7 A$ !2..# #!+ +
##!#.2,+*#++,,*!2..##*2,
.."* 8"++,!!*+0%*91)(3




*!+*+, 8"*"+#+", #+1..-#
", 2 *, !,,# ;* 2, +*# + *"+ !2..#
+-*2 #+! "* !* * !#. 2, +*"+ *! ;* 2,
+*#+0*+!1)63

$ "!"# *! !+* +, 8 *"+ *.*# + *  2+
!+* +, 0Pour plate3 * !+* "!# 0spread / surface plate3 *
""2 *! !+* +,1 -! !" * ",  2, *#*#
*!## # *! 8 "+1 #!* *+!. ,  + 2, *
**,# 07: $3 * *,2,# "2 !"2 !2.   !+

*,# "* "!"# *, !+* "!#1 +. * *.+ ,
8 #!* !" 2, + * # *""+ "* "!# , +.+
!**+#*,.+,,!,#,2,+0%*91)(3

+* pour plate*##*, !,##.##*!+.,#
2,.!*, 2,*,#*,1**#*,vortex,,
+ !" +1 #!* !" +.+ *+, # *! 8 "+ +1
*+#1**.#!!*+
:!#.#+!.!-*#2,
+" *! !*! "*+1 ,, "* #2 *"+ *+, -! #
2, +.+#
*,# !+* spread plate1 !* ,  *+,# *!
8"++*.#!"!!*+!**,!,,#
*## ",# , * + "!# ,
+ *#.1 "*
# , # ++,, .#+ *<* 2, +" *, 2, 21
#!*-!#.#+*"+*+,0&#4=1)63

'!#*!!"*"+*+,.,.#+
 " ! + " ,!  B  -! # " 8  C 

)

faktor pengencera n

0=21(73

+# !"#   !#., *,  +, 8 *,#
++*2,*.+Standard Plate Counts0
$3.,.#+



$82,*"**+,*2,!,*,-!#+6

!"6
." # 2, .,., !-* + !"# + #!" #

2,.*!-!#2*,#*"+*+,.,+#

+ *+ + # 2, ++., + ,+. *+, ., +
#0%*91)(3

+2,*"#.,Standard Plate Counts0
$3!,#+"+:
"+.,.#+
) 2,*"#2+***,#12+,#"+!*#*
'# ,# #+, ! *, + . . * 1 !#  *.+# +
,#.+,,"*,#2,#*
( '# ! ",  2, *.+ +# "!"# !,# #, *
6 # "* 8 "+ 0@631 2 -! # "* ",  2,
+* 2, *+, 2 *"# ., #, * 6 *##
*, .2 ", 1 ++" -! 2, .2  * +!#
*!+*#,
6 '#!", 2,*.++#"!"#!,#.*6
# "* 8 "+ 0?631 2 -! # "* ",  2,
++,,2,*+,1!2*, !,+,-!2"*D.,
8"+1#!*2*##72*"#.,.*
6 *## *, .2 ", 1 ++" -! 2,.2 
* +!#*!+*#,
7 '# 8**+,#+", !,##*,-!+
6 * 61 * ".*, +  ++,, * +* * #*
", +.+ . # +! *,(1++#+:+ * #*
 +.+ *, !!"+,# ", 2 '# ".*, +
 ++,, * +* . . * (1 2, *"# 2  2,
+# 
 '# *,# * 8 "+ 0*"3 "", 1 *+ 2, *!. 
*#* 8+.+1+*#.*!.+


5

.* *, !+* +, 8 * ! *,# !*! "*+1 *!
!+*   *,# !*!  * *! +., #1 * ! "+,
*## .*# -! +., 2, "+/ 2+ 2, *+!. -* #
+ #. "* 8#+ *  +++ ,!+ +., 2, "+/ *"+
*+*,!,!++!.2##1++.+#2,**!+.,
#  0+., !3 2, *+## "* " +.#1 2+ +# -* #
"!.+#,!!+* 1*+"", *!##)!!,:
!, # *! +., 2, . !*!1 * ! +# +" # ", 
*,# +, + !  +.,
+ #.1 *+, -! +., 2,
"+/ * #!.+., "+/+.+ *  ## *,+.  1 * 
 !"*+,*,! 
 !"B *+.C 

)

pengencera n tabung t engah

0%*91)(3

+*   .2 *,# +# !,+, -! -* # * *!
+ 2, ..+#  #" *"+ " *,# +# + 2,
..+# "*+ *, +. * !!.+ " )) * + +.+
" -* # 2, *"+ *+, .< +,+, * !*! 2,
*,# +# "+!.
 +1 !+*   -, *"+ *,# +#
!,+, -! -* # +++ 2, +*"+ *+ -* # 2
0=21(73


., "+-# "+! .8 .#+ * "!.+# , .#+ *,
"*# , #+# + . *+! *,E coli * #!* *#. "*
6$ # E coli # !!.+# , 2*, * #.*#* *!
".*,#,.)) +"-!.#+*##*,!,+,
-!  .#+ 2, !!" !!.+# # * *! !* .# +
!!.+#"*!+.#0
,*
!*+1)73







  


- * "#+#!  * +# !,+  !,+, -! #
!#.*, !+*+, 80$+**pour plate *spread plate3
*most probable number 0 31!,+",", +*"-!
# !#.1 !,+ ".* + !+* $ *  1 !,+
/,* * +., *!1 !,+ " + "*1 !,+ !#,!
2,*"+!!  

 
 

 

 
+ 2, *"# *! "#+#!  *+., *!1 8 "++1
+., #1 # +., #1 "! #+#1 -! 1 <+C1 #+
"!.,#1 .1 ""+1 tissue1 #"1 .1 ## "1 .+1 !#1 colony
counter, #.+06:6($31!21 

  
 2, *,# *! "#+#!  *;*1  -1 #1 #+
Lactobaccillus bulgaricus1 * !* 0 c  +# !+* +, 8 *
Lactose Broth +#!+* 3

  

   
+!:+! #+ Lactobaccillus bulgaricus 2, + *"# *" *,
!,,# -!  2, + *"-# * *"*# # +., #
21 *+!. *, ) ! ;* + !* +., *<+C *
*" ",  ) 0#!"# )3  + +.+ *!. ) ! 
*!## # +., 2, .  ! ;*1 + + *<+C1 !# *"
", ):)0#!"#(3++.+*!.)!*!###
+.,2,.!;*1++*<+C1!#*"", ):( 
0#!"#63++.+*!.)!*!###+.,2,.
!;*1++*<+C1!#*"", ):60#!"#73
+ +.+ *!. ) !  *!## # +., 2, .  ! ;*1
+ + *<+C1 !# *" ",  ):7 0#!"# 3  +
+.+*!.) !*!###+.,2,. !;*1++
*<+C1!#*"", ): 0#!"#3++.+*!.
) !  *!## # +., 2, .  ! ;*1 + + *<+C1 !#
*" ",  ): 0#!"# 3  + +.+ *!. ) ! 
*!## # +., 2, .  ! ;*1 + + *<+C1 !# *"
", ):0#!"#53

)

))


   ! " #$
  
+!:+! *!. ) ! !" 0#+ Lactobaccillus bulgaricus3 +# !,:
!,", *!,:!,*!###*! 8"+**"+:
"+ , !+ !* !* 2, * *+#1 *+# 2 
*+, # *! !,:!, 8 +.+ * *"+:"+ , !+
!*!**.#!!*+
+!!*+ 8"+*.,##!.
!*1 *## #. ! (7 -! + + 
+ *#. +
1*##",!+1*+,-!#2**+,-!#"
!:2-!#"!*"+*+,*,!,,#!

'!#"!B-!#E

 
 


   
+!:+! !* *+,# # *! 8 "+  *.# !!.#
+. * !* *!. ) ! !" 0#+ Lactobaccillus bulgaricus3
+# !,:!, ",  * !,:!, *!## # *! 8
"+ * *"+:"+ , !+
+ !+1 8 "+ #!. *.,#
!*1 *## #. ! (7 -! + + 
+ *#. +
1*##",!+1*+,-!#2**+,-!#"
!:2'!#"!*"+*+,*,!,,#!

'!#"!B-!#E

 
 


 %  ! m 

  
&
+!:+! !*  *!## # *!  +., # * *. +.,
*! * + +., *! * * *! +.,1 *"+# +*# +.+#
,!., '# +.+# ,!.,1 !# " .  *, !*
!**+**+#2
+!+.,"1 !,:!,
+., # *+!. ) ! !" 0 -3 2, * * # .!2

)(

,+., "+! *. ) !!" *, ", ):),+., #*
*. ) ! !" *, ", ):(,+.,+# *. ) ! !"
*,", ):6
++1!+.,*#.!61#!*
*!+#.*,!.,"*!,:!,+.,'#"*", ):)
+., *! !,*, ,!., 2 ) !# "*  ",!+ #!
):) *+ ) '# "* ",  ):) +., *! !,*, ( ,!.,
!# "*  ",!+ #! ):) *+ ( ,+ +2 "* !,:
!,", !*1+6,#2,+*  ##*,
+. +#6+., ,+, count*,!

 countB E


  





   '


.)!*,+*Pour Plate
!"#

, 

$)

)




!.





'! '!F
!

?6

spreader

$(


):)


?6




:





?6




(

6

61E)

7

7E) 

?6

spreader






$6

):(






$7

):6





$ 


):7


spreader

:

spreader

1(E) 






$


):





$


):




$5


):




)6

)7

* +. ) *+ *" #!"# ) 0",  ) 3 -! # ? 6
0spreader31#!"#(0", ):)3-!#?60spreader31#!"#6
0",  ):( 3 -! # +*# *"+ *+, 0,,31 #!"# 7
0",  ):63 -! # ? 6 0spreader31 #!"#  0",  ):7 3
-!#B (0 1(E) 31#!"#0", ): 3-!#B6061
E )31 #!"#  0",  ) :3 -! # B 7 07 E ) 31 #!"# 5
0", ):3-!#+*#*"+*+,0,,3

.(!*,+*Spread Plate
!"#

, 

$)

)




!.





'! '!F
!
?6
spreader

$(


):)

:





:





)5(




:

:






$6

):(






$7

):6





$ 


):7

:

:

)15(E) 

:






$


):


:

) 


$


):














$5

):

)

)E) 

:

:






* +. ( *+ *" #!"# ) 0",  ) 3 -! # ? 6
0spreader31#!"#(0", ):)3-!#+*#*"+*+,0,,31
#!"#60", ):(3-!#+*#*"+*+,0,,31#!"#7
0",  ):63 -! # B )5( 0)15( E ) 31 #!"#  0",  ):7 3
-! # +*# *"+ *+, 0,,31 #!"#  0",  ): 3 -!
#+*#*"+*+,0,,31#!"#0", ): 3-!#B)0)
E)31#!"#50", ):3-!#+*#*"+*+,0,,3

.6!*,+* 0Most Probable Number3


)
(
6
7



5


!"#

$)
$(
$6
$7
$ 
$
$
$5

'!.,G, +/
)
):(
):6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
)
)
(
(
(
6
(
6
6
6
(
:)

 $+

?(7
?(7
?(7
?(7
 
6 
(
))

 +. 6 *+ *" #!"# )1 (1 61 * 7 !!#  count ? (71
*, #!.   666 #!"#    count .  1 *, #!.
 6))#!"# count.6 1*,#!. (((#!"#
   count  . (1 *, #!.   6(6 * "* #!"# 5  
count .))*,#!. 66(

  

"+ 2, + *-# *! +- "+#1 $""  4


! 0)563
!2+#.8!*"",+, !#.*!+ !*
+" !,*+/## - !#. 0.#+1 -!1 2+31 2, .+- +#
!+# -!  * + #+ .#+   #+++/ . -+ ,

,4
!*+0)73!!.#.8"+"-!.#+**#
"* -!  .#+ 2, !!" !!.+# # * *! !* .# +
!!.+# " *! + .# c #+++/ !#., "* .
",  "+, *##1 +# !,+ !+ . ", * !,+,
"",8+2,#*+"#"*.",+.+


.!*##",+,!#.*,!,,#!+*$* 
* 8 "#+#!  *## " ",  #+1 2, .+- +#
!*"+# #+ #+ 2, ..*:.* "* !,:!, #!"#
,   *## *, !2"##+ Lactobaccillus bulgaricus 2,
+ " *" *, !,,# -!  2, + *"-# *
*"*##+.,#21*+!.*,)!;*+!*
+., *<+C * *" ",  )  0#!"# )3  + +.+
*!.)!*!###+.,2,.!;*1++*<+C1
!#*"", ):)0#!"#(3++.+*!.)!
*!## # +., 2, .  ! ;*1 + + *<+C1 !# *"
", ):(0#!"#63++.+*!.) !*!###
+.,2,.!;*1++*<+C1!#*"", ):6 
0#!"#73++.+*!.)!*!###+.,2,.
!;*1++*<+C1!#*"", ):70#!"# 3
+ +.+ *!. ) !  *!## # +., 2, .  ! ;*1
+ + *<+C1 !# *" ",  ):  0#!"# 3  +
+.+ *!. ) !  *!## #+., 2, . !;*1+ +
*<+C1 !#*"", ):0#!"#3++.+*!.
) !  *!## # +., 2, .  ! ;*1 + + *<+C1 !#
*" ",  ): 0#!"# 53
,, #+ #+ 2, ..*:
.*  *,# ., !" 2, *"+ *,# +# !+ ",

)

)

", +*"-!!#.12,#*+,"*!+*$* 
,   .", "* -! !#. 2, !  + #.1
# !+ 2 0)731 ",  2, #, +,,# **"+# -!
#2,!.6#0spreader3


-+2 *## * !+* ",+, -! !#. *! + !*1
2+!+*+, 80$3*most probable number 0 3 .*#*
!+*++#"*"",,!** !,+,!#. *
$!*2,*,#*!*"*+potato dextrose agar0 c31*,#
"*   !* 2, *,# * !*  Lactose Broth 0 3 +#
",+, -! !#.1 !+* $ *"+ *+ *, !,+, -!
#2,!"#!,,#colony counter1*,#"*!+* *"+
*+**+*#2,!.,"*+.,*!

+!:+! 2, # *. * !+* +, 8 " * !+*
+, 8  * .  !#. 2, ! *" *+!.# "*
!*! ,1 !# !#. +.+ # .#!., .# * !!.+# #
2, *"+ *+ ,, * *+, *, colony counter +" !,,#
!##" ! !+* +, 81 +*"+ * ! ! 1 2+ !+*
pour plate*spread plate "".*#*!+***#"*+"
", !* * #++*pour plate *## ", !" +.
*1 *#+ *, ", !*1 *,# "* !+* spread plate
*##",!*+.*,,!!*+1.*##",
!" +* pour plate *## *, !,## .# # *!
+.,# 2, . !*,  2, *,# *,1  **# *,
vortex  ,, + !" +1 #!* !" +.+ *+, # *! 8
"++1 *+#1 * *.#!!*+
: !#.#+!. !-*
#  2, +" *! !*! "*+1 ,, "* #2 *"+ *+,
-! # 2, +.+# +* spread plate *## *,!* , 
*+,#*! 8"++*.#!" !!*+!**,
!,,#  *## ",# , * + "!# ,
+
*#.1 "*# ,# ++,, .#+ *<* 2,+" *,

)5

2, 21 #!* -! # .#+ *"+ *+, ,:!, !+*
!!# #. * #!1 2+ +  #. !+* pour plate
* "2 . "+ # +*# " !,, !* !!*+ +.
**-,+*#!!#", 2,++,,1##+*"+
,. !"*,!*2,! 1,,#2,+.+#+*#
,.,.,+#1*,##!"*!+*pour plate1 "+!
*#!,##+!"*!*+*#*#+ "+#!*
*+,# + + !" *+,#1 ,, * #!,# -!
!#. 2, # *+, .+!. .2#1 # *2 #* !#.
#+! 2, #+ ++,1 ,, +-* spreader "* ",+, -!
# #* 2+ #!,# !#. !" !+ . . # !*
*+,# *! #*  0+ !* ! ,# "31 -# +*# *+,#
"*2,*,#+7:7 H$"2+%*90)(31.8
",, . * 7 A$ !2..# #!++ ##  !#. 2,
+*#++,,*!2..##*2,.."* 8"+
+ , !!*+
*,# "* !+* spread plate #.2 *
"+! **"+# ",+, !#. !" 2, "+1 # !* +
*"# +. * *, *#. +. *1 ,, #+# !*
!,! #+!1 !# # ++ * "!# !* "* 8 "+1
#* #!,# !#. !" !+ . # 1 # , + !!*+
.!2 ,, *"+ *"+# !* + *,  #!2 *
"2 . ! * !+*pour plate #  !,, !* !!*+
+.**-,!!#", 2,.+,,# 2,
.. +*# *"+ !!. , "*+ * *"+ !2..# # 2,
+.+#.,.,,,*"++-*#",+,

*  " . !+* pour plate *"  ., .#+ #!"# )
0",  )3 -! # ? 6 0spreader31 #!"# ( 0",  ) :) 3
-! # ? 6 0spreader31 #!"# 6 0",  ):(3 -! # +*#
*"+*+,0,,31#!"#70", ):63-!#?60spreader31
#!"#  0",  ):73 -! # B ( 0 1( E ) 31 #!"# 
0",  ): 3 -! # B 6 061 E )31 #!"#  0",  ): 3

)

-!#B707E) 31#!"#50", ): 3-!#+*#*"+
*+, 0,,3  *+ *+ "* #!"# )1 (1 * 7 *" spreader
  *## -! !#. 2, *+, ? 61 2, *"+ *..# 
.." /#+ +  2+ ",  2, *.# #,F !
!,*, .2# !#. 2, ++ **!21 * #!,# +-*
#+! # +*# 2, #, "+ + !" *!## # *!
!*F !* 2, *,# #, + ,, -! !#.2, *+,
!-* . .2# # *2 .#+ #+! 0*!   .#+
#+! +*# !!+# "+!. !#. !"31 + #+! *
;* 2, #, +1  "*"+*+! 0)631 .8 "* !+*
+,

8  " *"+# + ",  #+1 .. -#

", 2 *, !,,# ;* 2, +*# + *"+ !2..#
+-*2 #+! "* !* * !#. 2, +*"+ *! ;* 2,
+*# +
*,# "* #!"# 6 * 5 ,, # *2 #!,#:
#!,# ., .#+1 2+ "+! !* 2, *,# * #1
,, +*# !,*, + 2, #" +# "+!. #+ !#.1
#!* *2 #!,# #+!1 # +*# 2, +*# "+ +
"!# !*F !" # *! 8 "+1 ,, !#. #+!
!# "+!. !#. !"
*,# "* #!"# 1  * 
!-##2,*"+*+,1!"*#!"#*,-!#
7 07 E )3+*# *#*# *! ",+, # #   !-##
-! # 2, #, #+ 0+*# !! *! ",+,
$31 #.+
#. *! ",  * #!"#  *  * ",+, -!
#2,*,##!-##-!2,#+1"*"+
%*90)(31.8-!#6:6*-!#2,*"+*+,
!+Standard Plate Counts0
$3

* !+* spread plate "  ., .#+ #!"# ) 0", 
)3 -! # ? 6 0spreader31 #!"# ( 0",  ):)3 -! #
+*#*"+*+,0,,31#!"#60", ):(3-! #+*#*"+
*+, 0,,31 #!"# 7 0",  ):6 3 -! # B )5( 0)15( E ) 31
#!"# 0", ):73-!#+*#*"+*+,0,,31#!"#

(

0",  ): 3 -! # +*# *"+ *+, 0,,31 #!"# 
0", ): 3-!#B)0)E)31#!"#50", ): 3-!
# +*# *"+ *+, 0,,3  *+  #!"# ) !!" 
spreader1*##!".!!,!", 1,,!#.
2,+#*,**!2 !,+.2#*-,#!,# !*2,
+ *"# * +#+! !#.  ,, !#. #+! #+
++, 0*!   !#. #+! +*# !!+# "+!. !#.
!"3 *#!"#(161 1*5,,*##.."2+!*
2, *"# * #1 ,, +*# !,*, + 2, #" +#
"+!. #+ !#. * +*"+ #+! !#. 2, !,!.+F
!!+# "+!. !#. !" ,, +*# +.+# #
*,#
"*#!"#7*-! #2,++!*"+*+,1!"*
#!"# 1 *, -! # ) 0) E )3 !-## -! 2, #,
#+1#+*#!!*!",+,
$1,,#,#+1!#
-! # 2, . *+, * *#*# *  ",+,
#!"# 71 # .-! )5( 0)15(E ) 3 2, .#+6:6,,
*"+*+,*!",+,
$


,, .* ",!+ *+ . "2+ %*9 0)(31 .8


#!!+*+, 8*"+,+*#!-##-!
 2, .2 # .."  2, .*#+ !,# !!.+# )
#1 !*! * #* #. 2, ..* !,# !,#  2,
..*1 -* # 2, *+!.#  *"+ +!. "* !*! "*+ *
!!.+##2,#!"#*-1+*#!2.1+!!#""
* 8#+ #. 2, #" ! ,, "+!. # *"+ *+,

*,##.!+*+, 8*2*"2,*+,1#+
*"+ ,, !,+, -! # 2,+*"+ *! 8 "+* 
,, *, !+ #+1 .." - -* # *"+ *+, #,1 *"+
*,# +#  * *+/# -* # # # 2, +.+#
!,# . * + -* # 2, !!"2 "!"# "+!.
"/# * . " "2+ 2 0)731 .8 ",  2, #,
+,,#**"+#-!#2,!.6#0spreader3

()



-+2 * ! *, !+*  1 !+*   *#-# *,


"+!:+! !*  *!## # *!  +., # * *. +.,
*! , ++ "* + +., *! !# *! +., #1
*"+# +*# +.+# ,!., * *! +., *! '# +.+#
,!.,1 !# " .  *, !* !* *+ *
*+#2+.*
+!+.,"1 !,:!,+.,
#*+!.) !!"2,** #.!2,+.,"+!
*. ) ! !" *, ",  ):) , +., #* *. ) ! !"
*,", ):(,+.,+#*.)!!"*,", 
):6
++1!+.,*#.!61*!+
+*#.
!61+!"# -!+., 2, "+/02,+!. ,!., * "*
+.,!31*!,:!,", .2#6+.,.,!
./,.,+!"++# !!",,2,*#*#+/+#-
!#. 2, +*"+ *! !* +.+ c". +*# +*"+ ,!., *
"* +., *! !# *"+ *"+# *! !* +.+ +*# +*"+
!#. * " . *" #!"# )1 (1 61 * 7 !!#   count ?
(71 *, #!.   666 #!"#    count .  1 *,
#!. 6))#!"#  count.6 1*,#!. (((
#!"#  count .(1*,#!. 6(6*"*#!"#
5   count . )) *, #!.   66( * !+*   
*,#!**!"0-32,!*", 2,!1!
2,*"..*:.*1!,#*..#.."12+
"#2,#,"+++!"*#!"#)1(161*7+!!##
!"#*!!* 1,,+-*#+!**!+.,*!2,
!,# ,!., "* #!. +., *! * *! +., #1
"*2!+ 20)73!#+,,-!", !##
!,# -! !#. 2, . *#+ # !#. 2, ++
**!2# .*#+1,, *"+., ,+/ *! ",+,1
"+"*#!"# 11*5
"*"+
,*
!*+0)73
+.+#2,!.,"*+.,*!1!-##.8.#+"*!"

((

* "!.+# ,
,, *"+ *!"# .8 !#. 2, +#*,
*!-!"#.#+",,


"*"+=20(73!+* .2*,#+#!,+,
-! -* # * *! + 2, ..+#  #" *"+ "
*,# +# + 2, ..+# "*+ *, +. * !!.+
" )) * + +.+ " -* # 2, *"+ *+, .<
+,+, * !*! 2, *,# +# "+!.
 +1 !+*  
-, *"+ *,# +# !,+, -! -* # +++ 2, +*"+
*+-*#2

* c*,#+#!+*+, 8#!* c..+# 
#+# " * # !!*+ + *,1   ,+ !!.+ !+*pour
plate2,!!.+#!* ,!"#+*"++ !"*,!+
* !!*+ + **,#1 ,, *" : !#. 2,
!!.+# # 2, +" *, !*! "*+ +.+ * *"+ *+,
-! #2 *, colony counter  "* !+* spread plate -,
*.+# !*!"*+,!"#+*"+*,#"*"!# !*
"*+1 ,, *" .#+ *<* 2, +" *, 2 * *"+
*+, -! # 2,+.+# *,colony counter
*,# "* !*
1 *,# *! !+*  1 # !+*   !!.+# !*! 
+# !+# -! !#. 2, *+* *, *2 ,!., * *!
+.,*!
,,!* ,+!!.+ !+* 1# !* 
++"..+# "*,


%  

! !"# " ",+, !#. *! + !* +"
!,*+/## - !#. 0.#+1 -!1 2+31 2, .+- +#
!+#-!*+#+.#+ #+++/
! 2, ", , *,# * !+, 8 0$3

*most probable count 0 3


+* +, 8 !,,# !*! 2,  "* + " *

!!*+"*,1"+!* c0potato dextrose agar3


+* !,,#!*!2,++" "*,1"+!*

0Lactose broth3
,+, # "* !+* $ **# "* -! # 2, ! 

"*"!#,**+,*,colony counter
,+, # "* !+*   **# "* -! # 2,

*+**,*+*#2,!.,,"*+.,*!
+* +, 8 *., !-* *1 2+ !+*pour plate * !+*

spread plate
! !+*pour plate +*# *.+# ",  2,+,,1 # #+

+. !"*,!* *!!*+.!!* 


., *! ./, .,+!"+ +# !!", , 2,+!."*

!+* 

!#+,,+,#+", 1-!#2,++!#.2#*

!#*"+*+,
!
$1 8 2, *" * *+, * 2, !,*, -!

#+6!"6
+* *,# "/#+#.#+"!.+#,




!,1)()
c+
:#+%
: +
:!'//2

#+#1








 

(6

(
 


$"" 1 '  4 
! 0)563  .,2 c .+2 
c**:=2 .,$!"2 ++

%*91
0)(3#., , !* +#+!'#+

*+!1 
 0)63 #.,  *! #+#1 ## * *
 .+! !* +#+!'#+

21  =0)73 c #. *! .+!  - /* *
'#+


,14
!*+0)73#.,!!*!-*
<+2 G,2#+

*#8 0)53 +-# .+! #., , + c+
<+ ,*9G,2#+

&#1 = c 4  % = 0)63 #., 1 *  '* ) ,,
'#+

=21 0(73#.,!! , 




(7

 

" )* +  ", * * !

 

!"#)0spreader3
!"#(0spreader3
!"#60,,3
!"#70spreader3
!"# 

h '!#B (
h %#+", B):7 
h '!#F!B (E



B 1(E) 

!"#

h '!#B6
h %#+", B): 
h '!#F!B6E



B61E)

!"#

h '!#B7
h %#+", B): 
h '!#F!B7E



B7E)

!"#50spreader3


 " )* +  ", * * !  
!"#)0spreader3
!"#(0,,3
!"#60,,3
!"#7

h '!#B)5(
h %#+", B):6 
h '!#F!B)5(E



B)15(E) 

!"# 0,,3

( 

(

!"#0,,3
!"#

h '!#B)
h %#+", B): 
h '!#F!B)E



!"#50,,3


 "  
!"#)

h  B(7
h %#+", +,B1)
h  count B(7E

B(7

!"#(

h  B(7
h %#+", +,B1)
h  count B(7E

B(7

!"#6

h  B(7
h %#+", +,B1)
h  count B(7E

B(7

!"#7

h  B(7
h %#+", +,B1)
h  count B(7E

B(7

!"# 

h  B1 
h %#+", +,B1)
h  count B1 E

B 

B)E)

(

!"#

h  B16 
h %#+", +,B1)
h  count B16 E

B6 

!"#

h  B(1
h %#+", +,B1)
h  count B(1E

B(

!"#5

h  B))
h %#+", +,B1)
h  count B))E

B))


 -  *