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1 History

This article is about the capital of Germany. For other

uses, see Berlin (disambiguation).

Main articles: History of Berlin and Timeline of Berlin

Berlin (/brln/; German pronunciation: [blin] (
)) is the capital city of Germany and one of the 16
states of Germany. With a population of 3.5 million
people,[4] Berlin is Germanys largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most
populous urban area in the European Union.[5] Located
in northeastern Germany on the River Spree, it is the
center of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region,
which has about 4.5 million residents from over 180
nations.[6][7][8][9] Due to its location in the European
Plain, Berlin is inuenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one third of the citys area is composed of
forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes.[10]

1.1 Etymology
The origin of the name Berlin is uncertain. It may have
its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of
the area of todays Berlin, and may be related to the Old
Polabian stem berl-/birl- (swamp).[26] Folk etymology
connects the name to the German word for bear, Br. A
bear also appears in the coat of arms of the city.

1.2 12th to 16th centuries

First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the

capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417), the
Kingdom of Prussia (17011918), the German Empire
(18711918), the Weimar Republic (191933) and the
Third Reich (193345).[11] Berlin in the 1920s was the
third largest municipality in the world.[12] After World
War II, the city was divided; East Berlin became the capital of East Germany while West Berlin became a de
facto West German exclave, surrounded by the Berlin
Wall (19611989).[13] Following German reunication in
1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of
all Germany, hosting 158 foreign embassies.[14]
Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media, and
science.[15][16][17][18] Its economy is based on high-tech
rms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse
range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations, and convention venues.[19][20] Berlin serves as
a continental hub for air and rail trac and has a highly
complex public transportation network. The metropolis
is a popular tourist destination.[21] Signicant industries
also include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology, construction, and electronics.

Map of Berlin in 1688

The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of todays Berlin are a wooden rod dated from approximately
1192[27] and leftovers of wooden houseparts dated to
1174 found in a 2012 digging in Berlin Mitte.[28] The
rst written records of towns in the area of present-day
Berlin date from the late 12th century. Spandau is rst
mentioned in 1197 and Kpenick in 1209, although these
areas did not join Berlin until 1920.[29] The central part
of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Clln on
the Fischerinsel is rst mentioned in a 1237 document,
and Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the
Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244.[27]
The former (1237) is considered to be the founding date
of the city.[30] The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties. In 1307 they formed an alliance
with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated.[31][32]

Modern Berlin is home to renowned universities, orchestras, museums, entertainment venues, and is host to many
sporting events.[22] Its urban setting has made it a soughtafter location for international lm productions.[23] The
city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture,
nightlife, contemporary arts, and a high quality of living.[24] Over the last decade Berlin has seen the upcoming
of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene.[25]


In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the

Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until
1440.[33] During the 15th century his successors would
establish Berlin-Clln as capital of the margraviate, and
subsequent members of the Hohenzollern family ruled
until 1918 in Berlin, rst as electors of Brandenburg, then
as kings of Prussia, and eventually as German emperors. In 1443 Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new royal palace in the twin city Berlin-Clln.
The protests of the town citizens against the building culminated in 1448, in the Berlin Indignation (Berliner
Unwille).[34][35] This protest was not successful, however, and the citizenry lost many of its political and economic privileges. After the royal palace was nished in
1451, it gradually came into use. From 1470, with the
new elector Albrecht III Achilles, Berlin-Clln became
the new royal residence.[32] Ocially, the Berlin-Clln
palace became permanent residence of the Brandenburg
electors of the Hohenzollerns from 1486, when John Cicero came to power.[36] Berlin-Clln, however, had to
give up its status as a free Hanseatic city. In 1539, the
electors and the city ocially became Lutheran.[37]

William oered asylum to the French Huguenots. More

than 15,000 Huguenots went to Brandenburg, of whom
6,000 settled in Berlin. By 1700, approximately 20 percent of Berlins residents were French, and their cultural
inuence on the city was immense. Many other immigrants came from Bohemia, Poland, and Salzburg.


Berlin became the capital of the German Empire in 1871 and

expanded rapidly in the following years. (Unter den Linden in

17th to 19th centuries

Since 1618, the Margraviate of Brandenburg had been in

personal union with the Duchy of Prussia. In 1701, however, the dual state formed the Kingdom of Prussia, as
Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg now crowned himself as king Frederick I in Prussia. Berlin became the
capital of the new Kingdom. This was a successful attempt to centralize the capital in the very outspread state,
and it was the rst time the city began to grow. In 1709
Berlin merged with the four cities of Clln, Friedrichswerder, Friedrichstadt and Dorotheenstadt under the
name Berlin, Haupt- und Residenzstadt Berlin.[31]
In 1740, Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great
(17401786), came to power. Under the rule of Frederick II, Berlin became a center of the Enlightenment. Following Frances victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte marched into Berlin in 1806,
but granted self-government to the city. In 1815, the city
became part of the new Province of Brandenburg.
Frederick the Great (17121786) was one of Europes
enlightened monarchs.

The Thirty Years War between 1618 and 1648 devastated Berlin. One third of its houses were damaged
or destroyed, and the city lost half of its population.[38]
Frederick William, known as the Great Elector, who
had succeeded his father George William as ruler in 1640,
initiated a policy of promoting immigration and religious
tolerance. With the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Frederick

The Industrial Revolution transformed Berlin during the

19th century; the citys economy and population expanded dramatically, and it became the main rail hub
and economic center of Germany. Additional suburbs
soon developed and increased the area and population of
Berlin. In 1861, neighboring suburbs including Wedding,
Moabit, and several others were incorporated into Berlin.
In 1871, Berlin became capital of the newly founded
German Empire. In 1881, it became a city district separate from Brandenburg.


20th to 21st centuries

Berlin in ruins after World War II (Potsdamer Platz, 1945).

Street, Berlin (1913) by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner


such as Auschwitz.[39] During World War II, large parts

of Berlin were destroyed in the 194345 air raids and
during the Battle of Berlin. Around 125,000 civilians
were killed.[40] After the end of the war in Europe in
1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from
the Eastern provinces. The victorious powers divided the
city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones
into which Germany was divided. The sectors of the
Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom
and France) formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector
formed East Berlin.[41]

20th to 21st centuries

After 1910 Berlin had become a fertile ground for the

German Expressionist movement. In elds such as
architecture, painting and cinema new forms of artistic styles were invented. At the end of World War I
in 1918, a republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building. In 1920, the Greater
Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages, and estates around Berlin into an expanded city.
The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 to 883 km2
(25 to 341 sq mi). The population almost doubled and
Berlin had a population of around four million. During
the Weimar era, Berlin underwent political unrest due
to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned
center of the Roaring Twenties. The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known
for its leadership roles in science, the humanities, city
planning, lm, higher education, government, and industries. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during
his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for
Physics in 1921.
In 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power.
NSDAP rule eectively destroyed Berlins Jewish community, which had numbered 160,000, representing onethird of all Jews in the country. Berlins Jewish population fell to about 80,000 as a result of emigration
between 1933 and 1939. After Kristallnacht in 1938,
thousands of the citys persecuted groups were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp
or, starting in early 1943, were shipped to death camps,

The Berlin Wall in 1986, painted on the western side. People

crossing the so-called death strip on the eastern side were at
risk of being shot.

All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for

Berlin. However, in 1948, when the Western Allies
extended the currency reform in the Western zones of
Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the
Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes
to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Sovietcontrolled territory. The Berlin airlift, conducted by the
three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June 1948 to
May 1949.[42] In 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany
was founded in West Germany and eventually included
all of the American, British, and French zones, excluding
those three countries zones in Berlin, while the Marxist-


Leninist German Democratic Republic was proclaimed 2 Geography

in East Germany. West Berlin ocially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Main article: Geography of Berlin
Republic of Germany despite West Berlins geographic
isolation. Airline service to West Berlin was granted only
to American, British, and French airlines.

Central Berlin. Unter den Linden in foreground and

skyscrapers of Potsdamer Platz up to the right.

The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. On 3 October

1990, the German reunication process was formally nished.

The founding of the two German states increased Cold

War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern
part as its capital, a move that was not recognized by the
western powers. East Berlin included most of the historic
center of the city. The West German government established itself in Bonn.[43] In 1961, East Germany began the
building of the Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin,
and events escalated to a tank stando at Checkpoint
Charlie. West Berlin was now de facto a part of West
Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin
was de facto a part of East Germany. John F. Kennedy
gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech in 1963 underlining the US support for the Western part of the city.
Berlin was completely divided. Although it was possible
for Westerners to pass from one to the other side through
strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel
to West Berlin or West Germany prohibited. In 1971,
a Four-Power agreement guaranteed access to and from
West Berlin by car or train through East Germany.[44]
In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from
the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9
November and was subsequently mostly demolished. Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of
the Wall. On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany
were reunied as the Federal Republic of Germany, and
Berlin again became the ocial German capital. In 1991,
the German Parliament, the Bundestag, voted to move the
seat of the (West) German capital from Bonn to Berlin,
which was completed in 1999. Berlins 2001 administrative reform merged several districts. The number of
boroughs were reduced from 23 to twelve. In 2006 the
FIFA World Cup Final was held in Berlin.

Berlin Mitte skyline in the 21st century. Landmarks

from left to right: Reichstag building, Fernsehturm
Berlin, Berlin Cathedral, City hall, Brandenburg Gate

2.1 Topography

Aerial view over Berlin Mitte.

Berlin is situated in northeastern Germany, in an area

of low-lying marshy woodlands with a mainly at
topography, part of the vast Northern European Plain
which stretches all the way from northern France to west-



ern Russia. The Berliner Urstromtal (an ice age glacial

valley), between the low Barnim Plateau to the north and
the Teltow Plateau to the south, was formed by meltwater
owing from ice sheets at the end of the last Weichselian
glaciation. The Spree follows this valley now. In Spandau, Berlins westernmost borough, the Spree empties
into the river Havel, which ows from north to south
through western Berlin. The course of the Havel is more
like a chain of lakes, the largest being the Tegeler See and
Groer Wannsee. A series of lakes also feeds into the upper Spree, which ows through the Groer Mggelsee in
eastern Berlin.[45]

Annual precipitation is 570 millimeters (22 in) with
moderate rainfall throughout the year. Snowfall mainly
occurs from December through March, but snow cover
does not usually remain for long. The recent winter of
2009/2010 was an exception since there was a permanent
snow cover from late December till early March.[47]

2.3 Cityscape

Substantial parts of present-day Berlin extend onto

the low plateaus on both sides of the Spree Valley. Large parts of the boroughs Reinickendorf and
Pankow lie on the Barnim Plateau, while most of
the boroughs of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf, SteglitzZehlendorf, Tempelhof-Schneberg, and Neuklln lie on
the Teltow Plateau.
The borough of Spandau lies partly within the Berlin
Glacial Valley and partly on the Nauen Plain, which
stretches to the west of Berlin. The highest elevations
in Berlin are the Teufelsberg and the Mggelberge in the
citys outskirts, and in the center the Kreuzberg. While
the latter measures 66 m (217 ft) above sea level, the former both have an elevation of about 115 m (377 ft). The
Teufelsberg is in fact an articial hill composed of a pile
of rubble from the ruins of World War II.



View over Berlin-Mitte.

Berlins history has left the city with a highly eclectic

array of architecture and buildings. The citys appearance today is predominantly shaped by the key role it
played in Germanys history in the 20th century. Each
of the national governments based in Berlinthe Kingdom of Prussia, the 1871 German Empire, the Weimar
Republic, Nazi Germany, East Germany, and now the reunied Germanyinitiated ambitious (re-) construction
programs, with each adding its own distinctive style to the
citys architecture.
Berlin was devastated by bombing raids during World
War II, and many of the buildings that had remained after
the war were demolished in the 1950s and 1960s in both
West and East Berlin. Much of this demolition was initiated by municipal architecture programs to build new
residential or business quarters and main roads.

2.4 Architecture
The outskirts of Berlin are covered with woodlands and numerous lakes

Berlin has an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to the

Kppen climate classication system.
Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average
high temperatures of 2225 C (7277 F) and lows of
1214 C (5457 F). Winters are cold with average high
temperatures of 3 C (37 F) and lows of 2 to 0 C (28
to 32 F). Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild.
Berlins built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat
stored by the citys buildings. Temperatures can be 4 C
(7 F) higher in the city than in the surrounding areas.[46]

Main article: Architecture in Berlin

The Fernsehturm (TV tower) at Alexanderplatz in Mitte
is among the tallest structures in the European Union at
368 m (1,207 ft). Built in 1969, it is visible throughout
most of the central districts of Berlin. The city can be
viewed from its 204 m (669 ft) high observation oor.
Starting here the Karl-Marx-Allee heads east, an avenue
lined by monumental residential buildings, designed in
the Socialist Classicism style. Adjacent to this area is
the Rotes Rathaus (City Hall), with its distinctive redbrick architecture. In front of it is the Neptunbrunnen,
a fountain featuring a mythological group of Tritons,
personications of the four main Prussian rivers and
Neptune on top of it.


Potsdamer Platz at night.

A residential building in Kreuzberg.

entrance to all museums, as well as the reconstruction

of the Stadtschloss is continuing.[50][51] Also located on
the island and adjacent to the Lustgarten and palace is
Berlin Cathedral, emperor William IIs ambitious attempt
to create a Protestant counterpart to St. Peters Basilica
in Rome. A large crypt houses the remains of some of
the earlier Prussian royal family. St. Hedwigs Cathedral
is Berlins Roman Catholic cathedral.

The Brandenburg Gate.

The Brandenburg Gate is an iconic landmark of Berlin

and Germany. The Reichstag building is the traditional
seat of the German Parliament, was remodeled by British
architect Norman Foster in the 1990s and features a glass
dome over the session area, which allows free public access to the parliamentary proceedings and magnicent View towards Friedrichstrae
views of the city.
The East Side Gallery is an open-air exhibition of art
painted directly on the last existing portions of the Berlin
Wall. It is the largest remaining evidence of the citys
historical division.
The Gendarmenmarkt, a neoclassical square in Berlin the
name of which derives from the headquarters of the famous Gens d'armes regiment located here in the 18th century, is bordered by two similarly designed cathedrals, the
Franzsischer Dom with its observation platform and the
Deutscher Dom. The Konzerthaus (Concert Hall), home
of the Berlin Symphony Orchestra, stands between the
two cathedrals.

Unter den Linden is a tree-lined eastwest avenue from

the Brandenburg Gate to the site of the former Berliner
Stadtschloss, and was once Berlins premier promenade.
Many Classical buildings line the street and part of
Humboldt University is located there. Friedrichstrae
was Berlins legendary street during the Golden Twenties.
It combines 20th-century traditions with the modern architecture of todays Berlin.

Potsdamer Platz is an entire quarter built from scratch

after 1995 after the Wall came down.[52] To the west of
Potsdamer Platz is the Kulturforum, which houses the
Gemldegalerie, and is anked by the Neue NationalgaThe Museum Island in the River Spree houses ve muse- lerie and the Berliner Philharmonie. The Memorial to
ums built from 1830 to 1930 and is a UNESCO World the Murdered Jews of Europe, a Holocaust memorial, is
Heritage site. Restoration and the construction of a main situated to the north.[53]

The area around Hackescher Markt is home to the fash- 3 Demographics
ionable culture, with countless clothing outlets, clubs,
bars, and galleries. This includes the Hackesche Hfe, Main article: Demographics of Berlin
a conglomeration of buildings around several courtyards, On 31 December 2013, the city-state of Berlin had a
reconstructed around 1996. The nearby New Synagogue
is the center of Jewish culture.

Young Berliners at the Tiergarten

The Strae des 17. Juni, connecting the Brandenburg

Gate and Ernst-Reuter-Platz, serves as the central EastWest-Axis. Its name commemorates the uprisings in East
Berlin of 17 June 1953. Approximately half-way from
the Brandenburg Gate is the Groer Stern, a circular trafc island on which the Siegessule (Victory Column) is
situated. This monument, built to commemorate Prussias victories, was relocated 193839 from its previous
position in front of the Reichstag.
The Kurfrstendamm is home to some of Berlins luxurious stores with the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church
at its eastern end on Breitscheidplatz. The church was
destroyed in the Second World War and left in ruins. Nearby on Tauentzienstrae is KaDeWe, claimed
to be continental Europes largest department store. The
Rathaus Schneberg, where John F. Kennedy made his
famous "Ich bin ein Berliner!" speech, is situated in




Schloss Charlottenburg is the largest existing palace in Berlin.

population of 3,517,424 registered inhabitants[4] in an

area of 891.85 km2 (344.35 sq mi).[54] The citys population density was 3,944 inhabitants per km2 . Berlin
is the second most populous city proper in the EU. The
urban area of Berlin comprised about 4 million people
making it the seventh most populous urban area in the
European Union.[5] The metropolitan area of the BerlinBrandenburg region was home to about 4.5 million in
an area of 5,370 km2 (2,070 sq mi). In 2004, the
Larger Urban Zone was home to about 5 million people
in an area of 17,385 km2 (6,712 sq mi).[9] The entire
Berlin-Brandenburg capital region has a population of 6




















West of the center, Schloss Bellevue is the residence of Berlins population 18802012
the German President. Schloss Charlottenburg, which
was burnt out in the Second World War is the largest his- National and international migration into the city has a
torical palace in Berlin.
long history. In 1685, following the revocation of the
The Funkturm Berlin is a 150 m (490 ft) tall lattice radio Edict of Nantes in France, the city responded with the
tower at the fair area, built between 1924 and 1926. It is Edict of Potsdam, which guaranteed religious freedom
the only observation tower which stands on insulators and and tax-free status to French Huguenot refugees for ten
has a restaurant 55 m (180 ft) and an observation deck years. The Greater Berlin Act in 1920 incorporated many
126 m (413 ft) above ground, which is reachable by a suburbs and surrounding cities of Berlin. It formed most
of the territory that comprises modern Berlin and inwindowed elevator.
See also: List of sights in Berlin and List of tallest creased the population from 1.9 million to 4 million.
buildings in Berlin

Active immigration and asylum politics in West Berlin

triggered waves of immigration in the 1960s and 1970s.


Currently, Berlin is home to about 200,000 Turks,[56]

making it the largest Turkish community outside of
Turkey. In the 1990s the Aussiedlergesetze enabled immigration to Germany of some residents from the former Soviet Union. Today ethnic Germans from countries of the former Soviet Union make up the largest
portion of the Russian-speaking community.[57] The last
decade experienced an inux from various Western countries and some African regions.[58] Young Germans, EUEuropeans and Israelis have settled in the city.


of the population,[67] and the Roman Catholic Church

with 9.1% of registered members.[67] About 2.7% of the
population identify with other Christian denominations
(mostly Eastern Orthodox)[68] and 8.1% are Muslims.[69]
0.9% of Berliners belong to other religions.[70] Approximately 80% of the 12,000 registered Jews, 0.3%[68] now
residing in Berlin have come from the former Soviet

International communities

In December 2013, 538,729 residents (15.3% of the population) were of foreign nationality, originating from over
180 dierent countries.[60] Another estimated 460,000
citizens in 2013 are descendants of international migrants
and have either become naturalized German citizens or
obtained citizenship by virtue of birth in Germany.[61] In
2008, about 25%30% of the population was of foreign
origin.[62] 45 percent of the residents under the age of 18
have foreign roots.[63] Berlin is estimated to have from
100,000 to 250,000 non-registered inhabitants.[64]
There are more than 25 non-indigenous communities
with a population of at least 10,000 people, including
Turkish, Polish, Russian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Serbian,
Italian, Bosnian, Vietnamese, American, Romanian, Bulgarian, Chinese, Austrian, Ghanaian, Ukrainian, French,
British, Spanish, Israeli, Thai, Iranian, Egyptian and Syrian communities.

Berlin Cathedral, held by the Protestant congregation UEK.

Berlin is the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishop of

Berlin and EKBO's elected chairperson is titled bishop of
EKBO. Furthermore, Berlin is the seat of many Orthodox
cathedrals, such as the Cathedral of St. Boris the Baptist,
one of the two seats of the Bulgarian Orthodox Diocese
The most-commonly-spoken foreign languages in Berlin
of Western and Central Europe, and the Resurrection of
are Turkish, English, Russian, Arabic, Polish, Kurdish,
Christ Cathedral of the Diocese of Berlin (Patriarchate
Vietnamese, Serbian, Croatian and French. Turkish,
of Moscow).
Arabic, Kurdish, Serbian and Croatian are heard more
often in the western part, due to the large Middle East- The faithful of the dierent religions and denominaern and former-Yugoslavian communities. English, Viet- tions maintain many places of worship in Berlin. The
namese, Russian, and Polish have more native speakers Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church has eight
parishes of dierent sizes in Berlin.[71] There are 36
in eastern Berlin.[65]
Baptist congregations (within Union of Evangelical Free
See also: Turks in Berlin, Arabs in Berlin and Vietnamese
Church Congregations in Germany), 29 New Apostolic
community of Berlin
Churches, 15 United Methodist churches, eight Free
Evangelical Congregations, six congregations of The
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, an Old
Catholic church, and an Anglican church in Berlin.



Main article: Religion of Berlin

Berlin has 76 mosques (including 3 Ahmadiyya

mosques), eleven synagogues, and two Buddhist temples,
in addition to a number of humanist and atheist groups.

More than 60% of Berlin residents have no registered religious aliation.[66] The largest denominations
in 2010 were the Protestant regional church body of
the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian
Upper Lusatia (EKBO) (a church of united administra- 4 Government
tion comprising mostly Lutheran, and few Reformed and
United Protestant congregations; EKBO is a member of
the umbrellas Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) Main article: Politics of Berlin
and Union Evangelischer Kirchen (UEK)) with 18.7%


Sister cities

Mayor since 2001, Klaus Wowereit


City state

Since the reunication on 3 October 1990, Berlin has

been one of the three city states in Germany among the
present 16 states of Germany. The city and state parliament is the House of Representatives (Abgeordnetenhaus), which currently has 141 seats. Berlins executive
body is the Senate of Berlin (Senat von Berlin). The Senate of Berlin consists of the Governing Mayor (Regierender Brgermeister) and up to eight senators holding ministerial positions, one of them holding the ocial title Mayor (Brgermeister) as deputy to the Governing
The Social Democratic Party (SPD) and The Left (Die
Linke) took control of the city government after the
2001 state election and won another term in the 2006
state election.[72] Since the 2011 state election, there has
been a coalition of the Social Democratic Party with the
Christian Democratic Union, and for the rst time ever,
the Pirate Party won seats in a state parliament in Germany.

Berlins twelve boroughs and their 96 localities.

which often have historic roots in older municipalities

that predate the formation of Greater Berlin on 1 October 1920 and became urbanized and incorporated into
the city. Many residents strongly identify with their
localities or boroughs. At present Berlin consists of
96 localities, which are commonly made up of several
city neighborhoodscalled Kiez in the Berlin dialect
representing small residential areas.
Each borough is governed by a borough council (Bezirksamt) consisting of ve councilors (Bezirksstadtrte)
and a borough mayor (Bezirksbrgermeister).
borough council is elected by the borough assembly
The boroughs of
Berlin are not independent municipalities, however. The
power of borough administration is limited and subordinate to the Senate of Berlin. The borough mayors form
the council of mayors (Rat der Brgermeister), led by the
citys governing mayor, which advises the senate. The localities have no local government bodies.

The Governing Mayor is simultaneously Lord Mayor of

the city (Oberbrgermeister der Stadt) and Prime Minister of the Federal State (Ministerprsident des Bundeslan4.3 Sister cities
des). The oce of Berlins Governing Mayor is in the
Rotes Rathaus (Red City Hall). Since 2001 this oce
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
has been held by Klaus Wowereit of the SPD.[73] On August 26, 2014, Wowereit announced his resignation as of
Berlin maintains ocial partnerships with 17 cities.[77]
December 11, 2014.[74]
Town twinning between Berlin and other cities began
The total annual state budget of Berlin in 2007 exceeded
with sister city Los Angeles in 1967. East Berlins part20.5 ($28.7) billion including a budget surplus of 80
nerships were canceled at the time of German reunica[75]
The total budget included an esti($112) million.
tion and later partially reestablished. West Berlins partmated amount of 5.5 ($7.7) bn, which is directly nerships had previously been restricted to the borough
nanced by either the German government or the German
level. During the Cold War era, the partnerships had re[76]
ected the dierent power blocs, with West Berlin partnering with capitals in the West, and East Berlin mostly
partnering with cities from the Warsaw Pact and its allies.
4.2 Boroughs

There are several joint projects with many other cities,

Main article: Boroughs and localities of Berlin
such as Beirut, Belgrade, So Paulo, Copenhagen,
Berlin is subdivided into twelve boroughs (Bezirke). Helsinki, Johannesburg, Mumbai, Oslo, Shanghai, Seoul,
Each borough contains a number of localities (Ortsteile), Soa, Sydney, New York City and Vienna. Berlin partic-



ipates in international city associations such as the Union 5 Economy

of the Capitals of the European Union, Eurocities, Network of European Cities of Culture, Metropolis, Summit Main article: Economy of Berlin
Conference of the Worlds Major Cities, and Conference In 2013, the nominal GDP of the citystate Berlin expeof the Worlds Capital Cities. Berlins ocial sister cities


Capital city

Berlin is the capital of the Federal Republic of Germany. The President of Germany, whose functions are
mainly ceremonial under the German constitution, has
his ocial residence in Schloss Bellevue.[81] Berlin is the
seat of the German executive, housed in the Chancellery,
the Bundeskanzleramt. Facing the Chancellery is the
Bundestag, the German Parliament, housed in the renovated Reichstag building since the government moved
back to Berlin in 1998. The Bundesrat (federal council, performing the function of an upper house) is the
representation of the Federal States (Bundeslnder) of
Germany and has its seat at the former Prussian House
of Lords.
The Reichstag, seat of the Bundestag
The German Chancellery
The Italian embassy

Berlin is a UNESCO City of Design and recognized for its creative industries and start-up environment.

rienced a growth rate of 1.2% (0.6% in Germany) and

totaled 109.2 (~$142) billion.[83] Berlins economy is
dominated by the service sector, with around 80% of all
companies doing business in services. The unemployment rate reached a 20-year low in June 2014 and stood
at 11.0% .[84]
Important economic sectors in Berlin include life sciences, transportation, information and communication
technologies, media and music, advertising and design, biotechnology, environmental services, construction, e-commerce, retail, hotel business, and medical

The Federal Ministry of Finance

Research and development have economic signicance

for the city. The metropolitan region ranks among the
top-3 innovative locations in the EU.[86] The Science
Though most of the ministries are seated in Berlin, and Business Park in Adlershof is the largest technolsome of them, as well as some minor departments, are ogy park in Germany measured by revenue.[87] Within
seated in Bonn, the former capital of West Germany. the Eurozone, Berlin has become a center for business
Discussions to move the remaining branches continue.[82] relocation and international investments.[88]
The ministries and departments of Defence , Justice
and Consumer Protection, Finance, Interior, Foreign,
Economic Aairs and Energy, Labour and Social Aairs 5.1 Companies
, Family Aairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth,
Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, Food and Agriculture, Economic Cooperation and Development, Health, Transport and Digital Infrastructure and Education and Research are based in the
Berlin hosts 158 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many think tanks, trade unions, non-prot
organizations, lobbying groups, and professional associations. Due to the inuence and international partnerships
of the Federal Republic of Germany as a state, the capital city has become a venue for German and European
aairs. Frequent ocial visits, and diplomatic consultations among governmental representatives and national
Air Berlin is headquartered in Berlin.
leaders are common in contemporary Berlin.


Creative industries

Many German and international companies have business or service centers in the city. For some years Berlin
has been recognized as a center of business founders in
Europe.[89] Among the 10 largest employers in Berlin
are the City-State of Berlin, Deutsche Bahn, the hospital
provider Charit and Vivantes, the local public transport
provider BVG, and Deutsche Telekom.
Daimler manufactures cars, and BMW builds motorcycles in Berlin. Bayer Health Care and Berlin Chemie are
major pharmaceutical companies headquartered in the
city. The second largest German airline Air Berlin is
based there as well.[90]


5.3 Creative industries

Industries that do business in the creative arts and entertainment are an important and sizable sector of the economy of Berlin. The creative arts sector comprises music, lm, advertising, architecture, art, design, fashion,
performing arts, publishing, R&D, software,[96] TV, radio, and video games. Around 22,600 creative enterprises, predominantly SMEs, generated over 18,6 billion
Euro in total revenue. Berlins creative industries have
contributed an estimated 20% of Berlins gross domestic
product in 2005.[97]

Siemens, a Global 500 and DAX-listed company is partly

headquartered in Berlin. The national railway operator 5.4 Media
Deutsche Bahn and the MDAX-listed media conglomerate Axel Springer SE have their headquarters in the Main articles: Media in Berlin and List of lms set in
central districts.[91] Berlin has a cluster of rail technol- Berlin
ogy companies and is the German headquarter or site Berlin is home to many international and regional teleto Bombardier Transportation,[92] Siemens Mobility,[93]
Stadler Rail and Thales Transportation.[94]


Tourism and conventions

The ICC is part of the citys exhibition and congress center.

Berlin had 786 hotels with over 132,600 beds in 2013.[95]

The city recorded 26.9 million overnight hotel stays and
11.3 million hotel guests in 2013.[95] Tourism gures have Headquarter of the Axel Springer SE
more than doubled within the last ten years and Berlin has
become the third most-visited city destination in Europe. vision and radio stations.[98] The public broadcaster RBB
Berlin is among the top three congress cities in the world has its headquarters in Berlin as well as the commercial
and home to Europes biggest convention center, the broadcasters MTV Europe, VIVA, and N24. German
Internationales Congress Centrum (ICC) at the Messe international public broadcaster Deutsche Welle has its
Berlin.[19] Several large-scale trade fairs like the con- TV production unit in Berlin, and most national German
sumer electronics trade fair IFA, the ILA Berlin Air broadcasters have a studio in the city including ZDF and
Show, the Berlin Fashion Week (including the Bread and RTL.
Butter tradeshow), the Green Week, the transport fair
InnoTrans, the tourism fair ITB and the adult entertainment and erotic fair Venus are held annually in the city,
attracting a signicant number of business visitors.

Berlin has Germanys largest number of daily newspapers, with numerous local broadsheets (Berliner Morgenpost, Berliner Zeitung, Der Tagesspiegel), and three
major tabloids, as well as national dailies of varying



sizes, each with a dierent political aliation, such

as Die Welt, Neues Deutschland, and Die Tageszeitung.
The Exberliner, a monthly magazine, is Berlins Englishlanguage periodical focusing on arts and entertainment. Berlin is also the headquarters of the two major
German-language publishing houses Walter de Gruyter
and Springer, each of which publish books, periodicals,
and multimedia products.

grade-separated railway station in Europe.[105] Deutsche

Bahn runs trains to domestic destinations like Hamburg,
Munich, Cologne and others. It also runs an airport express rail service, as well as trains to several international
destinations, e.g. Vienna, Prague, Zurich, Warsaw and

Public transport
Berlin is an important center in the European and German
lm industry.[99] It is home to more than 1000 lm The Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe and the Deutsche Bahn
and television production companies, 270 movie the- manage several dense urban public transport systems.[106]
aters, and around 300 national and international coproductions are lmed in the region every year.[86] The
historic Babelsberg Studios and the production company
UFA are located outside Berlin in Potsdam. The city
is also home of the European Film Academy and the
German Film Academy, and hosts the annual Berlin Film
Festival. With around 500,000 admissions it is the largest
publicly attended lm festival in the world.[100][101]



Berlin Tegel Airport

Main article: Transport in Berlin

Berlins transport infrastructure is highly complex, pro-

Berlin departing ights serve 163 destinations around the

Berlin has two commercial airports. Berlin Tegel Airport
(TXL), which lies within the city limits, and Schnefeld
Airport (SXF), which is situated just outside Berlins
south-eastern border in the state of Brandenburg. Both
airports together handled 26,3 million passengers in
2013. In 2014, 67 airlines served 163 destinations in
Berlin Hauptbahnhof is the largest grade-separated railway sta- 50 countries from Berlin.[107] Tegel Airport is an imtion in Europe.
portant hub for Air Berlin as well as a focus city for
Lufthansa, whereas Schnefeld services mainly low-cost
viding a diverse range of urban mobility.[102] A total of carriers, most notably easyJet.
979 bridges cross 197 km (122 mi) of inner-city waterways. 5,334 km (3,314 mi) of roads run through Berlin, Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER) will replace Tegel and
of which 73 km (45 mi) are motorways ("Autobahn").[86] Schnefeld as single commercial airport of Berlin.
In 2006, 1.416 million motor vehicles were registered in The new airport has been delayed several times
the city.[103] With 358 cars per 1000 residents in 2008 due to poor construction management and technical
As of August 2014, it is not known when
(570/1000 in Germany), Berlin as a Western global city diculties.
has one of the lowest numbers of cars per capita.
Long-distance rail lines connect Berlin with all of the major cities of Germany and with many cities in neighbor- Cycling
ing European countries. Regional rail lines provide access to the surrounding regions of Brandenburg and to Main article: Cycling in Berlin
the Baltic Sea. The Berlin Hauptbahnhof is the largest



Berlin is well known for its highly developed bicycle lane

system.[111] It is estimated that Berlin has 710 bicycles
per 1000 residents. Around 500,000 daily bike riders accounted for 13% of total trac in 2009.[112] Cyclists have
access to 620 km (385 mi) of bicycle paths including approximately 150 km (93 mi) of mandatory bicycle paths,
190 km (118 mi) (120 miles) of o-road bicycle routes,
60 km (37 mi) of bicycle lanes on roads, 70 km (43 mi)
of shared bus lanes which are also open to cyclists, 100
km (62 mi) of combined pedestrian/bike paths and 50 km
(31 mi) of marked bicycle lanes on roadside pavements
(or sidewalks).[113]


nearly all power lines are underground cables; only a 380
kV and a 110 kV line, which run from Reuter substation
to the urban Autobahn, use overhead lines. The Berlin
380-kV electric line was built when West Berlins electrical grid was not connected to those of East or West Germany. This has now become the backbone of the citys
energy grid.

6.3 Health


The Charit university hospital.

Berlin has a long history of discoveries in medicine and

innovations in medical technology.[115] The modern history of medicine has been signicantly inuenced by scientists from Berlin. Rudolf Virchow was the founder
of cellular pathology, while Robert Koch developed vaccines for anthrax, cholera, and tuberculosis.[116]

Heizkraftwerk Mitte

The Charit hospital complex is the largest university hospital in Europe, tracing back its origins to the year 1710.
The Charit is spread over four sites and comprises 3,300
beds, around 14,000 sta, 7,000 students, and more than
60 operating theaters, and it has a turnover of over one billion euros annually.[117] The Charit is a joint institution
of the Freie Universitt Berlin and the Humboldt University of Berlin, including a wide range of institutes and
specialized medical centers.
Among them are the German Heart Center, one of
the most renowned transplantation centers, the MaxDelbrck-Center for Molecular Medicine and the MaxPlanck-Institute for Molecular Genetics. The scientic
research at these institutions is complemented by many
research departments of companies such as Siemens and
Bayer. The World Health Summit and several international health related conventions are held annually in

Berlins energy is mainly supplied by the Swedish rm

Vattenfall, which relies more heavily than other electricity producers on lignite as an energy source. Because burning lignite produces harmful emissions, Vattenfall has announced its commitment to transitioning to
cleaner sources, such as renewable energy.[114] In the former West Berlin, electricity was supplied chiey by thermal power stations. To facilitate buering during load
peaks, accumulators were installed during the 1980s at
some of these power stations. These were connected by
static inverters to the power grid and were loaded during 7 Education
times of low energy consumption and unloaded during
periods of high consumption.
Main article: Education in Berlin
In 1993 the power grid connections to the surrounding Berlin has 878 schools that teach 340,658 children in
areas were restored. In the western districts of Berlin, 13,727 classes and 56,787 trainees in businesses and



The Freie Universitt

many and Europe. Historically, 40 Nobel Prize winners

are aliated with the Berlin-based universities.

The Humboldt University

The city has four public research universities and 27 private, professional, and technical colleges (Hochschulen),
oering a wide range of disciplines.[120] Over 160,000
students were enrolled in the winter term of 2012/13.[121]
The three largest universities combined have approximately 100,000 enrolled students. There are the
Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin (HU Berlin) with 34,000
students, the Freie Universitt Berlin (Free University of
Berlin, FU Berlin) with about 34,500 students, and the
Technische Universitt Berlin (TU Berlin) with 30,000
students. The Universitt der Knste (UdK) has about
4,000 students and the Berlin School of Economics and
Law has enrollment of about 9,000 students.

elsewhere.[86] The city has a six-year primary education

program. After completing primary school, students continue to the Sekundarschule (a comprehensive school) or
Gymnasium (college preparatory school). Berlin has a
special bilingual school program embedded in the Eu- 7.2
ropaschule in which children are taught the curriculum
in German and a foreign language, starting in primary
school and continuing in high school. Nine major European languages can be chosen as foreign languages in
29 schools.[118]
The Franzsisches Gymnasium Berlin, which was
founded in 1689 to teach the children of Huguenot
refugees, oers (German/French) instruction.[119] The
John F. Kennedy School, a bilingual GermanAmerican
public school located in Zehlendorf, is particularly popular with children of diplomats and the English-speaking
expatriate community. Four schools teach Latin and
Classical Greek. Two of them are state schools (Steglitzer
Gymnasium in Steglitz and Goethe-Gymnasium in
Wilmersdorf), one is Protestant (Evangelisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster in Wilmersdorf), and one
is Jesuit (Canisius-Kolleg in the Embassy Quarter in


Higher education


Science and Technology Park in Adlershof

The city has a high density of research institutions, such as

the Fraunhofer Society, Leibniz Association and the Max
Planck Society, which are independent of, or only loosely
connected to its universities. In 2008, 62,000 scientists
were working in research and development in the city.[86]
Berlin is one of the centers of knowledge and innovation
communities of the European Institute of Innovation and
Technology (EIT).[122]

In addition to the libraries that are aliated with the various universities, the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin is a major
Main article: List of universities, colleges, and research research library. Its two main locations are on Potsdamer
institutions in Berlin
Strae and on Unter den Linden. There are also 86 pubThe Berlin-Brandenburg capital region is one of the most lic libraries in the city.[86] ResearchGate, a global social
prolic centers of higher education and research in Ger- networking site for scientists, is based in Berlin.


Galleries and museums



Main article: Culture in Berlin

The Alte Nationalgalerie is part of the Museum Island, a

UNESCO World Heritage Site

The Berlinale is considered to be the largest international

spectator lm festival.
The Jewish Museum presents two millennia of GermanJewish

Berlin is known for its numerous cultural institutions,

many of which enjoy international reputation.[22][123] The
diversity and vivacity of the metropolis led to a trendsetting atmosphere.[124] An innovative music, dance and art
scene has developed in the 21st century.
Young people, international artists and entrepreneurs
continued to settle in the city and made Berlin a popular entertainment center in Europe.[125]
The expanding cultural performance of the city was underscored by the relocation of the Universal Music Group
and MTV who decided to move their headquarters and
main studios to the banks of the River Spree.[126] In 2005,
Berlin was named City of Design by UNESCO.[20]


Apart from the Museum Island, there are many additional museums in the city. The Gemldegalerie (Painting Gallery) focuses on the paintings of the old masters from the 13th to the 18th centuries, while the Neue
Nationalgalerie (New National Gallery, built by Ludwig
Mies van der Rohe) specializes in 20th-century European
painting. The Hamburger Bahnhof, located in Moabit,
exhibits a major collection of modern and contemporary
art. In spring 2006, the expanded Deutsches Historisches
Museum re-opened in the Zeughaus with an overview of
German history through the fall of the Berlin Wall in
1989. The Bauhaus Archive is an architecture museum.

Galleries and museums

See also: List of museums and galleries in Berlin

As of 2011 Berlin is home to 138 museums and more
than 400 art galleries.[86] [127] The ensemble on the
Museum Island is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is
situated in the northern part of the Spree Island between
the Spree and the Kupfergraben.[22] As early as 1841 it
was designated a district dedicated to art and antiquities by a royal decree. Subsequently, the Altes Museum
was built in the Lustgarten. The Neues Museum, which
displays the bust of Queen Nefertiti,[128] Alte Nationalgalerie, Pergamon Museum, and Bode Museum were built The reconstructed Ishtar Gate of Babylon at the Pergamon Muthere. While these buildings once housed distinct collec- seum.
tions, the names of the buildings no longer necessarily
The Jewish Museum has a standing exhibition on two milcorrespond to the names of their collections.



lennia of German-Jewish history.[129] The German Museum of Technology in Kreuzberg has a large collection of historical technical artifacts. The Museum fr
Naturkunde exhibits natural history near Berlin Hauptbahnhof. It has the largest mounted dinosaur in the world
(a brachiosaurus), and a preserved specimen of the early
bird Archaeopteryx.[130]

Western and Central Europe, made Berlins club scene

a premier nightlife venue. After the fall of the Berlin
Wall in 1989, many historic buildings in Mitte, the former city center of East Berlin, were illegally occupied and
re-built by young squatters and became a fertile ground
for underground and counterculture gatherings. The central boroughs are home to many nightclubs, including the
In Dahlem, there are several museums of world art clubs Watergate, Tresor, E-Werk, and Berghain. The
KitKatClub and several other locations are known for sexand culture, such as the Museum of Asian Art, the
Ethnological Museum, the Museum of European Cul- ually uninhibited parties.
tures, as well as the Allied Museum (a museum of the Clubs are not required to close at a xed time on the
Cold War) and the Brcke Museum (an art museum). In weekends, and many parties last well into the morning, or
Lichtenberg, on the grounds of the former East German all weekend. Berghain features the Panorama Bar, a bar
Ministry for State Security (Stasi), is the Stasi Museum. that opens its shades at daybreak, allowing party-goers a
The site of Checkpoint Charlie, one of the most renowned panorama view of Berlin after dancing through the night.
crossing points of the Berlin Wall, is still preserved and The Weekend Club near Alexanderplatz features a roof
also has a museum, a private venture which exhibits com- terrace that allows partying at almost any time of the day.
prehensive documentation of detailed plans and strategies devised by people who tried to ee from the East.
The Beate Uhse Erotic Museum claims to be the worlds
largest erotic museum.[131]


Nightlife and festivals


The SO36 in Kreuzberg originally focused largely on

punk music, but today has become a venue for many performances. SOUND, located from 1971 to 1988 in Tiergarten and today in Charlottenburg, gained notoriety in
the late 1970s for its popularity with heroin users and
other drug addicts as described in Christiane F.'s book
Wir Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo.[133]
The Karneval der Kulturen (Carnival of Cultures), a
multi-ethnic street parade celebrated every Pentecost
weekend,[134] and the Christopher Street Day are both
supported by the citys government.[135] Berlin is also well
known for the cultural festival, Berliner Festspiele, which
includes the jazz festival JazzFest Berlin. Several technology and media art festivals and conferences are held
in the city, including Transmediale and Chaos Communication Congress. The annual Berlin Festival is focusing
on indie rock and electro pop and is part of the international Berlin Music Week.[136][137]

8.3 Performing arts

French Cathedral during the annual Festival of Lights

Main article: Music in Berlin

Berlin is home to 44 theaters and stages.[86] The
Berlins nightlife is one of the most diverse and vibrant of Deutsches Theater in Mitte was built in 184950 and has
its kind in Europe.[132] Throughout the 1990s, people in operated continuously since then, except for a one-year
their twenties from many countries, particularly those in break (194445) due to the Second World War. The


LGBT life

Karajan.[139] The current principal conductor is Simon
Rattle.[140] The Konzerthausorchester Berlin was founded
in 1952 as the orchestra for East Berlin, since the Philharmonic was based in West Berlin. Its current principal
conductor is Ivan Fischer. The Haus der Kulturen der
Welt presents various exhibitions dealing with intercultural issues and stages world music and conferences.[141]

8.4 LGBT life

Berlin has a long history of gay culture and according to
some authors, in the 1920s the city was the Gay Capital
of Europe. In 1896 Berlin started the rst gay magazine
and the rst gay demonstration was held in 1922.[142] Today the city again has a huge number of gay clubs and
Sir Simon Rattle conducting the renowned Berlin Philharmonic.
festivals. The most famous are Berlin Pride (one of Europes largest gay-lesbian pride event celebrated in June),
Volksbhne at Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz was built in 1913 the Lesbian and Gay City Festival in Berlin-Schneberg
14, though the company had been founded in 1890. The and Kreuzberg Pride in June, Dyke March and Hustlaball.
Berliner Ensemble, famous for performing the works of Berlin is also leading Europe in the number of fetish
Bertolt Brecht, was established in 1949, not far from clubs. Easter in Berlin and Folsom Europe Berlin
the Deutsches Theater. The Schaubhne was founded in are the biggest gay fetish festivals in Europe.[143] The
1962 in a building in Kreuzberg, but in 1981 moved to Schwules Museum (Gay Museum) is an LGBT museum
the building of the former Universum Cinema on Kur- which opened in 1985. The largest gay areas in Berlin
are located in Schneberg close to Nollendorfplatz, in
Prenzlauer Berg at the Schnhauser Allee.[144][145]

8.5 Cuisine

Dance show at Friedrichstadt-Palast

Berlin has three major opera houses: the Deutsche Oper,

the Berlin State Opera, and the Komische Oper. The
Berlin State Opera on Unter den Linden opened in 1742
and is the oldest of the three. Its current musical director is Daniel Barenboim. The Komische Oper has traditionally specialized in operettas and is located at Unter
den Linden as well. The Deutsche Oper opened in 1912
in Charlottenburg. During the division of the city from
1961 to 1989 it was the only major opera house in West
Berlin. The citys main venue for musical theater performances is the Theater des Westens (built 1895).

Twelve restaurants in Berlin have been included into

the Michelin guide, which ranks the city at the top for
the number of its restaurants having this distinction in
Germany.[146] Apart from that, Berlin is well known
for its vast oerings of vegetarian, vegan and organic

There are seven symphony orchestras in Berlin. The

Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the preeminent
orchestras in the world;[138] it is housed in the Berliner
Philharmonie near Potsdamer Platz on a street named
for the orchestras longest-serving conductor, Herbert von

Many local foods originated from north German culinary traditions and include rustic and hearty dishes with
pork, goose, sh, peas, beans, cucumbers, or potatoes.
German bakeries oering a variety of breads and pastries are widespread. Typical Berliner fares include

The Currywurst.



Currywurst, invented in 1949,[148] Buletten (Frikadeller) 8.7 Sports

and the Berliner known in Berlin as a Pfannkuchen.
Berlin is also home to a diverse gastronomy scene re- Main articles: Sport in Berlin and Football in Berlin
ecting the immigrant history of the city. Turkish and Berlin has established a high-prole reputation as a host
Arab immigrants brought their culinary traditions to the
city, such as the falafel and lahmacun, which have become common fast food staples. The modern version of
the dner kebab was invented in Berlin in 1971.[149] Thai
food, tapas bars, sushi restaurants and Italian cuisine can
be found in many parts of the city.


The Olympiastadion hosted the 1936 Summer Olympics and the
2006 FIFA World Cup Final.

The Berlin Zoo is the most visited zoo in Europe and presents the
most diverse range of species in the world.

Zoologischer Garten Berlin, the older of two zoos in the

city, was founded in 1844 and presents the most diverse The annual Berlin Marathon is known as a fast course.
range of species in the world.[150] It was the home of
the captive-born celebrity polar bear Knut.[151] The citys city of international sporting events.[156] The city hosted
other zoo, Tierpark Friedrichsfelde, was founded in 1955. the 1936 Summer Olympics and was the host city for the
The IAAF World ChamBerlins Botanischer Garten includes the Botanic Mu- 2006 FIFA World Cup nal.
the Olympiastadion in
seum Berlin. With an area of 43 hectares (110 acres)
and around 22,000 dierent plant species, it is one of the
largest and most diverse collections of botanical life in
the world. Other gardens in the city include the Britzer
Garten, and the Erholungspark Marzahn (also known as
Gardens of the World).[152]

The annual Berlin Marathona course that holds the

most Top 10 world record runsand the ISTAF are
well-established athletic events in the city.[159] The FIVB
World Tour, a beach volleyball Grand Slam event, is
The Tiergarten, located in Mitte, is Berlins largest presented at an inner-city site every year, while the
is one of the biggest skate and
park and was designed by Peter Joseph Lenn.[153] In Mellowpark in Kpenick
Kreuzberg, the Viktoriapark provides a viewing point
over the southern part of inner-city Berlin. Treptower A Fan Fest at Brandenburg Gate, which attracts several
Park, beside the Spree in Treptow, features a large So- hundred-thousand spectators, has become popular during
viet war memorial. The Volkspark in Friedrichshain, international football competitions, like the UEFA Eurowhich opened in 1848, is the oldest park in the city, with pean Championship.[161]
monuments, a summer outdoor cinema and several sports In 2013 around 600.000 Berliners were registered in one
of the more than 2.300 sports- and tness clubs.[162]
Berlin is also known for its numerous cafs, beach bars Several professional clubs representing the most imporalong the Spree River, ea markets and boutique shops tant spectator team sports in Germany have their base in
which are a source for recreation and leisure.[155]


See also

[15] Berlin Capital of Germany. German Embassy in

Washington. Retrieved 18 August 2008.

List of quotes featuring Berlin

[16] Davies, Catriona (10 April 2010). Revealed: Cities that

rule the world and those on the rise. CNN. Retrieved
11 April 2010.

Berolina, personication of the city



[1] Fortgeschriebene Bevlkerungszahlen vom November

2013. Amt fr Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German).
2013. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
[2] Prexes for vehicle registration were introduced in 1906,
but often changed due to the political changes after 1945.
Vehicles were registered under the following prexes: I
A (1906 April 1945; devalidated on 11 August 1945);
no prex, only digits (from July to August 1945), ""
(=BG; 194546, for cars, lorries and busses), "" (=GF;
19451946, for cars, lorries and busses), "M (=BM;
194547, for motor bikes), "M (=GM; 19451947, for
motor bikes), KB (i.e.: Kommandatura of Berlin; for all
of Berlin 194748, continued for West Berlin until 1956),
GB (i.e.: Greater Berlin, for East Berlin 194853), I
(for East Berlin, 195390), B (for West Berlin from 1
July 1956, continued for all of Berlin since 1990).
[3] Bruttoinlandsprodukt (nominal) in BERLIN seit 1995
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[4] Bevlkerungsstand in Berlin am 31. Dezember 2013
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[5] INSEE. Population des villes et units urbaines de plus de
1 million d'habitants de l'Union europenne (in French).
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[6] Daten und Fakten Hauptstadtregion. Retrieved 10 February 2013.


[7] Initiativkreis Europische Metropolregionen in

Berlin-Brandenburg. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
[8] PowerPoint-Prsentation (PDF). Retrieved 12 March
[9] City Proles Berlin. Urban Audit. Retrieved 20 August
[10] Gren Berlin. Lonely Planet. Retrieved 9 October 2009.
[11] Documents of German Unication, 18481871. Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
[12] Topographies of Class: Modern Architecture and Mass
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[17] Sifton, Sam (31 December 1969). Berlin, the big canvas. The New York Times. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
See also: Sites and situations of leading cities in cultural
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[18] Global Power City Index 2009. Institute for Urban
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[19] ICCA publishes top 20 country and city rankings 2007.
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[20] Berlin City of Design (Press release). UNESCO. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
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[22] World Heritage Site Museumsinsel. UNESCO. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
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[24] Flint, Sunshine (12 December 2004). The Club Scene,
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[25] Young Israelis are Flocking to Berlin. Newsweek (NYC,
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[26] Berger, Dieter (1999). Geographische Namen in Deutschland. Bibliographisches Institut. ISBN 3-411-06252-5.
[27] Berlin dig nds city older than thought. Associated
[28] Berlin ist lter als gedacht: Hausreste aus dem Jahr 1174
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[29] Spandau Citadel. Berlin tourist board. Archived from
the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
[30] The medieval trading center. Retrieved
11 June 2013.
[31] Stver B. Geschichte Berlins. Verlag CH Beck, 2010.
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[32] Stadtgrndung Und Frhe Stadtentwicklung, Luisenstdtischer Bildungsverein. Retrieved 10 June 2013

[13] Berlin Wall. Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved 18

August 2008.

[33] The Hohenzollern Dynasty. Antipas. Archived from the

original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 18 August 2008.

[14] Germany - Embassies and Consulates. Retrieved 23 August 2014.

[34] Berliner Unwillen. Verein fr die Geschichte Berlins e. V.

Retrieved 30 May 2013



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Maclean, Rory (2014). Berlin: Imagine a City. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-84803-5.

12 External links Ocial website (English)
Exberliner Monthly English-language magazine for
Berlin (English)
English-language city guide for Berlin (English)
Geographic data related to Berlin at OpenStreetMap





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