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Front. Energy Power Eng. China 2009, 3(1): 99108 DOI 10.1007/s11708-009-0013-1

RESEARCH ARTICLE

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Zhen HUANG, Xinqi QIAO, Wugao ZHANG, Junhua WU, Junjun ZHANG

Dimethyl ether as alternative fuel for CI engine and vehicle

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag 2009

Abstract As a developing and the most populous country in the world, China faces major challenges in energy supply and environmental protection. It is of great importance to develop clean and alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. On the basis of researches on DME engine and vehicle at Shanghai Jiaotong University in the last twelve years, fuel injection, combustion, performance and exhaust emissions of DME engine and DME vehicle are introduced in this paper. The results indicate that DME engines can achieve high thermal efciency and ultra low emissions, and will play a signicant role in meeting the energy demand while minimizing environmental impact in China.

Keywords dimethyl ether (DME), fuel injection, com- bustion process, emission control, CI engine, vehicle

com- bustion process, emission control, CI engine, vehicle 1 Introduction Dimethyl ether (DME), whose chemical formula

1 Introduction

Dimethyl ether (DME), whose chemical formula is CH 3 OCH 3 , is the simplest ether compound and has been known to be both non-toxic and environmentally benign. DME can be made from a wide variety of resources including coal, coalbed methane, natural gas and biomass etc. For engine use, DME has a high cetane number of approximately 5560, which makes DME ideal for use in a compression ignition (CI) engine. The chemical structure of DME with its high oxygen content promises a smoke-free combustion. DME is a relatively new alternative fuel for engine and vehicle. Researches on DME as fuel were initiated in 1995. Denmark Technical University, Haldor Topsoe A/S, Navis- tar, AVL, AMOCO etc. conducted extensive investigations on CI engines fueled with DME. Results show that DME

Received September 16, 2008; accepted November 25, 2008

Zhen HUANG (), Xinqi QIAO, Wugao ZHANG, Junhua WU, Junjun ZHANG Key Laboratory of Power Machinery and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China E-mail: z-huang@sjtu.edu.cn

will be a potential and promising fuel for more efcient and cleaner engine and vehicle [18]. As a developing and the most populous country in the world, China faces major challenges of energy supply and environmental protection. It is of great importance to develop clean and alternative fuels for internal combustion engines and vehicles. DME will be a solution for energy security and environmental protection in China. In the last decade, research and development of DME engine and vehicle was conducted actively in several universities in China [912]. Researches have been conducted on DME as alternative fuel for CI engine and vehicle, including DME fuel injection system, spray and combustion, engine perfor- mance and emissions, engine reliability and DME-tolerant seal material by the authors at Shanghai Jiaotong University since 1996 [13 18]. Furthermore, a turbo- charged 6114ZLQB DME engine and a DME city bus were successfully developed. This paper introduces the research results on DME fuel injection, combustion, performance and exhaust emissions of DME engine and DME vehicle.

and exhaust emissions of DME engine and DME vehicle. 2 Fuel properties and experimental apparatus The

2 Fuel properties and experimental

apparatus

The properties of DME and diesel fuel are shown in Table 1. It can be seen that the properties of DME are quite different from those of diesel fuel. DME has high vapor pressure and low boiling temperature, which is a gas fuel at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Its handling characteristics are very similar to LPG, a widely used fuel for spark ignition engines. The heat value of DME is signicantly lower than conventional diesel fuel. There- fore, the fuel supply and injection system, and the combustion system of the engine should be redesigned or modied. In this study, experiments were conducted on a naturally aspirated direct injection (DI) CI 2135 diesel engine and a D6114 turbocharged heavy-duty CI engine respectively.

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Table 1 Properties of DME and diesel fuel

property (unit or condition)

DME

diesel fuel

Table 2 Technical parameters of 2135 diesel engine and DME engine

DME engine diesel engine

chemical formula

mole weight/g

boiling point/°C

liquid density/(g$ cm 3 )

liquid viscosity/cP

low heat value/(MJ$ kg 1 )

ignition temperature/°C

cetane number

stoichiometric air/fuel ratio/(kg$ kg 1 )

mass fraction of carbon

mass fraction of hydrogen

mass fraction of oxygen

modulus of elasticity/(N$ m 2 )

CH 3 OCH 3

46.07

24.9

0.668

0.15

28.43

235

55 60

9.0

52.2

13.0

34.8

6.37 10 8

bore stroke/(mm mm)

170

compression ratio

135

145

16.51

29.4, 1500

180 360

0.84

4.4 5.4

42.5

250

40 55

14.6

86

14

0

1.486 10 9

rated power/ kW, rated speed/(r$ min 1 )

plunger diameter/mm

10

8

nozzle number ori ce diameter/(1 mm)

4 0.55

4 0.35

nozzle opening pressure/MPa

15

18

Table 3 Technical parameters of D6114 turbocharged diesel engine and DME engine

DME engine diesel engine

bore stroke/(mm mm)

135 145

compression ratio

181

displacement/cm 3

8270

ratio 18 ∶ 1 displacement/cm 3 8270 Fig. 1 Schematic of DME engine experimental system The

Fig. 1 Schematic of DME engine experimental system

The DME engine experimental system is shown in Fig. 1 and engine specications and modications are illustrated in Tables 2 and 3. The fuel supply system contains a pressurized fuel tank, appropriate pipelines and valve, and a fuel supply pump, which is capable of delivering fuel to the high pressure pump at a pressure of up to 1.5 MPa to prevent cavitations and vapor choke within the fuel pipeline and the fuel injection system. In the fuel return pipeline, a cooler is used to decrease the temperature of DME. To keep the output of the DME engine the same as that of the diesel engine, it is necessary to increase the injection rate and quantity. Therefore, the diameter and the stroke of the plunger, and the nozzle diameter were enlarged and the adjustment of nozzle opening pressure was also made. A lubricant additive was added to improve the lubrication of DME fuel, due to its low viscosity and poor lubrication. Since conventional rubber materials are not chemically compatible and will deteriorate after exposure to DME whose resolvability is high, a DME- tolerant seal material was developed and used on the DME engine system.

rated power/ kW, rated speed/(r$ min 1 )

184.1, 2200

maximum torque/(N$m), speed/(r$ min 1 )

1000,1400

plunger diameter/mm

13,12

nozzle number ori ce diameter/(1 mm)

6 0.4

fuel delivery advance angle (CA BTDC)/(°)

9,12

nozzle opening pressure/MPa

16

diameter of high pressure pipe/mm

2.2

12

6 0.24

9

21

1.8

The effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and oxidation catalyst converter (DOC) on exhaust emission control were also investigated. The layout of EGR and DOC are shown in Fig. 2. Exhaust gas after the turbine ows through an EGR valve and an EGR cooler, and then enters the intake pipe before the compressor. The DOC is installed in the exhaust pipe to reduce HC and CO emissions. The EGR rate can be obtained by the following equation:

EGR

rate ¼ CO 2 int CO 2 ambient

CO 2 ext CO

2 ambient ,

(1)

a t e ¼ CO 2 int – CO 2 ambient CO 2 e x t

Fig. 2 Layout of EGR and DOC

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here, CO 2 int , CO 2 ambient , and CO 2 ext indicate the CO 2 concentration in air intake before the compressor, at ambient condition and in the exhaust gas, respectively. The DME fuel consumption was measured by an electronic scale. The cylinder pressure was measured using a Kistler Model 6125A pressure transducer. The charge output from this transducer was converted to an ampli ed voltage using a Kistler Model 5015 ampli er. The 1440 pulses per rotation (four pulses per crank angle) from a shaft encoder on the engine crankshaft were used as the data acquisition clocking pulses to acquire the cylinder pressure data. Based on measured cylinder pressure, the heat release rate (HRR) is calculated and analyzed. NO x , CO, HC, and CO 2 emissions were measured by an AVL CEB serials gas analyzer. Smoke emission was tested by a fully-automated fqd-102A smoke meter and PM was measured by an AVL 472 Smart Sampler PC.

meter and PM was measured by an AVL 472 Smart Sampler PC. 3 Results and discussion

3 Results and discussion

3.1 DME fuel injection

The characteristics of DME fuel injection, including pipeline pressure, needle lift, acoustics velocity, injection delay and ignition delay were measured in a 2135 CI engine. Figure 3 shows the comparison of fuel pipeline pressures at pump side between DME and diesel fuel. It is indicated that under conditions of the same fuel delivery advance angle and load, the peak pipeline pressure and pressure rise rate of DME are much lower than those of

diesel fuel. For instance, at full load, the peak pressures of

DME and diesel fuel are 36.4 MPa

respectively, which is believed to be caused by the relatively larger nozzle orice, the lower nozzle opening pressure and the larger compressibility of DME. With the

decrease in engine load, the pipeline pressure decreases and its phase retards as in the case of DME. Figure 4 shows the comparison of the acoustics velocity

and 51.6 MPa

shows the comparison of the acoustics velocity and 51.6 MPa Fig. 3 Comparison of line pressure

Fig. 3 Comparison of line pressure at nozzle side between DME and diesel fuel

between DME and diesel fuel. It can be seen that with the decrease in engine load, both acoustics velocity of DME and diesel fuel are reduced. At 100 %, 75% and 50% engine load, the acoustics velocity of DME are 810 m/s, 675 m/s and 578.6 m/s respectively; while the acoustics velocity of diesel fuel are 1227.3 m/s, 1157.1 m/s and 1094.5 m/s respectively. The acoustics velocity of DME is much lower than that of diesel fuel. Figure 5 further illustrates a comparison of variations of injection delay and ignition delay between DME engine and diesel fuel engine. With the decrease in engine load, the injection delay increases. At 100% , 75% and 50% engine load, the injection delay increases by 36.4% , 43.5% and 46.2 % respectively in comparison with that of diesel fuel. Differences in acoustics velocity and injection delay between DME and diesel fuel mainly result from the relatively larger compressibility of DME. Furthermore, as shown in Fig. 5, at 100% , 75% and 50% engine load, the ignition delay decreases by 23.1 % , 21.15% and 18.5% , compared with diesel fuel, which is thought to be caused by a higher cetane number of DME. As a result, since the increment in injection delay of DME

As a result, since the increment in injection delay of DME Fig. 4 Comparison of acoustics

Fig. 4 Comparison of acoustics velocity between DME and diesel fuel

Comparison of acoustics velocity between DME and diesel fuel Fig. 5 Variation of injection delay and

Fig. 5 Variation of injection delay and ignition delay of DME in comparison with diesel fuel

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is larger than the reduction in ignition delay, it is found that at the condition of the same fuel delivery advance angle, the start of ignition timing of DME is retarded in comparison with diesel fuel. The retardation of ignition timing of DME is more obvious as the engine load decreases.

3.2 DME engine combustion and performance

Engine combustion and performance fuelled with DME was further investigated in a D6114 turbocharged CI engine. Figure 6 shows the comparison of cylinder pressure, HRR, accumulated heat release and rates of pressure rise between the DME engine and the diesel engine at full load and

different engine speeds. It can be seen that the peak value of cylinder pressure and HRR of DME are lower than those of diesel fuel and the phase of pressure and HRR rise are retarded in comparison with diesel fuel. At the condition of fuel delivery advance angle of 9° (CA BTDC), engine speed of 800 r/min and full load, the maximum cylinder pressure is 8.2 MPa at 16° (CA ATDC) in the case of DME and 10.1 MPa at 11° (CA ATDC) in the case of diesel fuel, respectively, with a phase difference of 5° (CA). The maximum rate of pressure rise of DME is much lower than that of diesel fuel. The same phenomena can be found at conditions of engine speeds of 1400 r/min and 2200 r/min, as shown in Fig. 6. The relatively low maximum cylinder pressure, HRR and rate of pressure rise and phase

cylinder pressure, HRR and rate of pressure rise and phase Fig. 6 Comparison of cylinder pressure,

Fig. 6 Comparison of cylinder pressure, HRR, accumulated heat release and rates of pressure rise between DME engine and diesel engine (for DME engine, plunger diameter = 12 mm, nozzle type: 6 0.40 mm)

(a) 800 r/min, p e = 0.87 MPa; (b) 1400 r/min, p e = 1.52 MPa; (c) 2200 r/min, p e = 1.21 MPa

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retardation of DME is considered to result from the relatively shorter ignition delay caused by higher cetane number of DME and the later ignition timing caused by relatively larger injection delay. Moreover, it is worth noticing that although the ignition timing of DME is retarded in comparison with diesel fuel, the end of heat release of DME is almost the same as that of diesel fuel. The combustion duration tends to be shorter than that of diesel fuel, especially in the cases of engine speed of 800 r/min and 1400 r/min. It is believed that the high vapor pressure, the low boiling temperature and the high oxygen content of DME lead to rapid fuel evaporation, good fuel/air mixture formation and prompt combustion. Figure 7 shows the comparison of engine torque and power between DME and diesel fuel engine. It is found that both the torque and the power of DME are greater than those of diesel at all engine speeds, especially at lower engine speed. The torque of the DME engine is increased by 29.1% and 32.8% at the speed of 1000 r/min and 900 r/min, respectively, in comparison with the diesel engine. Maxi- mum output is usually determined by smoke limitation in diesel engines. However, there is no smoke limitation in DME engine due to its smoke-free combustion.

limitation in DME engine due to its smoke-free combustion. Fig. 7 Comparison of engine torque and

Fig. 7 Comparison of engine torque and power between DME and diesel fuel engine

Figure 8 shows the variation of brake speci c fuel consumption (BSFC) with engine speed and load. In order to make a comparison of the BSFC between the DME engine and the diesel engine, the fuel consumption of DME is converted to that of diesel fuel based on the low heating value. The equivalent BSFC of DME fuel is de ned as

BSFC ¼ BSFE DME

h

DME

h

,

diesel

where h DME and h diesel are the lower heating values of DME and diesel fuel respectively. It can be seen that for both fuels, the lowest BSFC is obtained in the range of speed where the maximum torque is achieved. It is found that in the case of

maximum torque is achieved. It is found that in the case of Fig. 8 Variation of

Fig. 8 Variation of BSFC with engine speed and load

(a) Full load; (b) 1400 r/min; (c) 2200 r/min

full load, when engine speed is less than 1500 r/min, the equivalent BSFC of DME is better than that of diesel fuel. When engine speed is larger than 1500 r/min, the equivalent BSFC of DME is poorer than that of diesel fuel, which indicates that at high engine speed, the fuel consumption will

deteriorate due to the lower heating value of DME.

With an increase in engine load, both BSFC of DME and diesel fuel are decreased. At the speed of 1400 r/min, the equivalent BSFC of DME engine is lower than that of the diesel engine at all test loads, especially at low load. At the speed of 2200 r/min, the equivalent BSFC of the DME engine is almost the same as that of the diesel engine at low

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load. With the increase of engine load, the equivalent BSFC of the DME engine tends to be higher than that of the diesel engine, especially at medium and high engine load. Due to the lower heating value of DME, to keep the engine output the same as that of the diesel engine, about 1.9 times as much as the diesel fuel volume should be injected into the combustion chamber per cycle, which leads to prolonged injection duration and combustion duration at high engine speed, and results in the deterioration of fuel consumption of DME.

3.3 DME engine exhaust emissions

Figure 9 shows the comparison of NO x emission between DME and diesel fuel under different engine loads and at engine speeds of 1400 r/min and 2200 r/min. It is illustrated that the DME engine exhibits substantial reduction in NO x emission at all test range of loads and speeds. At the BMEP of 1.52 MPa and engine speed of 1400 r/min, NO x emission of the DME engine is reduced

by 28.1% , in comparison with that of the diesel engine. At 2200 r/min, the NO x emission is reduced more signi- cantly for the DME engine. Reduction of NO x is mainly attributed to the physicochemical properties of DME. For the DME engine, retardation of ignition timing due to longer fuel injection delay, shorter ignition delay due to high cetane number and larger latent heat of DME lead to a decrease in cylinder pressure and local temperature which result in a reduction of NO x emission. The comparison of HC and CO emission between the DME engine and the diesel engine under different engine loads at an engine speed of 1400 r/min and 2200 r/min is shown in Figs. 10 and 11. HC emission of DME is signicantly lower than that of diesel fuel at all test range of loads and speeds. Meanwhile, with the increase of engine load, HC emission tends to decrease. It is supposed that the low boiling temperature and high vapor pressure of DME will promote fuel atomization, mixture formation and combustion which result in low HC emission. CO emission of the DME engine is almost the same as

CO emission of the DME engine is almost the same as Fig. 9 Comparison of NO

Fig. 9 Comparison of NO x emission between DME engine and diesel engine

(a) 1400 r/min; (b) 2200 r/min

DME engine and diesel engine (a) 1400 r/min; (b) 2200 r/min Fig. 10 Comparison of HC

Fig. 10 Comparison of HC emission between DME engine and diesel engine

(a) 1400 r/min; (b) 2200 r/min

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Zhen HUANG et al. Dimethyl ether as alternative fuel 105 Fig. 11 Comparison of CO emission

Fig. 11 Comparison of CO emission between DME engine and diesel engine

(a)1400 r/min; (b) 2200 r/min

that of the diesel engine at low engine load. It is interesting to note that CO emission of the DME engine is higher than that of the diesel engine at high and medium engine loads, with emission levels of 120 10 6 to 220 10 6 . It is considered that rich burning of DME at high load results in an increase of CO. However, further study is necessary to verify this possible mechanism. The comparison of smoke emission between the DME engine and the diesel engine under different loads at an engine speed of 1400 r/min and 2200 r/min is indicated in Fig. 12. DME presents almost zero emission of smoke at all test engine loads and speeds. High oxygen content and absence of CC bonds in the molecular structure of DME promises a smoke-free combustion. Figure 13 shows the results of ESC emission test of the DME engine. Thirteen modes of ESC tests were conducted. The results show that without common rail injection system, EGR and after-treatment system, NO x , HC, CO and PM emissions of the DME engine are 19.7% , 80.5 %, 62.5% and 50% below Euro III respectively. The requirements for EURO III are satised with the DME engine with in-line fuel pump. The baseline diesel engine can only narrowly meet Europe II.

3.4 Effects of EGR and DOC on emissions

In order to meet more stringent emission regulation, effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and oxidation catalyst converter (DOC) on exhaust emission were evaluated. Figure 14(a) shows the effect of EGR rate on NO x emission under different engine loads at the speed of 1400 r/min. It is indicated that substantial reduction in NO x emission without smoke is obtained by means of EGR. With the increase of EGR rate, NO x emission is decreased remarkably. In the case of BMEP of 1.52 MPa and 10% EGR rate, the NO x is reduced by 51.8 % . In the case of BMEP of 0.76 MPa and 25% EGR rate, the NO x is reduced by 67.8 %. With EGR, reduction of local temperature and oxygen concentration within the cylinder results in the suppression of NO x formation. EGR has in uence on engine fuel consumption, as shown in Fig. 14(b). At low load, the BSFC of the DME engine is improved with EGR. At medium load, with the increase of EGR rate, the BSFC rst decreases, then increases when EGR rate is larger than 15% . At full load, when EGR rate is larger than 10% , the BSFC tends to deteriorate. It appears that there is no loss in fuel consumption for test EGR rate in the case of BMEP of

in fuel consumption for test EGR rate in the case of BMEP of Fig. 12 Comparison

Fig. 12 Comparison of smoke emission between DME engine and diesel engine

(a) 1400 r/min; (b) 2200 r/min

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Fig. 13 Results of ESC emission test of DME engine

0.38 MPa, when EGR rate is less than 25% in the case of BMEP of 0.76 MPa, and EGR rate is less than 10% in the case of BMEP of 1.52 MPa. It is believed that at low load, combustion will be promoted due to the introduction of exhaust gas; therefore, fuel consumption is improved. At high load, combustion will be suppressed and combustion

duration will be prolonged due to the relatively low air/fuel ratio within the cylinder, which will lead to deterioration of fuel consumption. The effect of EGR rate on HC and CO emissions under different engine loads at the speed of 1400 r/min is shown in Figs. 14(c) and (d). With the increase of EGR rate, HC emission increases slightly. At all test EGR rates, HC emission is maintained at a low level. It is worth noticing that EGR has a great in uence on CO emission. With the increase of EGR rate, CO emission increases. Especially when EGR rate is over a certain value and the engine runs at medium and high load, CO emission increases considerably. It is indicated that CO emission increases dramatically when EGR rate is larger than 12% in the case of BMEP of 1.52 MPa, 22 % in the case of BMEP of 0.76 MPa and 35 % in the case of BMEP of 0.38 MPa. Deterioration of CO emission is considered to be attributed to reduction in local air/fuel ratio and temperature with the introduction of exhaust gas. However, HC and CO emissions can be readily reduced by an oxidation catalyst converter. In this work, effect of EGR on smoke is also investigated. The result indicates that the chemical

is also investigated. The result indicates that the chemical Fig. 14 Effect of EGR rate on

Fig. 14 Effect of EGR rate on exhaust emission of DEM engine

(a) NO x emission; (b) fuel consumption; (c) HC emission; (d) CO emission

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structure of DME with its high oxygen content promises high EGR tolerance. Figure 15 further shows the effect of DOC on HC and CO emissions of the DME engine at different engine load at the speed of 1400 r/min. It is illustrated that HC and CO emissions is reduced signi cantly with an emission level of less than 10 10 6 by means of DOC. For instance, in the case of BMEP of 0.378 MPa, HC and CO emissions are reduced by 87% and 92 % respectively. As a result, it is believed that DME engine with EGR and DOC will satisfy more stringent emission regulation.

3.5 Performance of DME city bus

On the basis of DME engine research, a dedicated DME fuel supply, injection and combustion system were developed. In 2005, the rst DME city bus in China was successfully developed in cooperation with Shanghai Auto Industry and Shanghai Diesel Works. In 2007, ten DME city buses were manufactured by Shanghai Auto Industry for demonstration and public use, as shown in Fig. 16.

The performance of the DME city bus is tested according to the national vehicle standard. Table 4 shows the test results. The noise of acceleration of the DME bus is 80.6 dB(A), which is 2.3 dB(A) lower than that of the baseline diesel bus. The noise within the bus is 77.8 dB(A), which is 2.5 dB(A) lower than that of the baseline diesel bus. The maximum speed (25 60 km/h) and the accelera- tion time satisfy the requirements of the national standard. The fuel consumption of the DME bus was measured under a condition of constant vehicle speed of 50 km/h. The equivalent fuel consumption is 17.78 L/100 km, which is better than that of the baseline diesel bus.

km, which is better than that of the baseline diesel bus. 4 Conclusions 1) The injection

4 Conclusions

1) The injection delay of DME is longer than that of diesel fuel due to the lower acoustics velocity resulting from the higher compressibility of DME. The ignition delay of DME is shorter than that of diesel fuel due to the higher cetane number of DME. Since the increment in

to the higher cetane number of DME. Since the increment in Fig. 15 Effect of DOC

Fig. 15 Effect of DOC on HC and CO emissions

(a) HC emission; (b) CO emission

DOC on HC and CO emissions (a) HC emission; (b) CO emission Fig. 16 DME city

Fig. 16 DME city bus developed by the project

(a) First DME city bus in China; (b) Shanghai DME city bus demonstration

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Table 4 Performance of DME city bus

test item

DME

national standard

1 noise outside bus

2 noise inside bus

3 acceleration smoke

4 maximum speed

5 2560 km/h acceleration time

80.6 dB(A)

77.8 dB(A)

zero

83.2 km/h

34.9 s

satisfy

79 dB(A)

80 km/h

50 s

injection delay of DME is much larger than the reduction in ignition delay, the start of ignition timing of DME is retarded in comparison with diesel fuel. 2) The peak value of cylinder pressure and HRR of DME are lower than that of diesel fuel and the phase of pressure and HRR rise is retarded in comparison with diesel fuel. However, the combustion duration tends to be shorter than that of diesel fuel. It is believed that the high vapor pressure, the low boiling temperature and the high oxygen content of DME lead to rapid fuel evaporation, good fuel/air mixture formation and prompt combustion. 3) Both the torque and the power of the DME engine are greater than those of the diesel engine at all engine speeds, especially at lower engine speed. At low and medium engine speeds, the equivalent BSFC of DME is better than that of diesel fuel. However, at high engine speed, the fuel consumption will deteriorate due to the lower heating value of DME. 4) The DME engine exhibits a substantial reduction in NO x and HC emissions and promises a smoke-free combustion at all test range of loads and speeds, while CO emission increases slightly in comparison with diesel fuel. 5) A substantial reduction in NO x emission without smoke is obtained by means of EGR. With the introduction of exhaust gas, the fuel consumption is improved at low load. However, the fuel consumption and CO emission deteriorate when EGR rate exceeds a certain value, which is strongly related with engine load. 6) The HC and CO emissions are signi cantly reduced to an emission level of less than 10 10 6 by means of DOC. The DME engine with EGR and DOC will satisfy more stringent emission regulation.

Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Clean Auto Action program (No. 2003BA408B12A) of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China.

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