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AUXILIARY for the Future & Future Perfect, 1st person Sg. + Pl.

SHALL

MODAL

PROMISE; RESTRICTION, COMPULSION( You shall,


You shant)
LEGAL OBLIGATION/in Contract Clauses( They shall).
OFFERING HELP( Shall I?)

SUBJUNCTIVE
SUGGESTIONS( Shall we?)

AUXILIARY for:

Future in the Past


the Conditional Present + Past (Main Clauses)
1st person Sg. + Pl.

if + should : tentative condition

SHOULD
MODAL : OBLIGATION; ADVICE; REPROACH; PROBABILITY.

SUBJUNCTIVE required by:


- the verbs: - to ask, to require, to request, to suggest, to recommend,
to advice, to urge, to desire, to want, to intend; etc.
- to be anxious, to be eager, to be impatient, to be
surprised, to be amazed, to be willing, to be determined;
- the conjunctions: - so that, in order that, for fear that, provided that,
lest, why;
- the impersonal phrases: - it is imposible/ certain/ sure/ strange/
advisable/ important/ necessary/ etc.(that).

AUXILIARY for the Future Perfect, 2nd & 3rd person Sg. + Pl.
WILL

VOLITION; PROMISE; THREAT( I will)


MODAL

OFFER and REQUEST( Will you?)


if + will : If you will kindly.
FREQUENCY.

SUBJUNCTIVE required by

- to be determinated (that),
- so that, for fear that.

AUXILIARY for the Future in the Past, the Conditional Present & Past
(Main Clauses), 2nd & 3rd person Sg. + Pl.
WOULD

VOLITION( I would)
MODAL

POLITE OFFER and REQUEST( Would You?)


FREQUENCY/HABIT.

SUBJUNCTIVE required by

-the verb wish,


-the conjuction for fear that.

NOTIONAL

( = to exist )
Continuous Aspect of the PASSIVE VOICE

TO BE

AUXILIARY for the


PASSIVE VOICE

MODAL

ORDERS/ INSTRUCTIONS
A PLAN

CAUSATIVE (=to get i.e. cause someone do something)

NOTIONAL ( = to own, to possess )

TO HAVE

AUXILIARY for the Perfect Tenses


Present Perfect - to have in the Present
Past Perfect - to have in the Past
Future Perfect - to have in the Future

MODAL - OBLIGATION imposed by circumstances/ external authority.


CAUSATIVE (=to get i.e. cause someone do something)

MODALS

PERSONAL versus
concerning persons

CAN(T), COULD(NT):-(IN)ABILITY

IMPERSONAL
concerning situations

POSSIBILITY/ IMPOSSIBILITY

to be (cap)able to - for the other tenses.

MAY, MIGHT

PERMISSION

PROBABILITY

to be allowed/ permitted to - for the other tenses.


MAY NOT

PROHIBITION(may not, might not),

MIGHT

REPROACH( might + short infinitive, PROBABILITY

might + Perfect infinitive).

MUST

NECESSITY (I must)
OBLIGATION (You must)
INSISTENCE (You must)

CERTAINTY

MUSTNT

INTERDICTION

TO HAVE TO,
HAD TO, HAD TO

NECESSITY

NEEDNT,

LACK OF OBLIGATION/ LACK OF NECESSITY

DIDNT NEED+TO INF.

unnecessary action not performed

NEEDNT+PERF.INF.

action performed, though unnecessary

TO BE TO

- ORDERS/ INSTRUCTIONS
- A PLAN

SHALL, SHOULD

LEGAL OBLIGATION (they shall)


SUGGESTION (shalll we?)
OFFERING HELP (shall I/ we?)
RESTRICTION; COMPULSION (you shant)
OBLIGATION;ADVICE;PROBABILITY (should)
REPROACH (should, shouldnt).

WILL, WOULD -

OFFER; REQUEST (will/ would you?)


VOLITION;PROMISE;THREAT (Iwill/ will not)
FREQUENCY/ HABIT (will, would).