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Rotameter

6. Respiration
Type

Wright respirometer
the revolution of the rotor
responds to the air flow

Principle

Rotameter
Volumeter
Pneumotachograph
Venturi tube
Hot-wire anemometer
Time-of-flight flowmeter
Ultrasonic flowmeter
Vortex flowmeter
Turbulent flowmeter

Rotation of a rotor
Rotation of a rotor
Air resistance
Dynamic pressure
Heat dissipation
Traveling time
Sound velocity
Generated vortices
Pressure drop

one direction

Fleisch Pneumotachograph

Volumeter

Pressure drop

Drger volumeter

Wire screen
Poiseuille's Law
fluid viscosity

Metal foil
parallel lumen

two direction

avoid water condensation

Venturi Tube

Turbulent Flowmeter
Bernoullis theorem

To differential pressure gauge

1
U 2 P const
2
To differential pressure gauge

Cylindrical
chamber

2
1 A2 2
1 U
2 A1

The pressure difference is proportional to


the square of the flow velocity.

: density
U: velocity
P: pressure

To differential pressure gauge

Flow-through tube
This geometry produces turbulent
flow, and causes a pressure drop
proportional to the square of the
flow rate between the upstream
and downstream tubes.

P Q 2

Flow-through tube

Cross-sectional
area

A1

A2

Servo-control Circuits for


Hot-wire Anemometer

Hot-wire Anemometer

Constant wire temperature

Tw: wire temperature


Tg: gas temperature
d: diameter of the wire
l: length of the wire
: heat transfer coefficient
k: thermal conductivity of gas

H dl (Tw Tg )

Wire support
The gas flow velocity is estimated by the amount of heat
transfer from the wire to the gas, and the temperature
difference between the wire and gas temperatures.

Nu k / d

H ( a b U )(Tw T g )
Heat dissipation:

H RI 2

Tw Tg
N u
2T

0.17

Constant temperature difference between the wire and the gas

A BU
n

Nusselt Number

the ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer

pulsed-wire technique

Bidirectional Hot-wire
Anemometer
(flow velocity)

Time-of-flight Flowmeter
Flow velocity is measured by introducing a tracer into the upstream and
detecting it in the downstream.
When the separation between the introducing and detecting sites is known, flow
velocity can be determined by the time-of-flight of the tracer.
The most convenient tracer is a heated gas bolus.
Pulsed wire

(flow direction)

Time Course of Time-of-flight


Flowmeter
a short pulse current is applied to the wire

elevates then decreases due to the heat dissipation from the wire to the gas

Sensor wire

Parallel arrangement

Pulsed wire

Sensor wire

Right-angle arrangement

Pulsed-wire Time-of-flight
Gas Flowmeter
detecting ambient temperature fluctuation

The heated gas bolus moves downstream and


reaches the sensor wire

increases due to the heated gas bolus


hitting the sensor wire

Mosse and Roberts 1987

Time-of-flight Flowmeter Using


Sing-around Method

Sing-around Method

a signal detected by the detecting


(sensor) wire triggers the next pulse
applied to the heating (pulsed) wire

switch the transducers and measure the


transit-time difference for N sing-around
loops up and down stream

Ultrasonic Flowmeter
Transit time of
D
downstream t1
c U cos
sound wave

frequency output is proportional


to the flow velocity

measures the total time it takes to


complete the N sing-around loops

Transit time of
D
upstream
t2
c U cos
sound wave

Diagonal Beam Ultrasonic


Flowmeter Head
cross section
Short ultrasonic pulse
trains are transmitted
downstream and
upstream simultaneously
at 500 Hz

=0
Diagonal

Coaxial

c t
c

2 D cos 2D cos
2

U: flow velocity
c: sound velocity
D: distance between two crystals
: beam angle with respect to the flow
: phase difference

=0
Ultrasonic transmission
channel

Cylindrical

T=ultrasonic transceiver

Cylindrical Shell Ultrasonic


Flowmeter Head

Long tube
termination

Buess et al. 1986

Krmn Vortex Flowmeter


Number of vortices
generated in unit time

StU
d

U: flow velocity
d: diameter of the vortex
generator
St: Strouhal number, a
dimensionless number
describing oscillating flow
mechanisms

Swirlmeter

Spirometry

Thermal sensor

Swirler

Objective
To assess ventilatory function of the lung

To assess ventilatory capacity:


forced vital capacity (FVC)
maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) etc.
amplifier
swirl producing
component

To assess airway obstruction:

Swirl flow
deswirl
component When the gas passes through the blades, it spins
forming vortices.
The vortices is detected by a thermal sensor, and
the gas flow rate is determined by the number of
sensor
vortices passing at the sensor in a unit time interval.
meter body

Benedict-Roth
Spirometer

the elevation of the bell


is proportional to the
expired air into the bell.

forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1)


FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)

Bell Displacement Measurement


Plastic bell

Bell
oxygen uptake measurement

Water seal
CO2 absorber

Rotating drum
Pure
oxygen
Water seal

Pen
the displacement of the bell or
bellows is detected electronically.

Counter weight
to balance atmospheric
pressure

Mouth piece

Respiration

Linear potentiometer

Spirometer System
Bellows for Dry Spirometer
various bellows are used instead of water seals
light-weight portable instruments

Straight bellows type

SpiroTech S780
CareFusion Corp.

Wedge type

Rolling seal type

Hand Held Spirometer

Spirometer and Flow Sensor


SuperSpiro
Micro Medical Ltd.

Spirobank
FutureMed America Inc.

For a confined gas held at a constant temperature,


pV = constant Boyle's law

IQspiro Digital Spirometer


Midmark Corp.

Body Plethysmograph

Body Plethysmographies

Elite Body Plethysmography System


Medical Graphics Corp.

the lung volume change is measured by the volume change of the body

Mouthpiece

P
P

P0
V L

V L

P
V0
P0

V0

VL
P P0
gas volume
in the lung

VL
Detecting pressure change while
maintain constant volume

Detecting volume change while


maintaining constant pressure

V
P0
P

Closed-circuit system

Inductance Plethysmography

Impedance Pneumography

measures the changes in


thoracic and abdominal
cross-sectional area.

R
20-100kHz
25-500uA

Lung volume change

V K1R K 2 A

Two-electrode system

Four-electrode system

Sensitivity of Impedance Pneumography


at Different Somatotype
Z/V in human Ohms/Liter of air breathed

Impedance Pneumogram and


Spirometric Record
Baker 1979

V
Rib number

respired volume change

Z
453.23W 1.084
V

Baker and Geddes 1970

(/L)

W: body weight (kg)


transthoracic impedance change

Z/V in dog Ohms/Liter of air breathed

Oxygen-uptake in Exercise
Essential function:

Portable Oxygen-uptake
Measurement

a hood covers the head, a servo controlled blower draws


outside air through the hood, adjusting its volume flow in
order to keep the oxygen concentration in the hood
constant.
The flow rate of the blower is measured with a flowmeter,
and oxygen concentration is measured by an oxygen meter.

Ventilation
Circulation
Metabolism

The maximum capacity of oxygen


transport
limits the maximum work load
Oxygen-uptake is the most important
parameter
Also known as VO2, ventilation of oxygen.
A measure of how much oxygen your body
is consuming at any given time.
Unit: mL/min, L/min of oxygen consumed.

Continuous Oxygen-uptake
Measurement
C
A mask covers subjects head, fresh air is
drawn into the mask.
A pump adjusts air flow Q to keep the
oxygen concentration in the mask constant.

O2out

Respiratory Monitoring
Objective

detection of abnormal respirations

Central sleep apnoea

brain's respiratory control centers malfunction

Obstructive sleep apnoea


Second mixing chamber
with metal meshes and a
honeycomb

obstruction of the upper airway

Small tidal volume

500ml or 7ml/kg bodyweight

Low respiration rate

CO2in
Oxygen-uptake:

12-20 bpm

VO2 Q CO2in CO2out

Airflow Sensors
Oronasal sensors:
Temperature
Pressure
Hot-wire anemometer
Ultrasound
Moisture

Breathing Pattern
Airflow - thermistor

Snore - microphone

Wearable during sleep


Disposable sensors available