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# Rotameter

6. Respiration
Type

Wright respirometer
the revolution of the rotor
responds to the air flow

Principle

Rotameter
Volumeter
Pneumotachograph
Venturi tube
Hot-wire anemometer
Time-of-flight flowmeter
Ultrasonic flowmeter
Vortex flowmeter
Turbulent flowmeter

Rotation of a rotor
Rotation of a rotor
Air resistance
Dynamic pressure
Heat dissipation
Traveling time
Sound velocity
Generated vortices
Pressure drop

one direction

Fleisch Pneumotachograph

Volumeter

Pressure drop

Drger volumeter

Wire screen
Poiseuille's Law
fluid viscosity

Metal foil
parallel lumen

two direction

## avoid water condensation

Venturi Tube

Turbulent Flowmeter
Bernoullis theorem

## To differential pressure gauge

1
U 2 P const
2
To differential pressure gauge

Cylindrical
chamber

2
1 A2 2
1 U
2 A1

## The pressure difference is proportional to

the square of the flow velocity.

: density
U: velocity
P: pressure

## To differential pressure gauge

Flow-through tube
This geometry produces turbulent
flow, and causes a pressure drop
proportional to the square of the
flow rate between the upstream
and downstream tubes.

P Q 2

Flow-through tube

Cross-sectional
area

A1

A2

## Servo-control Circuits for

Hot-wire Anemometer

Hot-wire Anemometer

## Tw: wire temperature

Tg: gas temperature
d: diameter of the wire
l: length of the wire
: heat transfer coefficient
k: thermal conductivity of gas

H dl (Tw Tg )

Wire support
The gas flow velocity is estimated by the amount of heat
transfer from the wire to the gas, and the temperature
difference between the wire and gas temperatures.

Nu k / d

H ( a b U )(Tw T g )
Heat dissipation:

H RI 2

Tw Tg
N u
2T

0.17

A BU
n

Nusselt Number

## the ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer

pulsed-wire technique

Bidirectional Hot-wire
Anemometer
(flow velocity)

Time-of-flight Flowmeter
Flow velocity is measured by introducing a tracer into the upstream and
detecting it in the downstream.
When the separation between the introducing and detecting sites is known, flow
velocity can be determined by the time-of-flight of the tracer.
The most convenient tracer is a heated gas bolus.
Pulsed wire

(flow direction)

## Time Course of Time-of-flight

Flowmeter
a short pulse current is applied to the wire

elevates then decreases due to the heat dissipation from the wire to the gas

Sensor wire

Parallel arrangement

Pulsed wire

Sensor wire

Right-angle arrangement

Pulsed-wire Time-of-flight
Gas Flowmeter
detecting ambient temperature fluctuation

## The heated gas bolus moves downstream and

reaches the sensor wire

## increases due to the heated gas bolus

hitting the sensor wire

## Time-of-flight Flowmeter Using

Sing-around Method

Sing-around Method

## a signal detected by the detecting

(sensor) wire triggers the next pulse
applied to the heating (pulsed) wire

## switch the transducers and measure the

transit-time difference for N sing-around
loops up and down stream

Ultrasonic Flowmeter
Transit time of
D
downstream t1
c U cos
sound wave

## frequency output is proportional

to the flow velocity

## measures the total time it takes to

complete the N sing-around loops

Transit time of
D
upstream
t2
c U cos
sound wave

## Diagonal Beam Ultrasonic

cross section
Short ultrasonic pulse
trains are transmitted
downstream and
upstream simultaneously
at 500 Hz

=0
Diagonal

Coaxial

c t
c

2 D cos 2D cos
2

U: flow velocity
c: sound velocity
D: distance between two crystals
: beam angle with respect to the flow
: phase difference

=0
Ultrasonic transmission
channel

Cylindrical

T=ultrasonic transceiver

Long tube
termination

## Krmn Vortex Flowmeter

Number of vortices
generated in unit time

StU
d

U: flow velocity
d: diameter of the vortex
generator
St: Strouhal number, a
dimensionless number
describing oscillating flow
mechanisms

Swirlmeter

Spirometry

Thermal sensor

Swirler

Objective
To assess ventilatory function of the lung

## To assess ventilatory capacity:

forced vital capacity (FVC)
maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) etc.
amplifier
swirl producing
component

## To assess airway obstruction:

Swirl flow
deswirl
component When the gas passes through the blades, it spins
forming vortices.
The vortices is detected by a thermal sensor, and
the gas flow rate is determined by the number of
sensor
vortices passing at the sensor in a unit time interval.
meter body

Benedict-Roth
Spirometer

## the elevation of the bell

is proportional to the
expired air into the bell.

## forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1)

FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)

## Bell Displacement Measurement

Plastic bell

Bell
oxygen uptake measurement

Water seal
CO2 absorber

Rotating drum
Pure
oxygen
Water seal

Pen
the displacement of the bell or
bellows is detected electronically.

Counter weight
to balance atmospheric
pressure

Mouth piece

Respiration

Linear potentiometer

Spirometer System
Bellows for Dry Spirometer
various bellows are used instead of water seals
light-weight portable instruments

SpiroTech S780
CareFusion Corp.

Wedge type

## Spirometer and Flow Sensor

SuperSpiro
Micro Medical Ltd.

Spirobank
FutureMed America Inc.

## For a confined gas held at a constant temperature,

pV = constant Boyle's law

## IQspiro Digital Spirometer

Midmark Corp.

Body Plethysmograph

Body Plethysmographies

## Elite Body Plethysmography System

Medical Graphics Corp.

the lung volume change is measured by the volume change of the body

Mouthpiece

P
P

P0
V L

V L

P
V0
P0

V0

VL
P P0
gas volume
in the lung

VL
Detecting pressure change while
maintain constant volume

## Detecting volume change while

maintaining constant pressure

V
P0
P

Closed-circuit system

Inductance Plethysmography

Impedance Pneumography

## measures the changes in

thoracic and abdominal
cross-sectional area.

R
20-100kHz
25-500uA

## Lung volume change

V K1R K 2 A

Two-electrode system

Four-electrode system

## Sensitivity of Impedance Pneumography

at Different Somatotype
Z/V in human Ohms/Liter of air breathed

## Impedance Pneumogram and

Spirometric Record
Baker 1979

V
Rib number

Z
453.23W 1.084
V

(/L)

## W: body weight (kg)

transthoracic impedance change

## Z/V in dog Ohms/Liter of air breathed

Oxygen-uptake in Exercise
Essential function:

Portable Oxygen-uptake
Measurement

## a hood covers the head, a servo controlled blower draws

outside air through the hood, adjusting its volume flow in
order to keep the oxygen concentration in the hood
constant.
The flow rate of the blower is measured with a flowmeter,
and oxygen concentration is measured by an oxygen meter.

Ventilation
Circulation
Metabolism

## The maximum capacity of oxygen

transport
Oxygen-uptake is the most important
parameter
Also known as VO2, ventilation of oxygen.
A measure of how much oxygen your body
is consuming at any given time.
Unit: mL/min, L/min of oxygen consumed.

Continuous Oxygen-uptake
Measurement
C
A pump adjusts air flow Q to keep the
oxygen concentration in the mask constant.

O2out

Respiratory Monitoring
Objective

## Obstructive sleep apnoea

Second mixing chamber
with metal meshes and a
honeycomb

CO2in
Oxygen-uptake:

12-20 bpm

## VO2 Q CO2in CO2out

Airflow Sensors
Oronasal sensors:
Temperature
Pressure
Hot-wire anemometer
Ultrasound
Moisture

Breathing Pattern
Airflow - thermistor

Snore - microphone

## Wearable during sleep

Disposable sensors available