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Tutorial: Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a

Circular Channel

Introduction
The purpose of this tutorial is to simulate cooling of a hot air stream by water injection
using species transport and discrete phase models of ANSYS FLUENT 13.0.

Prerequisites
This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1 from the
ANSYS FLUENT 13.0 Tutorial Guide, and that you are familiar with the ANSYS FLUENT
navigation pane and menu structure. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will
not be shown explicitly.

Problem Description
The problem to be considered is shown in the Figure 1. Hot air enters through the inlet
of a 3D circular pipe. Water droplets are injected at various axial and radial locations by
creating Discrete Phase Model injections. Water undergoes a phase change as it comes in
contact with hot air, and the mixture of air and vapor flows downstream.
The solution will be performed in two stages:
1. Converge the flow without DPM (no evaporation).
2. Start DPM injection and solve the actual phase change problem.

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

Injection locations are shown by small arrows.

Figure 1: Schematic of the cooling system

Preparation
1. Copy the mesh file, 3dpipe.msh.gz to the working folder.
2. Use FLUENT Launcher to start the (3D) version of ANSYS FLUENT.
For more information about FLUENT Launcher see Section 1.1.2 Starting ANSYS FLUENT Using FLUENT Launcher in the ANSYS FLUENT 13.0 Users Guide.
3. Enable Double-Precision in the Options list.
Note: The Display Options are enabled by default. Therefore, after you read in the
mesh, it will be displayed in the embedded graphics window.

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

Setup and Solution


Step 1: Mesh
1. Read the mesh file, 3dpipe.msh.gz.
File Read Mesh...
As the mesh file is read, ANSYS FLUENT reports the progress in the console.

Figure 2: Mesh Display

Step 2: General Settings


1. Retain the default settings.
General

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

2. Check the mesh.


General Check
ANSYS FLUENT performs various checks on the mesh and reports the progress in
the console. Pay attention to the minimum volume reported and make sure this is a
positive number. Scaling is not required for this case.
Step 3: Models
1. Enable the Energy Equation.
Models

Energy Edit...

2. Select the realizable k-epsilon viscous model.


Models

Viscous Edit...

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

(a) Select k-epsilon(2 eqn) from the Model list.


The dialog box will expand after the selection.
(b) Select Realizable from the k-epsilon Model group box.
(c) Retain the default selection of Standard Wall Functions from the Near-Wall Treatment group box.
(d) Click OK to close the Viscous Model dialog box.
3. Enable species transport.
Models

Species Edit...

(a) Select Species Transport from the Model list.


The dialog box will expand after the selection.
(b) Disable Diffusion Energy Source from the Options group box.
(c) Click OK to close the Species Model dialog box.
ANSYS FLUENT will list the properties required for the models that you enabled,
in the console. An Information dialog box will appear, reminding you to confirm
the property values that have been extracted from the database.

(d) Click OK in the Information dialog box to continue.

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

4. Enable the discrete phase model.


Models

Discrete Phase Edit...

(a) Enable Interaction with Continuous Phase in the Interaction group box.
(b) Set Number of Continuous Phase Iterations per DPM Iterations to 0.
This value is set to zero to solve the flow field before enabling the droplet calculations.
(c) Set Max. Number of Steps to 5000 in the Tracking Parameters group box.
(d) Click OK to close the Discrete Phase Model dialog box.
Step 4: Materials
Set the properties for the mixture as well as for the individual species.
1. Make sure that the selected species are h2o, o2, and n2.
Materials Create/Edit...
(a) Select mixture from the Material Type drop-down list.
(b) Click the Edit... button for Mixture Species to open the Species dialog box.

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

(c) Make sure that Selected Species list contains the h2o, o2, and n2 species.
(d) Click OK to close the Species dialog box.
Edit the material properties for the species.
2. Select fluid from the Material Type drop-down list.

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

3. Ensure that piecewise-polynomial is selected from the Cp drop-down list for n2, o2, and
h2o.
4. Close the Materials dialog box.
Step 5: Boundary Conditions
1. Set the boundary conditions for the inlet zone.
Boundary Conditions

inlet Edit...

(a) Enter 16 m/s for Velocity Magnitude.


(b) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method drop-down
list in the Turbulence group box.
(c) Enter 5% for Turbulent Intensity and 0.28 m for Hydraulic Diameter.
(d) Click the Thermal tab and enter 900 K for Temperature.
(e) Click the Species tab and enter 0.23 for o2.
(f) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box.

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

2. Set the boundary conditions for the outlet zone.


Boundary Conditions

outlet Edit...

(a) Select Intensity and Viscosity Ratio from the Specification Method drop-down list
in the Turbulence group box.
(b) Click the Species tab and enter 0.23 for o2.
(c) Click OK to close the Pressure Outlet dialog box.
3. Retain the default boundary consitions for the other boundaries.
Step 6: Operating Conditions
Boundary Conditions Operating Conditions...

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

1. Enable Gravity.
2. Enter -9.81 for Z component of Gravitational Acceleration.
3. Click OK to close the Operating Conditions dialog box.
Step 7: Injections
Define Injections...
1. Create the central injection.
(a) Click the Create button to open the Set injection Properties dialog box.

(b) Select cone from the Injection Type drop-down list.


(c) Enter 30 for Number of Particle Streams.
(d) Select droplet from the Particle Type group box.
(e) Select water-liquid from the Material drop-down list.

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

(f) Click the Point Properties tab and set the following properties:
Parameter
Z position
Diameter
Temperature
Z-Axis
Velocity Magnitude
Cone Angle
Total Flow Rate

Value
1.6 m
4e-05 m
293 K
-1
45 m/s
60 degree
0.006 kg/s

(g) Click the Turbulent Dispersion tab and enable Discrete Random Walk Model.
(h) Enter 40 for Number of Tries.
(i) Click OK to close the Set Injection Properties dialog box.
You will create eight more injections at different locations.
2. Copy an injection to create another injection.
(a) Select injection-0 from the Injections selection list and click the Copy button to
open the Set Injection Properties dialog box.

(b) Enter 0.09 for X-Position (m).


(c) Enter 0.003 kg/s for Total Flow Rate.
(d) Click OK to save injection-1
3. Similarly copy injection-1 to create other injections (1 to 8) by changing the X, Y, and
Z positions in the Point Properties group box.

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

Injection
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

X (m)
0.09
-0.09
0
0
0.06363
-0.06363
0.06363
-0.06363

Y (m)
0
0
0.09
-0.09
0.06363
0.06363
-0.06363
-0.06363

Z (m)
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9

Ensure that Total Flow Rate for injections (1-8) is 0.003.


4. Click OK to save the properties for each injection.
5. Close the Injections dialog box.
Step 8: Solution
For DPM cases, it is recommended to establish the flow field before initializing the droplet
calculations.
1. Ensure that residual plotting is enabled.
Monitors

Residuals Edit...

2. Initialize the flow field.


Solution Initialization Initialize
3. Save the case file (pipe-flow.cas.gz).
File Write Case...
4. Start the calculation for 100 iterations.
Run Calculation Calculate
The solution converges in approximately 98 iterations.
5. Save the data file (pipe-flow.dat.gz).
File Write Data...
Step 9: Solution with DPM
1. Set Number of Continuous Phase Iterations per DPM Iteration to 30.
Models

Discrete Phase Edit...

(a) Enter 30 for Number of Continuous Phase Iterations per DPM Iterations.
(b) Click OK to close the Discrete Phase Model dialog box.

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

2. Change the under-relaxation factor for Discrete Phase Sources to 0.1.


Solution Controls

3. Disable convergence.
Monitors

Residuals Edit...

(a) Select none from the Convergence Criterion drop-down list.


(b) Click OK to close the Residual Monitors dialog box.

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

4. Save the case file (dpm-evap.cas.gz).


File Write Case...
5. Perform one DPM track from the TUI.
Enter the following command in the console:
solve > dpm-update
6. Run the calculation for 1500 iterations.
Run Calculation Calculate
7. Save the data file (dpm-evap.dat.gz).
File Write Data...
Step 10: Postprocessing
1. Check the mass balance at inlet and outlet.
Reports

Fluxes Set Up...

(a) Select Mass Flow Rate from the Options group box.
(b) Select inlet and outlet from the Boundaries selection list.
(c) Click Compute.
The net result is a very small value.
2. Check the heat balance at inlet and outlet.
Reports
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Fluxes Set Up...

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

(a) Select Total Heat Transfer Rate from the Options group box.
(b) Ensure that inlet and outlet are selected from the Boundaries selection list.
(c) Click Compute and close the Flux Reports dialog box.
3. Report the DPM summary by entering the following TUI command in the console:

/ report> dpm-summary
Fate
Number

Evaporated
Fate

Evaporated

Elapsed Time (s)


Min
Max
Avg
Std Dev
-------------------------------------------------10800 1.491e-02 2.762e-02 2.148e-02 2.761e-03

Injection, Index
Min
Max
-------------------------------------injection-0
15 injection-8 757

(*)- Mass Transfer Summary -(*)


Fate

Mass Flow (kg/s)


Initial
Final
Change
----------------------------------Evaporated 3.000e-03 0.000e+000 -3.000e-03
(*)- Energy Transfer Summary -(*)
Fate

Evaporated

Heat Content (W)


Change of Heat (W)
Initial
Final
Sensible
Latent
Total
--------------------------------------------------------------7.371e+03 0.000e+000 6.461e+01
7.307e+03 7.371e+03

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

It can be observed that all particles have evaporated.


4. Display particle tracks.
Graphics and Animations

Particle Tracks Set Up...

(a) Enable Draw Mesh from the Options group box to open the Mesh Display dialog
box.
i. Enable Faces and disable Edges from the Options group box.
ii. Select inlet and outlet from the Surfaces selection list.
iii. Click Display and close the Mesh Display dialog box.
(b) Select sphere from the Style drop-down list.
(c) Click the Attributes button to open the Path Style Attributes dialog box.
i. Enter 0.01 for Diameter and close the Path Style Attributes dialog box.
(d) Select Particle Variables... and Particle Diameter from the Color by drop-down
lists.
(e) Select injection-0 and injection-8 from the Release from Injections selection list.
(f) Set Skip to 2.
(g) Click Display and close the Particle Tracks dialog box (See Figure 3).

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

Figure 3: Particle Tracks

5. Check the mass weighted average outlet temperature.


Reports

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Surface Integrals Set Up...

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

(a) Select Mass-Weighted Average from the Report Type drop-down list.
(b) Select Temperature... and Static Temperature from the Field Variable drop-down
lists.
(c) Select outlet from the Surfaces selection list.
(d) Click Compute and close the Surface Integrals dialog box.
The value reported is approximately 674 K.
6. Display contours of Temperature and Mass Fraction of h2o.
Graphics and Animations

Contours Set Up...

(a) Enable Filled and disable Global Range from the Options group box.
(b) Select Temperature... and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down
lists.
(c) Select outlet from the Surfaces selection list.
(d) Click Display (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Contours of Static Temperature


(e) Select Species... and Mass Fraction of h20 from the Contours of drop-down lists.
(f) Click Display (Figure 5) and close the Contours dialog box.

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

Figure 5: Contours of Mass Fraction of H2 O

7. Create an iso-surface of X-coordinate at x=0.


Surface Iso-Surface...
(a) Select Mesh... and X-Coordinate from the Surface of Constant drop-down lists.
(b) Enter x=0 in the New Surface Name text-entry box.
(c) Click Create and close the Iso-Surface dialog box.
8. Display contours of Temperature and Mass Fraction of h2o on x=0.
Graphics and Animations

Contours Set Up...

(a) Select Temperature... and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down
lists.
(b) Select x=0 from the Surfaces selection list.
(c) Ensure that Global Range is disabled from the Options group box.
(d) Click Display (Figure 6).
(e) Select Species... and Mass Fraction of h2o from the Contours of drop-down lists.
(f) Click Display (Figure 7) and close the Contours dialog box.

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

Figure 6: Contours of Static Temperature on x=0

Figure 7: Contours of Mass Fraction of H2 O on x=0

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Modeling Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in a Circular Channel

Summary
In this tutorial it is demonstrated that ANSYS FLUENT can be used to model cooling tower
application where net sensible cooling is achieved by evaporating water droplets. This
tutorial explains the steps that are needed to define mixture material, DPM interaction and
droplet injectors in detail. Note that the approach followed here, of first to solve for flow and
then switch on the DPM iterations after getting the converged solution, is recommended to
model real world problems involving cooling towers.

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