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What are managers doing to increase productivity?

First, productivity is a function of each of the employees' unique
personalities. Second, employees' behaviors are influenced by the environments
in which they find themselves. For example, an employee's behavior (and
productivity) will be influenced by a dirty, hot, noisy, or dangerous worksite.
Finally, an employee's behavior will be a function of that employee's innate
drives or felt needs and the opportunities he or she has to satisfy those drives or
needs in the workplace.

Employees' performance is, of course, partially determined by the opportunities

given them to demonstrate their abilities. If employees are never given
opportunities to utilize all of their skills, then the employer may never have the
benefit of their total performance. Work performance is also contingent upon
employee abili tie s. If employees lack the learned skills or innate talents to do a
particular job, then performance will be less than optimal. A third dimension of
performance is mo tiva tion .
What is Motivation?

Motivation is a 6 phase process. This process can be explained by the example.

Assume that an employee desire have a promotion. This desire of promotion
represents ‘Need deficiency’. It is the starting point of the motivational process.
Then the employee is expected to search the strategies to get promotion. It is
called ‘Search & choice strategy’. Then his behavior towards the goals of the
company that he can come into the eyes of mgmt. This is called ‘Goal directed
behavior’. Then he evaluates his performance. It is called ‘Evaluation of
performance’. After performance he/she is either get promotion by their hard
work & sincerity or demotion by his/her performance. It is called ‘Rewards or
punishment’. If the employee get promotion then he/she wants to repeat better
performance and if he will not get promotion then he/she feels discourages &
may be give up the idea of promotion. It is called ‘Reevaluation of needs’.
1. 2. 3.

6. 5. 4.

Definition of Motivation :
Motivation is process that starts with a psychological deficiency or need that
activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or incentive.

Mot iva tion is a dyn ami c p roc es s; people may be motivated by different
things (needs and drives) during different periods of their lives.
Content theories : Motivational theories dealing with the needs of employees
fall under the general rubric of Content Theories of Motivation. Content
theories posit that workers' behaviors are a function of the workers' abilities to
satisfy their felt needs at the workplace. A basic assumption of all need theories
is that, when need deficiencies exist, individuals are motivated into action in
order to satisfy them.


Maslow's Hierarc hy of Needs is based on the assumption that people are

motivated by a series of five universal needs. These needs are ranked, according
to the order in which they influence human behavior, in hierarchical fashion.

• Physiolog ical ne ed s are deemed to be the lowest- level needs. These

needs include the need for food, oxygen, sex, and drink.
o So long as physiological needs are unsatisfied, t hey exist as a
driving o r mo tivating for ce in a person's life. A hungry person
has a felt need. This felt need sets up both psychological and
physical tensions that manifest themselves in overt behaviors
directed at reducing those tensions (getting something to eat).
Once the hunger is sated, the tension is reduced, and the need for
food ceases to motivate. At this point (assuming the needs for sex,
drink, and other physiological requirements are also satisfied) the
next higher order need becomes the motivating need.
• Thus, safety needs -- the needs for shelter and security -- become the
motivators of human behavior.
o Safety needs include a desire for security, stability, dependency, protection,
freedom from fear and anxiety, and a need for structure, order, and law. In
everyday life, we may see this as a need to be able to fall asleep at night,
secure in the knowledge that we will awake alive and unharmed. In the
workplace this needs translates into a need for at least a minimal degree of
employment security; the knowledge that we cannot be fired on a whim
and that appropriate levels of effort and productivity will ensure continued

Only those needs which are not satisfied act as motivators.

• Social needs include the need for belongingness and love.

o Generally, as gregarious creatures, human have a need to belong. In
the workplace, this need may be satisfied by an ability to interact
with one's coworkers and perhaps to be able to work
collaboratively with these colleagues.
• After social needs have been satisfied, ego and esteem needs become the
motivating needs.
o Esteem needs include the desire for self-respect, self-esteem, and
the esteem of others. When focused externally, these needs also
include the desire for reputation, prestige, status, fame, glory,
dominance, recognition, attention, importance, and appreciation.

The highest need in Maslow's hierarchy is that of self -actualization ; the need
for self-realization, continuous self-development, and the process of becoming
all that a person is capable of becoming.

Whe n m an' s so cia l n ee ds ... ar e thus thw art ed , he beh av es in ways

which ten d to de fe at or ga nizati on al o bj ectiv es . He be com es
res ist an t, a nt ag oni stic , an d uncoop er ativ e


Clayton Al de rfer reworked Maslow's Need Hierarchy to align it more closely

with empirical research. Alderfer's theory is called the ERG th eory --
Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.
• Existence refers to our concern with basic material existence requirements;
what Maslow called physiological and safety needs.
• Relatedness refers to the desire we have for maintaining interpersonal
relationships; similar to Maslow's social/love need, and the external
component of his esteem need.
• Growth refers to an intrinsic desire for personal development; the intrinsic
component of Maslow's esteem need, and self-actualization

Alderfer's ERG theory differs from Maslow's Need Hierarchy insofar as ERG
theory demonstrates that mo re th an one nee d ma y b e o pe ra tive at the
sam e ti me . ERG theo ry doe s no t a ss um e a rigi d hie ra rchy where a
lower need must be substantially satisfied before one can move on.

Alderfer also deals with frustration-regression. That is, if a higher-order need is

frustrated, an individual then seeks to increase the satisfaction of a lower-order

McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and McClelland's Achievement

Motivation Theory

Motivation research has long considered human motives and needs. However,
isolating people's motivational needs can be a difficult process because most
people are not explicitly aware of what their motives are.

Criticizing economics as being an overly simplistic and rationalistic discipline,

David McClelland points out that it does not really account for how humans
actually behave. For example, Elton Mayo and his work at the Hawthorne
Western Electric plant in the 1920s and 30s recognized the non-economic
motivations of workers.

In the Hawthorne Studies... the importance of the peer group was recognized in
determining employee motivation.

In attempting to understand employee motivation, Abraham Maslow proposed a

hierarchy of needs. David McClelland furthered this idea in his learned needs
theory. McClelland's experimental work identified sets of motivators present to
varying degrees in different people. He proposed that these needs were socially
acquired or learned. That is, the extent to which these motivators are present
varies from person to person, and depends on the individual and his or her

McClelland's experiment -- the The ma tic App erc ep tion Te st (TAT) --

consisted of showing individuals a series of pictures and asking them to give
brief images of what was happening in the pictures. The responses were
analyzed in terms of the presence or absence of certain themes. The themes
McClelland and his associates were looking for revolved around the following
motivators: achievement, affiliation and power.

According to David McClelland, regardless of culture or gender, people are

driven by three motives:

• Achievement,
• Affiliation, and
• Influence.

Since McClelland's first experiments, over 1,000 studies relevant to achievement

motivation have been conducted. These studies strongly support the theory.

Achievement (nAch)

The need for achievement is characterized by the wish to take responsibility for
finding solutions to problems, master complex tasks, set goals, and get feedback
on level of success

Affiliation (nAff)

The need for affiliation is characterized by a desire to belong, an enjoyment of

teamwork, a concern about interpersonal relationships, and a need reduce

Power (nP)

The need for power is characterized by a drive to control and influence others, a
need to win arguments, a need to influence and prevail.

According to McClelland, the presence of these motives or drives in an

individual indicates a predisposition to behave in certain ways. Therefore, from
a manager's perspective, recognizing which need is dominant in any particular
individual affects the way in which that person can be motivated.


Motivation-Hygiene Theory
The motivation of employees is important to organizations since it is one of
several factors that significantly affect the productivity of employees.

Raising the level of motivation increases profitability through greater creativity

and commitment in employees.
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory, also known as the Motivation-Hygiene
Theory, was derived from a study designed to test the concept that people have
two sets of needs:

1. Their needs as animals to avoid pain

2. Their needs as humans to grow psychologically

Herzberg's Study

Herzberg's study consisted of a series of interviews that sought to elicit responses

to the questions:

(1) Recall a time when you felt exceptionally good about your job. Why did you
feel that way about the job? Did this feeling affect your job performance in any
way? Did this feeling have an impact on your personal relationships or your
well- being?

(2) Recall a time on the job that resulted in negative feelings? Describe the
sequence of events that resulted in these negative feelings.

... two h undred engineers and a ccoun tants in Pit tsburgh w ere
inter viewed

To tes t the h ypo thesis, engineers and ac countan ts w ere interviewed to

assess events th at led t o signif ican t cha nges in t heir job at titudes and to
deter mine t he fac tors th at ca used t hose ch anges...


It appeared, from the research, that the things making people happy on the job
and those making them unhappy had two separate themes.


Five factors stood out as strong determiners of job sat isfa ctio n:

• achievement
• recognition
• work itself
• responsibility
• advancement

The last three factors were found to be most important for bringing about lasting
changes of attitude. It should be noted, that recognition refers to recognition for
achievement as opposed to recognition in the human relations sense.

The determinants of job dissatisfaction were found to be:

• company policy
• administrative policies
• supervision
• salary
• interpersonal relations
• working conditions

It appears that the central theme of the satisfiers (also called motivators) is one
having to do with the relationship the employee has with his or her job; job

The theme of the dissatisfiers appears to be related to the environment or

context of the job. These dissatisfiers seem to have little effect on positive job
attitudes (in some of the literature, these dissatisfiers were called hygiene or
maintenance factors).