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The development of a person relies on different factors, but all these come from

the roots of how an individual was brought up by his or her family. One specific factor is
birth order; studies have shown that an individual develops a certain type of personality
and perception of the self depending to which birth order they belong to (Leman, 2009).
For instance a first born is likely to be given much attention and focus. They can also be
considered as natural born-leaders. They value sense of achievement which is why they
are regarded as reliable, conscientious are black and white thinkers. First borns are the
first ones to be given the responsibility in terms of taking care of their siblings supporting
their family (Jocano, 1998). Also, they are expected to be the ones to take the lead
because they are older, and they set the standards among the siblings (Carrette, Ansel,
& Van Yperen, 2011). In the Filipino setting, first borns help their parents both physically
and financially because their parents turn to them for advice and for moral, support and
financial support (Mendez, Jocano, Rolda & Matela, 1984). On the other hand, last
borns or the youngest child in the family are considered to be the life of the party.
According to a local study by Irma Isip (2004), last borns are the ones who receive
attention and care from the parents. They are regarded as the baby in the family, and
because of this, last borns are pampered and they are never dethroned among the
other siblings. Finally, middle children, who are the focus of the present study, are often
regarded as the fifth wheel in their family. This is because they often get upstaged by
their older and younger siblings. They can either be quiet or outgoing depending on how
their perception of their placement in their family (Murphy, 2012).
Middle child syndrome is a condition in which middle children experience
throughout his/her developmental years. This phenomenon is often regarded as middle
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children having the following characteristics: feelings of neglect, resentment, low


creativity, and lack of career focus, a negative outlook on life and the feeling that they
dont belong (Salmon & Schumann, 2011). Studies have shown that these patterns of
behavior are common among middle children. Middle children may turn out as rebels in
the family depending on how they would react on the lack of attention they feel they
receive. Despite the negative connotations they can also be described as, loyal,
negotiators, and peace makers (Leman, 2009; Mueller 2011; Alava, Amorado & Garcia,
2004). With this in mind, the researchers will focus on the context of the Filipino family
dynamics, wherein, its aim is to find out whether middle child syndrome is present
among Filipino families.
Since most studies about middle child syndrome is Westernized the researchers
will look into the aspect of culture. There is a difference in terms of being collectivists
and individualists, Western countries are known to be individualists and Asian
countries, especially, the Philippines are known to be collectivists. According to
Gorodnichenko and Roland (2011) an individualistic person emphasized more on their
personal freedom and achievement while a collectivist person emphasized the
rootedness of a larger group, this means as collectivists they value the importance of
the other members, not just themselves. As mentioned earlier, the focus of this study
will be the Filipino families which are considered to have a collectivist culture. This
factor may affect the family dynamics especially in terms of the development of the
person as a whole by accepting the different values or roles of family members because
of the collectivism culture that Filipino families have. Being an individualist of western
countries affects the development of a middle child because they have designated roles
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within their families, therefore, if a person is a middle child stereotypes are formed about
their birth order. In Filipino families, roles are also given importance. It is established
among the birth orders that are considered to be in the oldest birth ranksthe first and
the middle borns. Despite being considered the one of the eldest, a middle child still
loses his/her identity because the responsibility of being a leader is already established
with the first born.
This study aims to generate knowledge/information about the middle child and
the so-called phenomenon middle child syndrome. Most studies would focus on the
first borns and last borns, studies among middle borns on the other hand if not a few are
limited, and most would categorize them within negative stereotypes. For instance, the
experiences of middle children within their family are associated with them having a
negative outlook in life. However, there are also studies that have described middle
children opposite prior to what other literatures have deemed them to be (Leman, 2009;
Salmon and Schumann, 2011). On the contrary, middle children are described as
individuals who are adjusted and capable of having a positive outlook in life.
This study will also look into the perceived effects of being a middle child, their
experiences in terms of relationships and the learned coping strategies of middle
children. In line with this, the researchers will look into the developed identity of middle
children, thus determining their identity as individuals. For instance, determining who
the middle children are, what are their thoughts and feelings, and how would they
describe themselves in the present time.

The development of the studies, such as, Leman (2009), Salmon and Schumann
(2011) that contradicts the idea of middle children having a negative outlook in life has
led the researchers to address this information and

conduct this case study. As

researchers, this study will assess the birth order of middle children in terms of how they
were affected by the circumstances of their experiences during childhood and
adolescence, within their present outlook in life.

Middle child syndrome is a concept where a middle born is regarded as the


neglected ones and least bold among the birth orders. This means that an individual
who belong in this birth order may regard themselves as the member of the family who
receives the least attention, especially from their parents (Salmon & Schumann, 2011).
It is a common notion among literatures to characterize middle children with a negative
connotation (Miller, 2010; Mueller, 2011; Murphy, 2012). However, there are also
studies that contradict the prior negative connotation about middle children; according to
these studies middle children can have a well functioning way of life (Salmon, 2009;
Salmon& Schumann, 2011).
Experiences, may affect a childs development as a person. The researchers
assume that a young adult middle child thought and feelings may be affected by his/her
established relationships among the members of his/her family. It can also be said that
despite living in the same roof, birth orders and treatment of the parents with their
children still play a crucial role. Here in the Philippines, where birth ranks and authority
are given much importance culturally and traditionally, it can be assumed that this can
influence the development of a person (Ancheta, Lim & Tan 2012). This study will focus
on understanding what it is like to be a middle child. An experience can be defined as a
personal perception of a person towards various events of his/her life (Erlich, 2003).
This means every experience of an individual is something personal and different. It is,
through experiences that perceived roles among middle children are formed (Leman,
2009).

The present study will look into the Relationships of young adult middle
children. Relationships can be developed with the people around the individual,
particularly within the family, who may have an influence in the way we see things and
relate with people (Leman, 2009). Parents play a crucial role in the development of an
individual, particularly in the manner by which people relate with others. An individuals
first relationship is with his/her parents. The experience that the person was able to
acquire while growing up affects the perception of a person in forming relationships
(Leman, 2009; Murphy, 2012). It extends among family members as well, particularly
with siblings. The manner by which parents treat each child is different and affects the
way the relationship is formed among siblings (Morrison and Flanagan, 2007).
The relationship of an individual with his/her parents is crucial on how a person
may view life. Their firsthand experience of relationship is within ones family,
particularly among the parents. The values an individual may learn and the manner
by which they may view themselves is also another factor from what they have
experienced from their parents relationships. An individuals thoughts and feelings
may come as a result of developing insecurities when it comes to seeking out attention
from ones parents. According to literatures middle children often feel that they get the
less attention from their parents (Leman, 2009; Salmon and Schumann, 2011). It can be
assumed that middle children will feel neglected and insecure in terms of how they were
valued within their family. As what Mendez, Jocano , Rolda & Matela (1984) the concept
of favoritism are usually the oldest and youngest are accorded to this place. A middle
child may think that he/she may have been left out because the attention of the parents
is often given to the eldest and youngest siblings. They may feel the need to compete
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with their siblings, especially with the first born, in order to receive attention from their
parents. As mentioned in Ancheta, Lim & Tan (2012) study, middle children are often
overlooked upon by their parents and as a result they feel the need to either go beyond
what is expected of them by trying to follow the standards that were set by their older
sibling, and become laid back and unsure of their identity inside their family.
In terms of the experiences of the middle child on how each parent treats each
sibling, firstborns may be treated as the assistant of the parents within the family. Being
considered as the assistant in the family means that, first borns are given more
responsibilities inside the household, especially when the parents are away in regards
with taking care of the younger siblings. This is evident, especially here in the
Philippines. Culturally speaking, those who belong in the older birth orders are treated
as second in command in the family, especially when the parents are out (Mendez,
Jocano, Rolda & Matela, 1984).

They take the first responsibility, leaving them in

charge of the younger siblings. Since they are treated as leaders among the siblings,
they are given the attention whenever they do their responsibilities well. And also,
parents expect firstborns set a high standard in terms of presenting themselves as good
examples with their younger siblings (Mendez, Jocano, Rolda & Matela, 1984;
Guillermo and de Guzman, 2007). The manner by which the parents portray their
treatment among the other birth orders may play a crucial aspect to the middle childs
development as a person. A middle born may think that his/her role within the family is
less appreciated because the important role is already given to the first born, which is,
the responsibility of acting as the leader of the family when the parents are not around.
Another is they may feel confused as to where they will fit themselves within their family.
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Middle children are expected to be mature enough like the first born in terms of the
responsibilities of being one of the older siblings, but they cant act as the authority
figure because the parents have already established this role to belong to the first born.
And since middle borns are viewed one of the older siblings, they cant be considered
as the baby of the family, because its the youngest siblings role (Alava, Amorado &
Garcia, 2004).
In considering the middle child's relationship with his/her siblings, the
treatment of a parent to a child may be a contributing factor. A middle child may feel left
out as compared to the other siblings. Feelings of wanting to fit it in and be different may
arise for a middle child (Salmon and Schumann, 2011). This is because the first born
has already established an identity within the family as the second in command of the
family, while the youngest sibling can be considered as the baby of the family (Jocano,
1998). Middle children may think that their identity is limited as compared with the other
birth orders. This leads the middle borns to develop a connotation to think and feel that
they are not appreciated within the family (Alava, Amorado & Garcia, 2004; Ancheta,
Lim & Tan, 2012).
The identified roles of each of birth order affect the siblings treatment with one
another. As mentioned earlier, firstborns are considered as the leader among the
siblings. The firstborn is given the responsibility of looking out for the younger siblings
because of this they may take advantage of the of the approval received from parents
by bossing around the other siblings, but even so, the eldest sibling always takes the
responsibility. The last born on the other hand, does the opposite. Since the lastborn is
the youngest he/she may be spoiled by the family (Mendez, Jocano, Rolda & Matela,
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1984; Jocano, 1998). A last born is always given the attention; they are people pleasers
and often use their charm to gain the approval of their family. Even though a middle
child feels left out within the family, he/she finds autonomy by being the mediator among
the siblings (Leman, 2009). Since the identities of the eldest and youngest sibling are
established, a middle child may think that there is a need in trying to follow the footsteps
of the eldest sibling. And as the older sibling, the middle child may think and feel
obligated take care of the youngest sibling (Alava, et al 2004).
The researchers also aim to look into the perceived effects of being a middle
child in terms of the different aspects of their lives. The development of a middle born
starts during childhood as mentioned by Leman (2009) in his study, the relationship
between you and your parents is fluid, dynamic and all important, (p. 29). An
individuals relationship with his/her parents plays an important role towards the
personal growth of a person. For instance the manner by which the child is able to
relate with people is through the effects of his/her relationship with his/her parents
because parents has a role of making or breaking a childs development through the
way in which the child was brought up. Since middle born children often feel left out
within their family they tend to find acceptance from other people.
Ones experiences during childhood may affect the individuals perception of
the self. According to Medina (2001), it is the family which plays the major role in the
development of his personality and character, (p. 196). This means that how a person
sees him/herself may be congruent on how one was able to receive attention from
parents. As literature discussed middle children are often left behind within the family.
With this in mind it can be assumed that a middle child may have a low self-esteem or
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may feel lack of ability of being able to relate with others, as mentioned in previous
studies, particularly in Adlers theory. As he mentioned when a person is least
appreciated, theres a tendency that an individual may develop inferiority complex (Feist
& Feist, 2009). This theory is based from his experiences as a second born in the
family. However, as he developed this theory further, Adler still recognized the
underlying concept of inferiority complex, but he was able to introduce the concept of a
persons ability of striving for success.
Adlers theory on striving for success is in line with the researchers assumption
on the perceived effect of being a middle child on his/her motivation for achievement.
Striving for success can be rooted from the affecting factors of growing up that a middle
child may experience. It starts through relationships, which, as mentioned earlier, play
an important role in a family especially the interaction between the parents and child.
Most of the time middle children are viewed as neglectful, resentful, having low
creativity, lacking in career focus, and a negative outlook on life and also the feeling that
they dont belong (Salmon & Schumann, 2011). As they learn to socialize with other
people, middle children learn to negotiate and stand up on their own because of their
experiences as a child. Through their experience and socialization among peers, they
are able to cope and become successful even though they have experienced middle
child syndrome (Leman, 2009, Salmon & Schumann, 2011).
In relation to Adlers theory on striving for success, one has the ability to divert
all negative experiences and consider it as strength rather than a weakness. This
means that an individual may seek to find the wholeness of the self by being able to
change ones outlook in life (Feist & Feist, 2009). It doesnt necessarily mean that when
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an individual is inclined to have negative experiences he/she will stick to the idea of
isolation, but rather the ability to overcome these trials by trying to get through a career
and finding fulfillment at the same time. Adlers theory implies that a person has the
ability to find ones sense of self despite having to be faced with difficult situations.
A middle childs adjustment towards his/her environment is through his/her
formed peers or social relationships. Since middle children often feel like third wheels
in the family he/she seeks personal relationships outside their family (Leman, 2009). It
can be assumed that the manner in which they cope with their situation is by looking for
an outlet of acceptance. Social relationships are affected as well by ones
experiences. As mentioned earlier, the relationships that an individual first encounters
are within the family. The middle child, in particular forms the first relationship within the
family members, particularly with the parents, and the eldest sibling. According to
Leman (2009) middle children tend to have the ability to interact with people outside the
family. This includes their formed relationships with their friends, since middle
children are given less attention; they try to compensate their needs through the
relationships that they form outside the family. Middle children may consider their
formed relationships with their friends essential in regards to their sense of self,
because through they feel recognized and appreciated. In line with this, it can be
assumed that middle children have good social skills, and are still able to form
relationships and relate with other people, despite the lack of attention given to them. In
having good social skills, middle children may also adjust well in dealing with their
social relationships among their co-workers. As mentioned in some studies,
particularly with Salmon & Schumann (2011), middle children are flexible, team12

builders, independent yet social. Through their experiences in building relationships


outside their family, they have developed the skill of communicating and interacting
around people, thus allowing them to adjust in their work environments.
Learned coping strategies are ways in which an individual is able to handle
his/her own stress by finding alternative ways of being able to deal with ones problems
(Mikulincer, 1994; Gurung, 2013). To answer this, the researchers will focus on coping
strategies in general through the different aspects of a middle childs experiences. In
terms of the middle childs relationship with parents, a middle child often develops
feelings of neglect towards his/her own parents. This is due to feeling indifferent when it
comes to the treatment of parents among the other siblings. The attention is mostly
given to the first and last borns because of this a middle child may try to compensate for
the affection of their parents by following the standards that was set by the older sibling.
He/she may also try to be responsible in taking good care of the youngest sibling. In
doing so, a middle child may cope by trying to be in both ends with the other siblings.
This is why they develop themselves to be good negotiators and peace settlers in the
family (Leman, 2009). It can be assumed that having the ability to adapt themselves and
being able to face the difficulty of being a middle child inside the family is the way in
which a middle child tries to adjust in dealing with their relationship with their parents.
This also affects a middle childs relationship with his/her siblings. A middle
child may try to cope by being different among the other siblings. This is in regards with
finding a hard time to fit themselves within the family. This is why some middle borns try
to live up to the expectations that the first born has set by the family, and as an older
sibling a middle child is expected to look after the youngest sibling (Mendez, Jocano,
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Rolda & Matela, 1984; Jocano, 1998). And because of this experience they try to look
for relationships outside their family. They can also be described as people who are
good negotiators, meaning, middle borns can adjust and are able to form relationships
with other people.
An individual is centered in having the ability to cope by obtaining awards and
recognition and in trying to avoid pain and danger (Leman, 2009). In relation to a middle
childs adjustment, he/she may try to compensate through his/her motivation to achieve.
The ability to deviate their feelings of neglect is the manner in which they cope in terms
of their social relationships. Avoiding pain and anger, doesnt necessarily mean that a
middle child will try to run off to his/her family, this means that a middle child may try to
adjust by compensating through his/her formed relationships outside the family.
In relation to Adlers theory on striving for superiority (Schultz, 2008), people
who have experienced inferiority feelings are inclined to make themselves as a whole. It
doesnt necessarily mean that when an individual aims to achieve superiority a person
attempts to exaggerate ones abilities and accomplishments. What Adler is deriving into
is the ability of the person to find another way of turning their life around and that is
through having the motivation for achievement toward the wholeness of ones self
(Schultz, 2008). In relation to middle children, they tend to strive for overcoming their
feelings of inferiority. Despite the feelings of neglect that they were able to acquire from
their family, they are able to compensate these feelings by being good negotiators and
having the ability to form good relationships. With these developed attributes middle
children are inclined to succeed in life (Leman, 2009; Salmon & Schumann, 2012).

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Statement of the Problem


This study will analyze the experiences, relationships and socialization of young
adult middle children who belong in the age range of twenty-one (21) to twenty-seven
(27) years old. The data will be gathered from the conducted interview. The results will
be analyzed and presented through the different factors that this study is trying to
measure. The following questions are going to be addressed by the researchers:
1.) What are the experiences of young adult middle children during their growing up
years (childhood-adolescence) and in the present time in the following areas?
a. Relationship with parents
a.1 the participants thoughts and feelings
a.2 thoughts and feelings regarding the treatment of parents to each child
b. Relationship with siblings
b.1 the participants thoughts and feelings
b.2 the treatment of each sibling with one another
2.) What are the perceived effects of being a middle child during growing up years
(childhood-adolescence) and in the present time of the young adult middle child
on:
a. Perception of self
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b. Motivation to achievement
c. Social relationships
c.1 with friends
c.2 with co-workers

3.) What are the learned coping strategies of young adult middle children?
a. In terms of relationship with parents
b. In terms of relationship with siblings
c. In terms of social relationships
d. Motivation to achievement

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Scope and Limitations of the Study


The research will be conducted to middle children who are recognized as middle
children based on their ordinal and psychological position. Their age range would be
from twenty-one (21) to twenty-seven (27) years old and can be either a male or a
female young adult.
Researchers will not include middle children who belong to a broken family.
Middle children would be the main priority of this study although other birth order
positions will be mentioned as well but not as extensive as the middle children. Middle
children should be single young adults, males and females who belong within the age
bracket of twenty-one (21) to twenty-seven (27) years old. Participants who belong in
this age range are expected to be able to tell their life experiences, they have already
undergone the stage of Erik Eriksons Psychosocial Development, particularly the stage
of intimacy vs. isolation, in this stage it covers the early adulthood when an individual
explore personal relationships (Cherry, 2014). In this stage, middle children have
enough experience to explain their thoughts and feelings about being a middle child
within their family during their childhood-adolescence and in the present time.
The participants should belong in the middle class bracket, because most
families who belong in this social class are given opportunity to be professionals as

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mentioned in The Manila Times article, Middle class values include the type of
parenting that encourages children to gain self-confidence, to question (and expect to
get proper answers and explanations) and to adopt their parents demonstrated middle
class values. Children in middle class value terms should go to college so that they can
be educated to get what are perceived as secure professional jobs; doctors, priests,
architects. Lawyers, etc. (Wootton, 2013). This means that a child born in the middle
class bracket are expected to have been instilled with the values of personal
achievement in the sense of achieving life goals, such as, gaining profession and
establishing a stable life.
A young adult and single either male or a female middle child. The gender of
middle children and his or her siblings should be the same. They should be living with
their parents and siblings to explain more of their thoughts and feelings about their
relationships with their parents and siblings. Lastly, the participants should not have
undergone counseling or therapy for the reason that the middle children consider that
he or she has a middle child syndrome and in order for the researchers to gather valid
data and avoid bias answers from the participants.

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Method
This chapter will discuss the manner in which the researchers will conduct their
study. It includes the research design that will be used in the researchers study, the
inclusion and exclusion of their participants, instruments, procedure and data analysis.

Research Design
The researchers intend to study Middle Child Syndrome by using a qualitative
research design. Through the use of this design the researchers believe that it would
give them a deeper understanding about middle children, particularly what brought
about within their experiences to develop a middle child syndrome. Qualitative
Research according to Creswell (2005) is an inquiry approach useful for exploring and
understanding a central phenomenon. It includes open-ended questions, collecting the
details in the form of words, and analyzes the information for description and themes.
The researchers will be using the case study method because it provides an in-depth
exploration of a certain phenomenon through the use of extensive data collection
through the process of interviewing one or more participants with open-ended questions
and gather data through analyzing their recorded answers (Creswell, 2005).

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The case aims to study what one wants to learn and its significance prior to the
theory or the phenomenon that one would want to have a deeper understanding. It
begins with the selection of a case this may be a unique or typical case, representative
of a common practice, or never before encountered (Merriam, et al. 2002). Qualitative
research would be appropriate since it would provide the researchers an in-depth
understanding, meaning through the use of case study the researchers will be able to
investigate and give a comprehensive description about middle children and middle
child syndrome.
Participants
The participants in this study will be chosen purposively with an inclusion and
exclusion criteria set by the researchers. For this study part of their inclusion is
gathering middle children who recognize their ordinal and psychological birth order
positions as middle borns. The researchers aim to gather 10 young adults as
participants (5) participants will be male and the remaining five (5) participants will be
female. They should belong within the age range of twenty-one (21) to twenty-seven
(27) years old and can either be a male or a female young adult. They should be single
and are expected to be living with their parents and siblings. The siblings should have
the same gender to qualify as middle child. The age gap among their siblings must only
be from two (2) to three (3) years for the eldest and two (2) to three (3) for the youngest.
The family of the middle child should belong in the middle class family. The participant
should not have undergone therapy prior the interview as it may affect the results that
would be gathered by the researchers, this for the researchers to get unbiased
response to the participants.

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Instruments
In order to gather data from the researchers participants, they would use an
interview made tool, which would include open-ended questions that would measure
their three main research variables which are the following: experiences, socialization
and relationships. The tool was based on the Adlerian concept of individual psychology.
Since the said tool is researcher made, it will have to undergo validation and
should be tested for its validity and reliability. The questionnaire only contains
suggested questions for each of the main variables and its sub-variables and would
have to be validated.
The researchers will also consider the psychological position of the middle child.
As stated in Murphy (2012), psychological birth order can also be called perceived birth
order. Psychological birth order is defined as the way a person sees or perceives his or
her position in his or her family of origin. This means that an individual has a further
understanding of his/her own birth order on a personal level. As compared with the
ordinal position which only entitles them to certain characteristics. This will be measured
through the use of the White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory (PBOI),
which as tool for assessing the psychological birth order position of an individual.

Procedure
The researchers will administer the interview made tool to young adult middle
children, who qualify as the participants of this study. The participants will be coming

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from middle class families. In doing the interview, the researchers will provide a consent
form for the participants, to qualify them as the researchers participants.
Ten (10) participants will be used, particularly, five (5) will be males and five (5)
will be females. In gathering the participants the researchers will consider the following:
the participants ordinal and psychological birth order, age bracket, and their
socioeconomic status (SES). The researchers will gather data from the recorded
interview that they were able get from the participants.
Data Analysis
As mentioned earlier the researchers will record their interview and through the
gathered information from their participants they will analyze their data by using themes
and codes.
According to Boyatzis (1998), thematic analysis is a method for identifying,
analysing, and reporting patterns (themes) within data. It minimally organises and
describes your data set in (rich) detail. However, it also often goes further than this, and
interprets various aspects of the research topic (Braun & Clarke, 2006). This means
through the interview the researchers will find out patterns that will determine their
variables and serve as theme in their data. Codes on the other hand is a word or short
phrase that symbolically assigns a summative, salient, essence-capturing, and/or
evocative attribute for a portion of language-based or visual data. The data can consist
of interview transcripts, participant observation field notes, journals, documents,
literature(Sadhana, 2008). This means that through the transcriptions of the interview

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the researcher will be able to deduce codes from the themes, not as a way of reducing
them but summarizing them to main points to better understand the transcript.

White-Campbell Psychological Birth Order Inventory (PBOI)


1991 Joanna White, Linda Campbell & Alan E. Stewart
Instructions:
Please read each item and then circle YES or NO according to how you felt when you lived in
the family in which you grew up. If you lived in several families, please think of the one that you
spent the most time in as you respond to these items. If you had no brothers or sisters you may
ignore items that refer to experiences you had with your siblings.
YES

NO

QUESTIONS

YES

NO

1. I believed my parents had high expectations of me.

YES

NO

2. I was babied by my family members.

YES

NO

3. My family was more involved in my life than I wanted.

YES

NO

4. It seemed like I was in a race trying to catch up.

YES

NO

5. It was important to me to please adults

YES

NO

6. My family did not respect my privacy.

YES

NO

7. I felt isolated from others.

YES

NO

8. It was easy to talk my brothers and sisters into giving me things.

YES

NO

9. My parents worried a lot about me.

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YES

NO

10. I was taken less seriously than anyone in the family.

YES

NO

11. It was important to me to advise my brothers and sisters about right and
wrong.

YES

NO

12. I was seen as being the most charming in the family.

YES

NO

13. It seemed like I never had my parents full attention.

YES

NO

14. My parents tried to control me.

YES

NO

15. I am more organized and structured than others in my family.

YES

NO

16. I was pampered by my family members.

YES

NO

17. Other family members saw me as the least capable

YES

NO

18. It was important to me that others do things right.

YES

NO

19. My parents tried to manage my life.

YES

NO

20. I was good at getting others to do things for me.

YES

NO

21. It seemed like I was less important that other members of my family.

YES

NO

22. I wanted to satisfy my parents.

YES

NO

23. My parents wanted to know about everything that was going on in my life.

YES

NO

24. It was easy to talk my parents into giving me things.

YES

NO

25. I often felt less loved than others in my family.

YES

NO

26. I felt smothered by my parents.

YES

NO

27. It was important to me to do things right.

YES

NO

28. When I wanted to I could be the ruler of the family.

YES

NO

29. I often felt that I was treated more unfairly than others in the family.

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YES

NO

30. I was good at getting what I wanted from my family.

YES

NO

31. I felt like I lived in a fishbowl.

YES

NO

32. It was important to me to make good grades in school.

YES

NO

33. I felt disconnected from others in my family.

YES

NO

34. My parents considered everything that was my business, their business.

YES

NO

35. It was important to me to be the best.

YES

NO

36. I could be the boss in the family when I wanted to.

YES

NO

37. I felt squeezed out by my brothers and sisters.

YES

NO

38. My parents were busybodies.

YES

NO

39. I liked order more than other people in my family.

YES

NO

40. I was seen as the most adorable in the family.

YES

NO

41. It was important to me that my brothers and sisters do things right.

YES

NO

42. I was treated less justly than others in my family.

YES

NO

43. I wanted others in my family to do things properly.

YES

NO

44. I felt like I was less valuable than other members of my family.

YES

NO

45. I liked doing things the correct way.

YES

NO

46. I felt left out by my brothers and sisters.

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Interview Questions
Experiences of a young adult middle child
A. Relationship with parents
1.) What are your experiences when you were growing up, especially on how you
and your sibling were brought up by your parents?
2.) How would you describe your relationship with your parents?
2.1 During childhood to adolescence
2.2 In the present time
3.) What are your thoughts about your relationship with your parents?
3.1 During childhood to adolescence
3.2 In the present time
4.) How do you feel about your relationship with your parents?
4.1 During childhood to adolescence
4.2 In the present time
5.) How would you describe the treatment of your parents to each of your
siblings?

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6.) How were you treated by your parents as a child when you were growing up?
7.) What are your thoughts on how you were treated as a child?
8.) How do you feel about the way you were treated?
9.) What are your thoughts on the way your other siblings are treated by your
parents?
10.)

How do you feel about how your other siblings are treated by your

parents?
B. Relationship with siblings
1.) How would you describe your relationship with your siblings?
1.1 With your eldest sibling
1.2 With your youngest sibling
2.) What are your thoughts about your relationship with your siblings?
2.1 With your eldest sibling
2.2 With your youngest sibling
3.) How do you feel about your relationship with your siblings?
3.1 With your eldest sibling
3.2 With your youngest sibling
4.) How would you describe your treatment with one another?
5.) What are your thoughts about your treatment with one another?
6.) What are your feelings about your treatment with one another?
7.) Which sibling do you consider yourself you are closest to?
8.) How do you manage to adjust to your relationship with your siblings? (coping)

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9.) What are the effects of your experiences as a middle child in terms of your
relationship with siblings?
Perceived Effects of being a middle child on:
A. Perception of self
1.) How would you describe yourself as a middle child when you were growing
up/ in the present time?
2.) Has being a middle child affected your perception of yourself when you were
growing up/ in the present time?
3.) What is the effect of your being a middle child on your perception of yourself
when you were growing up/ in the present time?
4.) Are there any changes in the way you perceive yourself when you were
growing up and in the present as a young adult? If yes, can you describe the
changes that occurred within yourself.
5.) Has being a middle child affected the way you see yourself now as a young
adult?
B. Motivation to achievement
1.) What does your parent consider as achievements in terms of what they
value?
2.) Do your parents expect you to achieve?
3.) What are the achievements of first born and last born sibling?
4.) What does achieving mean to you?
4.1 During childhood-adolescence
5.) What do you consider as your achievements?
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6.) How would describe yourself in terms of striving for achievement?


6.1 During childhood-adolescence
6.2 In the present time
7.) What are your motivations for achieving?
8.) How would you describe your motivations for achievement?
9.) What are your feelings about achieving?
10.)

Has being a middle child affected your motivation to achieve?

11.)

What is the effect of your being a middle child on your motivation to

achieve?
11.1 During childhood-adolescence
11.2 In the present time
C. Social relationships (Friends and Co-workers)
Friends:
1.) How important are your relationships with your friends?
2.) How do you view social relationships with your friends?
3.) How would you describe your social relationships with your friends when you
were growing up as a middle child/ in the present time?
4.) How do you form your social relationships with your friends?
2.1 During childhood-adolescence
2.2 In the present time?
5.) What are your thoughts about your social relationships with your friends?
6.) What are your feelings about your social relationships with your friends?
7.) How do you manage to maintain your social relationships with your friends?

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8.) Has your being a middle child affected your social relationships?
9.) What are the effects of your experiences as a middle child in terms of forming
social relationships with your friends?
Co-workers:
1.) How would you describe your relationship with your co-workers?
2.) What are your thoughts about your relationship with your co-workers?
3.) What are your feelings about your relationship with your co-workers?
4.) How would you describe your interaction with your co-workers?
5.) What are thoughts about your interaction with your co-workers?
6.) How do feel about your interaction with your co-workers?
7.) How do you deal with the different personalities of your co-workers?
8.) How do you manage your relationships with your co-workers?
9.) What are the effects (if any) of your experiences as a middle child in terms of
your relationship with your co-workers?
D. Learned Coping strategies
1.) How was it like growing up as a middle child?
2.) What are the difficulties that you have encountered as a middle child?
3.) Can you describe the difficulties that you have encountered?
4.) How were you able to cope with the difficulties you encountered while
growing up?
5.) How were you affected in terms of experiences during childhood to
adolescence and in the present time in terms of:
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5.1 Adjustment in terms of relationship with parents


5.2 Adjustment in terms of relationship with siblings
5.3 Adjustment in terms of relationship with co-workers
5.4 Motivation to achievement
6.) How did you deal with the difficulties you experienced during childhood to
adolescence and in the present time in terms of:
6.1 Perception of self
6.2 Adjustment in terms of relationship with parents
6.3 Adjustment in terms of relationship with siblings
6.4 Adjustment in terms of relationship with co-workers
6.5 Motivation to achievement
7.) What are the ways by which you are able to act on the difficulties that you
have experienced?

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