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G163, Solution 1(1)

Solution 1. Position vector, velocity and acceleration


Purpose and Requirement
1. Emphasize that motion observed depends on the motion of the observer (e.g. a video camera),
so we need a reference frame on which the video camera can be mounted.
2. Learn how to write position vectors and differentiate them with respect to time.
Motion relative to moving reference frames
1. As shown in the figures, A and B are two points on a disk
rotating about a fixed point O in the plane O-xy.
(a) What are the paths of the absolute motion of A and B?
(b) What is the path of relative motion of point B relative to
the point-attached translating reference system A-xy?
(c) What is the path of relative motion of point O relative to
the point-attached translating reference system B-xy?
(d) What is the relative motion of point A (or B) relative to the
body-attached moving reference system O-xy?
y

Solution:

B
O

(b)

(a)
y

A
B
O

(c)

x
x

A
B
x
x

(d)

Solution 1(2)
2.

As shown in Fig. P1.8, a robot is moving on the floor with two links AB and BC both
rotating about the pin A and B, respectively. If a fixed reference O-xy is defined as shown,
AB = BC = l, and and are measured from the positive x direction counterclockwise as
positive. Write the expressions of
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

the position vector of point A


the relative position vector of B relative to A
the relative position vector of C relative to B
the relative position vector of C relative to A in the position shown.

Solution:

l
x

B
O

Fig. P1.8
y

rA

B
x

(a) rA x A i y A j

(b) rBA = rBA ( cos i sin j )

(c) rCB = rCB ( cos i sin j )

(d) rCA = rCB + rBA .

G163, Solution 1(3)


Position vector, velocity and acceleration

3. A crank-slider mechanism is as shown. The crank rotates


with constant angular velocity t . The lengths of
crank OA and rod AB are r and l, respectively.
y

A
l

(a) Write the position vectors for points A and B.

rA = r ( cos t i sin t j )

rB =xB i = [ r cos t + l 2 r 2 sin 2 t ] i

(b) Derive the velocity and acceleration of point A.

v A = r ( sin t i cos t j )

a A = r 2 ( cos t i sin t j )
(c) Derive the velocity and acceleration of point B if r is very
small compared with l ( r<<l ).

xB = r cos t + l 2 r 2 sin 2 t
2

r
= r cos t +l 1 sin 2 t
l
2

1r
= r cos t +l [1 sin 2 t ]
2l

1r
vB = r [ sin t + sin 2t ]
2l
r
aB = r 2 [ cos t + cos 2t ]
l

B
x

Solution 1(4)

4. A particle moves along the path with the position vector

r 8t 2 i (t 3 5) j
where the magnitude is in meter, and t in second. Determine the magnitudes of particles
velocity and acceleration when t = 3 s. Also determine the equation y = f(x) of the path. (H1266)
Answer: 55.1, 24.1 y= (0.125x)3/2 + 5