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IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)

A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2014

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm


Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

Design and Testing of Lightweight Sandwich TJoint of Composite Material Using FEA And
Experimental Techniques for static bending,
tensile and compression test
Prof. S.T. Jagtap1, Prof. S. M. Rajmane2, Mr. K.V.Mahindrakar3
1

Professor Mechanical Engineering Department, NBN Sinhgad College of Engineering, Solapur.

Asst. Professor and H.O.D. Mechanical Engineering Department, Bharat Ratna Indira Gandhi College of Engineering,
Solapur.
3

ME Design Part II Bharat Ratna Indira Gandhi College of Engineering, Solapur

ABSTRACT
Naval superstructure need to be designed with confidence on the basis of modeling and failure prediction. Fig shows a typical
T-joint used in naval ships. It gives an illustration of a T-joint. It consists of a horizontal base panel, a vertical leg panel and
fillet and over laminates. The purpose of the fillet is to provide the continuity of the load transfer between the base panel and
the leg. The over laminate is used to enhance the capacity of the T-joint. Reduction of weight and increasing strength of the Tjoint is one of the objectives. Now a days a large amount of research is going on with the objective to strengthen the
technological basis for the large scale application of fiber reinforced composite materials for naval vessels and structures.
Fiber reinforced composites are widely used in naval ships and aerospace, ground transport, civil infrastructure because of
their high strength and stiffness, low mass, excellent durability and ability to be formed into complex shape. Performance
testing of composite sandwich T-joints subjected to both static and dynamic loading commonly used in large panels for naval
applications becomes very important. Adhesively bonded T-joints have been extensively used in assembling sandwich structures
made from glass fiber reinforced plastic skins and a balsa wood core in naval vessels. The objective of this project is to analysis
the behavior of composite T-joints used in marine applications due to variation of many parameters.The advantage of adhesive
bonded joints over bolted or riveted joints is that the use of fastener holes in mechanical joints inherently results in micro and
local damages to the composite laminate during their fabrication.

Keywords: - T-Joint, static, displacement

1.INTRODUCTION
During the past 20-30 years there have been a great many developments in lightweight construction. During this period
the use of aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced polymer composites in the shipbuilding industry has steadily increased.
Civilian applications include not only high speed vessels but also significant parts of the superstructures of large
Passenger ships. Military applications include mine hunters, fast patrol craft and superstructures of larger naval ships.
Recently, pioneering lightweight solutions involving such features as adhesive bonding and novel types of sandwich
construction have been the focus of further research and development. Some of these developments are based on
innovative use of steel as well as the more usual lightweight materials. The areas of application have been extended to
include more components of conventional ships, such as moveable car decks and ramps. Generally the aims are to
improve safety and reliability in addition to saving weight and increasing efficiency of fabrication and maintenance.
The paper first introduces conventional and more advanced types of lightweight structures used in the ship building
industry. Recent developments in some ongoing European research projects are then presented and discussed. The
topics addressed are naval applications of composites (with aspects related to cost benefit assessment and survivability
of naval structures), the use of adhesive bonding in superstructures of high-speed craft and passenger ships (in
particular material selection, design and analysis, and application cases), and finally the application of laser-welded
steel sandwich structures for hoist able car decks.

2.LITERATURE REVIEW
An exhaustive literature review is carried out to understand the present practices and theories testing of T-Joint
composite material. It will also help to obtain a better understanding of how the martial property will affect on bending,

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2014

Page 35

IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)


Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm
Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2014

compress in and tensile forces. Ferry Dharma wan and Rodney S [6] have discussed structural integrity and damage
tolerance of typical composite T-joints found in ships constructed from glass fiber reinforced plastic. The effect of the
geometry of the T-joint on the strain distribution has been investigated using finite element (FE) analysis. The results
showed that the critical strains were significantly affected by the joint geometry. Results of the FE analysis conducted to
investigate the effect of disband between the filler and over laminate are also reported. This showed that particular
defects led to large changes in the strains in the T-joint structure. The FE model has validated by mechanical tests on a
representative T-joint, instrumented with surface strain gauges and displacement transducers, into which a range of
defects has progressively introduced. Structures manufactured from advanced composite materials are used extensively
in many applications, including aerospace, ground transport, civil infrastructure and maritime. Composites are
commonly used because of their high strength and stiffness, low mass, excellent durability and ability to be formed into
complex shapes. Results of experiments on this new design have been reported. D.W. Zhou and L.A. Louca [1] have
presented theoretical modeling and performance characteristics of composite sandwich T-joints subjected to both static
and dynamic loading commonly used in large panels for naval applications. The results of previous experiments have
been used to validate detailed numerical models capable of simulating the damage processes observed. Parametric
studies have also been presented showing the failure modes of the T-joints to be sensitive to the core shear failure
strength of the base panel. Fabricating defects significantly reduces the strength of the T-joint with voids between the
leg panel and the fillet causing a reduction of the failure load. They have discussed the selection and characterization of
composite material with respect to their performance.

3.EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION
1) As shown in fig. 1 T Joints of composite materials will be manufactured.
2) The static bending, tensile and compression test is performed on a Servo hydraulic testing machine at a constant
cross- head speed.
3) Load cells and LVDT gauges will be used for measurement of load and displacement respectively.
4) Load vs. displacement curves will be plotted.
5) Failure pattern will be measured for T joint specimens.

Fig 1: A typical Composite T-joint

4.FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS


The commercial finite element package ANYSYS 14 will be used to analyze T-joint under bending loading.
a) T-joint model will be created using CAD software CATIA V5R15.
b) A method for a finite element (FE) parameter study will be developed using available software like ANSYS 14 and
used for selection of promising (strong) configuration of T-joint.

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2014

Page 36

IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)


Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2014

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm


Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2014

Page 37

A Publisher for Research Motivation........

IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2014

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm


Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

Fig.2 ANSYS result COMPRESSION


The results obtained in the above methodology can be summarized or compared as shown in the table below,

Fig.3 Comparison between Analytical and ANSYS result for bending force

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2014

Page 38

IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2014

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm


Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

Fig4 Comparison between Analytical and ANSYS result for compression force

Fig.5 Comparison between Analytical and ANSYS result for tensile force

5.CONCLUSIONS
As Load v/s Displacement characteristics in experiment and in FEA are closely matches, also FEA shows same failure
regions, from that we conclude that we can use FEA method for designing T-Joints. This will be very help full to check
different configurations of T-joint for naval application rather than going for experimental method consequently this
method helps to reduce lead design time drastically as well as expenses.

REFERENCES
[1] S.M.R. KhaliliandA.GhaznaviNumerical analysis of adhesively bonded T-joints with structural sandwiches and
study of design parameters International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 31 (2011) 347356, 26 February 2011
[2] . S.W.Boyd Optimisation of steelcomposite connections for structural marine applications. Composites: Part B
39 (2008) 891906 Fluid Structure Interactions Research 25 September 2007.
[3] JeomKeePaikaThe strength characteristics of aluminum honeycomb sandwich panelsPusan 609-735,San
Francisco, CA 94105, USA 1999 .

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2014

Page 39

IPASJ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IIJME)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2014

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJME/IIJME.htm


Email: editoriijme@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-6441

[4] Elena Bozhevolnayaa and Ole T.ThomsenLocal effects across core junctions in sandwich panels Composites:
Part B 34 (2003) 509517, DK-9220 Aalborg East, Denmark 22 March 2003
[5] Dana M. Elzey A shape memory-based multifunctional structural actuator panel International Journal of Solids
and Structures 42 (2005) 19431955. 27 April 2004.
[6] S.A. Hashim Adhesive bonding of thick steel adherends for marine structuresMarine Structures 12 (1999)
405}423GlasgowG12 8QQ, UK, 25 August 1999.
[7] G. DiBellaExperimental and numerical study of composite T-joints for marine application University of
Messina, Messina, SalitaSperone98166, Italy 7 March 2010
[8] Jean-Paul Kabche Experimental characterization of hybrid composite-to-metal bolted joints under flexural
loading. Composites: Part B 38 (2007) 6678, Orono, ME04473, United States, 22 June 2006.
[9] Matthew Kampner On using corrugated skins to carry shear in sandwich beams. Composite Structures 85 (2008)
139148 PA 18015, USA, 13 October 2007.
[10] .A.P.Mouritz Review of advanced composite structure for naval ships and submarines Composite structure 53
(2001) 21-41Department of Aerospace EngineeringRMIT University December 2001.
[11] Ferry Dharmawan and Rodney S Geometry and damage effects in a composite marine T-joint Australia
Composite Structures 66 (2004) 181187, 10 June 2004.
[12] D.W. Zhou and L.A. LoucaNumerical simulation of sandwich T-joints under dynamic loading Department of
Civil and Environmental Engineering,Composites Part B 39 (2008) 97398520 January 2008.

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